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  • Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity and Its Psychological and Health Comorbidities.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Justin D Smith,Emily Fu,Marissa A Kobayashi

    Childhood obesity has become a global pandemic in developed countries, leading to a host of medical conditions that contribute to increased morbidity and premature death. The causes of obesity in childhood and adolescence are complex and multifaceted, presenting researchers and clinicians with myriad challenges in preventing and managing the problem. This article reviews the state of the science for

    更新日期:2020-02-25
  • Epigenetics, Development, and Psychopathology.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    Kieran J O'Donnell,Michael J Meaney

    Epigenetic mechanisms govern the transcription of the genome. Research with model systems reveals that environmental conditions can directly influence epigenetic mechanisms that are associated with interindividual differences in gene expression in brain and neural function. In this review, we provide a brief overview of epigenetic mechanisms and research with relevant rodent models. We emphasize more

    更新日期:2020-02-21
  • Executive Function and Psychopathology: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Philip David Zelazo

    Executive function (EF) skills are neurocognitive skills that support the reflective, top-down coordination and control of other brain functions, and there is neural and behavioral evidence for a continuum from more "cool" EF skills activated in emotionally neutral contexts to more "hot" EF skills needed for the reversal of motivationally significant tendencies. Difficulties in EF are transdiagnostic

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • Personalized Models of Psychopathology.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Aidan G C Wright,William C Woods

    The personalized approach to psychopathology conceptualizes mental disorder as a complex system of contextualized dynamic processes that is nontrivially specific to each individual, and it seeks to develop formal idiographic statistical models to represent these individual processes. Although the personalized approach draws on long-standing influences in clinical psychology, there has been an explosion

    更新日期:2020-02-18
  • Research on Improving Outcomes and Reducing Costs of Psychological Interventions: Toward Delivering the Best to the Most for the Least.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Brian T Yates

    Treatment and prevention efforts guided by psychological theory, research, and practice can have outcomes of greater value than the resources consumed by those efforts-and outcomes superior to those attainable by other means, often at lower costs. How can we make this hope true more often, for more of the clients who need our services, despite severe resource constraints? Routinely reporting the costs

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: A Shared Genetic Vulnerability.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Tiffany A Greenwood

    Bipolar disorder is a lifelong mood disorder characterized by extreme mood swings between mania and depression. Despite fitness costs associated with increased mortality and significant impairment, bipolar disorder has persisted in the population with a high heritability and a stable prevalence. Creativity and other positive traits have repeatedly been associated with the bipolar spectrum, particularly

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Interventions for Couples.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Thomas N Bradbury,Guy Bodenmann

    Because relationship discord and dissolution are common and costly, interventions are needed to treat distressed couples and to prevent distress among vulnerable couples. We review meta-analytic evidence showing that 60-80% of distressed couples benefit from behavioral and emotion-focused approaches to couple therapy, but we also note that treatment effects are weaker in actual clinical practice than

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • The Mentalizing Approach to Psychopathology: State of the Art and Future Directions.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Patrick Luyten,Chloe Campbell,Elizabeth Allison,Peter Fonagy

    Mentalizing is the capacity to understand others and oneself in terms of internal mental states. It is assumed to be underpinned by four dimensions: automatic-controlled, internally-externally focused, self-other, and cognitive-affective. Research suggests that mental disorders are associated with different imbalances in these dimensions. Addressing the quality of mentalizing as part of psychosocial

    更新日期:2020-02-05
  • Conceptualization, History, and Future of the Paraphilias.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Charles Moser,Peggy J Kleinplatz

    There is no accepted definition of the term paraphilia despite its being listed as an essential feature of a class of mental disorders known as the paraphilic disorders. The origin of the term, history of its inclusion as a diagnosis, and logical flaws inherent in the various definitions are discussed in this review. We examine the basis for pathologizing individuals with paraphilias, consider what

    更新日期:2020-02-05
  • The General Factor of Psychopathology.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Gregory T Smith,Emily A Atkinson,Heather A Davis,Elizabeth N Riley,Joshua R Oltmanns

    An important advance in understanding and defining mental disorders has been the development of empirical approaches to mapping dimensions of dysfunction and their interrelatedness. Such empirical approaches have consistently observed intercorrelations among the many forms of psychopathology, leading to the identification of a general factor of psychopathology (the p factor). In this article, we review

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Intergenerational Transmission of Depression.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Sherryl H Goodman

    The study of depression in mothers in relation to transmission of risk for the development of psychopathology in their children relies on solid foundations in the understanding of psychopathology, of development, and of developmental psychopathology per se. This article begins with a description of the scope of the problem, including a summary of knowledge of how mothers' depression is associated with

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Man and the Microbiome: A New Theory of Everything?
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2019-02-20
    Mary I Butler,John F Cryan,Timothy G Dinan

    The gut microbiome is implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of psychological disorders. Preclinical studies have provided us with key insights into the mechanisms by which the microbiome influences bidirectional gut-brain communication. There are many signaling pathways involved, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune modulation, tryptophan and serotonin metabolism, bile

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2019-05-07
    Tyrone D Cannon,Thomas Widiger

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Thomas Widiger,Tyrone D Cannon

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2017-05-10

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2016-07-30
    Tyrone D Cannon,Thomas Widiger

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2015-05-23
    Tyrone D Cannon,Thomas Widiger

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ecological momentary assessment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-05-30
    Saul Shiffman,Arthur A Stone,Michael R Hufford

    Assessment in clinical psychology typically relies on global retrospective self-reports collected at research or clinic visits, which are limited by recall bias and are not well suited to address how behavior changes over time and across contexts. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated sampling of subjects' current behaviors and experiences in real time, in subjects' natural environments

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Behavioral disinhibition and the development of early-onset addiction: common and specific influences.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    William G Iacono,Stephen M Malone,Matt McGue

    Research on substance use disorders is often compartmentalized, focused on understanding addiction to one substance or substance class at a time. Although this approach has contributed significantly to knowledge about addictions, early-onset substance use disorders appear to share common etiology with each other and with other disorders, traits, behaviors, and endophenotypes associated with behavioral

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Should binge eating disorder be included in the DSM-V? A critical review of the state of the evidence.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Ruth H Striegel-Moore,Debra L Franko

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced in 1994 as a provisional eating disorder diagnosis. The core symptom is recurrent binge eating in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors and/or extreme dietary restraint. This review examines the status of the literature on BED according to five criteria that have been proposed to determine whether BED warrants inclusion in the psychiatric nosology

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Disorders of childhood and adolescence: gender and psychopathology.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Carolyn Zahn-Waxler,Elizabeth A Shirtcliff,Kristine Marceau

    Early-onset disorders (e.g., conduct problems, autism) show a marked male preponderance, whereas adolescent-onset disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) show a marked female preponderance. A developmental psychopathology framework provides a means to investigate complex gender-related etiologies of these different disorders. This review focuses on biological and environmental factors implicated in the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Robert D Hare,Craig S Neumann

    In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stress and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the developmental course of schizophrenia.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Elaine Walker,Vijay Mittal,Kevin Tessner

    Diathesis-stress models of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have dominated theorizing about etiology for over three decades. More recently, with advances in our understanding of the biological processes mediating the effects of stress, these models have incorporated mechanisms to account for the adverse impact of stress on brain function. This review examines recent scientific findings on

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Arthur J Reynolds,Judy A Temple

    Although findings on the positive effects of early childhood development programs have been widely disseminated, less attention has been given to program impacts across the entire period of early childhood. This review summarizes evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of programs and services from ages 3 to 9. The major focus is preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-olds, full-day kindergarten

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pharmacotherapy of mood disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Michael E Thase,Timothey Denko

    The mood disorders-primarily major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder-constitute one of the world's greatest public health problems and are associated with significant reductions in productivity, health, and longevity. In addition, people who suffer from these common illnesses, along with their families and loved ones, experience an incalculable toll on quality of life. Dating to the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • State of the science on psychosocial interventions for ethnic minorities.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Jeanne Miranda,Guillermo Bernal,Anna Lau,Laura Kohn,Wei-Chin Hwang,Teresa LaFromboise

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Neil Schneiderman,Gail Ironson,Scott D Siegel

    Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Positive psychology in clinical practice.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Angela Lee Duckworth,Tracy A Steen,Martin E P Seligman

    Positive psychology is the scientific study of positive experiences and positive individual traits, and the institutions that facilitate their development. A field concerned with well-being and optimal functioning, positive psychology aims to broaden the focus of clinical psychology beyond suffering and its direct alleviation. Our proposed conceptual framework parses happiness into three domains: pleasure

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognitive approaches to schizophrenia: theory and therapy.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Aaron T Beck,Neil A Rector

    A theoretical analysis of schizophrenia based on a cognitive model integrates the complex interaction of predisposing neurobiological, environmental, cognitive, and behavioral factors with the diverse symptomatology. The impaired integrative function of the brain, as well as the domain-specific cognitive deficits, increases the vulnerability to aversive life experiences, which lead to dysfunctional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychology, psychologists, and public policy.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Katherine M McKnight,Lee Sechrest,Patrick E McKnight

    Evidence-based policy is being encouraged in all areas of public service ( Black 2001 ). Unprecedented federal legislation reflects a faith in science "as a force for improved public policy" ( Feuer et al. 2002 ). The objective of evidence-based policy is to use scientific research to drive decision making. Thus, the link between social science research and public policy seems to be a natural one.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development of alcohol use disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Kenneth J Sher,Emily R Grekin,Natalie A Williams

    Pathological alcohol use is a complex and costly problem. This chapter focuses on recent developments in the etiology of alcohol use disorders. Literature is reviewed from the fields of epidemiology, genetics, personality, neuropsychology, parenting, and social influences. In addition, theoretical models that describe pathways to the development of alcohol use disorders are presented. Particular emphasis

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Decision making in medicine and health care.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Robert M Kaplan,Dominick L Frosch

    Decision making is central to health policy and medical practice. Because health outcomes are probabilistic, most decisions are made under conditions of uncertainty. This review considers two classes of decisions in health care: decisions made by providers on behalf of patients, and shared decisions between patients and providers. Considerable evidence suggests wide regional variation exists in services

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Kenneth J Zucker

    Gender identity disorder entered the psychiatric nomenclature in the DSM-III in 1980. This article reviews three domains of empirical research on gender identity disorder in children and adolescents: diagnosis and assessment, associated psychopathology, and developmental trajectories.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychological treatment of eating disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    G Terence Wilson

    Manual-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presently the most effective treatment of bulimia nervosa. Its efficacy is limited, however. Different strategies for improving upon current manual-based CBT are discussed, including combining CBT with antidepressant medication, integrating CBT with alternative psychological therapies, and expanding the scope and flexibility of manual-based CBT. CBT

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Child maltreatment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Dante Cicchetti,Sheree L Toth

    Child maltreatment exemplifies a toxic relational environment that poses significant risks for maladaptation across biological and psychological domains of development. Research on child maltreatment can inform developmental theory, but more importantly, it can enhance the quality of clinical, legal, and policy-making decisions for maltreated children. This chapter addresses definitional, epidemiological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development of psychopathy.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Donald R Lynam,Lauren Gudonis

    In this review, we explore two aspects of the development of psychopathy. First, we examine what psychopathy looks like across time. Second, we ask where psychopathy comes from. Much recent empirical work supports the idea that psychopathy in childhood and adolescence looks much like psychopathy in adulthood. Research utilizing recently created juvenile psychopathy indices demonstrates that juvenile

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Categorical and dimensional models of personality disorder.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Timothy J Trull,Christine A Durrett

    We review major categorical and dimensional models of personality pathology, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. Several analytic and methodological approaches to the question of the categorical versus dimensional status of constructs are discussed, including taxometric analyses, latent class analyses, and multivariate genetic analyses. Based on our review, we advocate a

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Deanna M Barch

    Individuals with schizophrenia experience a range of cognitive deficits and associated dysfunctions in the neural systems that support cognitive processes. This chapter reviews the literature on disturbances in working memory, executive control, and episodic memory in schizophrenia. Advances in basic cognitive neuroscience are described to help explain the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. For

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stress and depression.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Constance Hammen

    Improved methods of assessment and research design have established a robust and causal association between stressful life events and major depressive episodes. The chapter reviews these developments briefly and attempts to identify gaps in the field and new directions in recent research. There are notable shortcomings in several important topics: measurement and evaluation of chronic stress and depression;

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: implications for prevention and treatment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Steven M Southwick,Meena Vythilingam,Dennis S Charney

    This review discusses neurobiological and psychosocial factors associated with stress-induced depression and compares these factors with those believed to characterize stress resilience. Neurobiological factors that are discussed and contrasted include serotonin, the 5-HT1A receptor, polymorphisms of the 5-HT transporter gene, norepinephrine, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, neuropeptide Y, polymorphisms

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dissociative disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    John F Kihlstrom

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Michelle G Craske,Allison M Waters

    This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Andrew Mathews,Colin MacLeod

    A review of recent research on cognitive processing indicates that biases in attention, memory, and interpretation, as well as repetitive negative thoughts, are common across emotional disorders, although they vary in form according to type of disorder. Current cognitive models emphasize specific forms of biased processing, such as variations in the focus of attention or habitual interpretative styles

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cultural differences in access to care.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Lonnie R Snowden,Ann-Marie Yamada

    As high-profile reviews have appeared and international interest has grown, sophisticated studies of the U.S. population continue to document racial and ethnic disparities in initiation of mental health care and in continuity of care. Many explanations focus on cultural factors: trust and treatment receptiveness, stigma, culturally distinctive beliefs about mental illness and mental health, culturally

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Motivational interviewing.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Jennifer Hettema,Julie Steele,William R Miller

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, directive therapeutic style to enhance readiness for change by helping clients explore and resolve ambivalence. An evolution of Rogers's person-centered counseling approach, MI elicits the client's own motivations for change. The rapidly growing evidence base for MI is summarized in a new meta-analysis of 72 clinical trials spanning a range of target

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Clinical judgment and decision making.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Howard N Garb

    When clinical psychologists make judgments, are they likely to be correct or incorrect? The following topics are reviewed: (a) methodological advances in evaluating the validity of descriptions of personality and psychopathology, (b) recent findings on the cognitive processes of clinicians, and (c) the validity of judgments and utility of decisions made by mental health professionals. Results from

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structural equation modeling: strengths, limitations, and misconceptions.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Andrew J Tomarken,Niels G Waller

    Because structural equation modeling (SEM) has become a very popular data-analytic technique, it is important for clinical scientists to have a balanced perception of its strengths and limitations. We review several strengths of SEM, with a particular focus on recent innovations (e.g., latent growth modeling, multilevel SEM models, and approaches for dealing with missing data and with violations of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A history of clinical psychology as a profession in America (and a glimpse at its future).
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Ludy T Benjamin

    Clinical psychology emerged as a profession in the United States in the 1890s with studies conducted by psychologists with patients in the mental asylums of that time, and with the founding of Witmer's psychological clinic, where he treated children with learning and behavioral problems. This chapter traces the history of clinical psychology as a profession, from the focus on assessment at the turn

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recovered memories.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Elizabeth F Loftus,Deborah Davis

    The issues surrounding repressed, recovered, or false memories have sparked one of the greatest controversies in the mental health profession in the twentieth century. We review evidence concerning the existence of the repression and recovery of autobiographical memories of traumatic events and research on the development of false autobiographical memories, how specific therapeutic procedures can lead

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Personality and risk of physical illness.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Timothy W Smith,Justin MacKenzie

    Several personality characteristics have been linked in multiple well-designed prospective studies to subsequent physical health outcomes, such as longevity and the development and course of cardiovascular disease. The evidence is strongest for negative affectivity/neuroticism, anger/hostility and related traits, and optimism. Models of mechanisms underlying these associations have emphasized physiological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contingency management for treatment of substance abuse.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Maxine Stitzer,Nancy Petry

    Clinical research trials demonstrate the efficacy of contingency management procedures in treating substance use disorders. Usually, reinforcement, in the form of vouchers exchangeable for retail goods and services, is provided for drug abstinence in patients treated in psychosocial or methadone maintenance clinics. Recently, the types of reinforcers have been adapted to include lower cost alternatives

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognition and aging in psychopathology: focus on schizophrenia and depression.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Philip D Harvey,Abraham Reichenberg,Christopher R Bowie

    Aging has effects on many features of normal functioning, particularly in the domains of cognition and adaptive life skills. Several psychiatric conditions also affect cognition and adaptive functioning; most of the research on these topics has been performed on patients early in their lives. The amount of research on older patients is smaller than in younger patients, but there is a developing research

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mild cognitive impairment and dementia.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Marilyn S Albert,Deborah Blacker

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical syndrome thought to represent the transition between normal function and dementia. This review describes data that support the existence of such a transitional phase, outlines the heterogeneity of MCI and how that has influenced the evolving concept of MCI, and discusses the impact of heterogeneity on recent MCI clinical trials.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The psychopathology and treatment of bipolar disorder.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    David J Miklowitz,Sheri L Johnson

    In this chapter we review research on the diagnosis, course, etiology, and pharmacological and psychosocial treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). BD is a highly recurrent and severe illness, with high rates of suicidality and functional impairment. The disorder is heritable and appears to share susceptibility genes with schizophrenia. It is characterized by dysregulation in the dopamine and serotonin

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Autism from developmental and neuropsychological perspectives.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Marian Sigman,Sarah J Spence,A Ting Wang

    In this review of the research literature on autism, we argue that the application of developmental and neuropsychological perspectives has contributed importantly to the understanding of the core deficits in autism and their underlying neural bases. The three classes of theories postulated to explain the developmental and neuropsychological deficits in autism are considered in terms of the specificity

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Obesity.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Anthony N Fabricatore,Thomas A Wadden

    The prevalence of obesity is growing at an alarming rate. Thus, investigation into the etiology, comorbidities, and treatment of obesity has burgeoned in recent years. While novel therapies--both behavioral and pharmacological--have been developed and tested, the mean weight losses achieved with nonsurgical approaches have remained virtually unchanged over the past 20 years. Fortunately, the modest

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Schizotypal personality: neurodevelopmental and psychosocial trajectories.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Adrian Raine

    Schizotypal personality research holds the promise of critically important insights into the etiology and ultimate prevention of schizophrenia. This article provides a critical overview of diagnostic, developmental, demographic, psychosocial, genetic, neurodevelopmental, psychophysiological, neurochemical, neurocognitive, brain imaging, and prevention-treatment issues pertaining to this personality

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endophenotypes in the genetic analyses of mental disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Tyrone D Cannon,Matthew C Keller

    Common mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe major depression are highly heritable, but differ from single-gene (Mendelian) diseases in that they are the end products of multiple causes. Although this fact may help explain their prevalence from an evolutionary perspective, the complexity of the causes of these disorders makes identification of disease-promoting genes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Attempted and completed suicide in adolescence.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Anthony Spirito,Christianne Esposito-Smythers

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescence, and medically serious suicide attempts occur in approximately 3% of adolescents. This review examines a number of risk factors that contribute to suicidal behavior. A prior suicide attempt is one of the best predictors of both a repeat attempt and eventual completed suicide. Depression, disruptive behavior disorders, and substance-use disorders

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder: etiology, epidemiology, and treatment outcome.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Terence M Keane,Amy D Marshall,Casey T Taft

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from exposure to a traumatic event that poses actual or threatened death or injury and produces intense fear, helplessness, or horror. U.S. population surveys reveal lifetime PTSD prevalence rates of 7% to 8%. Potential reasons for varying prevalence rates across gender, cultures, and samples exposed to different traumas are discussed. Drawing upon a conditioning

    更新日期:2019-11-01
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
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