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  • Positive Psychology: A Personal History
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Martin E.P. Seligman

    As president of the American Psychological Association in 1998, I organized researchers and practitioners to work on building well-being, not just on the traditional task of reducing ill-being. Substantial research then found that well-being causes many external benefits, including better physical and mental health. Among the applications of Positive Psychology are national psychological accounts of well-being, Positive Psychotherapy, the classification of strengths and virtues, Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and Positive Education. Positive Psychology has spread beyond psychology into neuroscience, health, psychiatry, theology, and even to the humanities. Positive Psychology has many critics, and I comment on the strongest criticisms. I conclude with the hope that the building of well-being will become a cornerstone of morality, politics, and religion.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • History of Psychopharmacology
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Joel T. Braslow, Stephen R. Marder

    We live in an age of psychopharmacology. One in six persons currently takes a psychotropic drug. These drugs have profoundly shaped our scientific and cultural understanding of psychiatric disease. By way of a historical review, we try to make sense of psychiatry's dependency on psychiatric drugs in the care of patients. Modern psychopharmacology began in 1950 with the synthesis of chlorpromazine. Over the course of the next 50 years, the psychiatric understanding and treatment of mental illness radically changed. Psychotropic drugs played a major part in these changes as state hospitals closed and psychotherapy gave way to drug prescriptions. Our review suggests that the success of psychopharmacology was not the consequence of increasingly more effective drugs for discrete psychiatric diseases. Instead, a complex mix of political economic realities, pharmaceutical marketing, basic science advances, and changes in the mental health-care system have led to our current infatuation with psychopharmacology.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Bifactor and Hierarchical Models: Specification, Inference, and Interpretation
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Kristian E. Markon

    Bifactor and other hierarchical models have become central to representing and explaining observations in psychopathology, health, and other areas of clinical science, as well as in the behavioral sciences more broadly. This prominence comes after a relatively rapid period of rediscovery, however, and certain features remain poorly understood. Here, hierarchical models are compared and contrasted with other models of superordinate structure, with a focus on implications for model comparisons and interpretation. Issues pertaining to the specification and estimation of bifactor and other hierarchical models are reviewed in exploratory as well as confirmatory modeling scenarios, as are emerging findings about model fit and selection. Bifactor and other hierarchical models provide a powerful mechanism for parsing shared and unique components of variance, but care is required in specifying and making inferences about them.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Utility of Event-Related Potentials in Clinical Psychology
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Greg Hajcak, Julia Klawohn, Alexandria Meyer

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are direct measures of brain activity that can be leveraged for clinically meaningful research. They can relate robustly both to continuous measures of individual difference and to categorical diagnoses in ways that clarify similarities and distinctions between apparently related disorders and traits. ERPs can be linked to genetic risk, can act as moderators of developmental trajectories and responses to stress, and can be leveraged to identify those at greater risk for psychopathology, especially when used in combination with other neural and self-report measures. ERPs can inform models of the development of, and risk for, psychopathology. Finally, ERPs can be used as targets for existing and novel interventions and prevention efforts. We provide concrete examples for each of these possibilities by focusing on programmatic research on the error-related negativity and anxiety, and thus show that ERPs are poised to make greater contributions toward the identification, prediction, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • An Active Inference Approach to Interoceptive Psychopathology
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Martin P. Paulus, Justin S. Feinstein, Sahib S. Khalsa

    Interoception refers to the process by which the nervous system senses and integrates signals originating from within the body, providing a momentary mapping of the body's internal landscape and its relationship to the outside world. Active inference is based on the premise that afferent sensory input to the brain is constantly shaped and modified by prior expectations. In this review we propose that interoceptive psychopathology results from two primary interoceptive dysfunctions: First, individuals have abnormally strong expectations of the situations that elicit bodily change (i.e., hyperprecise priors), and second, they have great difficulty adjusting these expectations when the environment changes (i.e., context rigidity). Here we discuss how these dysfunctions potentially manifest in mental illness and how interventions aimed at altering interoceptive processing can help the brain create a more realistic model of its internal state.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Implicit Cognition and Psychopathology: Looking Back and Looking Forward
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Bethany A. Teachman, Elise M. Clerkin, William A. Cunningham, Sarah Dreyer-Oren, Alexandra Werntz

    Implicit cognitive processing is theorized to have a central role in many forms of psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on implicit associations, by which we mean evaluative representations in memory that are difficult to control and do not require conscious reflection to influence affect, cognition, or behavior. We consider definitional and measurement challenges before examining recent empirical evidence for these associations in anxiety, obsessive–compulsive, posttraumatic stress, depressive, and alcohol use disorders. This examination is framed by a brief review of the ways that prominent models of psychopathology represent biased implicit processing of disorder-relevant information. We consider to what extent models reflect more traditional automatic/implicit versus strategic/explicit dual-process perspectives or reflect more recent dynamical systems perspectives in which mental representations are iteratively reprocessed, evolving continuously. Finally, we consider the future research needed to better understand the interactive and temporal dynamics of implicit cognition in psychopathology.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): Assessment of Personality and Psychopathology in the Twenty-First Century
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Martin Sellbom

    This article describes the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and situates the instrument in contemporary psychopathology and personality literature. The historical evolution of the MMPI instruments is highlighted, including how failure to update the test for several decades resulted in increasing disinterest by basic researchers and how the restructuring efforts beginning in the 2000s promised to realign the instrument with basic research. In this regard, the construct validity associated with MMPI-2-RF scores in the context of contemporary dimensional models of psychopathology is considered. Research supporting the applied utility of the MMPI-2-RF scales in a variety of contexts—including mental health screenings, presurgical evaluations, forensic assessment, and public safety screening—is also reviewed. Critiques of the MMPI-2-RF are described and addressed. Finally, a series of recommendations for future updates of the MMPI-2-RF are described along with a path toward the MMPI-3.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Normal Versus Pathological Mood: Implications for Diagnosis
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Ayelet Meron Ruscio

    Is there a clear line between normal and abnormal mood? Studies of manifest and latent structure provide strong support for a continuum that extends from asymptomatic to subsyndromal to syndromal cases of increasing severity. Subsyndromal symptoms are impairing, predict syndrome onset and relapse, and account for more doctor's visits and suicide attempts than the full syndromes, yet they are not recognized in the current classification. For most research and some clinical activities, dimensional diagnoses are recommended, and examples are offered for how such diagnoses could be made. For clinical activities requiring decisions, a multithreshold model is proposed in which both lower (e.g., mild depression, capturing subsyndromal cases) and upper (e.g., major depression, capturing clinically significant cases) diagnostic categories are used to inform clinical care. Beyond its implications for diagnosis, the dimensionality of depression and anxiety has implications for etiology and for research aimed at understanding how emotions become disrupted in psychopathology.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Role of Common Factors in Psychotherapy Outcomes
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Pim Cuijpers, Mirjam Reijnders, Marcus J.H. Huibers

    Psychotherapies may work through techniques that are specific to each therapy or through factors that all therapies have in common. Proponents of the common factors model often point to meta-analyses of comparative outcome studies that show all therapies have comparable effects. However, not all meta-analyses support the common factors model; the included studies often have several methodological problems; and there are alternative explanations for finding comparable outcomes. To date, research on the working mechanisms and mediators of therapies has always been correlational, and in order to establish that a mediator is indeed a causal factor in the recovery process of a patient, studies must show a temporal relationship between the mediator and an outcome, a dose–response association, evidence that no third variable causes changes in the mediator and the outcome, supportive experimental research, and have a strong theoretical framework. Currently, no common or specific factor meets these criteria and can be considered an empirically validated working mechanism. Therefore, it is still unknown whether therapies work through common or specific factors, or both.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias in Children: Recent Developments and a Systematic Review
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, Lars-Göran Öst

    One-Session Treatment is a well-established evidence-based treatment for specific phobias in youths that incorporates reinforcement, cognitive challenges, participant modeling, psychoeducation, and skills training into a single, massed session of graduated exposure. This review begins by briefly examining the phenomenology, etiology, epidemiology, and assessment of specific phobias and then pivots to a description of One-Session Treatment. We examine the use of One-Session Treatment with children and adolescents, briefly discussing its components and application, and subsequently review almost two decades of research supporting its efficacy. Finally, we propose future directions for research and practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Augmentation of Extinction and Inhibitory Learning in Anxiety and Trauma-Related Disorders
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Lauren A.M. Lebois, Antonia V. Seligowski, Jonathan D. Wolff, Sarah B. Hill, Kerry J. Ressler

    Although the fear response is an adaptive response to threatening situations, a number of psychiatric disorders feature prominent fear-related symptoms caused, in part, by failures of extinction and inhibitory learning. The translational nature of fear conditioning paradigms has enabled us to develop a nuanced understanding of extinction and inhibitory learning based on the molecular substrates to systems neural circuitry and psychological mechanisms. This knowledge has facilitated the development of novel interventions that may augment extinction and inhibitory learning. These interventions include nonpharmacological techniques, such as behavioral methods to implement during psychotherapy, as well as device-based stimulation techniques that enhance or reduce activity in different regions of the brain. There is also emerging support for a number of psychopharmacological interventions that may augment extinction and inhibitory learning specifically if administered in conjunction with exposure-based psychotherapy. This growing body of research may offer promising novel techniques to address debilitating transdiagnostic fear-related symptoms.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Mindfulness Meditation and Psychopathology
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Joseph Wielgosz, Simon B. Goldberg, Tammi R.A. Kral, John D. Dunne, Richard J. Davidson

    Mindfulness meditation is increasingly incorporated into mental health interventions, and theoretical concepts associated with it have influenced basic research on psychopathology. Here, we review the current understanding of mindfulness meditation through the lens of clinical neuroscience, outlining the core capacities targeted by mindfulness meditation and mapping them onto cognitive and affective constructs of the Research Domain Criteria matrix proposed by the National Institute of Mental Health. We review efficacious applications of mindfulness meditation to specific domains of psychopathology including depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and substance abuse, as well as emerging efforts related to attention disorders, traumatic stress, dysregulated eating, and serious mental illness. Priorities for future research include pinpointing mechanisms, refining methodology, and improving implementation. Mindfulness meditation is a promising basis for interventions, with particular potential relevance to psychiatric comorbidity. The successes and challenges of mindfulness meditation research are instructive for broader interactions between contemplative traditions and clinical psychological science.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Prenatal Developmental Origins of Future Psychopathology: Mechanisms and Pathways
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Catherine Monk, Claudia Lugo-Candelas, Caroline Trumpff

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis applied to neurodevelopmental outcomes asserts that the fetal origins of future development are relevant to mental health. There is a third pathway for the familial inheritance of risk for psychiatric illness beyond shared genes and the quality of parental care: the impact of pregnant women's distress—defined broadly to include perceived stress, life events, depression, and anxiety—on fetal and infant brain–behavior development. We discuss epidemiological and observational clinical data demonstrating that maternal distress is associated with children's increased risk for psychopathology: For example, high maternal anxiety is associated with a twofold increase in the risk of probable mental disorder in children. We review several biological systems hypothesized to be mechanisms by which maternal distress affects fetal and child brain and behavior development, as well as the clinical implications of studies of the developmental origins of health and disease that focus on maternal distress. Development and parenting begin before birth.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Using a Developmental Ecology Framework to Align Fear Neurobiology Across Species
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Bridget Callaghan, Heidi Meyer, Maya Opendak, Michelle Van Tieghem, Chelsea Harmon, Anfei Li, Francis S. Lee, Regina M. Sullivan, Nim Tottenham

    Children's development is largely dependent on caregiving; when caregiving is disrupted, children are at increased risk for numerous poor outcomes, in particular psychopathology. Therefore, determining how caregivers regulate children's affective neurobiology is essential for understanding psychopathology etiology and prevention. Much of the research on affective functioning uses fear learning to map maturation trajectories, with both rodent and human studies contributing knowledge. Nonetheless, as no standard framework exists through which to interpret developmental effects across species, research often remains siloed, thus contributing to the current therapeutic impasse. Here, we propose a developmental ecology framework that attempts to understand fear in the ecological context of the child: their relationship with their parent. By referring to developmental goals that are shared across species (to attach to, then, ultimately, separate from the parent), this framework provides a common grounding from which fear systems and their dysfunction can be understood, thus advancing research on psychopathologies and their treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Man and the Microbiome: A New Theory of Everything?
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Mary I. Butler, John F. Cryan, Timothy G. Dinan

    The gut microbiome is implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of psychological disorders. Preclinical studies have provided us with key insights into the mechanisms by which the microbiome influences bidirectional gut–brain communication. There are many signaling pathways involved, including the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, immune modulation, tryptophan and serotonin metabolism, bile acid transformation, microbial production of neuroactive compounds, and regulation of the endocannabinoid system. The complex and widespread influence of the microbiome on many physiological and psychological processes has generated a keen interest in its therapeutic potential for depression, anxiety, autism, and other psychiatric disorders. It has been shown that the microbiome composition of people suffering with such conditions differs significantly from that of healthy controls, and although the area is in its infancy, interventional studies that alter a person's microbiome through the use of probiotics, prebiotics, or dietary change can alleviate psychopathological symptoms.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Estrogen, Stress, and Depression: Cognitive and Biological Interactions
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Kimberly M. Albert, Paul A. Newhouse

    This article reviews the interactions of estrogen changes and psychosocial stress in contributing to vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) in women. Estrogen modulates brain networks and processes related to changes in stress response, cognition, and emotional dysregulation that are core characteristics of MDD. Synergistic effects of estrogen on cognitive and emotional function, particularly during psychosocial stress, may underlie the association of ovarian hormone fluctuation and depression in women. We propose a model of estrogen effects on multiple brain systems that interface with stress-related emotional and cognitive processes implicated in MDD and discuss possible mechanisms through which reproductive events and changes in estrogen may contribute to MDD risk in women with other concurrent risk factors.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Adolescent Suicide as a Failure of Acute Stress-Response Systems
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Adam Bryant Miller, Mitchell J. Prinstein

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death worldwide for adolescents. Despite decades of research on correlates and risk factors for adolescent suicide, we know little about why suicidal ideation and behavior frequently emerge in adolescence and how to predict, and ultimately prevent, suicidal behavior among youths. In this review, we first discuss knowledge regarding correlates, risk factors, and theories of suicide. We then review why adolescence is a period of unique vulnerability, given changing biology and social network reorganization. Next, we present a conceptual model through which to interpret emerging findings in adolescent suicide research. We suggest that a promising area for future research is to examine adolescent suicide as a failure of biological responses to acute stress in the proximal moments of a suicidal crisis. After reviewing initial evidence for this conceptualization, we review future directions for studies on adolescent suicide.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Abnormal Sleep Spindles, Memory Consolidation, and Schizophrenia
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Dara S. Manoach, Robert Stickgold

    There is overwhelming evidence that sleep is crucial for memory consolidation. Patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives have a specific deficit in sleep spindles, a defining oscillation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) Stage 2 sleep that, in coordination with other NREM oscillations, mediate memory consolidation. In schizophrenia, the spindle deficit correlates with impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation, positive symptoms, and abnormal thalamocortical connectivity. These relations point to dysfunction of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which generates spindles, gates the relay of sensory information to the cortex, and modulates thalamocortical communication. Genetic studies are beginning to provide clues to possible neurodevelopmental origins of TRN-mediated thalamocortical circuit dysfunction and to identify novel targets for treating the related memory deficits and symptoms. By forging empirical links in causal chains from risk genes to thalamocortical circuit dysfunction, spindle deficits, memory impairment, symptoms, and diagnosis, future research can advance our mechanistic understanding, treatment, and prevention of schizophrenia.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Development of the ICD-11 Classification of Personality Disorders: An Amalgam of Science, Pragmatism, and Politics
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Peter Tyrer, Roger Mulder, Youl-Ri Kim, Mike J. Crawford

    The nomenclature of personality disorders in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems represents the most radical change in the classification history of personality disorders. A dimensional structure now replaces categorical description. It was argued by the Working Group that only a dimensional system was consistent with the empirical evidence and, in the spirit of clinical utility, the new system is based on two steps. The first step is to assign one of five levels of severity, and the second step is to assign up to five prominent domain traits. There was resistance to this structure from those who feel that categorical diagnosis, particularly of borderline personality disorder, should be retained. After lengthy discussion, described in detail here, there is now an option for a borderline pattern descriptor to be selected as a diagnostic option after severity has been determined.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Reciprocal Model of Pain and Substance Use: Transdiagnostic Considerations, Clinical Implications, and Future Directions
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Joseph W. Ditre, Emily L. Zale, Lisa R. LaRowe

    Pain and substance use are highly prevalent and co-occurring conditions that continue to garner increasing clinical and empirical interest. Although nicotine and tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis each confer acute analgesic effects, frequent or heavy use may contribute to the development and progression of chronic pain, and pain may be heightened during abstinence. Additionally, pain can be a potent motivator of substance self-administration, and it may contribute to escalating use and poorer substance-related treatment outcomes. We integrated converging lines of evidence to propose a reciprocal model in which pain and substance use are hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in the exacerbation and maintenance of both conditions over time. Theoretical mechanisms in bidirectional pain–substance use relations are reviewed, including negative reinforcement, social cognitive processes, and allostatic load in overlapping neural circuitry. Finally, candidate transdiagnostic factors are identified, and we conclude with a discussion of clinical implications and future research directions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Anxiety-Linked Attentional Bias: Is It Reliable?
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Colin MacLeod, Ben Grafton, Lies Notebaert

    There is substantial evidence that heightened anxiety vulnerability is characterized by increased selective attention to threatening information. The reliability of this anxiety-linked attentional bias has become the focus of considerable recent interest. We distinguish between the potential inconsistency of anxiety-linked attentional bias and inconsistency potentially reflecting the psychometric properties of the assessment approaches used to measure it. Though groups with heightened anxiety vulnerability often exhibit, on average, elevated attention to threat, the evidence suggests that individuals are unlikely to each display a stable, invariant attentional bias to threat. Moreover, although existing assessment approaches can differentiate between groups, they do not exhibit the internal consistency or test-retest reliability necessary to classify individuals in terms of their characteristic pattern of attentional responding to threat. We discuss the appropriate uses of existing attentional bias assessment tasks and propose strategies for enhancing classification of individuals in terms of their tendency to display an attentional bias to threat.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Biomedical Explanations of Psychopathology and Their Implications for Attitudes and Beliefs About Mental Disorders
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Matthew S. Lebowitz, Paul S. Appelbaum

    Mental disorders are increasingly conceptualized as biomedical diseases, explained as manifestations of genetic and neurobiological abnormalities. Here, we discuss changes in the dominant explanatory accounts of psychopathology that have occurred over time and the driving forces behind these shifts, lay out some real-world evidence for the increasing ascendancy of biomedical explanations, and provide an overview of the types of attitudes and beliefs that may be affected by them. We examine theoretical and conceptual models that are relevant to understanding how biomedical conceptualizations might affect attitudes and beliefs about mental disorders, and we review some empirical evidence that bears on this question. Finally, we examine possible strategies for combatting potential negative effects of biomedical explanations and discuss important conclusions and directions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Psychology's Replication Crisis and Clinical Psychological Science
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Jennifer L. Tackett, Cassandra M. Brandes, Kevin M. King, Kristian E. Markon

    Despite psychological scientists’ increasing interest in replicability, open science, research transparency, and the improvement of methods and practices, the clinical psychology community has been slow to engage. This has been shifting more recently, and with this review, we hope to facilitate this emerging dialogue. We begin by examining some potential areas of weakness in clinical psychology in terms of methods, practices, and evidentiary base. We then discuss a select overview of solutions, tools, and current concerns of the reform movement from a clinical psychological science perspective. We examine areas of clinical science expertise (e.g., implementation science) that should be leveraged to inform open science and reform efforts. Finally, we reiterate the call to clinical psychologists to increase their efforts toward reform that can further improve the credibility of clinical psychological science.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2016-07-30
    Tyrone D Cannon,Thomas Widiger

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ecological momentary assessment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-05-30
    Saul Shiffman,Arthur A Stone,Michael R Hufford

    Assessment in clinical psychology typically relies on global retrospective self-reports collected at research or clinic visits, which are limited by recall bias and are not well suited to address how behavior changes over time and across contexts. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involves repeated sampling of subjects' current behaviors and experiences in real time, in subjects' natural environments. EMA aims to minimize recall bias, maximize ecological validity, and allow study of microprocesses that influence behavior in real-world contexts. EMA studies assess particular events in subjects' lives or assess subjects at periodic intervals, often by random time sampling, using technologies ranging from written diaries and telephones to electronic diaries and physiological sensors. We discuss the rationale for EMA, EMA designs, methodological and practical issues, and comparisons of EMA and recall data. EMA holds unique promise to advance the science and practice of clinical psychology by shedding light on the dynamics of behavior in real-world settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • fMRI functional connectivity applied to adolescent neurodevelopment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2015-01-13
    Monique Ernst,Salvatore Torrisi,Nicholas Balderston,Christian Grillon,Elizabeth A Hale

    The exponential rise in the number of functional brain connectivity studies, particularly those examining intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) at rest, and the promises of this work for unraveling the ontogeny of functional neural systems motivate this review. Shortly before this explosion in functional connectivity research, developmental neuroscientists had proposed theories based on neural systems models to explain behavioral changes, particularly in adolescence. The current review presents recent advances in imaging in brain connectivity research, which provides a unique tool for the study of neural systems. Understanding the potential of neuroimaging for refining neurodevelopmental models of brain function requires a description of various functional connectivity approaches. In this review, we describe task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analytic strategies, but we focus on iFC findings from resting-state data to describe general developmental trajectories of brain network organization. Finally, we use the example of drug addiction to frame a discussion of psychopathology that emerges in adolescence.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impulsive and compulsive behaviors in Parkinson's disease.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2013-12-10
    B B Averbeck,S S O'Sullivan,A Djamshidian

    Impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are a common and devastating side effect of dopamine replacement therapy. In this review we describe the phenomenology, prevalence, and risk factors of patients with PD. Results of behavioral studies assessing the neuropsychological profile of patients with PD emphasize that the ICBs, which are behavioral addictions, are not hedonically motivated. Rather, other factors such as the inability to cope with uncertainty may be triggering ICBs. New insights from functional imaging studies, strengthening the incentive salience hypothesis, are discussed, and therapeutic guidelines for the management of ICBs in PD are given.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2018-05-08
    Thomas Widiger,Tyrone D Cannon

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Tyrone D Cannon,Thomas Widiger

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Methodological issues in molecular genetic studies of mental disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2009-03-31
    Carrie E Bearden,Anna J Jasinska,Nelson B Freimer

    The development of methodologies for assaying genetic variation at high resolution throughout the genome has revolutionized the search for susceptibility genes for common diseases. This search, however, has been less successful in psychiatry than in other areas of medicine. It is hypothesized that the imprecision and uncertain validity of psychiatric diagnoses are major factors in this disappointing progress. Here we discuss the methodologies employed for genetic investigation of mental disorders, including phenotyping strategies, approaches to genetic mapping, and use of animal models of psychopathology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2016-01-17
    Stephen T Russell,Jessica N Fish

    Today's lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth come out at younger ages, and public support for LGBT issues has dramatically increased, so why do LGBT youth continue to be at high risk for compromised mental health? We provide an overview of the contemporary context for LGBT youth, followed by a review of current science on LGBT youth mental health. Research in the past decade has identified risk and protective factors for mental health, which point to promising directions for prevention, intervention, and treatment. Legal and policy successes have set the stage for advances in programs and practices that may foster LGBT youth mental health. Implications for clinical care are discussed, and important areas for new research and practice are identified.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Self-reported experiences of discrimination and health: scientific advances, ongoing controversies, and emerging issues.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2015-01-13
    Tené T Lewis,Courtney D Cogburn,David R Williams

    Over the past two decades, research examining the impact of self-reported experiences of discrimination on mental and physical health has increased dramatically. Studies have found consistent associations between exposure to discrimination and a wide range of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-diagnosed mental disorders as well as objective physical health outcomes. Associations are seen in cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies and persist even after adjustment for confounding variables, including personality characteristics and other threats to validity. However, controversies remain, particularly around the best approach to measuring experiences of discrimination, the significance of racial/ethnic discrimination versus overall mistreatment, the need to account for "intersectionalities," and the importance of comprehensive assessments. These issues are discussed in detail, along with emerging areas of emphasis including cyber discrimination, anticipatory stress or vigilance around discrimination, and interventions with potential to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on health. We also discuss priorities for future research and implications for interventions and policy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development and course of bipolar spectrum disorders: an integrated reward and circadian rhythm dysregulation model.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2015-01-13
    Lauren B Alloy,Robin Nusslock,Elaine M Boland

    In this article, we present and review the evidence for two major biopsychosocial theories of the onset and course of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) that integrate behavioral, environmental, and neurobiological mechanisms: the reward hypersensitivity and the social/circadian rhythm disruption models. We describe the clinical features, spectrum, age of onset, and course of BSDs. We then discuss research designs relevant to demonstrating whether a hypothesized mechanism represents a correlate, vulnerability, or predictor of the course of BSDs, as well as important methodological issues. We next present the reward hypersensitivity model of BSD, followed by the social/circadian rhythm disruption model of BSD. For each model, we review evidence regarding whether the proposed underlying mechanism is associated with BSDs, provides vulnerability to the onset of BSDs, and predicts the course of BSDs. We then present a new integrated reward/circadian rhythm (RCR) dysregulation model of BSD and discuss how the RCR model explains the symptoms, onset, and course of BSDs. We end with recommendations for future research directions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Construct validity: advances in theory and methodology.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-12-18
    Milton E Strauss,Gregory T Smith

    Measures of psychological constructs are validated by testing whether they relate to measures of other constructs as specified by theory. Each test of relations between measures reflects on the validity of both the measures and the theory driving the test. Construct validation concerns the simultaneous process of measure and theory validation. In this article, we review the recent history of validation efforts in clinical psychological science that has led to this perspective, and we review the following recent advances in validation theory and methodology of importance for clinical researchers. These are: the emergence of nonjustificationist philosophy of science; an increasing appreciation for theory and the need for informative tests of construct validity; valid construct representation in experimental psychopathology; the need to avoid representing multidimensional constructs with a single score; and the emergence of effective new statistical tools for the evaluation of convergent and discriminant validity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • State of the science on psychosocial interventions for ethnic minorities.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Jeanne Miranda,Guillermo Bernal,Anna Lau,Laura Kohn,Wei-Chin Hwang,Teresa LaFromboise

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children's maladjustment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2010-03-03
    Nancy Eisenberg,Tracy L Spinrad,Natalie D Eggum

    The development of children's emotion-related self-regulation appears to be related to, and likely involved in, many aspects of children's development. In this review, the distinction between effortful self-regulatory processes and those that are somewhat less voluntary is discussed, and literature on the former capacities is reviewed. Emotion-related self-regulation develops rapidly in the early years of life and improves more slowly into adulthood. Individual differences in children's self-regulation are fairly stable after the first year or two of life. Such individual differences are inversely related to at least some types of externalizing problems. Findings for internalizing problems are less consistent and robust, although emotion-related self-regulation appears to be inversely related to internalizing problems after the early years. Self-regulatory capacities have been related to both genetic and environmental factors and their interaction. Some interventions designed to foster self-regulation and, hence, reduce maladjustment, have proved to be at least partially effective.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognition and depression: current status and future directions.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2010-03-03
    Ian H Gotlib,Jutta Joormann

    Cognitive theories of depression posit that people's thoughts, inferences, attitudes, and interpretations, and the way in which they attend to and recall information, can increase their risk for depression. Three mechanisms have been implicated in the relation between biased cognitive processing and the dysregulation of emotion in depression: inhibitory processes and deficits in working memory, ruminative responses to negative mood states and negative life events, and the inability to use positive and rewarding stimuli to regulate negative mood. In this review, we present a contemporary characterization of depressive cognition and discuss how different cognitive processes are related not only to each other, but also to emotion dysregulation, the hallmark feature of depression. We conclude that depression is characterized by increased elaboration of negative information, by difficulties disengaging from negative material, and by deficits in cognitive control when processing negative information. We discuss treatment implications of these conclusions and argue that the study of cognitive aspects of depression must be broadened by investigating neural and genetic factors that are related to cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Such integrative investigations should help us gain a more comprehensive understanding of how cognitive and biological factors interact to affect the onset, maintenance, and course of depression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Behavioral disinhibition and the development of early-onset addiction: common and specific influences.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    William G Iacono,Stephen M Malone,Matt McGue

    Research on substance use disorders is often compartmentalized, focused on understanding addiction to one substance or substance class at a time. Although this approach has contributed significantly to knowledge about addictions, early-onset substance use disorders appear to share common etiology with each other and with other disorders, traits, behaviors, and endophenotypes associated with behavioral disinhibition. We propose that a common genetic liability to behavioral disinhibition underlies the co-occurrence of these externalizing attributes. This liability is expressed in part through brain mechanisms related to cognitive control, impulsivity, and sensitivity to reward, all of which are maturing during adolescence. During this important transitional period, problem behaviors emerge, including the initiation of substance use. Exposure to various environmental risks further amplifies the risk associated with the common liability, increasing the likelihood of addiction generally. Specific environmental and genetic factors ultimately contribute to the differentiation among externalizing disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Should binge eating disorder be included in the DSM-V? A critical review of the state of the evidence.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Ruth H Striegel-Moore,Debra L Franko

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced in 1994 as a provisional eating disorder diagnosis. The core symptom is recurrent binge eating in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors and/or extreme dietary restraint. This review examines the status of the literature on BED according to five criteria that have been proposed to determine whether BED warrants inclusion in the psychiatric nosology as a distinct eating disorder. We conclude that each of these criteria was met. There is a commonly accepted definition of and assessment approach to BED. The clinical utility and validity of BED have been established, and BED is distinguishable from both bulimia nervosa and obesity. BED should be included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Disorders of childhood and adolescence: gender and psychopathology.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Carolyn Zahn-Waxler,Elizabeth A Shirtcliff,Kristine Marceau

    Early-onset disorders (e.g., conduct problems, autism) show a marked male preponderance, whereas adolescent-onset disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) show a marked female preponderance. A developmental psychopathology framework provides a means to investigate complex gender-related etiologies of these different disorders. This review focuses on biological and environmental factors implicated in the development of conduct problems and depression in boys and girls. Boys and girls showed certain differences in types, rates, comorbidities, antecedents, correlates, and trajectories of these problems. Origins of male and female preponderant problems are likely to be rooted, in part, in biological, physical, cognitive, and social-emotional differences in boys and girls that can precede the expression of clinical problems. These male-like and female-like characteristics are considered regarding conduct problems and depression to explore how they inform biological and environmental theories about gender and psychopathology. At the same time, because boys and girls also show many similarities, it is important to avoid sex-stereotyping mental health problems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Robert D Hare,Craig S Neumann

    In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile. We evaluate this profile, note its basis in an unrepresentative sample of patients, and suggest that its literal and uncritical acceptance by the research community has become problematical. We also argue that the idea of construct "drift" is irrelevant to current conceptualizations of psychopathy, which are better informed by the extensive empirical research on the integration of structural, genetic, developmental, personality, and neurobiological research findings than by rigid adherence to early clinical formulations. We offer some suggestions for future research on psychopathy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stress and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the developmental course of schizophrenia.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Elaine Walker,Vijay Mittal,Kevin Tessner

    Diathesis-stress models of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders have dominated theorizing about etiology for over three decades. More recently, with advances in our understanding of the biological processes mediating the effects of stress, these models have incorporated mechanisms to account for the adverse impact of stress on brain function. This review examines recent scientific findings on the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the primary neural systems triggered by stress exposure, in the expression of vulnerability for schizophrenia. The results indicate that psychotic disorders are associated with elevated baseline and challenge-induced HPA activity, that antipsychotic medications reduce HPA activation, and that agents that augment stress hormone (cortisol) release exacerbate psychotic symptoms. The cumulative findings are discussed in light of a neural diathesis-stress model that postulates that cortisol has the potential to increase activity of dopamine pathways that have been implicated in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cost-effective early childhood development programs from preschool to third grade.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Arthur J Reynolds,Judy A Temple

    Although findings on the positive effects of early childhood development programs have been widely disseminated, less attention has been given to program impacts across the entire period of early childhood. This review summarizes evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of programs and services from ages 3 to 9. The major focus is preschool programs for 3- and 4-year-olds, full-day kindergarten, school-age programs including reduced class sizes, and preschool-to-third-grade interventions. Participation in preschool programs was found to have relatively large and enduring effects on school achievement and child well-being. High-quality programs for children at risk produce strong economic returns ranging from about $4 per dollar invested to over $10 per dollar invested. Relative to half-day kindergarten, the positive effects of full-day kindergarten have been found to be relatively small and generally do not last for more than a year. Although no formal economic analyses have been conducted, the economic return per dollar invested would be expected to be close to zero. Among early-school-age programs, preschool plus school-age interventions (PK-3) for children at risk are linked to higher levels of school performance into adolescence. The Child-Parent Center PK-3 Program shows a return of $6 to $9 per dollar invested. Class-size reductions show evidence of positive effects, with economic returns of roughly $3 per dollar invested. The causal mechanisms of long-term effects are discussed. Key principles to promote intervention effectiveness are offered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pharmacotherapy of mood disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Michael E Thase,Timothey Denko

    The mood disorders-primarily major depressive disorder and bipolar affective disorder-constitute one of the world's greatest public health problems and are associated with significant reductions in productivity, health, and longevity. In addition, people who suffer from these common illnesses, along with their families and loved ones, experience an incalculable toll on quality of life. Dating to the introduction of the first effective therapies for mood disorders in the late 1950s and 1960s, various types of pharmacotherapy have become a mainstay for the management of mood disorders, particularly more severe, chronic, and recurrent forms of depression and most forms of bipolar disorder. This review examines recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of both forms of mood disorder, comparing the newer antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors with their predecessors (the monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants) and likewise comparing the older standard for management of bipolar disorder, lithium, with newer classes of medications, such as a selected group of anticonvulsants and the atypical antipsychotics. Although these newer classes of medications have generally improved upon the earlier treatments in terms of better tolerability and safety, there are no universally effective pharmacologic treatments for mood disorders, and careful medical management of these medications is still warranted.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stress and health: psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Neil Schneiderman,Gail Ironson,Scott D Siegel

    Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the individual's biological vulnerability (i.e., genetics, constitutional factors), psychosocial resources, and learned patterns of coping. Psychosocial interventions have proven useful for treating stress-related disorders and may influence the course of chronic diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Positive psychology in clinical practice.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Angela Lee Duckworth,Tracy A Steen,Martin E P Seligman

    Positive psychology is the scientific study of positive experiences and positive individual traits, and the institutions that facilitate their development. A field concerned with well-being and optimal functioning, positive psychology aims to broaden the focus of clinical psychology beyond suffering and its direct alleviation. Our proposed conceptual framework parses happiness into three domains: pleasure, engagement, and meaning. For each of these constructs, there are now valid and practical assessment tools appropriate for the clinical setting. Additionally, mounting evidence demonstrates the efficacy and effectiveness of positive interventions aimed at cultivating pleasure, engagement, and meaning. We contend that positive interventions are justifiable in their own right. Positive interventions may also usefully supplement direct attempts to prevent and treat psychopathology and, indeed, may covertly be a central component of good psychotherapy as it is done now.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognitive approaches to schizophrenia: theory and therapy.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Aaron T Beck,Neil A Rector

    A theoretical analysis of schizophrenia based on a cognitive model integrates the complex interaction of predisposing neurobiological, environmental, cognitive, and behavioral factors with the diverse symptomatology. The impaired integrative function of the brain, as well as the domain-specific cognitive deficits, increases the vulnerability to aversive life experiences, which lead to dysfunctional beliefs and behaviors. Symptoms of disorganization result not only from specific neurocognitive deficits but also from the relative paucity of resources available for maintaining a set, adhering to rules of communication, and inhibiting intrusion of inappropriate ideas. Delusions are analyzed in terms of the interplay between active cognitive biases, such as external attributions, and resource-sparing strategies such as jumping to conclusions. Similarly, the content of hallucinations and the delusions regarding their origin and characteristics may be understood in terms of biased information processing. The interaction of neurocognitive deficits, personality, and life events leads to the negative symptoms characterized by negative social and performance beliefs, low expectancies for pleasure and success, and a resource-sparing strategy to conserve limited psychological resources. The comprehensive conceptualization creates the context for targeted psychological treatments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychology, psychologists, and public policy.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Katherine M McKnight,Lee Sechrest,Patrick E McKnight

    Evidence-based policy is being encouraged in all areas of public service ( Black 2001 ). Unprecedented federal legislation reflects a faith in science "as a force for improved public policy" ( Feuer et al. 2002 ). The objective of evidence-based policy is to use scientific research to drive decision making. Thus, the link between social science research and public policy seems to be a natural one. The purpose of this chapter is to address how psychological science in general, and clinical psychology in particular, can be of use to public policy makers. We discuss how psychological science can be relevant and applicable to informing policy, and we describe the role clinical scientists might play in generating, disseminating, and implementing that information. We also note distinct limitations on the usefulness of psychological research in driving public policy. We discuss some pitfalls and recommend areas where clinical psychology might best serve public policy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development of alcohol use disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Kenneth J Sher,Emily R Grekin,Natalie A Williams

    Pathological alcohol use is a complex and costly problem. This chapter focuses on recent developments in the etiology of alcohol use disorders. Literature is reviewed from the fields of epidemiology, genetics, personality, neuropsychology, parenting, and social influences. In addition, theoretical models that describe pathways to the development of alcohol use disorders are presented. Particular emphasis is given to ways in which genetic, environmental, psychopharmacological, and personological literatures can inform one another.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Decision making in medicine and health care.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Robert M Kaplan,Dominick L Frosch

    Decision making is central to health policy and medical practice. Because health outcomes are probabilistic, most decisions are made under conditions of uncertainty. This review considers two classes of decisions in health care: decisions made by providers on behalf of patients, and shared decisions between patients and providers. Considerable evidence suggests wide regional variation exists in services received by patients. Evidence-based guidelines that incorporate quality of life and patient preferences may help address this problem. Systematic cost-effectiveness analysis can be used to improve resource allocation decisions. Shared medical decision making seeks to engage patients and providers in a collaborative process to choose clinical options that reflect patient preferences. Although some evidence indicates patients want an active role in making decisions, other evidence suggests that some patients prefer a passive role. Decision aids hold promise for improving individual decisions, but there are still few systematic evaluations of these aids. Several directions for future research are offered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Kenneth J Zucker

    Gender identity disorder entered the psychiatric nomenclature in the DSM-III in 1980. This article reviews three domains of empirical research on gender identity disorder in children and adolescents: diagnosis and assessment, associated psychopathology, and developmental trajectories.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychological treatment of eating disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    G Terence Wilson

    Manual-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is presently the most effective treatment of bulimia nervosa. Its efficacy is limited, however. Different strategies for improving upon current manual-based CBT are discussed, including combining CBT with antidepressant medication, integrating CBT with alternative psychological therapies, and expanding the scope and flexibility of manual-based CBT. CBT is underutilized in clinical practice. Dissemination of evidence-based treatment is a priority. Research on anorexia nervosa is minimal. Effective treatments have yet to be developed, although the Maudsley method of family therapy has shown the most promise in the treatment of adolescents. The most commonly seen eating disorders in clinical practice are those classified as "eating disorder not otherwise specified." With the exception of binge eating disorder (BED), however, they have been neglected by researchers. Several psychological therapies have been shown to be effective in treating BED. Controversy exists over whether treatment-specific effects have been identified. Whereas treatments have proved effective in eliminating binge eating and associated eating disorder psychopathology, achieving clinically significant weight loss remains a challenge.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Child maltreatment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Dante Cicchetti,Sheree L Toth

    Child maltreatment exemplifies a toxic relational environment that poses significant risks for maladaptation across biological and psychological domains of development. Research on child maltreatment can inform developmental theory, but more importantly, it can enhance the quality of clinical, legal, and policy-making decisions for maltreated children. This chapter addresses definitional, epidemiological, and etiological aspects of child maltreatment. A developmental psychopathology perspective is directed toward the discussion of the psychological and neurobiological sequelae of child maltreatment. Implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy are discussed, and recommendations for future research are proffered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development of psychopathy.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Donald R Lynam,Lauren Gudonis

    In this review, we explore two aspects of the development of psychopathy. First, we examine what psychopathy looks like across time. Second, we ask where psychopathy comes from. Much recent empirical work supports the idea that psychopathy in childhood and adolescence looks much like psychopathy in adulthood. Research utilizing recently created juvenile psychopathy indices demonstrates that juvenile psychopathy can be assessed reliably and that the nomological network surrounding the construct is quite similar to the one around adult psychopathy. Juvenile psychopathy is robustly related to offending, other externalizing problems, low levels of Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, and deficits in emotional processing and inhibition. Juvenile psychopathy is also relatively stable across adolescence. Much less research has examined from whence psychopathy comes, although several theories are reviewed. We close with a discussion of recent objections to the downward developmental extension of psychopathy to juveniles and some suggestions for additional research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Categorical and dimensional models of personality disorder.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Timothy J Trull,Christine A Durrett

    We review major categorical and dimensional models of personality pathology, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of these approaches. Several analytic and methodological approaches to the question of the categorical versus dimensional status of constructs are discussed, including taxometric analyses, latent class analyses, and multivariate genetic analyses. Based on our review, we advocate a dimensional approach to classifying personality pathology. There is converging evidence that four major domains of personality are relevant to personality pathology: neuroticism/negative affectivity/emotional dysregulation; extraversion/positive emotionality; dissocial/antagonistic behavior; and constraint/compulsivity/conscientiousness. Finally, we discuss how dimensional approaches might be integrated into the diagnostic system, as well as some of the major issues that must be addressed in order for dimensional approaches to gain wide acceptance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Deanna M Barch

    Individuals with schizophrenia experience a range of cognitive deficits and associated dysfunctions in the neural systems that support cognitive processes. This chapter reviews the literature on disturbances in working memory, executive control, and episodic memory in schizophrenia. Advances in basic cognitive neuroscience are described to help explain the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. For working memory in schizophrenia, evidence is reviewed regarding deficits in the verbal (phonological loop) and nonverbal (visual-spatial scratch pad) buffer systems as well as in the central executive function. In the domain of episodic memory, evidence is reviewed for deficits in recollection versus familiarity processes in episodic memory. Also discussed are conceptual issues and potential confounds relevant to understanding the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia, including the role that cognitive deficits play in the developmental course of schizophrenia, relationships to specific symptom domains, behavioral performance confounds, and medication influences on behavioral performance and brain function.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stress and depression.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Constance Hammen

    Improved methods of assessment and research design have established a robust and causal association between stressful life events and major depressive episodes. The chapter reviews these developments briefly and attempts to identify gaps in the field and new directions in recent research. There are notable shortcomings in several important topics: measurement and evaluation of chronic stress and depression; exploration of potentially different processes of stress and depression associated with first-onset versus recurrent episodes; possible gender differences in exposure and reactivity to stressors; testing kindling/sensitization processes; longitudinal tests of diathesis-stress models; and understanding biological stress processes associated with naturally occurring stress and depressive outcomes. There is growing interest in moving away from unidirectional models of the stress-depression association, toward recognition of the effects of contexts and personal characteristics on the occurrence of stressors, and on the likelihood of progressive and dynamic relationships between stress and depression over time-including effects of childhood and lifetime stress exposure on later reactivity to stress.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The psychobiology of depression and resilience to stress: implications for prevention and treatment.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Steven M Southwick,Meena Vythilingam,Dennis S Charney

    This review discusses neurobiological and psychosocial factors associated with stress-induced depression and compares these factors with those believed to characterize stress resilience. Neurobiological factors that are discussed and contrasted include serotonin, the 5-HT1A receptor, polymorphisms of the 5-HT transporter gene, norepinephrine, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, neuropeptide Y, polymorphisms of the alpha-2 adrenergic gene, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), cortisol, and CRH receptors. These factors are described in the context of brain regions believed to be involved in stress, depression, and resilience to stress. Psychosocial factors associated with depression and/or stress resilience include positive emotions and optimism, humor, cognitive flexibility, cognitive explanatory style and reappraisal, acceptance, religion/spirituality, altruism, social support, role models, coping style, exercise, capacity to recover from negative events, and stress inoculation. The review concludes with potential psychological, social, spiritual, and neurobiological approaches to enhancing stress resilience, decreasing the likelihood of developing stress-induced depression/anxiety, and treating stress-induced psychopathology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dissociative disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    John F Kihlstrom

    The dissociative disorders, including "psychogenic" or "functional" amnesia, fugue, dissociative identity disorder (DID, also known as multiple personality disorder), and depersonalization disorder, were once classified, along with conversion disorder, as forms of hysteria. The 1970s witnessed an "epidemic" of dissociative disorder, particularly DID, which may have reflected enthusiasm for the diagnosis more than its actual prevalence. Traditionally, the dissociative disorders have been attributed to trauma and other psychological stress, but the existing evidence favoring this hypothesis is plagued by poor methodology. Prospective studies of traumatized individuals reveal no convincing cases of amnesia not attributable to brain insult, injury, or disease. Treatment generally involves recovering and working through ostensibly repressed or dissociated memories of trauma; at present, there are few quantitative or controlled outcome studies. Experimental studies are few in number and have focused largely on state-dependent and implicit memory. Depersonalization disorder may be in line for the next "epidemic" of dissociation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.
    Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. (IF 14.098 ) Pub Date : 2007-08-25
    Michelle G Craske,Allison M Waters

    This chapter provides a review of recent empirical developments, current controversies, and areas in need of further research in relation to factors that are common as well as specific to the etiology and maintenance of panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. The relative contribution of broad risk factors to these disorders is discussed, including temperament, genetics, biological influences, cognition, and familial variables. In addition, the role that specific learning experiences play in relation to each disorder is reviewed. In an overarching hierarchical model, it is proposed that generalized anxiety disorder, and to some extent panic disorder, loads most heavily on broad underlying factors, whereas specific life history contributes most strongly to circumscribed phobias.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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