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  • Systematic Hospital-Based Travel Screening to Assess Exposure to Zika Virus
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Aftab Iqbal; Robert Colgrove; Vito Iacoviello; Barbra M. Blair; Lin H. Chen

    We queried hospital patients about international travel in the previous 30 days to assess potential importation of emerging infections. We used 12 months of deidentified data to analyze patient demographics, travel destinations, and diagnoses for exposure to Zika virus. Our approach could be used to analyze potential infectious disease exposures.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Multiplex Mediator Displacement Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Treponema pallidum and Haemophilus ducreyi
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Lisa Becherer; Sascha Knauf; Michael Marks; Simone Lueert; Sieghard Frischmann; Nadine Borst; Felix von Stetten; Sibauk Bieb; Yaw Adu-Sarkodie; Kingsley Asiedu; Oriol Mitjà; Mohammed Bakheit

    Yaws, a neglected tropical disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue, manifests as ulcerative skin lesions. Nucleic acid amplification tests, like loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), are versatile tools to distinguish yaws from infections that cause similar skin lesions, primarily Haemophilus ducreyi. We developed a novel molecular test to simultaneously detect T. pallidum and H. ducreyi based on mediator displacement LAMP. We validated the T. pallidum and H. ducreyi LAMP (TPHD-LAMP) by testing 293 clinical samples from patients with yaws-like lesions. Compared with quantitative PCR, the TPHD-LAMP demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for T. pallidum (84.7% sensitivity, 95.7% specificity) and H. ducreyi (91.6% sensitivity, 84.8% specificity). This novel assay provided rapid molecular confirmation of T. pallidum and H. ducreyi DNA and might be suitable for use at the point of care. TPHD-LAMP could support yaws eradication by improving access to molecular diagnostic tests at the district hospital level.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Characteristics of Patients with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, United States, 2015–2018
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Nilay McLaren; Adriana Lopez; Sarah Kidd; John X. Zhang; W. Allan Nix; Ruth Link-Gelles; Adria Lee; Janell A. Routh

    Observed peaks of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases have occurred biennially since 2014 in the United States. We aimed to determine if AFM etiology differed between peak and nonpeak years, considering that clinical features of AFM differ by virus etiology. We compared clinical and laboratory characteristics of AFM cases that occurred during peak (2016 and 2018, n = 366) and nonpeak (2015 and 2017, n = 50) years. AFM patients in peak years were younger (5.2 years) than those in nonpeak years (8.3 years). A higher percentage of patients in peak years than nonpeak years had pleocytosis (86% vs. 60%), upper extremity involvement (33% vs. 16%), and an illness preceding limb weakness (90% vs. 62%) and were positive for enterovirus or rhinovirus RNA (38% vs. 16%). Enterovirus D68 infection was associated with AFM only in peak years. Our findings suggest AFM etiology differs between peak and nonpeak years.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Amblyomma maculatum Group Ticks
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Bruce H. Noden; Megan A. Roselli; Scott R. Loss

    We determined prevalence of Rickettsia spp. in 172 ticks of the Amblyomma maculatum group collected from 16 urban sites in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, during 2017 and 2018. Most ticks (59.3%) were collected from 1 site; 4 (2.3%) were infected with Rickettsia parkeri and 118 (68.6%) with Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Human Norovirus Infection in Dogs, Thailand
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Kamonpan Charoenkul; Chanakarn Nasamran; Taveesak Janetanakit; Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat; Napawan Bunpapong; Supanat Boonyapisitsopa; Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonler; Watchaporn Chuchaona; Yong Poovorawan; Alongkorn Amonsin

    In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Plague Epizootic Dynamics in Chipmunk Fleas, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA, 2013–2015
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Talisin T. Hammond; Kelly A. Liebman; Robert Payne; Helen K. Pigage; Kerry A. Padgett

    We describe Yersina pestis minimum infection prevalence in fleas collected from Tamias spp. chipmunks in the Sierra Nevadas (California, USA) during 2013–2015. Y. pestis–positive fleas were detected only in 2015 (year of plague epizootic), mostly in T. speciosus chipmunks at high-elevation sites. Plague surveillance should include testing vectors for Y. pestis.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Need for BCG Vaccination to Prevent TB in High-Incidence Countries and Populations
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Shalini Pooransingh; Sateesh Sakhamuri

    An estimated one quarter of persons worldwide are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In 2018, the World Health Organization issued revised guidance on BCG vaccine for high-risk groups. The World Health Organization should consider guiding countries on a case-by-case basis in developing appropriate BCG policies to deliver equitable healthcare and protect public health.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Improving Quality of Patient Data for Treatment of Multidrug- or Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jonathon R. Campbell; Dennis Falzon; Fuad Mirzayev; Ernesto Jaramillo; Giovanni Battista Migliori; Carole D. Mitnick; Norbert Ndjeka; Dick Menzies

    International policy for treatment of multidrug- and rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR TB) relies largely on individual patient data (IPD) from observational studies of patients treated under routine conditions. We prepared guidance on which data to collect and what measures could improve consistency and utility for future evidence-based recommendations. We highlight critical stages in data collection at which improvements to uniformity, accuracy, and completeness could add value to IPD quality. Through a repetitive development process, we suggest essential patient- and treatment-related characteristics that should be collected by prospective contributors of observational IPD in MDR/RR TB.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Avian Influenza Virus Detection Rates in Poultry and Environment at Live Poultry Markets, Guangdong, China
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Kit Ling Cheng; Jie Wu; Wei Ling Shen; Alvina Y.L. Wong; Qianfang Guo; Jianxiang Yu; Xue Zhuang; Wen Su; Tie Song; Malik Peiris; Hui-Ling Yen; Eric H.Y. Lau

    We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase-5–Producing Escherichia coli in Companion Animals, United States
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Stephen D. Cole; Laura Peak; Gregory H. Tyson; Renate Reimschuessel; Olgica Ceric; Shelley C. Rankin

    We report isolation of a New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-5–producing carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli sequence type 167 from companion animals in the United States. Reports of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in companion animals are rare. We describe a unique cluster of blaNDM-5–producing E. coli in a veterinary hospital.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Rapid Nanopore Whole-Genome Sequencing for Anthrax Emergency Preparedness
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Heather P. McLaughlin; Julia V. Bugrysheva; Andrew B. Conley; Christopher A. Gulvik; Blake Cherney; Cari B. Kolton; Chung K. Marston; Elke Saile; Erin Swaney; David Lonsway; Amy S. Gargis; Thiphasone Kongphet-Tran; Christine Lascols; Pierre Michel; Julie Villanueva; Alex R. Hoffmaster; Jay E. Gee; David Sue

    Human anthrax cases necessitate rapid response. We completed Bacillus anthracis nanopore whole-genome sequencing in our high-containment laboratory from a human anthrax isolate hours after receipt. The de novo assembled genome showed no evidence of known antimicrobial resistance genes or introduced plasmid(s). Same-day genomic characterization enhances public health emergency response.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Suspected Locally Acquired Coccidioidomycosis in Human, Spokane, Washington, USA
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Hanna N. Oltean; Mark Springer; Jolene R. Bowers; Riley Barnes; George Reid; Michael Valentine; David M. Engelthaler; Mitsuru Toda; Orion Z. McCotter

    The full geographic range of coccidioidomycosis is unknown, although it is most likely expanding with environmental change. We report an apparently autochthonous coccidioidomycosis patient from Spokane, Washington, USA, a location to which Coccidioides spp. are not known to be endemic.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Hepatitis E Virus in Pigs from Slaughterhouses, United States, 2017–2019
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Harini Sooryanarain; Connie L. Heffron; Dolores E. Hill; Jorrell Fredericks; Benjamin M. Rosenthal; Stephen R. Werre; Tanja Opriessnig; Xiang-Jin Meng

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA was detected in 6.3% and HEV IgG in 40% of 5,033 serum samples from market-weight pigs at 25 slaughterhouses in 10 US states. The prevalent HEV genotype was zoonotic genotype 3, group 2. Blood of HEV-viremic pigs from slaughterhouses may contaminate pork supply chains.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Public Health Program for Decreasing Risk for Ebola Virus Disease Resurgence from Survivors of the 2013–2016 Outbreak, Guinea
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Mory Keita; Sakoba Keita; Boubacar Diallo; Momo Camara; Samuel Mesfin; Koumpingnin Yacouba Nebie; N’Faly Magassouba; Seydou Coulibaly; Boubacar Barry; Mamadou Oury Baldé; Raymond Pallawo; Sadou Sow; Amadou Bailo Diallo; Pierre Formenty; Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey; Ibrahima Socé Fall; Lorenzo Subissi

    At the end of the 2013–2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea, we implemented an alert system for early detection of Ebola resurgence among survivors. Survivors were asked to report health alerts in their household and provide body fluid specimens for laboratory testing. During April–September 2016, a total of 1,075 (88%) of 1,215 survivors participated in the system; follow up occurred at a median of 16 months after discharge (interquartile range 14–18 months). Of these, 784 acted as focal points and reported 1,136 alerts (including 4 deaths among survivors). A total of 372 (91%) of 408 eligible survivors had >1 semen specimen tested; of 817 semen specimens, 5 samples from 4 survivors were positive up to 512 days after discharge. No lochia (0/7) or breast milk (0/69) specimens tested positive. Our findings underscore the importance of long-term monitoring of survivors’ semen samples in an Ebola-affected country.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Hantavirus Infection with Renal Failure and Proteinuria, Colorado, USA, 2019
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Swati Chand; Sangharsha Thapa; Shelley Kon; Steven C. Johnson; Eric M. Poeschla; Carlos Franco-Paredes; Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales; Salim Mattar; Andrés F. Henao-Martínez

    In North America, hantaviruses commonly cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Clinical descriptions of hantavirus-associated renal disease in the Americas are scarce. Herein, we discuss the case of a 61-year-old man whose predominant manifestations were acute kidney injury and proteinuria. Clinical recognition of renal signs in hantavirus infections can reduce risk for death.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Persistence of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus RNA
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Leholonolo Mathengtheng; Dominique Goedhals; Phillip A. Bester; Jacqueline Goedhals; Felicity J. Burt

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes severe disease with fatalities. Awareness of potential sources of infection is important to reduce risk to healthcare workers and contacts. We detected CCHFV RNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from a spontaneous abortion that were submitted for histology 9 weeks after a suspected CCHFV infection in the mother.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Elizabethkingia anophelis Infection in Infants, Cambodia, 2012–2018
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Thomas A.N. Reed; Gabriella Watson; Chheng Kheng; Pisey Tan; Tamalee Roberts; Clare L. Ling; Thyl Miliya; Paul Turner

    We describe 6 clinical isolates of Elizabethkingia anophelis from a pediatric referral hospital in Cambodia, along with 1 isolate reported from Thailand. Improving diagnostic microbiological methods in resource-limited settings will increase the frequency of reporting for this pathogen. Consensus on therapeutic options is needed, especially for resource-limited settings.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Two Cases of Newly Characterized Neisseria Species, Brazil
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Mustapha M. Mustapha; Ana Paula S. Lemos; Marissa P. Griffith; Daniel R. Evans; Ramon Marx; Elizabeth S.F. Coltro; Christian A. Siebra; Loeci Timm; Hamilton Ribeiro; Alessandro Monteiro; A. William Pasculle; Jane W. Marsh; Daria Van Tyne; Lee H. Harrison; Claudio T. Sacchi

    We describe 2 human cases of infection with a new Neisseria species (putatively N. brasiliensis), 1 of which involved bacteremia. Genomic analyses found that both isolates were distinct strains of the same species, were closely related to N. iguanae, and contained a capsule synthesis operon similar to N. meningitidis.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Surge in Anaplasmosis Cases in Maine, USA, 2013–2017
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Susan P. Elias; Jessica Bonthius; Sara Robinson; Rebecca M. Robich; Charles B. Lubelczyk; Robert P. Smith

    Incidence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis is rising in Maine, USA. This increase may be explained in part by adoption of tick panels as a frequent diagnostic test in persons with febrile illness and in part by range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and zoonotic amplification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Etymologia: Pegivirus
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Ronnie Henry

    Pegivirus

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Actinomycetoma Caused by Actinomadura mexicana, A Neglected Entity in the Caribbean
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Simon Bessis; Latifa Noussair; Veronica Rodriguez-Nava; Camille Jousset; Clara Duran; Alina Beresteanu; Morgan Matt; Benjamin Davido; Robert Carlier; Emmanuelle Bergeron; Pierre-Edouard Fournier; Jean Louis Herrmann; Aurélien Dinh

    Mycetoma is a chronic infection that is slow to develop and heal. It can be caused by fungi (eumycetoma) or bacteria (actinomycetoma). We describe a case of actinomycetoma caused by Actinomadura mexicana in the Caribbean region.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Use of Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System for Human Monkeypox Outbreak, Nigeria, 2017–2019
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Bernard C. Silenou; Daniel Tom-Aba; Olawunmi Adeoye; Chinedu C. Arinze; Ferdinand Oyiri; Anthony K. Suleman; Adesola Yinka-Ogunleye; Juliane Dörrbecker; Chikwe Ihekweazu; Gérard Krause

    In November 2017, the mobile digital Surveillance Outbreak Response Management and Analysis System was deployed in 30 districts in Nigeria in response to an outbreak of monkeypox. Adaptation and activation of the system took 14 days, and its use improved timeliness, completeness, and overall capacity of the response.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Astrovirus in White-Tailed Deer, United States, 2018
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Leyi Wang; Huigang Shen; Ying Zheng; Loni Schumacher; Ganwu Li

    We report the identification of astrovirus WI65268 in a white-tailed deer with respiratory disease in the United States in 2018. This virus is a recombinant of Kagoshima1-7 and Kagoshima2-3-2 (both bovine astroviruses from Japan) and was characterized as a potential new genotype. Further surveillance of deer might help identify related isolates.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium in Community and Sexual Health Clinic Patients, Auckland, New Zealand
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Anna Vesty; Gary McAuliffe; Sally Roberts; Gillian Henderson; Indira Basu

    Our retrospective study compared genotypic antimicrobial resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium–positive specimens collected from 48 community and 33 sexual health clinic (SHC) patients. Macrolide resistance was similar in community (75%) and SHC (76%) patients. We observed no significant difference in fluoroquinolone resistance between community (19%) and SHC (27%) patients (p = 0.66).

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Influence of Rainfall on Leptospira Infection and Disease in a Tropical Urban Setting, Brazil
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Kathryn P. Hacker; Gielson A. Sacramento; Jaqueline S. Cruz; Daiana de Oliveira; Nivison Nery; Janet C. Lindow; Mayara Carvalho; Jose Hagan; Peter J. Diggle; Mike Begon; Mitermayer G. Reis; Elsio A. Wunder; Albert I. Ko; Federico Costa

    The incidence of hospitalized leptospirosis patients was positively associated with increased precipitation in Salvador, Brazil. However, Leptospira infection risk among a cohort of city residents was inversely associated with rainfall. These findings indicate that, although heavy rainfall may increase severe illness, Leptospira exposures can occur year-round.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Porcine Deltacoronavirus Infection and Transmission in Poultry, United States
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Patricia A. Boley; Moyasar A. Alhamo; Geoffrey Lossie; Kush Kumar Yadav; Marcia Vasquez-Lee; Linda J. Saif; Scott P. Kenney

    Coronaviruses cause respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in diverse host species. Deltacoronaviruses (DCoVs) have been identified in various songbird species and in leopard cats in China. In 2009, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was detected in fecal samples from pigs in Asia, but its etiologic role was not identified until 2014, when it caused major diarrhea outbreaks in swine in the United States. Studies have shown that PDCoV uses a conserved region of the aminopeptidase N protein to infect cell lines derived from multiple species, including humans, pigs, and chickens. Because PDCoV is a potential zoonotic pathogen, investigations of its prevalence in humans and its contribution to human disease continue. We report experimental PDCoV infection and subsequent transmission among poultry. In PDCoV-inoculated chicks and turkey poults, we observed diarrhea, persistent viral RNA titers from cloacal and tracheal samples, PDCoV-specific serum IgY antibody responses, and antigen-positive cells from intestines.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Novel Subclone of Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Sequence Type 11 with Enhanced Virulence and Transmissibility, China
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Kai Zhou; Tingting Xiao; Sophia David; Qin Wang; Yanzi Zhou; Lihua Guo; David Aanensen; Kathryn E. Holt; Nicholas R. Thomson; Hajo Grundmann; Ping Shen; Yonghong Xiao

    We aimed to clarify the epidemiologic and clinical importance of evolutionary events that occurred in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). We collected 203 CRKP causing bloodstream infections in a tertiary hospital in China during 2013–2017. We detected a subclonal shift in the dominant clone sequence type (ST) 11 CRKP in which the previously prevalent capsular loci (KL) 47 had been replaced by KL64 since 2016. Patients infected with ST11-KL64 CRKP had a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate than other CRKP-infected patients. Enhanced virulence was further evidenced by phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic reconstruction demonstrated that ST11-KL64 is derived from an ST11-KL47–like ancestor through recombination. We identified a pLVPK-like virulence plasmid carrying rmpA and peg-344 in ST11-KL64 exclusively from 2016 onward. The pLVPK-like–positive ST11-KL64 isolates exhibited enhanced environmental survival. Retrospective screening of a national collection identified ST11-KL64 in multiple regions. Targeted surveillance of this high-risk CRKP clone is urgently needed.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Chronic Human Pegivirus 2 without Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Kelly E. Coller; Veronica Bruce; Michael Cassidy; Jeffrey Gersch; Matthew B. Frankel; Ana Vallari; Gavin Cloherty; John Hackett; Jennifer L. Evans; Kimberly Page; George J. Dawson

    Most human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2) infections are associated with past or current hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HPgV-2 is thought to be a bloodborne virus: higher prevalence of active infection has been found in populations with a history of parenteral exposure to viruses. We evaluated longitudinally collected blood samples obtained from injection drug users (IDUs) for active and resolved HPgV-2 infections using a combination of HPgV-2 specific molecular and serologic tests. We found evidence of HPgV-2 infection in 11.2% (22/197) of past or current HCV-infected IDUs, compared with 1.9% (4/205) of an HCV-negative IDU population. Testing of available longitudinal blood samples from HPgV-2 positive participants identified 5 with chronic infection (>6 months viremia in >3 timepoints); 2 were identified among the HCV-positive IDUs and 3 among the HCV-negative IDUs. Our findings indicate that HPgV-2 can establish chronic infection and replicate in the absence of HCV.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Marie E. Killerby; Holly M. Biggs; Claire M. Midgley; Susan I. Gerber; John T. Watson

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection causes a spectrum of respiratory illness, from asymptomatic to mild to fatal. MERS-CoV is transmitted sporadically from dromedary camels to humans and occasionally through human-to-human contact. Current epidemiologic evidence supports a major role in transmission for direct contact with live camels or humans with symptomatic MERS, but only limited evidence supports the possibility of transmission from camel products or asymptomatic MERS cases. Because a proportion of case-patients do not report direct contact with camels or with persons who have symptomatic MERS, further research is needed to conclusively determine additional mechanisms of transmission, to inform public health practice, and to refine current precautionary recommendations.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Early Detection of Public Health Emergencies of International Concern through Undiagnosed Disease Reports in ProMED-Mail
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Camille Rolland; Clément Lazarus; Coralie Giese; Bastien Monate; Anne-Sophie Travert; Jérôme Salomon

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of all reports in ProMED-mail that were initially classified as undiagnosed diseases during 2007–2018. We identified 371 cases reported in ProMED-mail; 34% were later diagnosed. ProMED-mail could be used to supplement other undiagnosed disease surveillance systems worldwide.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Interspecies Transmission of Reassortant Swine Influenza A Virus Containing Genes from Swine Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H1N2) Viruses
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Helen E. Everett; Bethany Nash; Brandon Z. Londt; Michael D. Kelly; Vivien Coward; Alejandro Nunez; Pauline M. van Diemen; Ian H. Brown; Sharon M. Brookes

    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus has become established in swine in the United Kingdom and currently co-circulates with previously enzootic swine influenza A virus (IAV) strains, including avian-like H1N1 and human-like H1N2 viruses. During 2010, a swine influenza A reassortant virus, H1N2r, which caused mild clinical disease in pigs in the United Kingdom, was isolated. This reassortant virus has a novel gene constellation, incorporating the internal gene cassette of pH1N1-origin viruses and hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of swine IAV H1N2 origin. We investigated the pathogenesis and infection dynamics of the H1N2r isolate in pigs (the natural host) and in ferrets, which represent a human model of infection. Clinical and virologic parameters were mild in both species and both intraspecies and interspecies transmission was observed when initiated from either infected pigs or infected ferrets. This novel reassortant virus has zoonotic and reverse zoonotic potential, but no apparent increased virulence or transmissibility, in comparison to pH1N1.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Global Expansion of Pacific Northwest Vibrio parahaemolyticus Sequence Type 36
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Michel Abanto; Ronnie G. Gavilan; Craig Baker-Austin; Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona; Jaime Martinez-Urtaza

    We report transcontinental expansion of Vibrio parahaemolyticus sequence type 36 into Lima, Peru. From national collections, we identified 7 isolates from 2 different Pacific Northwest complex lineages that surfaced during 2011–2016. Sequence type 36 is likely established in environmental reservoirs. Systematic surveillance enabled detection of these epidemic isolates.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Neutralizing Antibodies against Enteroviruses in Patients with Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Lam A. Nguyet; Tran T. Thanh; Le N.T. Nhan; Nguyen T.T. Hong; Le N.T. Nhu; Hoang M.T. Van; Nguyen T.H. Ny; Nguyen T. Anh; Do D.K. Han; Ha M. Tuan; Vu Q. Huy; Ho L. Viet; Hoang Q. Cuong; Nguyen T.T. Thao; Do C. Viet; Truong H. Khanh; Louise Thwaites; Hannah Clapham; Nguyen T. Hung; Nguyen V.V. Chau; Guy Thwaites; Do Q. Ha; H. Rogier van Doorn; Le V. Tan

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an emerging infection with pandemic potential. Knowledge of neutralizing antibody responses among its pathogens is essential to inform vaccine development and epidemiologic research. We used 120 paired-plasma samples collected at enrollment and >7 days after the onset of illness from HFMD patients infected with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), coxsackievirus A (CVA) 6, CVA10, and CVA16 to study cross neutralization. For homotypic viruses, seropositivity increased from <60% at enrollment to 97%–100% at follow-up, corresponding to seroconversion rates of 57%–93%. Seroconversion for heterotypic viruses was recorded in only 3%–23% of patients. All plasma samples from patients infected with EV-A71 subgenogroup B5 could neutralize the emerging EV-A71 subgenogroup C4. Collectively, our results support previous reports about the potential benefit of EV-A71 vaccine but highlight the necessity of multivalent vaccines to control HFMD.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Rickettsia mongolitimonae Encephalitis, Southern France, 2018
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    María Dolores Corbacho Loarte; Cléa Melenotte; Nadim Cassir; Serge Cammilleri; Philippe Dory-Lautrec; Didier Raoult; Philippe Parola

    We report a case of Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae infection, an emerging tickborne rickettsiosis, with associated encephalitis in a 66-year-old man. Diagnosis was rapidly confirmed by quantitative PCR obtained from an eschar swab sample. The patient was successfully treated with oral doxycycline.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Cost-effectiveness of Screening Program for Chronic Q Fever, the Netherlands
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Pieter T. de Boer; Marit M.A. de Lange; Cornelia C.H. Wielders; Frederika Dijkstra; Sonja E. van Roeden; Chantal P. Bleeker-Rovers; Jan Jelrik Oosterheert; Peter M. Schneeberger; Wim van der Hoek

    In the aftermath of a large Q fever (QF) epidemic in the Netherlands during 2007–2010, new chronic QF (CQF) patients continue to be detected. We developed a health-economic decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a 1-time screening program for CQF 7 years after the epidemic. The model was parametrized with spatial data on QF notifications for the Netherlands, prevalence data from targeted screening studies, and clinical data from the national chronic QF database. The cost-effectiveness of screening varied substantially among subpopulations and geographic areas. Screening that focused on cardiovascular risk patients in areas with high QF incidence during the epidemic ranged from cost-saving to €31,373 per quality-adjusted life year gained, depending on the method to estimate the prevalence of CQF. The cost per quality-adjusted life year of mass screening of all older adults was €70,000 in the most optimistic scenario.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Social Responses to Epidemics Depicted by Cinema
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Qijun Han; Daniel R. Curtis

    Films illustrate 2 ways that epidemics can affect societies: fear leading to a breakdown in sociability and fear stimulating preservation of tightly held social norms. The first response is often informed by concern over perceived moral failings within society, the second response by the application of arbitrary or excessive controls from outside the community.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Unique Clindamycin-Resistant Clostridioides difficile Strain Related to Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Epidemic BI/RT027 Strain
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Andrew M. Skinner; Laurica Petrella; Farida Siddiqui; Susan P. Sambol; Christopher A. Gulvik; Dale N. Gerding; Curtis J. Donskey; Stuart Johnson

    During a surveillance study of patients in a long-term care facility and the affiliated acute care hospital in the United States, we identified a Clostridioides difficile strain related to the epidemic PCR ribotype (RT) 027 strain associated with hospital outbreaks of severe disease. Fifteen patients were infected with this strain, characterized as restriction endonuclease analysis group DQ and RT591. Like RT027, DQ/RT591 contained genes for toxin B and binary toxin CDT and a tcdC gene of identical sequence. Whole-genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing showed that DQ/RT591 is a member of the same multilocus sequence typing clade 2 as RT027 but in a separate cluster. DQ/RT591 produced a similar cytopathic effect as RT027 but showed delayed toxin production in vitro. DQ/RT591 was susceptible to moxifloxacin but highly resistant to clindamycin. Continued surveillance is warranted for this clindamycin-resistant strain that is related to the fluoroquinolone-resistant epidemic RT027 strain.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Emergence of Chikungunya Virus, Pakistan, 2016–2017
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Nazish Badar; Muhammad Salman; Jamil Ansari; Uzma Aamir; Muhammad Masroor Alam; Yasir Arshad; Nighat Mushtaq; Aamer Ikram; Javaria Qazi

    During December 2016–May 2017, an outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred across Pakistan. The East/Central/South African genotype was predominant. This study provides baseline data on the virus strain and emphasizes the need for active surveillance and implementation of preventive interventions to contain future outbreaks.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Human Alveolar Echinococcosis, Croatia
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Davorka Dušek; Adriana Vince; Ivan Kurelac; Neven Papić; Klaudija Višković; Peter Deplazes; Relja Beck

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by the tapeworm larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. This zoonotic disease has not been known to occur in Croatia. We report a confirmed case of human alveolar echinococcosis in a patient in Croatia who had never visited a known E. multilocularis–endemic area.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Antigenic Variant of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2019
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Wenming Jiang; Guangyu Hou; Jinping Li; Cheng Peng; Suchun Wang; Shuo Liu; Qingye Zhuang; Liping Yuan; Xiaohui Yu; Yang Li; Jingjing Wang; Hualei Liu

    In China, influenza A(H7N9) virus appeared in 2013, then mutated into a highly pathogenic virus, causing outbreaks among poultry and cases in humans. Since September 2017, extensive use of the corresponding vaccine, H7-Re1, successfully reduced virus prevalence. However, in 2019, a novel antigenic variant emerged, posing considerable economic and public health threats.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Non-Leishmania Parasite in Fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis–like Disease, Brazil
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Malgorzata Anna Domagalska; Jean-Claude Dujardin

    Non-Leishmania Parasite in Fatal Visceral Leishmaniasis–like Disease, Brazil

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Hepatitis A Virus Genotype IB Outbreak among Internally Displaced Persons, Syria
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Malak Kaddoura; Rasmieh Allaham; Abdinasir Abubakar; Amani Ezzeddine; Amal Barakat; Peter Mala; Hassan Zaraket

    In 2018, a hepatitis A virus outbreak was identified among internally displaced persons in Syria. Sequence analysis based on the viral protein 1/2 junction revealed that the causative virus belonged to genotype IB. A high displacement rate, deteriorated sanitary and health conditions, and poor water quality likely contributed to this outbreak.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Exposure to Ebola Virus and Risk for Infection with Malaria Parasites, Rural Gabon
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Jessica L. Abbate; Pierre Becquart; Eric Leroy; Vanessa O. Ezenwa; Benjamin Roche

    An association between malaria and risk for death among patients with Ebola virus disease has suggested within-host interactions between Plasmodium falciparum parasites and Ebola virus. To determine whether such an interaction might also influence the probability of acquiring either infection, we used a large snapshot surveillance study from rural Gabon to test if past exposure to Ebola virus is associated with current infection with Plasmodium spp. during nonepidemic conditions. We found a strong positive association, on population and individual levels, between seropositivity for antibodies against Ebola virus and the presence of Plasmodium parasites in the blood. According to a multiple regression model accounting for other key variables, antibodies against Ebola virus emerged as the strongest individual-level risk factor for acquiring malaria. Our results suggest that within-host interactions between malaria parasites and Ebola virus may underlie epidemiologic associations.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Ocular Spiroplasma ixodetis in Newborns, France
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Alexandre Matet; Anne Le Flèche-Matéos; François Doz; Pascal Dureau; Nathalie Cassoux

    Cataract and uveitis are rare in newborns but potentially blinding. Three newborns with cataract and severe anterior uveitis underwent cataract surgery. Spiroplasma ixodetis was detected in lens aspirates using bacterial 16S-rRNA PCR and transmission electron microscopy. These findings, which suggest maternal–fetal infection, are consistent with previous experimental Spiroplasma-induced cataract and uveitis.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Human Norovirus Infection in Dogs, Thailand
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Kamonpan Charoenkul; Chanakarn Nasamran; Taveesak Janetanakit; Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat; Napawan Bunpapong; Supanat Boonyapisitsopa; Kamol Suwannakarn; Apiradee Theamboonler; Watchaporn Chuchaona; Yong Poovorawan; Alongkorn Amonsin

    In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Plans for Nationwide Serosurveillance Network in Vietnam
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Dang Duc Anh; Marc Choisy; Hannah E. Clapham; Hoang Quoc Cuong; Vu Tien Viet Dung; Tran Nhu Duong; Nguyen Le Khanh Hang; Hoang Thi Thu Ha; Nguyen Tran Hien; Tran Thi Nguyen Hoa; Tran Thi Mai Hung; Vu Thi Lan Huong; Dang Thi Thanh Huyen; Nguyen Cong Khanh; Sonia O. Lewycka; Ezra Linley; Le Thi Quynh Mai; Behzad Nadjm; Ngu Duy Nghia; Richard Pebody; Hoang Vu Mai Phuong; Luong Minh Tan; Le Van Tan; Pham Quang Thai; Le Viet Thanh; Nguyen Thi Le Thanh; Nguyen Thi Thu Thuy; Nguyen Thi Thuong; Le Thị Thanh; Nguyen Thi Thanh Thao; Nguyen Anh Tuan; Phan Thi Ngoc Uyen; H. Rogier van Doorn

    In recent years, serosurveillance has gained momentum as a way of determining disease transmission and immunity in populations, particularly with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. At the end of 2017, the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit and the National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology held a meeting in Vietnam with national policy makers, researchers, and international experts to discuss current seroepidemiologic projects in Vietnam and future needs and plans for nationwide serosurveillance. This report summarizes the meeting and the plans that were discussed to set up nationwide serosurveillance in Vietnam.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Etymologia: Picobirnavirus
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Yashpal S. Malik; Souvik Ghosh

    Picobirnavirus

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • In Memoriam: Jay Stephen Keystone (1943–2019)
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    David O. Freedman

    In Memoriam

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Sequence Type 75 in Taiwan
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Yueh-Hua Tu; Bo-Han Chen; Yu-Ping Hong; Ying-Shu Liao; Yi-Syong Chen; Yen-Yi Liu; Ru-Hsiou Teng; You-Wun Wang; Chien-Shun Chiou

    We investigated the epidemiology of cholera in Taiwan during 2002–2018. Vibrio cholerae sequence type (ST) 75 clone emerged in 2009 and has since become more prevalent than the ST69 clone from a previous pandemic. Closely related ST75 strains have emerged in 4 countries and may now be widespread in Asia.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Diagnosis of Syphilitic Bilateral Papillitis Mimicking Papilloedema
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Alicia Gonzalez-Martinez; Sonia Quintas; Diego Celdrán Vivancos; José Cebrián; José Vivancos

    Syphilis produces myriad nonspecific signs and symptoms. For example, optic disk swelling might be seen in patients with syphilis as a result of cranial hypertension (papilloedema), inflammatory optic neuritis with papillitis, or optic perineuritis. We report a case involving differential diagnosis of syphilitic bilateral papillitis mimicking papilloedema.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Imported Schistosomiasis, China, 2010–2018
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Si-Min Dai; Zhou Guan; Li-Juan Zhang; Shan Lv; Chun-Li Cao; Shi-Zhu Li; Jing Xu

    China has made remarkable progress in reducing schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum over the past 7 decades but now faces a severe threat from imported schistosomiasis. Results from national surveillance during 2010–2018 indicate integrating active surveillance into current surveillance models for imported cases is urgently needed to achieve schistosomiasis elimination in China.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Infectivity of Norovirus GI and GII from Bottled Mineral Water during a Waterborne Outbreak, Spain
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Susana Guix; Cristina Fuentes; Rosa M. Pintó; Albert Blanco; Aurora Sabrià; Eduard Anfruns-Estrada; Virginia Rodríguez Garrido; Manuel Alonso; Rosa Bartolomé; Thais Cornejo; Tomàs Pumarola; Albert Bosch

    During a waterborne outbreak of norovirus in Spain, we estimated 50% illness doses for a group of exposed (secretor) persons to be 556 (95% CI 319–957) genome copies/day for norovirus GI and 2,934 (95% CI 1,683–5,044) genome copies/day for norovirus GII. Use of a propidium monoazide viability assay reduced these values.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Shigella Bacteremia, Georgia, USA, 2002–2012
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Melissa Tobin-D’Angelo; Nadine Oosmanally; Siri N. Wilson; Evan J. Anderson; Suzanne Segler; Lynett Poventud

    Shigella commonly causes gastroenteritis but rarely spreads to the blood. During 2002–2012, we identified 11,262 Shigella infections through population-based active surveillance in Georgia; 72 (0.64%) were isolated from blood. Bacteremia was associated with age >18 years, black race, and S. flexneri. More than half of patients with bacteremia were HIV-infected.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Hunters Searching among Starry Nights and at the Edges of Life
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Byron Breedlove

    About the Cover

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Vaccine Effectiveness against DS-1–Like Rotavirus Strains
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Toyoko Nakagomi

    Vaccine Effectiveness against DS-1–Like Rotavirus Strains

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Influenza A Virus Infections in Dromedary Camels, Nigeria and Ethiopia, 2015–2017
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Daniel K.W. Chu; Ranawaka A.P.M. Perera; Abraham Ali; Jamiu O. Oladipo; Gezahegne Mamo; Ray T.Y. So; Ziqi Zhou; Yen Yeen Chor; Chak Kai Chan; Desalegn Belay; Adamu Tayachew; Mesfin Mengesha; Feyesa Regassa; Nga Ting Lam; Leo L.M. Poon; Malik Peiris

    We examined nasal swabs and serum samples acquired from dromedary camels in Nigeria and Ethiopia during 2015–2017 for evidence of influenza virus infection. We detected antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses and isolated an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09–like virus from a camel in Nigeria. Influenza surveillance in dromedary camels is needed.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Rare Case of Enteric Ancylostoma caninum Hookworm Infection, South Korea
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Bong-Kwang Jung; Jung-Yeop Lee; Taehee Chang; Hyemi Song; Jong-Yil Chai

    A 60-year-old man from South Korea underwent a colonoscopy. A juvenile female worm showing 3 pairs of teeth in the buccal cavity was recovered from the descending colon. Partial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region showed 100% identity with Ancylostoma caninum, the dog hookworm.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Death among 32 Patients with MERS-CoV Infection, Saudi Arabia
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Khalid H. Alanazi; Glen R. Abedi; Claire M. Midgley; Abdulrahim Alkhamis; Taghreed Alsaqer; Abdullah Almoaddi; Abdullah Algwizani; Sameeh S. Ghazal; Abdullah M. Assiri; Hani Jokhdar; Susan I. Gerber; Hail Alabdely; John T. Watson

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are recognized risk factors for severe clinical outcomes, including death, associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. Among 32 virus-infected patients in Saudi Arabia, severity of illness and frequency of death corresponded closely with presence of multiple and more severe underlying conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Influenza D Virus of New Phylogenetic Lineage, Japan
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Shin Murakami; Ryota Sato; Hiroho Ishida; Misa Katayama; Akiko Takenaka-Uema; Taisuke Horimoto

    Influenza D virus (IDV) can potentially cause respiratory diseases in livestock. We isolated a new IDV strain from diseased cattle in Japan; this strain is phylogenetically and antigenically distinguished from the previously described IDVs.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Visceral Leishmaniasis, Northern Somalia, 2013–2019
    Emerg. Infect. Dis. (IF 7.185) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Mikko K. Aalto; Temmy Sunyoto; Mohamed Ahmed Ali Yusuf; Abdiaziz Ahmed Mohamed; Gert Van der Auwera; Jean-Claude Dujardin

    We identified visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in a previously unknown focus in northern Somalia. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of 118 cases during 2013–2019 in Bosaso, the region’s commercial capital, have raised suspicion of visceral leishmaniasis endemicity status there.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
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