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  • The LACE + index as a predictor of 90-day urologic surgery outcomes
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Gregory Glauser, Eric Winter, Ian F. Caplan, Debanjan Haldar, Stephen Goodrich, Scott D. McClintock, Thomas J. Guzzo, Neil R. Malhotra

    Abstract Purpose This study assessed the ability of the LACE + [Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, and Emergency department visits in the past 6 months] index to predict adverse outcomes after urologic surgery. Methods LACE + scores were retrospectively calculated for all consecutive patients (n = 9824) who received urologic surgery at one multi-center health system over 2 years (2016–2018). Coarsened exact matching was employed to sort patient data before analysis; matching criteria included duration of surgery, BMI, and race among others. Outcomes including unplanned hospital readmission, emergency room visits, and reoperation were compared for patients with different LACE + quartiles. Results 722 patients were matched between Q1 and Q4; 1120 patients were matched between Q2 and Q4; 2550 patients were matched between Q3 and Q4. Higher LACE + score significantly predicted readmission within 90 days (90D) of discharge for Q1 vs Q4 and Q2 vs Q4. Increased LACE + score also significantly predicted 90D emergency room visits for Q1 vs Q4, Q2 vs Q4, and Q3 vs Q4. LACE + score was also significantly predictive of 90D reoperation for Q1 vs Q4. LACE + score did not predict 90D reoperation for Q2 vs Q4 or Q3 vs Q4 or 90D readmission for Q3 vs. Q4. Conclusion These results suggest that LACE + may be a suitable prediction model for important patient outcomes after urologic surgery.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Refining the genetic architecture of flag leaf glaucousness in wheat
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Tobias Würschum, Simon M. Langer, C. Friedrich H. Longin, Matthew R. Tucker, Willmar L. Leiser

    The cuticle is the plant’s barrier against abiotic and biotic stresses, and the deposition of epicuticular wax crystals results in the scattering of light, an effect termed glaucousness. Here, we dissect the genetic architecture of flag leaf glaucousness in wheat toward a future targeted design of the cuticle.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Taking stones out of the box
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 9.333) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Clemens Thoma
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Competitive glucose metabolism as a target to boost bladder cancer immunotherapy
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 9.333) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Julieta Afonso; Lúcio L. Santos; Adhemar Longatto-Filho; Fátima Baltazar
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A meta-ethnography to understand the experience of living with urinary incontinence: ‘is it just part and parcel of life?’
    BMC Urol. (IF 1.583) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Francine Toye; Karen L. Barker

    Urinary incontinence (UI) is highly prevalent and affects the lives of many men and women. We aimed to conduct a qualitative evidence synthesis (QES) to explore the experience of living with UI and to develop a conceptual model that can help us to understand this experience, and the potential barriers to appropriate healthcare. We used the methods of meta-ethnography developed by Noblit and Hare and recently refined for larger studies. Meta-ethnography involves identifying concepts from the studies and abstracting these concepts into a line of argument. We searched for studies that explored the experience of adults with UI. We used the GRADE-CERQual framework to assess confidence in review findings. We screened 2307 titles, 429 abstracts, 107 full texts and included 41 studies (36 unique samples) in the synthesis. We organised the concepts into 26 conceptual categories, which we further abstracted into 6 themes: (1) Am I ill or is this normal? (2) It effects who I am and how I feel; (3) I feel stigmatised, ashamed and guilty; (4) talking can be difficult but it can help; (5) keeping incontinence under control; (6) have I got to the point that I need help? Our model conceptualises living with UI as navigating antagonists: Is UI normal or am I ill? Do I need help or am I managing? Do I keep UI to myself (and manage alone) or do I tell other people (and get the support that I need)? Do I use control strategies that focus on concealing (avoid risky situations, wear pads) versus, I use strategies that focus on improving the bodily function to improve continence. Our model highlights the experience of stigma, shame and guilt which exert a pull towards concealment. The culture of secrecy and profound sense of shame is barrier to seeking help. An environment which reduces the shame and stigma of UI may help people to switch the focus to strategies that will improve continence, rather than conceal incontinence.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Durable Response of Enzalutamide-resistant Prostate Cancer to Supraphysiological Testosterone Is Associated with a Multifaceted Growth Suppression and Impaired DNA Damage Response Transcriptomic Program in Patient-derived Xenografts
    Eur. Urol. (IF 17.298) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Hung-Ming Lam; Holly M. Nguyen; Mark P. Labrecque; Lisha G. Brown; Ilsa M. Coleman; Roman Gulati; Bryce Lakely; Daniel Sondheim; Payel Chatterjee; Brett T. Marck; Alvin M. Matsumoto; Elahe A. Mostaghel; Michael T. Schweizer; Peter S. Nelson; Eva Corey

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy improves the survival of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients, yet ultimately fails with debilitating side effects. Supraphysiological testosterone (SPT)-based therapy produces clinical responses with improved quality of life in a subset of patients. Currently, no information defines a durable response to SPT. Objective To identify key molecular phenotypes underlying SPT response to improve patient selection and guide combination treatment to achieve a durable response. Design, setting, and participants A patient-derived xenograft (PDX) preclinical trial was performed with 13 CRPC PDXs to identify molecular features associated with SPT response. Comprehensive intratumoral androgen, tumor growth, and integrated transcriptomic and protein analyses were performed in three PDXs resistant to the newer androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitor enzalutamide (ENZ) to define SPT response and resistance. Intervention Testosterone cypionate. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis SPT efficacy was evaluated by PDX growth, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) change, and survival. Intratumoral androgens were analyzed using mass spectrometry. Global transcriptome analysis was performed using RNA sequencing, and confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Log-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used for survival and molecular analyses, respectively. Results and limitations A durable SPT responder was identified, presenting robust repressions of ARv7 and E2F transcriptional outputs, and a DNA damage response (DDR) transcriptomic program that were altogether restored upon SPT resistance in the transient responder. ENZ rechallenge of SPT-relapsed PDXs resulted in PSA decreases but tumor progression. Conclusions SPT produces a durable response in AR-pathway inhibitor ENZ CRPC that is associated with sustained suppression of ARv7 and E2F transcriptional outputs, and the DDR transcriptome, highlighting the potential of combination treatments that maintain suppression of these programs to drive a durable response to SPT. Patient summary Patients with ENZ-resistant prostate cancer have very limited treatment options. Supraphysiological testosterone presents a prominent option for improved quality of life and a potential durable response in patients with sustained suppression on ARv7/E2F transcriptional outputs and DNA repair program.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Natural resistance to Potato virus Y in Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Lesley Torrance, Graham H. Cowan, Karen McLean, Stuart MacFarlane, Aqeel N. Al-Abedy, Miles Armstrong, Tze-Yin Lim, Ingo Hein, Glenn J. Bryan

    Novel major gene resistance against Potato virus Y in diploid populations of Solanum tuberosum Groups Phureja and Tuberosum was biologically and genetically characterised. Named Ry(o)phu, it mapped to chromosome 9.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Chromosomal location of the crown rust resistance gene Pc98 in cultivated oat ( Avena sativa L.)
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Jun Zhao, Aida Z. Kebede, Jim G. Menzies, Edyta Paczos-Grzęda, James Chong, Jennifer W. Mitchell Fetch, Aaron D. Beattie, Yuan-Ying Peng, Curt A. McCartney

    Abstract Key message SNP loci linked to the crown rust resistance gene Pc98 were identified by linkage analysis and KASP assays were developed for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Abstract Crown rust is among the most damaging diseases of oat and is caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae (Urban and Marková) (Pca). Host resistance is the preferred method to prevent crown rust epidemics. Pc98 is a race-specific, seedling crown rust resistance gene obtained from the wild oat Avena sterilis accession CAV 1979 that is effective at all growth stages of oat. Virulence to Pc98 has been very low in the Pca populations that have been tested. The objectives of this study were to develop SNP markers linked to Pc98 for use in marker-assisted selection and to locate Pc98 on the oat consensus map. The Pc98 gene was mapped using F2:3 populations developed from the crosses Pc98/Bingo and Pc98/Kasztan, where Pc98 is a single-gene line carrying Pc98. Both populations were evaluated in seedling inoculation experiments. Pc98 was mapped relative to Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR SNP markers in both populations, placing Pc98 on the Mrg20 linkage group of the consensus map. Pc98 was bracketed by two SNP markers GMI_ES22_c3052_382_kom399 and GMI_ES14_lrc18344_662_kom398 in the Pc98/Bingo mapping population with genetic distances of 0.9 cM and 0.3 cM, respectively. Pc98 co-segregated with four SNP markers in the Pc98/Kasztan population, and the closest flanking markers were GMI_DS_LB_6017_kom367 and avgbs2_153634.1.59_kom410 with genetic distances of 0.7 cM and 0.3 cM, respectively. Two SNP loci defined a haplotype that accurately predicted Pc98 status in a diverse group of oat germplasm, which will be valuable for marker-assisted selection of Pc98 in breeding of new oat cultivars.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Tumour innervation and neurosignalling in prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 9.333) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Brayden March; Sam Faulkner; Phillip Jobling; Allison Steigler; Alison Blatt; Jim Denham; Hubert Hondermarck
    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Expanding the role of small-molecule PSMA ligands beyond PET staging of prostate cancer
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 9.333) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Shankar Siva; Cristian Udovicich; Ben Tran; Homi Zargar; Declan G. Murphy; Michael S. Hofman
    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Two-stage repair of proximal hypospadias with moderate to severe chordee using inner preputial skin graft: prospective evaluation of functional and cosmetic outcomes
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Ahmed M. Al-Adl, Ashraf M. Abdel Aal, Tarek M. El-Karamany, Yasser A. Noureldin

    To critically evaluate inner preputial graft (IPG) used in staged proximal hypospadias with severe chordee regarding cosmetic and functional outcomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Perioperative antithrombotic (antiplatelet and anticoagulant) therapy in urological practice: a critical assessment and summary of the clinical practice guidelines
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Konstantinos Dimitropoulos, Muhammad Imran Omar, Athanasios Chalkias, Eleni Arnaoutoglou, James Douketis, Stavros Gravas

    Abstract Purpose The perioperative management of patients who are receiving antithrombotic (antiplatelet or anticoagulant) therapy and require urologic surgery is challenging due to the inherent risk for surgical bleeding and the need to minimize thromboembolic risk. The aim of this review is to assess the quality and consistency of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and clinical practice recommendations (CPRs) on this topic, and to summarize the evidence and associated strength of recommendations relating to perioperative antithrombotic management. Methods A pragmatic search of electronic databases and guidelines websites was performed to identify relevant CPGs/CPRs. The AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation) instrument was used to assess the methodological quality and integrity of the CPGs. Results The CPGs provided by the European Association of Urology (EAU), the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESC/ESA), and the CPRs provided by the International Consultation on Urological Disease (ICUD)/American Urologic Association (AUA) were retrieved and reviewed. The 3 CPGs were critically assessed using the AGREE II instrument. Inconsistent recommendations were provided based on the indication for antithrombotic medication, the antiplatelet/anticoagulant agent and the type of urological procedure. Based on the AGREE II tool for CPG assessment, the EAU CPGs scored higher (83.3 points) compared to the ESC/ESA (75 points) and ACCP CPG (66.7 points). Conclusion The perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy in urological patients is potentially challenging but inconsistent CPG of varying quality may create uncertainty as to best practices to minimize thromboembolic and bleeding risk.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Assessment of the effects of autologous muscle-derived cell injections on urethral sphincter morphometry using 3D/4D ultrasound
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Salima Ismail, Mélanie Morin, Le Mai Tu

    The primary objective was to evaluate the effect of autologous muscle-derived cell (AMDC) injections on the urethral sphincter morphometry compared to placebo injections. Secondary aims were to explore the reduction of stress incontinence episode frequency (IEF) and factors associated with the efficacy of AMDC.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Genetic characterization and genome-wide association mapping for dwarf bunt resistance in bread wheat accessions from the USDA National Small Grains Collection
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Tyler Gordon, Rui Wang, David Hole, Harold Bockelman, J. Michael Bonman, Jianli Chen

    Abstract Key message Dwarf bunt-resistant bread wheat accessions and SNP markers associated with DB resistance identified in this study are valuable resources for characterization and deployment of DB resistance in bread wheat. Abstract Dwarf bunt (DB), caused by Tilletia controversa J.G. Kühn, can significantly reduce grain yield and quality on autumn-sown wheat in regions with prolonged snow cover. DB can be managed with the use of resistant cultivars. The objectives of the present study were to characterize DB resistance in a large set of bread wheat accessions from the National Small Grains Collection and use a genome-wide association study approach to identify genetic loci associated with DB resistance. A total of 292 accessions were selected using historical DB resistance data recorded across many trials and years in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) and re-tested for DB resistance in replicated field nurseries in Logan, UT, in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Ninety-eight accessions were resistant with DB normalized incidence ≤ 10%, and twenty-eight of these were highly resistant with DB normalized incidence ≤ 1% in both GRIN and the field nurseries. Based on the presence of marker haplotypes of the four published dwarf bunt QTL on 6DS, 6DL, 7AL, and 7DS, highly resistant accessions identified in this study may provide novel resistance and should be further evaluated. This study validated one previously identified QTL on 6DS and identified an additional locus on 6DS. These loci explained 9–15% of the observed phenotypic variation. The resistant accessions and molecular markers identified in the present study may provide valuable resources for characterization and deployment of DB resistance in bread wheat.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • A spontaneous wheat- Aegilops longissima translocation carrying Pm66 confers resistance to powdery mildew
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Huanhuan Li, Zhenjie Dong, Chao Ma, Qing Xia, Xiubin Tian, Sunish Sehgal, Dal-Hoe Koo, Bernd Friebe, Pengtao Ma, Wenxuan Liu

    A spontaneous Robertsonian T4SlS·4BL translocation chromosome carrying Pm66 for powdery mildew resistance was discovered and confirmed by RNA-seq, molecular marker, and in situ hybridization analyses.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Traumatic spinal cord injury confers bladder cancer risk to patients managed without permanent urinary catheterization: lessons from a comparison of clinical data with the national database
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Ralf Böthig, Christian Tiburtius, Kai Fiebag, Birgitt Kowald, Sven Hirschfeld, Roland Thietje, Ines Kurze, Wolfgang Schöps, Holger Böhme, Albert Kaufmann, Michael Zellner, Thura Kadhum, Klaus Golka

    Life expectancy for people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is increasing due to advances in treatment methods and in neuro-urology. Thus, developing urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is gaining importance.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Genetic variations of acidity in grape berries are controlled by the interplay between organic acids and potassium
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Éric Duchêne, Vincent Dumas, Gisèle Butterlin, Nathalie Jaegli, Camille Rustenholz, Aurélie Chauveau, Aurélie Bérard, Marie Christine Le Paslier, Isabelle Gaillard, Didier Merdinoglu

    In a grapevine segregating population, genomic regions governing berry pH were identified, paving the way for breeding new grapevine varieties best adapted to a warming climate.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Identification of molecular markers for the Pc39 gene conferring resistance to crown rust in oat
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Sylwia Sowa, Edyta Paczos-Grzęda

    Six new PCR-based markers for the Pc39 crown rust resistance gene in Avena sativa L. were developed. Pc39 was mapped to Mrg11 of the oat consensus map using BLASTn analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Learning Curve in Robot-assisted Kidney Transplantation: Results from the European Robotic Urological Society Working Group
    Eur. Urol. (IF 17.298) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Andrea Gallioli; Angelo Territo; Romain Boissier; Riccardo Campi; Graziano Vignolini; Mireia Musquera; Antonio Alcaraz; Karel Decaestecker; Volkan Tugcu; Davide Vanacore; Sergio Serni; Alberto Breda

    Background Recently, robot-assisted kidney transplantation (RAKT) was recently introduced as renal replacement mini-invasive surgery. Objective To report surgical technique, including tips and tricks, and the learning curve for RAKT. Design, setting, and participants All consecutive RAKTs performed in the five highest-volume centers of the European Robotic Urological Society RAKT group were reviewed, and a step-by-step description of the technique was compiled. Surgical procedure Surgeries were performed with Da Vinci Si/Xi. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position. The Trendelenburg position was set at 20–30° and the robot was docked between the legs. Measurements Shewhart control charts and cumulative summation (CUSUM) graphs and trifecta were generated to assess the learning curve according to rewarming time (RWT), intra/postoperative complications, and renal graft function (glomerular filtration rate) on days 7 and 30, and at 1 yr. Linear regressions were performed to compare the learning curves of each surgeon. Results and limitations Arterial anastomosis time was below the alarm/alert line in 93.3%/88.9% of RAKTs, while venous anastomosis time was below the alarm/alert line in 88.9%/73.9%. The nonanastomotic RWT exceeded +3 standard deviation (SD) in 24.7% of procedures and +2SD in 37.1%. In only 46% cases, the RWT was below the alert line. The ureteroneocystostomy time was below +2SD and +3SD in 87.9% and 90.2% of cases, respectively. CUSUM showed that the learning curve for arterial anastomosis required up to 35 (mean = 16) cases. Complications and delayed graft function rates decreased significantly and reached a plateau after the first 20 cases. Trifecta was achieved in 75% (24/32) of the cases after the first 34 RAKTs in each center. Conclusions A minimum of 35 cases are necessary to reach reproducibility in terms of RWT, complications, and functional results. Patient summary Robot-assisted kidney transplantation requires a learning curve of 35 cases to achieve reproducibility in terms of timing, complications, and functional results. Synergy between the surgeon and the assistant is crucial to reduce rewarming time. High-grade complications and delayed graft function are rare after ten surgeries. Hands-on training and proctorship are highly recommended.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Application of artificial neural networks for automated analysis of cystoscopic images: a review of the current status and future prospects
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Misgana Negassi, Rodrigo Suarez-Ibarrola, Simon Hein, Arkadiusz Miernik, Alexander Reiterer

    Abstract Background Optimal detection and surveillance of bladder cancer (BCa) rely primarily on the cystoscopic visualization of bladder lesions. AI-assisted cystoscopy may improve image recognition and accelerate data acquisition. Objective To provide a comprehensive review of machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL) and convolutional neural network (CNN) applications in cystoscopic image recognition. Evidence acquisition A detailed search of original articles was performed using the PubMed-MEDLINE database to identify recent English literature relevant to ML, DL and CNN applications in cystoscopic image recognition. Evidence synthesis In total, two articles and one conference abstract were identified addressing the application of AI methods in cystoscopic image recognition. These investigations showed accuracies exceeding 90% for tumor detection; however, future work is necessary to incorporate these methods into AI-aided cystoscopy and compared to other tumor visualization tools. Furthermore, we present results from the RaVeNNA-4pi consortium initiative which has extracted 4200 frames from 62 videos, analyzed them with the U-Net network and achieved an average dice score of 0.67. Improvements in its precision can be achieved by augmenting the video/frame database. Conclusion AI-aided cystoscopy has the potential to outperform urologists at recognizing and classifying bladder lesions. To ensure their real-life implementation, however, these algorithms require external validation to generalize their results across other data sets.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Long short-term memory artificial neural network model for prediction of prostate cancer survival outcomes according to initial treatment strategy: development of an online decision-making support system
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Kyo Chul Koo, Kwang Suk Lee, Suah Kim, Choongki Min, Gyu Rang Min, Young Hwa Lee, Woong Kyu Han, Koon Ho Rha, Sung Joon Hong, Seung Choul Yang, Byung Ha Chung

    Abstract Purpose The delivery of precision medicine is a primary objective for both clinical and translational investigators. Patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) face the challenge of deciding among multiple initial treatment modalities. The purpose of this study is to utilize artificial neural network (ANN) modeling to predict survival outcomes according to initial treatment modality and to develop an online decision-making support system. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from 7267 patients diagnosed with PCa between January 1988 and December 2017. The analyses included 19 pretreatment clinicopathological covariates. Multilayer perceptron (MLP), MLP for N-year survival prediction (MLP-N), and long short-term memory (LSTM) ANN models were used to analyze progression to castration-resistant PCa (CRPC)-free survival, cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS), according to initial treatment modality. The performances of the ANN and the Cox-proportional hazards regression models were compared using Harrell’s C-index. Results The ANN models provided higher predictive power for 5- and 10-year progression to CRPC-free survival, CSS, and OS compared to the Cox-proportional hazards regression model. The LSTM model achieved the highest predictive power, followed by the MLP-N, and MLP models. We developed an online decision-making support system based on the LSTM model to provide individualized survival outcomes at 5 and 10 years, according to the initial treatment strategy. Conclusion The LSTM ANN model may provide individualized survival outcomes of PCa according to initial treatment strategy. Our online decision-making support system can be utilized by patients and health-care providers to determine the optimal initial treatment modality and to guide survival predictions.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • The effect of focus size and intensity on stone fragmentation in SWL on a piezoelectric lithotripter
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Julian Veser, Victoria Jahrreiss, Christian Seitz, Mehmet Özsoy

    Abstract Purpose We aim to analyze the efficacy of different focus sizes and the influence of pulse pressure (intensity) during shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) in terms of stone fragmentation. Methods Combination of three focal sizes (F1 = 2 mm, F2 = 4 mm, F3 = 8 mm) and 11 output pressure settings (intensity 10–20) of a piezoelectric lithotripter (Wolf PiezoLith 3000) were tested on artificial stones (n = 99). The stones were placed within a 2 mm mesh cage. The needed number of shockwaves (SW) to first visible crack, 50% and 100% stone disintegration were recorded. Results Similar number of SW’s were observed until the first crack 10, 11 and 11 SW’s for F1, F2, and F3, respectively (p > 0,05). The median number of SW needed for 50% stone disintegration was 245 for F1 group, 242 for F2 group and 656 for F3 group. F1 vs F2 p = 0.7, F1 vs F3 and F2 vs F3 p < 0.05. Similarly, with larger focus size a higher number of shockwaves were necessary for 100% stone disintegration. 894, 877 and 1708 SW’s for F1, F2 and F3, respectively. Only for F1 vs F3 and F2 vs F3 (all p < 0.05) a statistical difference was observed. These findings were consistent in all different power settings, with an increased difference in lower power levels (≤ 14). Conclusions A smaller focus size, as well as a higher peak pressure results in a more effective stone fragmentation. However, these results need to be confirmed in an in vivo setting with multiple parameters interfering the efficacy, like BMI, respiration or stone migration.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Epidemiology of urological infections: a global burden
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Recep Öztürk, Ahmet Murt

    Abstract Introduction Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequent infections in clinical practice worldwide. Their frequency and burden must be higher than available data suggest because they are not among mandatory diseases to be notified. Classification of urinary infections Although there are many different proposals for classifying UTIs, classifications based on acquisition settings and complication status are more widely used. These include community- acquired UTIs (CAUTIs) or healthcare-associated UTIs (HAUTIs) and uncomplicated or complicated UTIs. Epidemiology of urological infections and global burden As the most frequently seen infectious disease, CAUTIs affect more than 150 million people annually. Complicated UTIs in particular constitute a huge burden on healthcare systems as a frequent reason for hospitalization. The prevalence of HAUTIs ranges between 1.4% and 5.1%, and the majority of them are catheter-related UTIs. Community-onset HAUTIs have gained importance in recent years. Conclusion As frequent infectious diseases, UTIs create clinical and economic burdens on healthcare systems, and they also affect quality of life determinants.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Diagnostic ureteroscopy prior to nephroureterectomy for urothelial carcinoma is associated with a high risk of bladder recurrence despite technical precautions to avoid tumor spillage.
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : null
    Michael Baboudjian,Khalid Al-Balushi,Floriane Michel,Francois Lannes,Akram Akiki,Sarah Gaillet,Veronique Delaporte,Evelyne Ragni,Harry Toledano,Gilles Karsenty,Dominique Rossi,Cyrille Bastide,Eric Lechevallier,Romain Boissier

    PURPOSE There have recent reports in the literature of increased rates of bladder recurrence (BR) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) when diagnostic flexible ureteroscopy (DFU) was performed before RNU. The technical heterogeneity of DFU was a major bias in these studies. Our purpose was to evaluate the impact of a standardized DFU technique before RNU on the risk of BR. METHODS A retrospective monocenter study including patients who underwent RNU for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) between 2005 and 2017. 171 patients were identified. 78 patients were excluded owing to a history of bladder cancer before RNU or neo-adjuvant/adjuvant chemotherapy. 93 included patients were stratified according to pre-RNU ureteroscopy (DFU + 70 patients) or no pre-RNU ureteroscopy (DFU-23 patients). The standardized DFU technique consisted of systematic ureteral sheath (ch9-10), flexible ureteroscopy, biopsy, and drainage with a mono-J/bladder catheter to avoid contact of contaminated urine of the upper tract with the bladder. RESULTS Epidemiological, initial staging, and postoperative tumoral characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean follow-up was 35 months [2-166], 47(50%) BR occurred with 41(87%) in the DFU + group, and pre-RNU-DFU was an independent predictive factor of BR (OR = 4[1.4-11.9], P = 0.01) (Cox regression model). The characteristics of BR were similar in both groups, although BR occurred earlier in DFU + (427 days vs. 226 days (P = 0.07)). CONCLUSION Bladder recurrence after diagnostic ureteroscopy + nephroureterectomy was high despite technical precautions to avoid contact of bladder mucosa with contaminated urine from the upper urinary tract. Post-DFU endovesical instillation should be investigated.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Condition-specific surveillance in health care-associated urinary tract infections as a strategy to improve empirical antibiotic treatment: an epidemiological modelling study.
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : null
    Zafer Tandogdu,Bela Koves,Tommaso Cai,Mete Cek,Peter Tenke,Kurt Naber,Florian Wagenlehner,Truls Erik Bjerklund Johansen

    BACKGROUND Health care-associated urinary tract infection (HAUTI) consists of unique conditions (cystitis, pyelonephritis and urosepsis). These conditions could have different pathogen diversity and antibiotic resistance impacting on the empirical antibiotic choices. The aim of this study is to compare the estimated chances of coverage of empirical antibiotics between conditions (cystitis, pyelonephritis and urosepsis) in urology departments from Europe. METHODS A mathematical modelling based on antibiotic susceptibility data from a point prevalence study was carried. Data were obtained for HAUTI patients from multiple urology departments in Europe from 2006 to 2017. The primary outcome of the study is the Bayesian weighted incidence syndromic antibiogram (WISCA) and Bayesian factor. Bayesian WISCA is the estimated chance of an antibiotic to cover the causative pathogens when used for first-line empirical treatment. Bayesian factor is used to compare if HAUTI conditions did or did not impact on empirical antibiotic choices. RESULTS Bayesian WISCA of antibiotics in European urology departments from 2006 to 2017 ranged between 0.07 (cystitis, 2006, Amoxicillin) to 0.89 (pyelonephritis, 2009, Imipenem). Bayesian WISCA estimates were lowest in urosepsis. Clinical infective conditions had an impact on the Bayesian WISCA estimates (Bayesian factor > 3 in 81% of studied antibiotics). The main limitation of the study is the lack of local data. CONCLUSIONS Our estimates illustrate that antibiotic choices can be different between HAUTI conditions. Findings can improve empirical antibiotic selection towards a personalized approach but should be validated in local surveillance studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Fine mapping of the male fertility restoration gene CaRf032 in Capsicum annuum L.
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Zhenghai Zhang, Yanshu Zhu, Yacong Cao, Hailong Yu, Ruiqin Bai, Hong Zhao, Baoxi Zhang, Lihao Wang

    Abstract Key message A novel strong candidate gene CA00g82510 for the male fertility restoration locus CaRf032 in Capsicum annuum was identified by genome re-sequencing and recombination analysis. Abstract A single dominant locus (CaRf032) for fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility was identified in the strong restorer inbred line IVF2014032 of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). CaRf032 was localized within an 8.81-Mb candidate intervals on chromosome 6 using bulked segregant analysis based on high-throughput sequencing data. Subsequently, the candidate interval was genetically mapped and defined to a 249.41-kb region using an F2 population of 441 individuals generated by crossing the male-sterile line 77013A and the restorer line IVF2014032. To fine map CaRf032, eight newly developed KASP markers were used to genotype 23 recombinants screened from a larger F2 population of 2877 individuals. The CaRf032 locus was localized to a 148.05-kb region between the KASP markers S1402 and S1354, which was predicted to contain 22 open reading frames (ORFs). One ORF with an incomplete sequence was predicted to contain a PPR motif, and its physical position overlapped with the Rf candidate gene CaPPR6_46. The PPR ORF sequence before the gap showed 100% identity with the CA00g82510 locus of the CM334 reference genome. CA00g82510 encodes a protein of 583 amino acids, containing 14 PPR motifs, and shows significantly differential expression between the flower buds of the maintainer line 77013 and the restorer line IVF2014032. These results indicated that CA00g82510 is a strong candidate gene for CaRf032. Five KASP markers, which detected single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CA00g82510 of 77013 and IVF2014032, co-segregated with CaRf032 and showed 64.4% successful genotyping of 38 maintainer and 63 restorer lines.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Identification and fine mapping of qSB.A09 , a major QTL that controls shoot branching in Brassica rapa ssp . chinensis Makino
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Pan Li, Tongbing Su, Bin Zhang, Peirong Li, Xiaoyun Xin, Xiaozhen Yue, Yunyun Cao, Weihong Wang, Xiuyun Zhao, Yangjun Yu, Deshuang Zhang, Shuancang Yu, Fenglan Zhang

    QTL mapping plus bulked segregant analysis revealed a major QTL for shoot branching in non-heading Chinese cabbage. The candidate gene was then identified using sequence alignment and expression analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Improvement of nutrient use efficiency in rice: current toolbox and future perspectives
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Zhihua Zhang, Shaopei Gao, Chengcai Chu

    Modern agriculture relies heavily on chemical fertilizers, especially in terms of cereal production. The excess application of fertilizers not only increases production cost, but also causes severe environmental problems. As one of the major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa L.) provides the staple food for nearly half of population worldwide, especially in developing countries. Therefore, improving rice yield is always the priority for rice breeding. Macronutrients, especially nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are two most important players for the grain yield of rice. However, with economic development and improved living standard, improving nutritional quality such as micronutrient contents in grains has become a new goal in order to solve the “hidden hunger.” Micronutrients, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se), are critical nutritional elements for human health. Therefore, breeding the rice varieties with improved nutrient use efficiency (NUE) is thought to be one of the most feasible ways to increase both grain yield and nutritional quality with limited fertilizer input. In this review, we summarized the progresses in molecular dissection of genes for NUE by reverse genetics on macronutrients (N and P) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, and Se), exploring natural variations for improving NUE in rice; and also, the current genetic toolbox and future perspectives for improving rice NUE are discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Correction to: Identification and validation of a major and stably expressed QTL for spikelet number per spike in bread wheat.
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : null
    Jian Ma,Puyang Ding,Jiajun Liu,Ting Li,Yaya Zou,Ahsan Habib,Yang Mu,Huaping Tang,Qiantao Jiang,Yaxi Liu,Guoyue Chen,Jirui Wang,Mei Deng,Pengfei Qi,Wei Li,Zhien Pu,Youliang Zheng,Yuming Wei,Xiujin Lan

    Unfortunately, the author contribution statement was missed out in the original publication. The complete statement is given below.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Correction to: Alternative splicing of a barley gene results in an excess‑tillering and semi‑dwarf mutant
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Wei Hua, Cong Tan, Jingzhong Xie, Jinghuan Zhu, Yi Shang, Jianming Yang, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Xiaojian Wu, Junmei Wang, Chengdao Li

    In the original publication of this article, the acknowledgement section has been missed to publish. Now the same has been provided in this correction.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Correction to: Genetic characterization and expression analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) line 07OR1074 exhibiting very low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity.
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : null
    S M Hystad,J M Martin,R A Graybosch,M J Giroux

    The above-mentioned article was published in 2015 with an error in the reverse primer sequence for the PPOA2d1074 marker, which made amplification difficult. The reverse primer was missing a thymine nucleotide at the thirteenth position (GCGGTGCTTCACTTGGT).

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • High-resolution mapping of a major and consensus quantitative trait locus for oil content to a ~ 0.8-Mb region on chromosome A08 in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : null
    Nian Liu,Jianbin Guo,Xiaojing Zhou,Bei Wu,Li Huang,Huaiyong Luo,Yuning Chen,Weigang Chen,Yong Lei,Yi Huang,Boshou Liao,Huifang Jiang

    KEY MESSAGE: ddRAD-seq-based high-density genetic map comprising 2595 loci identified a major and consensus QTL with a linked marker in a 0.8-Mb physical interval for oil content in peanut. Enhancing oil content is an important breeding objective in peanut. High-resolution mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with linked markers could facilitate marker-assisted selection in breeding for target traits. In the present study, a recombined inbred line population (Xuhua 13 × Zhonghua 6) was used to construct a genetic map based on double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). The resulting high-density genetic map contained 2595 loci, and spanned a length of 2465.62 cM, with an average distance of 0.95 cM/locus. Seven QTLs for oil content were identified on five linkage groups, including the major and stable QTL qOCA08.1 on chromosome A08 with 10.14-27.19% phenotypic variation explained. The physical interval of qOCA08.1 was further delimited to a ~ 0.8-Mb genomic region where two genes affecting oil synthesis had been annotated. The marker SNPOCA08 was developed targeting the SNP loci associated with oil content and validated in peanut cultivars with diverse oil contents. The major and stable QTL identified in the present study could be further dissected for gene discovery. Furthermore, the tightly linked marker for oil content would be useful in marker-assisted breeding in peanut.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Transcriptomics, chromosome engineering and mapping identify a restorer-of-fertility region in the CMS wheat system msH1.
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : null
    Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez,Paolo Bagnaresi,Luigi Cattivelli,Fernando Pistón,Almudena Castillo,Azahara C Martín,Sergio G Atienza,Carmen Ramírez,Antonio Martín

    An original RNA-seq mapping strategy, validated with chromosome engineering and physical mapping, identifies candidate genes for fertility restoration in the 6HchS chromosome of Hordeum chilense in the wheat msH1 system. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a valuable trait for hybrid seed production. The msH1 CMS system in common wheat results from the incompatibility between the nuclear genome of wheat and the cytoplasm of the wild barley Hordeum chilense. This work aims to identify H. chilense candidate genes for fertility restoration in the msH1 system with a multidisciplinary strategy based on chromosome engineering, differential expression analysis and genome mapping. Alloplasmic isogenic wheat lines differing for fertility, associated with the presence of an acrocentric chromosome Hchac resulting from the rearrangement of the short arms of H. chilense chromosomes 1Hch and 6Hch, were used for transcriptome sequencing. Two novel RNA-seq mapping approaches were designed and compared to identify differentially expressed genes of H. chilense associated with male fertility restoration. Minichromosomes (Hchmi), new smaller reorganizations of the Hchac also restoring fertility, were obtained and used to validate the candidate genes. This strategy was successful identifying a putative restorer-of-fertility region on 6HchS, with six candidate genes, including the ortholog of the barley restorer gene Rfm1. Additionally, transcriptomics gave preliminary insights on sterility and restoration networks showing the importance of energy supply, stress, protein metabolism and RNA processing.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Bin-based genome-wide association analyses improve power and resolution in QTL mapping and identify favorable alleles from multiple parents in a four-way MAGIC rice population.
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : null
    Zhongmin Han,Gang Hu,Hua Liu,Famao Liang,Lin Yang,Hu Zhao,Qinghua Zhang,Zhixin Li,Qifa Zhang,Yongzhong Xing

    A whole genome bin map was developed for a MAGIC population. Association studies for heading date at bin level exhibited powerful QTL mapping and identified favorable alleles. The presumed advantages of multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) population in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping were not fully utilized in the previous studies in which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted at only single nucleotide polymorphism level. In this study, we genotyped a rice four-way MAGIC population of 247 F7 lines and their parents by sequencing. A total of 5934 bins with an average length of 65 kb were constructed and covered 97% of the genome. The MAGIC population showed low population structure and balanced parental contributions. A bin-based GWAS for heading date identified 4 QTLs in three environments. Three major QTLs were mapped exactly to the bins where the major heading date genes DTH3, Ghd7.1 and Ghd8 were located. Multiple comparisons showed that different parental alleles had varied genetic effects. Like DTH3, the alleles of the Guichao 2/YJSM, IR34 and Cypress had larger, intermediate and no effects, respectively. Based on comparative sequencing of 8 known heading date genes undetected in this MAGIC population, only Ghd7 exhibited diverse function among parents. The failure in Ghd7 mapping was well explained by its interaction with Hd1 because Ghd7 had no effects on heading date when combined with the nonfunctional hd1 carried by all four parents. Overall, bin-based GWAS have more mapping power and higher resolution with a MAGIC population and provide favorable alleles to breeders. The use of more diversified parents is encouraged to develop a MAGIC population for detecting more QTLs for important agronomical traits.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program Study #553: Chemotherapy After Prostatectomy for High-risk Prostate Carcinoma: A Phase III Randomized Study
    Eur. Urol. (IF 17.298) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Daniel W. Lin; Mei-Chiung Shih; William Aronson; Joseph Basler; Tomasz M. Beer; Mary Brophy; Matthew Cooperberg; Mark Garzotto; W. Kevin Kelly; Kelvin Lee; Valerie McGuire; Yajie Wang; Ying Lu; Vivian Markle; Unyime Nseyo; Robert Ringer; Stephen J. Savage; Patricia Sinnott; R. Bruce Montgomery

    Background The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program study #553 was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy added to the standard of care (SOC) for patients who are at high risk for relapse after prostatectomy. Objective To test whether addition of chemotherapy to surgery for high-risk prostate cancer improves progression-free survival (PFS). Design, setting, and participants Eligible patients after prostatectomy were randomized to the SOC group with observation or to the chemotherapy group with docetaxel and prednisone administered every 3 wk for six cycles. Randomization was stratified for prostate-specific antigen, Gleason, tumor stage, and surgical margin status. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary endpoint was PFS. Secondary endpoints included overall, prostate cancer–specific, and metastasis-free survival, and time to androgen deprivation therapy. Results and limitations A total of 298 of the planned 636 patients were randomized. The median follow-up was 59.1 mo (0.2–103.7 mo). For the primary endpoint, the two groups did not statistically differ in PFS (median 55.5 mo in the chemotherapy group and 42.2 mo in the SOC group; test adjusted for site via gamma frailty p = 0.21; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58–1.11; p = 0.18). Prespecified subgroup analyses showed benefit in PFS for patients with tumor stage ≥T3b (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32–0.92; p = 0.022) and patients with Gleason score ≤7 (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43–0.99; p = 0.046). Secondary endpoint analyses are hampered by low event rates. The most common adverse events (≥grade 3 related or possibly related to chemotherapy) included neutropenia (43%), hyperglycemia (20%), and fatigue (5%), with febrile neutropenia in 2%. Conclusions Adjuvant chemotherapy in high-risk prostate cancer using docetaxel and prednisone did not lead to statistically significant improvement in PFS for the intention-to-treat population as a whole. The analysis was challenged by lower power due to accrual limitation. Subgroup analyses suggest potential benefit for patients with Gleason grade ≤7 and stage ≥ pT3b (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00132301). Patient summary In this randomized trial, we tested whether addition of chemotherapy to surgery for high-risk prostate cancer decreased the risk of prostate-specific antigen rise after surgery. We found no benefit from docetaxel given after radical prostatectomy, although some subgroups of patients may benefit.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Improving nutritional quality of rice for human health
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Mingchao Zhao, Yongjun Lin, Hao Chen

    Abstract Key message This review surveys rice nutritional value, mainly focusing on breeding achievements via adoption of both genetic engineering and non-transgenic strategies to improve key nutrients associated with human health. Abstract Rice (Oryza sativa) is an essential component of the diets and livelihoods of over 3.5 billion people. Polished rice is mostly consumed as staple food, fulfilling daily energy demands and part of the protein requirement. Brown rice is comparatively more nutritious, containing more lipids, minerals, vitamins, dietary fiber, micronutrients, and bioactive compounds. In this article, we review the nutritional facts about rice including the level of γ-aminobutyric acid, resistant starch, lysine, iron, zinc, β-carotene, folate, anthocyanin, various carotenoids, and flavonoids, focusing on their synthesis and metabolism and the advances in their biofortification via adoption of both conventional and genetic engineering strategies. We conclude that besides representing a staple food, rice has the potential to become a source of various essential nutrients or bioactive compounds through appropriate genetic improvements to benefit human health and prevent certain chronic diseases. Finally, we discuss the available, non-genetically engineering strategies for the nutritional improvement of rice, including their main strengths and constraints.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Genomic Breeding of Green Super Rice Varieties and Their Deployment in Asia and Africa
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Sibin Yu, Jauhar Ali, Chaopu Zhang, Zhikang Li, Qifa Zhang

    The “Green Super Rice” (GSR) project aims to fundamentally transform crop production techniques and promote the development of green agriculture based on functional genomics and breeding of GSR varieties by whole-genome breeding platforms.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Genetic analysis of wheat sensitivity to the ToxB fungal effector from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis , the causal agent of tan spot
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Beatrice Corsi, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Rowena C. Downie, Luca Venturini, Elyce M. Iagallo, Camila Campos Mantello, Charlie McCormick-Barnes, Pao Theen See, Richard P. Oliver, Caroline S. Moffat, James Cockram

    Abstract Key message Genetic mapping of sensitivity to the Pyrenophora tritici-repentis effector ToxB allowed development of a diagnostic genetic marker, and investigation of wheat pedigrees allowed transmission of sensitive alleles to be tracked. Abstract Tan spot, caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is a major disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Secretion of the P. tritici-repentis effector ToxB is thought to play a part in mediating infection, causing chlorosis of plant tissue. Here, genetic analysis using an association mapping panel (n = 480) and a multiparent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) population (n founders = 8, n progeny = 643) genotyped with a 90,000 feature single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array found ToxB sensitivity to be highly heritable (h2 ≥ 0.9), controlled predominantly by the Tsc2 locus on chromosome 2B. Genetic mapping of Tsc2 delineated a 1921-kb interval containing 104 genes in the reference genome of ToxB-insensitive variety ‘Chinese Spring’. This allowed development of a co-dominant genetic marker for Tsc2 allelic state, diagnostic for ToxB sensitivity in the association mapping panel. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis in a panel of wheat varieties post-dated the association mapping panel further supported the diagnostic nature of the marker. Combining ToxB phenotype and genotypic data with wheat pedigree datasets allowed historic sources of ToxB sensitivity to be tracked, finding the variety ‘Maris Dove’ to likely be the historic source of sensitive Tsc2 alleles in the wheat germplasm surveyed. Exploration of the Tsc2 region gene space in the ToxB-sensitive line ‘Synthetic W7984’ identified candidate genes for future investigation. Additionally, a minor ToxB sensitivity QTL was identified on chromosome 2A. The resources presented here will be of immediate use for marker-assisted selection for ToxB insensitivity and the development of germplasm with additional genetic recombination within the Tsc2 region.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Active Surveillance of Grade Group 1 Prostate Cancer: Long-term Outcomes from a Large Prospective Cohort
    Eur. Urol. (IF 17.298) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Jeffrey J. Tosoian; Mufaddal Mamawala; Jonathan I. Epstein; Patricia Landis; Katarzyna J. Macura; Demetrios N. Simopoulos; H. Ballentine Carter; Michael A. Gorin

    Background Active surveillance (AS) is the preferred management option for most men with grade group (GG) 1 prostate cancer (PCa). Questions persist regarding long-term outcomes and the optimal approach to AS. Objective To determine survival and metastatic outcomes in AS patients. Secondary objectives were to measure the cumulative incidence and association of patient-level factors on biopsy grade reclassification. Design, setting, and participants A prospective, active, open-enrollment cohort study was conducted from 1995 through July 2018 at a tertiary-care academic institution. Patients with very-low-risk or low-risk PCa were enrolled. Intervention AS with semiannual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examination, serial prostate biopsy, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The 10- and 15-yr cumulative incidences of primary and secondary outcomes were determined. Results and limitations Overall, 1818 men were monitored on AS for a median of 5.0 yr (interquartile range 2.0–9.0). There were 88 non-PCa deaths, four PCa deaths, and one additional case of metastasis. The cumulative incidence of PCa-specific mortality or metastasis was 0.1% (95% confidence interval, 0.04–0.6%) at both 10 and 15 yr. The 5-, 10-, and 15-yr cumulative incidences of biopsy grade reclassification were 21%, 30%, and 32%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, biopsy grade reclassification was associated with older age, African-American race, PSA density, and increased cancer volume on biopsy, and men who underwent mpMRI prior to enrollment were less likely to undergo grade reclassification. Our selection and monitoring are more stringent than many other contemporary AS programs. Conclusions In a large, single-institution, prospective AS cohort, the risk of cancer death or metastasis was <1% over long-term follow-up. Consistent with clinical guidelines, these data support the use of AS for the management of most men diagnosed with GG1 PCa. Patient summary This study investigated long-term outcomes in patients with grade group 1 prostate cancer managed with active surveillance (AS). Ten years after enrolling in AS, the risk of metastasis or death from prostate cancer was <1%, while 48% of men switched to treatment. Patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)/ultrasound-fusion targeted biopsy prior to enrollment were less likely to experience biopsy grade reclassification during follow-up, suggesting a role for mpMRI as part of a comprehensive risk assessment to confirm AS eligibility. These findings support the safety of AS in most men with grade group 1 prostate cancer, but specific outcomes may differ in programs with less intensive monitoring.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Evolution in upfront treatment strategies for metastatic RCC
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 9.333) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Dominick Bossé; Michael Ong
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Crowd-based digital sexual health
    Nat. Rev. Urol. (IF 9.333) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Joseph D. Tucker; Suzanne Day
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI with integrated multiparametric MRI for primary staging of high-risk prostate cancer
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Sascha Kaufmann, Stephan Kruck, Sergios Gatidis, Tobias Hepp, Wolfgang M. Thaiss, Jörg Hennenlotter, Johannes Schwenck, Marcus Scharpf, Konstantin Nikolaou, Arnulf Stenzl, Gerald Reischl, Christian la Fougère, Jens Bedke

    Abstract Purpose Whole-body positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (wbPET/MRI) is a promising diagnostic tool of recurrent prostate cancer (PC), but its role in primary staging of high-risk PC (hrPC) is not well defined. Thus, the aim was to compare the diagnostic accuracy for T-staging of PET-blinded reading (PBR) and PET/MRI. Methods In this prospective study, hrPC patients scheduled to radical prostatectomy (RPx) with extended lymphadenectomy (eLND) were staged with wbPET/MRI and either 68Ga-PSMA-11 or 11C-choline including simultaneous multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). Images were assessed in two sessions, first as PBR (mpMRI and wbMRI) and second as wbPET/MRI. Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System criteria (PIRADS v2) were used for T-staging. Results were correlated with the exact anatomical localization and extension as defined by histopathology. Diagnostic accuracy of cTNM stage according to PBR was compared to pathological pTNM stage as reference standard. Results Thirty-four patients underwent wbPET/MRI of 68Ga-PSMA-11 (n = 17) or 11C-choline (n = 17). Twenty-four patients meeting the inclusion criteria of localized disease ± nodal disease based on imaging results underwent RPx and eLND, whereas ten patients were excluded from analysis due to metastatic disease. T-stage was best defined by mpMRI with underestimation of tumor lesion size by PET for both tracers. N-stage yielded a per patient sensitivity/specificity comparable to PBR. Conclusion MpMRI is the primary modality for T-staging in hrPC as PET underestimated T-stage in direct comparison to final pathology. In this selected study, cohort MRI shows no inferiority compared to wbPET/MRI considering N-staging.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • External validation of Cormio nomogram for predicting all prostate cancers and clinically significant prostate cancers
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Luca Cindolo, Riccardo Bertolo, Andrea Minervini, Francesco Sessa, Gianluca Muto, Pierluigi Bove, Matteo Vittori, Giorgio Bozzini, Pietro Castellan, Filippo Mugavero, Mario Falsaperla, Luigi Schips, Antonio Celia, Maida Bada, Angelo Porreca, Antonio Pastore, Yazan Al Salhi, Marco Giampaoli, Giovanni Novella, Riccardo Rizzetto, Nicoló Trabacchin, Guglielmo Mantica, Giovannalberto Pini, Riccardo Lombardo, Andrea Tubaro, Alessandro Antonelli, Cosimo De Nunzio

    Recently, the Cormio et al. nomogram has been developed to predict prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant PCa using benign prostatic obstruction parameters. The aim of the present study was to externally validate the nomogram in a multicentric cohort.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Multi-environment analysis of sorghum breeding trials using additive and dominance genomic relationships
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Colleen H. Hunt, Ben J. Hayes, Fred A. van Eeuwijk, Emma S. Mace, David R. Jordan

    Abstract Key message Multi-environment models using marker-based kinship information for both additive and dominance effects can accurately predict hybrid performance in different environments. Abstract Sorghum is an important hybrid crop that is grown extensively in many subtropical and tropical regions including Northern NSW and Queensland in Australia. The highly varying weather patterns in the Australian summer months mean that sorghum hybrids exhibit a great deal of variation in yield between locations. To ultimately enable prediction of the outcome of crossing parental lines, both additive effects on yield performance and dominance interaction effects need to be characterised. This paper demonstrates that fitting a linear mixed model that includes both types of effects calculated using genetic markers in relationship matrices improves predictions. Genotype by environment interactions was investigated by comparing FA1 (single-factor analytic) and FA2 (two-factor analytic) structures. The G×E causes a change in hybrid rankings between trials with a difference of up to 25% of the hybrids in the top 10% of each trial. The prediction accuracies increased with the addition of the dominance term (over and above that achieved with an additive effect alone) by an average of 15% and a maximum of 60%. The percentage of dominance of the total genetic variance varied between trials with the trials with higher broad-sense heritability having the greater percentage of dominance. The inclusion of dominance in the factor analytic models improves the accuracy of the additive effects. Breeders selecting high yielding parents for crossing need to be aware of effects due to environment and dominance.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • SNP markers for early identification of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) in bread wheat
    Theor. Appl. Genet. (IF 3.926) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Catherine Ravel, Annie Faye, Sarah Ben-Sadoun, Marion Ranoux, Mireille Dardevet, Cécile Dupuits, Florence Exbrayat, Charles Poncet, Pierre Sourdille, Gérard Branlard

    Key message A set of eight SNP markers was developed to facilitate the early selection of HMW-GS alleles in breeding programmes. Abstract In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), the high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are the most important determinants of technological quality. Known to be very diverse, HMW-GSs are encoded by the tightly linked genes Glu-1-1 and Glu-1-2. Alleles that improve the quality of dough have been identified. Up to now, sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of grain proteins is the most widely used for their identification. To facilitate the early selection of HMW-GS alleles in breeding programmes, we developed DNA-based molecular markers. For each accession of a core collection (n = 364 lines) representative of worldwide bread wheat diversity, HMW-GSs were characterized by both genotyping and SDS-PAGE. Based on electrophoresis, we observed at least 8, 22 and 9 different alleles at the Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1 loci, respectively, including new variants. We designed a set of 17 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that were representative of the most frequent SDS-PAGE alleles at each locus. At Glu-A1 and Glu-D1, two and three marker-based haplotypes, respectively, captured the diversity of the SDS-PAGE alleles rather well. Discrepancies were found mainly for the Glu-B1 locus. However, statistical tests revealed that two markers at each Glu-B1 gene and their corresponding haplotypes were more significantly associated with the rheological properties of the dough than were the relevant SDS-PAGE alleles. To conclude, this study demonstrates that the SNP markers developed provide additional information on HMW-GS diversity. Two markers at Glu-A1, four at Glu-B1 and two at Glu-D1 constitute a useful toolbox for breeding wheat to improve end-use value.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Prognostic significance of pre- and post-treatment PD-L1 expression in patients with primary high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with BCG immunotherapy
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Ahmet Murat Aydin, Dilek E. Baydar, Berk Hazir, Berrin Babaoglu, Cenk Y. Bilen

    Programmed cell death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression has been associated with prognostic implications in urologic malignancies. We aimed to investigate prognostic significance of pre- and post-treatment PD-L1 expression in patients treated with BCG for high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Navigating systemic therapy for metastatic castration-naïve prostate cancer
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    E. M. Kwan, I. A. Thangasamy, J. Teh, O. Alghazo, N. J. Sathianathen, N. Lawrentschuk, A. A. Azad

    The last decade has seen a remarkable shift in the treatment landscape of advanced prostate cancer, none more so than in the management of metastatic castration-naïve disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Transurethral ventral buccal mucosa graft inlay for treatment of distal urethral strictures: international multi-institutional experience
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Michael Daneshvar, Jay Simhan, Stephen Blakely, Javier C. Angulo, Jacob Lucas, Craig Hunter, Justin Chee, Damian Lopez Alvarado, Erick Alejandro Ramirez Perez, Alosh Madala, Juan José de Benito, Francisco Martins, João Felício, Paul Rusilko, Brian J. Flynn, Dmitriy Nikolavsky

    Abstract Purpose To critically evaluate a multi-institutional patient cohort undergoing single-stage distal urethral repair using a novel transurethral buccal mucosa graft inlay urethroplasty technique (TBMGI). Methods A retrospective multi-institutional review of consecutive patients with fossa navicularis (FN) strictures treated with a single-stage TBMGI technique at 12 institutions from March 2014–March 2018 was performed. Patient demographics, stricture characteristics, clinical and patient-reported outcomes were analyzed. The primary outcomes were stricture recurrence and complications. Secondary outcomes were change in maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), PVR, and changes in IPSS, SHIM and global response assessment (GRA) questionnaire responses. Descriptive statistical analysis was used for evaluation of outcomes. Results Sixty-eight men met inclusion criteria. Median age and stricture length were 60 years (IQR 48–69) and 2 cm (IQR 2–3), respectively. Most common stricture etiology was lichen sclerosus (34%). Median operative time and EBL were 72 min (IQR 50–120) and 20 mL (IQR 10–43), respectively. Fifty-seven men completed ≥ 12-month follow-up. At a median follow-up of 17 months (IQR 13–22), 54 patients (95%) remained stricture-free. Median Qmax improved from 5 to 18 mL/s (p < 0.0001), PVR 76–21 mL (p < 0.0001), and IPSS 15–5 (p < 0.0001); IPSS-QOL score: 5–1 (p < 0.0001). SHIM score did not significantly change following repair (median 22–21 p = 0.85). On GRA assessment, a majority of men reported “marked” (64%) or “moderate” (28%) overall improvement. No patient developed fistula, glanular dehiscence, graft necrosis or chordee. Conclusions This novel minimally invasive transurethral urethroplasty technique is feasible and has demonstrated generalizable outcomes in a multi-institutional cohort with varying etiologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Gender-based psychological and physical distress differences in patients diagnosed with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Rami Ajaj, Jaime Omar Herrera Cáceres, Alejandro Berlin, Christopher J. D. Wallis, Thenappan Chandrasekar, Zachary Klaassen, Ardalan E. Ahmad, Ricardo Leao, Antonio Finelli, Neil Fleshner, Hanan Goldberg

    To analyze gender-based differences in distress symptoms in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at different stages of disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Outcomes of treatment for localized prostate cancer in a single institution: comparison of radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy by propensity score matching analysis
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Narihiko Hayashi, Kimito Osaka, Kentaro Muraoka, Hisashi Hasumi, Kazuhide Makiyama, Keiichi Kondo, Noboru Nakaigawa, Masahiro Yao, Yuki Mukai, Madoka Sugiura, Shoko Takano, Eiko Ito, Hisashi Kaizu, Izumi Koike, Masaharu Hata, Masataka Taguri, Yasuhide Miyoshi, Koji Izumi, Takashi Kawahara, Hiroji Uemura

    Abstract Objectives To compare the outcomes of radical prostatectomy (RP), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and low-dose-rate brachytherapy (BT) using propensity score matching analysis in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods A group of 2273 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer between January 2004 and December 2015 at the Yokohama City University hospital were identified. The records of 1817 of these patients, who were followed up for a minimum of 2 years, were reviewed; 462 were treated with RP, 319 with IMRT, and 1036 with BT. The patients were categorized according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk classification criteria, and biochemical outcomes and overall survival rates were examined. Biochemical failure for RP was defined as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels > 0.2 ng/ml, and for IMRT and BT as nadir PSA level + 2 ng/ml. Propensity scores were calculated using multivariable logistic regression based on covariates, including the patient's age, preoperative PSA, Gleason score, number of positive cores, and clinical T stage. Results Median follow-up was 77 months for the RP, 54 months for IMRT, and 66 months for BT patients. After the propensity scores were adjusted, a total of 372 (186 each) and 598 (299 each) patients were categorized into RP vs IMRT and RP vs BT groups, respectively. Kaplan–Meier analysis did not show any statistically significant differences in terms of overall survival rate between these groups (RP vs IMRT: p = 0.220; RP vs BT: p = 0.429). IMRT was associated with improved biochemical failure-free survival compared to RP in all risk groups (high-risk: p < 0.001; intermediate-risk: p = 0.009; low-risk: p = 0.001), whereas significant differences were observed only in the intermediate-risk group (p = 0.003) within the RP vs BT group. Conclusion The results of our propensity score analysis of mid-term localized prostate cancer treatment outcomes demonstrated no significant differences in the overall survival rate. Despite the difference in biochemical failure definition between surgery and radiotherapeutic approaches, the results of this study demonstrate improved biochemical control favoring IMRT and BT as compared to RP.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Influence of regular aspirin intake on PSA values, prostate cancer incidence and overall survival in a prospective screening trial (ERSPC Aarau)
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Lukas Werner Prause, Lukas Manka, Christopher Millan, Elena Lang, Stephen F. Wyler, Rainer Grobholz, Angelika Hammerer-Lercher, Tullio Sulser, Franz Recker, Maciej Kwiatkowski, Daniel Eberli

    Abstract Objectives To analyze the influence of aspirin (ASA) intake on PSA values and prostate cancer (PCa) development in a prospective screening study cohort. Methods 4314 men from the Swiss section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) were included. A transrectal prostate biopsy was performed in men with a PSA level ≥ 3 ng/ml. Mortality data were obtained through registry linkages. PCa incidence and grade, total PSA, free-to-total PSA and overall survival were compared between ASA users and non-users. Results Median follow-up time was 9.6 years. In 789 men (18.3%) using aspirin [ASA +], the overall PCa incidence was significantly lower (6.8% vs. 9.6%, p = 0.015), but the multivariate Cox regression analysis showed no significant decrease in risk of PCa diagnosis (HR 0.84, p = 0.297). Total PSA values were significantly lower in ASA users for both baseline (1.6 vs. 1.8 ng/ml, p = 0.007) and follow-up visits (1.75 vs. 2.1 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis predicted significantly higher overall mortality risk among ASA users (HR 1.46, p = 0.009). Conclusions In our study population, PCa incidence was significantly reduced among patients on aspirin. While we did not observe a statistically significant PCa risk reduction during the follow-up period, we found lower PSA values among ASA users compared to non-users, with a more distinct difference after 4 years of ASA intake, suggesting a cumulative effect and a potential protective association between regular ASA intake and PCa development. As for clinical practice, lowering PSA cutoff values by 0.4 ng/ml could be considered in long-term ASA users to avoid a potential bias towards delayed PCa detection.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Decreased accuracy of the prostate cancer EAU risk group classification in the era of imaging-guided diagnostic pathway: proposal for a new classification based on MRI-targeted biopsies and early oncologic outcomes after surgery
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Guillaume Ploussard, Cécile Manceau, Jean-Baptiste Beauval, Marine Lesourd, Christophe Almeras, Jean-Romain Gautier, Guillaume Loison, Ambroise Salin, Michel Soulié, Christophe Tollon, Bernard Malavaud, Mathieu Roumiguié

    To assess the performance of EAU risk classification in PCa patients according to the biopsy pathway (standard versus MRI guided) and to develop a new, more accurate, targeted biopsy (TB)-based classification.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Contemporary application of autologous muscle-derived cells for urinary sphincter regeneration
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Melissa R. Kaufman

    Abstract Objective Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) remains a prevalent condition with substantial economic and quality-of-life impact. Treatment for incontinence historically culminates with invasive surgical procedures with recognized complication profiles. Innovative directions for SUI therapeutics are on the horizon, including the utilization of adult autologous muscle-derived cells for urinary sphincter regeneration (AMDC-USR). Herein, we visit fundamental concepts of innovative regenerative medicine technologies for urologic applications. Methods Synopsis of contemporary literature review regarding adult autologous muscle-derived cells for urinary sphincter regeneration is presented. Results Current published literature presents safety and efficacy data regarding AMDC-USR injection in 80 patients at 12-month follow-up. In these early studies, no long-term adverse events were reported and patients undergoing cellular injection at higher doses revealed at least 50% reduction in stress leaks and pad weight at 12-month follow-up. All dose groups demonstrated statistically significant improvement in patient-reported incontinence-specific quality-of-life scores at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions from the pooled analyses indicate that injection of AMDC-USR across a range of dosages appears safe. Efficacy data suggest a dose response with more patients responsive to the higher doses of AMDC-USR. Conclusion Applications for utilization of autologous cellular therapies for treatment of SUI, and conceivably multiple additional indications, are approaching realization. Multiple Phase III randomized, placebo-controlled studies for AMDC-USR are concluding or ongoing to launch this regenerative option for the millions of patients who may ultimately benefit.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Adherence to the EAU guideline recommendations for systemic chemotherapy in penile cancer: results of the E-PROPS study group survey
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    F. A. Distler, S. Pahernik, G. Gakis, G. Hutterer, S. Lebentrau, M. Rink, P. Nuhn, S. Brookman-May, M. Burger, C. Gratzke, I. Wolff, M. May

    To validate the adherence of urologists to chemotherapy recommendations given in the EAU guidelines on PeCa. The European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on penile cancer (PeCa) are predominantly based on retrospective studies with low level of evidence.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Correction to: Evidence-based approach to active surveillance of prostate cancer
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Luke Witherspoon, Rodney H. Breau, Luke T. Lavallée

    Correction to: In the original publication of the article, the values in the columns “Gleason Score” and “Clinical Stage” under the section Urologic Organization.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The evaluation of early predictive factors for urosepsis in patients with negative preoperative urine culture following mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Zewu Zhu, Yu Cui, Huimin Zeng, Yongchao Li, Feng Zeng, Yang Li, Zhiyong Chen, Chen Hequn

    Abstract Purpose To identify early predictive factors for urosepsis secondary to mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in patients with negative preoperative urine culture (UC). Methods A total of 786 patients with baseline negative UC who underwent MPCNL between January 2017 and June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Urosepsis was defined according to the Sepsis-3 definition. Subsequently, perioperative potential risk factors were compared between non-urosepsis and urosepsis groups. Results Despite negative UC in all patients, the rate of positive stone culture (SC) was 16.0%; the rate of pelvic urine culture (PUC) was 7.5%; 23 cases (2.9%) developed urosepsis after MPCNL. Univariate analysis showed that urosepsis was associated with the female gender, BMI, stone burden, diabetes mellitus and preoperative urine test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that urine test with positive nitrite and white blood cells and leukocyte esterase (N+WBC+LE+) (OR 17.51, 95% CI 6.75–45.38, P < 0.001) and operative time > 120 min (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.41–8.85, P = 0.007) were independent risk factors for urosepsis. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of N+WBC+LE+ showed that the area under the curve was 0.785 for predicting the occurrence of urosepsis. Further analysis showed that N+WBC+LE+ provided an efficient prediction of SC+/PUC+ (SC+ or PUC+) with 61.7% sensitivity and 97.3% specificity. Conclusions In spite of the baseline negative preoperative UC, 2.9% of patients developed urosepsis after MPCNL. N+WBC+LE + was determined to be an early and efficient prediction of intraoperative bacterial status and urosepsis following MPCNL. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm the results.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • An updated meta-analysis of prostatic arterial embolization versus transurethral resection of the prostate in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Xin jian Xu, Jingjing Li, Xiang zhong Huang, Qiang Liu

    Abstract Objective To investigate whether prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) could be recommended as a routine therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we conducted an updated meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of PAE compared with transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Methods Systematic literature retrieval by searching data from Web of science, Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrial.gov, CNKI, Wanfang and VIP databases was carried out to identify all related trials from the inception dates to June 2019. We also conducted subgroup analyses depending on the kind of study design, kind of PAE and kind of TURP. Results Nine studies comparing PAE with TURP involving a total of 860 BPH patients were selected. Postoperative reduced IPSS score (MD 2.50; 95% CI 0.78–4.21; P = 0.004), postoperative reduced QOL score (MD 0.40; 95% CI 0.09–0.71; P = 0.01), postoperative reduced PV (MD 8.59; 95% CI 4.74–12.44; P < 0.00001) and postoperative increased Qmax (MD 2.54; 95% CI 1.02–4.05; P = 0.001) were better in TURP than in PAE; however, PAE was associated with lower sexual dysfunction rate (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.15–0.39; P < 0.00001) compared with TURP. Meanwhile, no significant difference in postoperative reduced PVR (MD 0.46; 95% CI − 2.08 to 3.00; P = 0.72) and complication (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.21–1.55; P = 0.27) between PAE and TURP group was demonstrated. Conclusion PAE was inferior to TURP in the improvement of postoperative IPSS, QOL, PV, Qmax and TURP still remained the gold standard. However, PAE may be a valuable alternative to TURP in the treatment of BPH patients who refuse surgery or with surgery contraindication.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Ejaculatory disorders after prostatic artery embolization: a reassessment of two prospective clinical trials
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Gautier Müllhaupt, Lukas Hechelhammer, Pierre-André Diener, Daniel S. Engeler, Sabine Güsewell, Hans-Peter Schmid, Livio Mordasini, Dominik Abt

    This study aims to specify and explain the previous findings of unexpectedly high rates of ejaculatory disorders, i.e. 56%, found after prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in a randomized controlled trial comparing safety and efficacy of PAE and transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus retrograde intrarenal surgery for the treatment of 10–20 mm lower pole renal stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    José D. Cabrera, Braulio O. Manzo, José E. Torres, Fabio C. Vicentini, Héctor M. Sánchez, Ernesto A. Rojas, Edgard Lozada

    To compare the efficacy and safety of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) versus retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for treatment of 10–20 mm lower pole renal stones.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Energy output modalities of shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of urinary stones: escalating or fixed voltage? A systematic review and meta-analysis
    World J. Urol. (IF 2.761) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Zihao He, Tuo Deng, Shanfeng Yin, Zihao Xu, Haifeng Duan, Yeda Chen, Xiaolu Duan, Guohua Zeng

    To compare the effectiveness and safety of escalating and fixed energy output modalities of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the treatment of urinary stones.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
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