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  • Solute Carrier Transporters as Potential Targets for the Treatment of Metabolic Disease
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Tina Schumann,Jörg König,Christine Henke,Diana M. Willmes,Stefan R. Bornstein,Jens Jordan,Martin F. Fromm,Andreas L. Birkenfeld,Martin C. Michel,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Tina Schumann,Jörg König,Christine Henke,Diana M. Willmes,Stefan R. Bornstein,Jens Jordan,Martin F. Fromm,Andreas L. Birkenfeld,Tina Schumann,Jörg König,Christine Henke,Diana M. Willmes,Stefan R. Bornstein,Jens Jordan,Martin F. Fromm,Andreas L. Birkenfeld
    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Patient and Disease–Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Discovery of Personalized Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapeutics
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    David T. Paik,Mark Chandy,Joseph C. Wu,Eliot H. Ohlstein,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,David T. Paik,Mark Chandy,Joseph C. Wu,David T. Paik,Mark Chandy,Joseph C. Wu
    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Organic Cation Transporters in Health and Disease
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Hermann Koepsell,Lynette C. Daws,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Hermann Koepsell,Hermann Koepsell

    The organic cation transporters (OCTs) OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, novel OCT (OCTN)1, OCTN2, multidrug and toxin exclusion (MATE)1, and MATE kidney-specific 2 are polyspecific transporters exhibiting broadly overlapping substrate selectivities. They transport organic cations, zwitterions, and some uncharged compounds and operate as facilitated diffusion systems and/or antiporters. OCTs are critically involved in intestinal absorption, hepatic uptake, and renal excretion of hydrophilic drugs. They modulate the distribution of endogenous compounds such as thiamine, L-carnitine, and neurotransmitters. Sites of expression and functions of OCTs have important impact on energy metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of drugs, and on drug–drug interactions. In this work, an overview about the human OCTs is presented. Functional properties of human OCTs, including identified substrates and inhibitors of the individual transporters, are described. Sites of expression are compiled, and data on regulation of OCTs are presented. In addition, genetic variations of OCTs are listed, and data on their impact on transport, drug treatment, and diseases are reported. Moreover, recent data are summarized that indicate complex drug–drug interaction at OCTs, such as allosteric high-affinity inhibition of transport and substrate dependence of inhibitor efficacies. A hypothesis about the molecular mechanism of polyspecific substrate recognition by OCTs is presented that is based on functional studies and mutagenesis experiments in OCT1 and OCT2. This hypothesis provides a framework to imagine how observed complex drug–drug interactions at OCTs arise. Finally, preclinical in vitro tests that are performed by pharmaceutical companies to identify interaction of novel drugs with OCTs are discussed. Optimized experimental procedures are proposed that allow a gapless detection of inhibitory and transported drugs.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Pharmacology and Therapeutics of Bronchodilators Revisited
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    M. G. Matera,C. P. Page,L. Calzetta,P. Rogliani,M. Cazzola,Eric L. Barker,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,M. G. Matera,C. P. Page,L. Calzetta,P. Rogliani,M. Cazzola,M. G. Matera,C. P. Page,L. Calzetta,P. Rogliani,M. Cazzola

    Bronchodilators remain the cornerstone of the treatment of airway disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is therefore considerable interest in understanding how to optimize the use of our existing classes of bronchodilator and in identifying novel classes of bronchodilator drugs. However, new classes of bronchodilator have proved challenging to develop because many of these have no better efficacy than existing classes of bronchodilator and often have unacceptable safety profiles. Recent research has shown that optimization of bronchodilation occurs when both arms of the autonomic nervous system are affected through antagonism of muscarinic receptors to reduce the influence of parasympathetic innervation of the lung and through stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors (β2-ARs) on airway smooth muscle with β2-AR–selective agonists to mimic the sympathetic influence on the lung. This is currently achieved by use of fixed-dose combinations of inhaled long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists (LAMAs). Due to the distinct mechanisms of action of LAMAs and LABAs, the additive/synergistic effects of using these drug classes together has been extensively investigated. More recently, so-called “triple inhalers” containing fixed-dose combinations of both classes of bronchodilator (dual bronchodilation) and an inhaled corticosteroid in the same inhaler have been developed. Furthermore, a number of so-called “bifunctional drugs” having two different primary pharmacological actions in the same molecule are under development. This review discusses recent advancements in knowledge on bronchodilators and bifunctional drugs for the treatment of asthma and COPD.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • High-dimensionality Data Analysis of Pharmacological Systems Associated with Complex Diseases
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Jhana O. Hendrickx,Jaana van Gastel,Hanne Leysen,Bronwen Martin,Stuart Maudsley,Martin C. Michel,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Jhana O. Hendrickx,Jaana van Gastel,Hanne Leysen,Bronwen Martin,Stuart Maudsley,Jhana O. Hendrickx,Jaana van Gastel,Hanne Leysen,Bronwen Martin,Stuart Maudsley

    It is widely accepted that molecular reductionist views of highly complex human physiologic activity, e.g., the aging process, as well as therapeutic drug efficacy are largely oversimplifications. Currently some of the most effective appreciation of biologic disease and drug response complexity is achieved using high-dimensionality (H-D) data streams from transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics, or epigenomic pipelines. Multiple H-D data sets are now common and freely accessible for complex diseases such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. Over the last decade our ability to interrogate these high-dimensionality data streams has been profoundly enhanced through the development and implementation of highly effective bioinformatic platforms. Employing these computational approaches to understand the complexity of age-related diseases provides a facile mechanism to then synergize this pathologic appreciation with a similar level of understanding of therapeutic-mediated signaling. For informative pathology and drug-based analytics that are able to generate meaningful therapeutic insight across diverse data streams, novel informatics processes such as latent semantic indexing and topological data analyses will likely be important. Elucidation of H-D molecular disease signatures from diverse data streams will likely generate and refine new therapeutic strategies that will be designed with a cognizance of a realistic appreciation of the complexity of human age-related disease and drug effects. We contend that informatic platforms should be synergistic with more advanced chemical/drug and phenotypic cellular/tissue-based analytical predictive models to assist in either de novo drug prioritization or effective repurposing for the intervention of aging-related diseases.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Brothers in Arms: ABCA1- and ABCG1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux as Promising Targets in Cardiovascular Disease Treatment
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Sanne J. C. M. Frambach,Ria de Haas,Jan A. M. Smeitink,Gerard A. Rongen,Frans G. M. Russel,Tom J. J. Schirris,Martin C. Michel,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Sanne J. C. M. Frambach,Ria de Haas,Jan A. M. Smeitink,Gerard A. Rongen,Frans G. M. Russel,Tom J. J. Schirris,Sanne J. C. M. Frambach,Ria de Haas,Jan A. M. Smeitink,Gerard A. Rongen,Frans G. M. Russel,Tom J. J. Schirris
    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • The Psychopharmacology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Preclinical Roadmap
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Henry Szechtman,Brian H. Harvey,Erik Z. Woody,Kurt Leroy Hoffman,Jeffrey M. Witkin,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Henry Szechtman,Brian H. Harvey,Erik Z. Woody,Kurt Leroy Hoffman,Henry Szechtman,Brian H. Harvey,Erik Z. Woody,Kurt Leroy Hoffman

    This review evaluates current knowledge about obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with the goal of providing a roadmap for future directions in research on the psychopharmacology of the disorder. It first addresses issues in the description and diagnosis of OCD, including the structure, measurement, and appropriate description of the disorder and issues of differential diagnosis. Current pharmacotherapies for OCD are then reviewed, including monotherapy with serotonin reuptake inhibitors and augmentation with antipsychotic medication and with psychologic treatment. Neuromodulatory therapies for OCD are also described, including psychosurgery, deep brain stimulation, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Psychotherapies for OCD are then reviewed, focusing on behavior therapy, including exposure and response prevention and cognitive therapy, and the efficacy of these interventions is discussed, touching on issues such as the timing of sessions, the adjunctive role of pharmacotherapy, and the underlying mechanisms. Next, current research on the neurobiology of OCD is examined, including work probing the role of various neurotransmitters and other endogenous processes and etiology as clues to the neurobiological fault that may underlie OCD. A new perspective on preclinical research is advanced, using the Research Domain Criteria to propose an adaptationist viewpoint that regards OCD as the dysfunction of a normal motivational system. A systems-design approach introduces the security motivation system (SMS) theory of OCD as a framework for research. Finally, a new perspective on psychopharmacological research for OCD is advanced, exploring three approaches: boosting infrastructure facilities of the brain, facilitating psychotherapeutic relearning, and targeting specific pathways of the SMS network to fix deficient SMS shut-down processes.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • G Protein–Coupled Receptors in Asthma Therapy: Pharmacology and Drug Action
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Stacy Gelhaus Wendell,Hao Fan,Cheng Zhang,Paul A. Insel,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Stacy Gelhaus Wendell,Hao Fan,Cheng Zhang,Stacy Gelhaus Wendell,Hao Fan,Cheng Zhang

    Asthma is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease of the airways that is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow limitation. Although asthma was once simply categorized as atopic or nonatopic, emerging analyses over the last few decades have revealed a variety of asthma endotypes that are attributed to numerous pathophysiological mechanisms. The classification of asthma by endotype is primarily routed in different profiles of airway inflammation that contribute to bronchoconstriction. Many asthma therapeutics target G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), which either enhance bronchodilation or prevent bronchoconstriction. Short-acting and long-acting β2-agonists are widely used bronchodilators that signal through the activation of the β2-adrenergic receptor. Short-acting and long-acting antagonists of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are used to reduce bronchoconstriction by blocking the action of acetylcholine. Leukotriene antagonists that block the signaling of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 are used as an add-on therapy to reduce bronchoconstriction and inflammation induced by cysteinyl leukotrienes. A number of GPCR-targeting asthma drug candidates are also in different stages of development. Among them, antagonists of prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 have advanced into phase III clinical trials. Others, including antagonists of the adenosine A2B receptor and the histamine H4 receptor, are in early stages of clinical investigation. In the past decade, significant research advancements in pharmacology, cell biology, structural biology, and molecular physiology have greatly deepened our understanding of the therapeutic roles of GPCRs in asthma and drug action on these GPCRs. This review summarizes our current understanding of GPCR signaling and pharmacology in the context of asthma treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Cognitive Effects of MDMA in Laboratory Animals: A Systematic Review Focusing on Dose
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Madeline M. Pantoni,Stephan G. Anagnostaras,Timothy A. Esbenshade,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Madeline M. Pantoni,Stephan G. Anagnostaras,Madeline M. Pantoni,Stephan G. Anagnostaras

    ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a synthetic, psychoactive drug that is primarily used recreationally but also may have some therapeutic value. At low doses, MDMA produces feelings of relaxation, empathy, emotional closeness, and euphoria. Higher doses can produce unpleasant psychostimulant- and hallucinogen-like adverse effects and therefore are usually not taken intentionally. There is considerable evidence that MDMA produces neurotoxicity and cognitive deficits at high doses; however, these findings may not generalize to typical recreational or therapeutic use of low-dose MDMA. Here, we systematically review 25 years of research on the cognitive effects of MDMA in animals, with a critical focus on dose. We found no evidence that doses of less than 3 mg/kg MDMA—the dose range that users typically take—produce cognitive deficits in animals. Doses of 3 mg/kg or greater, which were administered most often and frequently ranged from 5 to 20 times greater than an average dose, also did not produce cognitive deficits in a slight majority of experiments. Overall, the preclinical evidence of MDMA-induced cognitive deficits is weak and, if anything, may be the result of unrealistically high dosing. While factors associated with recreational use such as polydrug use, adulterants, hyperthermia, and hyponatremia can increase the potential for neurotoxicity, the short-term, infrequent, therapeutic use of ultra low-dose MDMA is unlikely to pose significant cognitive risks. Future studies must examine any adverse cognitive effects of MDMA using clinically relevant doses to reliably assess its potential as a psychotherapeutic.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 5-HT3Receptor Antagonists in Neurologic and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: The Iceberg Still Lies beneath the Surface
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2019-07-01
    Gohar Fakhfouri,Reza Rahimian,Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen,Mohammad Reza Zirak,Jean-Martin Beaulieu,Jeffrey M. Witkin,ASSOCIATE EDITOR,Gohar Fakhfouri,Reza Rahimian,Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen,Mohammad Reza Zirak,Jean-Martin Beaulieu,Gohar Fakhfouri,Reza Rahimian,Jonas Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen,Mohammad Reza Zirak,Jean-Martin Beaulieu
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • International Union of Pharmacology. LXXI. Free fatty acid receptors FFA1, -2, and -3: pharmacology and pathophysiological functions.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2008-12-03
    Leigh A Stoddart,Nicola J Smith,Graeme Milligan

    Identification of G protein-coupled receptors that are activated by free fatty acids has led to considerable interest in their pharmacology and function because of the wide range of normal physiology and disease states in which fatty acids have been implicated. Free fatty acid receptor (FFA) 1 is activated by medium- to long-chain fatty acids and is expressed in the insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas. Activation of FFA1 has been proposed to mediate fatty acid augmentation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion although it is unclear whether the known long-term detrimental effects of beta-cell exposure to high levels of fatty acids are also mediated through this receptor. The related receptors FFA2 and FFA3 are both activated by short-chain fatty acids although they have key differences in the signaling pathways they activate and tissue expression pattern. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the pharmacology and physiological role of these fatty acid receptors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Strategies to address low drug solubility in discovery and development.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2013-02-07
    Hywel D Williams,Natalie L Trevaskis,Susan A Charman,Ravi M Shanker,William N Charman,Colin W Pouton,Christopher J H Porter

    Drugs with low water solubility are predisposed to low and variable oral bioavailability and, therefore, to variability in clinical response. Despite significant efforts to "design in" acceptable developability properties (including aqueous solubility) during lead optimization, approximately 40% of currently marketed compounds and most current drug development candidates remain poorly water-soluble. The fact that so many drug candidates of this type are advanced into development and clinical assessment is testament to an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the approaches that can be taken to promote apparent solubility in the gastrointestinal tract and to support drug exposure after oral administration. Here we provide a detailed commentary on the major challenges to the progression of a poorly water-soluble lead or development candidate and review the approaches and strategies that can be taken to facilitate compound progression. In particular, we address the fundamental principles that underpin the use of strategies, including pH adjustment and salt-form selection, polymorphs, cocrystals, cosolvents, surfactants, cyclodextrins, particle size reduction, amorphous solid dispersions, and lipid-based formulations. In each case, the theoretical basis for utility is described along with a detailed review of recent advances in the field. The article provides an integrated and contemporary discussion of current approaches to solubility and dissolution enhancement but has been deliberately structured as a series of stand-alone sections to allow also directed access to a specific technology (e.g., solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations, or salt forms) where required.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. [corrected]. LXXXVII. Complement peptide C5a, C4a, and C3a receptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2013-02-07
    Andreas Klos,Elisabeth Wende,Kathryn J Wareham,Peter N Monk

    The activation of the complement cascade, a cornerstone of the innate immune response, produces a number of small (74-77 amino acid) fragments, originally termed anaphylatoxins, that are potent chemoattractants and secretagogues that act on a wide variety of cell types. These fragments, C5a, C4a, and C3a, participate at all levels of the immune response and are also involved in other processes such as neural development and organ regeneration. Their primary function, however, is in inflammation, so they are important targets for the development of antiinflammatory therapies. Only three receptors for complement peptides have been found, but there are no satisfactory antagonists as yet, despite intensive investigation. In humans, there is a single receptor for C3a (C3a receptor), no known receptor for C4a, and two receptors for C5a (C5a₁ receptor and C5a₂ receptor). The most recently characterized receptor, the C5a₂ receptor (previously known as C5L2 or GPR77), has been regarded as a passive binding protein, but signaling activities are now ascribed to it, so we propose that it be formally identified as a receptor and be given a name to reflect this. Here, we describe the complex biology of the complement peptides, introduce a new suggested nomenclature, and review our current knowledge of receptor pharmacology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Protein nitration in cardiovascular diseases.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Illarion V Turko,Ferid Murad

    There is growing evidence that cardiovascular disease is associated with progressive changes in the production of free radicals and radical-derived reactive species. These intermediates react with all major cellular constituents and may serve several physiological and pathophysiological functions. The nitration of protein tyrosine residues has been used as a footprint for in vivo production of radical and nonradical reactive species. Tyrosine nitration may alter protein function and metabolism and therefore, provides for further dysfunctional changes. This review focuses on an appearance of tyrosine nitrated proteins in cardiovascular tissues under different settings of cardiovascular disease. Sources of reactive species, putative mechanisms of protein nitration in vivo, as well as protein nitration under normal physiological conditions, are also described. The goal of this review is to attract more attention to identification of specific proteins, which undergo tyrosine nitration and to study a correlation between their altered function and pathology. Understanding how protein nitration affects disease progression may offer a unique option for design of antioxidant therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular complications. At the same time, protein nitration can be a biological marker of efficiency of antioxidant therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Homocysteine determinants and the evidence to what extent homocysteine determines the risk of coronary heart disease.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Angelika De Bree,W M Monique Verschuren,Daan Kromhout,Leo A J Kluijtmans,Henk J Blom

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially coronary heart disease (CHD), are the most important causes of death in industrialized countries. Increased concentrations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) have been associated with an increased risk of CHD. Assuming that this relation is causal, a lower tHcy concentration will reduce the occurrence and recurrence of CHD. Therefore, it is important to know which factors determine the tHcy concentration. In the general population, the most important modifiable determinants of tHcy are folate intake and coffee consumption. Smoking and alcohol consumption are also associated with the tHcy concentration, but more research is necessary to elucidate whether these relations are not originating from residual confounding due to other lifestyle factors. The most important nonmodifiable determinant is the 677 C>T polymorphism in the gene that encodes methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a regulating enzyme in homocysteine metabolism. Especially subjects with the homozygous form of this polymorphism (i.e., 677TT genotype) and a low folate status have elevated tHcy concentrations. Specific clinical conditions like the use of antiepileptic drugs or methotrexate, renal failure, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypothyroidism may lead to elevated tHcy concentrations. The available epidemiological evidence indicates that an increased tHcy concentration is not an important risk factor for CHD in healthy subjects. However, prospective studies, which included subjects at high risk of CHD, and secondary prevention trials with intermediary endpoints consistently show that elevations in the tHcy concentration may be an important risk factor in these subjects for a (recurrent) CHD event. The induction of vascular endothelial dysfunction by homocysteine may underlie this increased risk. Ongoing intervention trials will indicate whether homocysteine-lowering through vitamin supplementation, prevents CHD in the treatment groups.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pivalate-generating prodrugs and carnitine homeostasis in man.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Eric P Brass

    Prodrugs that liberate pivalate (trimethylacetic acid) after hydrolysis have been developed to improve the bioavailability of therapeutic candidates. Catabolism of pivalate released by activation of a prodrug is limited in mammalian tissues. Pivalate can be activated to a coenzyme A thioester in cells. In humans, formation and urinary excretion of pivaloylcarnitine generated from pivaloyl-CoA is the major route of pivalate elimination. Because the total body carnitine pool is limited and can only slowly be replenished through normal diet or biosynthesis, treatment with large doses of pivalate prodrugs may deplete tissue carnitine content. Animal models and long-term treatment of patients with pivalate prodrugs have resulted in toxicity consistent with carnitine depletion. However, low plasma carnitine concentrations after pivalate prodrug exposure may not reflect tissue carnitine content and, thus, cannot be used as a surrogate for potential toxicity. The extent of tissue carnitine depletion will be dependent on the dose of pivalate, because carnitine losses may approximate the pivalate exposure on a stoichiometric basis. These concepts, combined with estimates of carnitine dietary intake and biosynthetic rates, can be used to estimate the impact of pivalate exposure on carnitine homeostasis. Thus, even in populations with altered carnitine homeostasis due to underlying conditions, the use of pivalate prodrugs for short periods of time is unlikely to result in clinically significant carnitine depletion. In contrast, long-term treatment with substantial doses of pivalate prodrugs may require administration of carnitine supplementation to avoid carnitine depletion.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Targeted drug delivery via the transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-11-14
    Zhong Ming Qian,Hongyan Li,Hongzhe Sun,Kwokping Ho

    The membrane transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis or internalization of the complex of transferrin bound iron and the transferrin receptor is the major route of cellular iron uptake. This efficient cellular uptake pathway has been exploited for the site-specific delivery not only of anticancer drugs and proteins, but also of therapeutic genes into proliferating malignant cells that overexpress the transferrin receptors. This is achieved either chemically by conjugation of transferrin with therapeutic drugs, proteins, or genetically by infusion of therapeutic peptides or proteins into the structure of transferrin. The resulting conjugates significantly improve the cytotoxicity and selectivity of the drugs. The coupling of DNA to transferrin via a polycation or liposome serves as a potential alternative to viral vector for gene therapy. Moreover, the OX26 monoclonal antibody against the rat transferrin receptor offers great promise in the delivery of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier to the brain.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cellular regulation of RGS proteins: modulators and integrators of G protein signaling.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-09-12
    Susanne Hollinger,John R Hepler

    Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) and RGS-like proteins are a family (>30 members) of highly diverse, multifunctional signaling proteins that bind directly to activated G alpha subunits. Family members are defined by a shared RGS domain, which is responsible for G alpha binding and markedly stimulates the GTPase activity of G alpha subunits leading to their deactivation and termination of downstream signals. Although much has been learned in recent years about the biochemistry of RGS/G alpha interactions, considerably less is known about the broader cellular roles and regulation of RGS proteins. Recent findings indicate that cellular mechanisms such as covalent modification, alternative gene splicing, and protein processing can dictate the activity and subcellular localization of RGS proteins. Many family members also directly link G proteins to a growing list of signaling proteins with diverse cellular roles. New findings indicate that RGS proteins act not as dedicated inhibitors but, rather, as tightly regulated modulators and integrators of G protein signaling. In some cases, RGS proteins modulate the lifetime and kinetics of both slow-acting (e.g., Ca(2+) oscillations) and fast-acting (e.g., ion conductances, phototransduction) signaling responses. In other cases, RGS proteins integrate G proteins with signaling pathways linked to such diverse cellular responses as cell growth and differentiation, cell motility, and intracellular trafficking. These and other recent studies with animal model systems indicate that RGS proteins play important roles in both physiology and disease. Recognition of the central functions these proteins play in vital cellular processes has focused our attention on RGS proteins as exciting new candidates for therapeutic intervention and drug development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Amyloid precursor protein, presenilins, and alpha-synuclein: molecular pathogenesis and pharmacological applications in Alzheimer's disease.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-09-12
    Yoo-Hun Suh,Frederic Checler

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia that arises on a neuropathological background of amyloid plaques containing beta-amyloid (A beta) derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau-rich neurofibrillary tangles. To date, the cause and progression of both familial and sporadic AD have not been fully elucidated. The autosomal-dominant inherited forms of early-onset Alzheimer's disease are caused by mutations in the genes encoding APP, presenilin-1 (chromosome 14), and presenilin-2 (chromosome 1). APP is processed by several different proteases such as secretases and/or caspases to yield A beta and carboxyl-terminal fragments, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are associated with the cerebral accumulation of A beta and alpha-synuclein, respectively. Some patients have clinical and pathological features of both diseases, raising the possibility of overlapping pathogenic pathways. Recent studies have strongly suggested the possible pathogenic interactions between A beta, presenilins, and/or alpha-synuclein. Therefore, treatments that block the accumulation of A beta and alpha-synuclein might benefit a broad spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. This review covers the trafficking and processing of APP, amyloid cascade hypothesis in AD pathogenesis, physiological and pathological roles of presenilins, molecular characteristics of alpha-synuclein, their interactions, and therapeutic strategies for AD.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Caveolae: from cell biology to animal physiology.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-09-12
    Babak Razani,Scott E Woodman,Michael P Lisanti

    Among the membrane compartments of a cell, vesicles known as "caveolae" have long defied functional characterization. However, since the identification of a family of proteins termed "caveolins", that form and reside in caveolae, a better understanding has emerged. It is now clear that caveolae do not merely play a singular role in the cell, but are pleiotropic in nature-serving to modulate many cellular functions. The purpose of this review is to explicate what is known about caveolins/caveolae and highlight growing areas of caveolar research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The therapeutic potential of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-09-12
    László Virág,Csaba Szabó

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a member of the PARP enzyme family consisting of PARP-1 and several recently identified novel poly(ADP-ribosylating) enzymes. PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear protein functioning as a DNA nick-sensor enzyme. Upon binding to DNA breaks, activated PARP cleaves NAD(+) into nicotinamide and ADP-ribose and polymerizes the latter onto nuclear acceptor proteins including histones, transcription factors, and PARP itself. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) contributes to DNA repair and to the maintenance of genomic stability. On the other hand, oxidative stress-induced overactivation of PARP consumes NAD(+) and consequently ATP, culminating in cell dysfunction or necrosis. This cellular suicide mechanism has been implicated in the pathomechanism of stroke, myocardial ischemia, diabetes, diabetes-associated cardiovascular dysfunction, shock, traumatic central nervous system injury, arthritis, colitis, allergic encephalomyelitis, and various other forms of inflammation. PARP has also been shown to associate with and regulate the function of several transcription factors. Of special interest is the enhancement by PARP of nuclear factor kappa B-mediated transcription, which plays a central role in the expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and inflammatory mediators. Herein we review the double-edged sword roles of PARP in DNA damage signaling and cell death and summarize the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of PARP inhibitors. Moreover, we discuss the potential use of PARP inhibitors as anticancer agents, radiosensitizers, and antiviral agents.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • G protein-coupled receptor allosterism and complexing.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    Arthur Christopoulos,Terry Kenakin

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of cell-surface receptors. These receptors are natural allosteric proteins because agonist-mediated signaling by GPCRs requires a conformational change in the receptor protein transmitted between two topographically distinct binding sites, one for the agonist and another for the G protein. It is now becoming increasingly recognized, however, that the agonist-bound GPCR can also form ternary complexes with other ligands or "accessory" proteins and display altered binding and/or signaling properties in relation to the binary agonist-receptor complex. Allosteric sites on GPCRs represent novel drug targets because allosteric modulators possess a number of theoretical advantages over classic orthosteric ligands, such as a ceiling level to the allosteric effect and a potential for greater GPCR subtype-selectivity. Because of the noncompetitive nature of allosteric phenomena, the detection and quantification of such effects often relies on a combination of equilibrium binding, nonequilibrium kinetic, and functional signaling assays. This review discusses the development and properties of allosteric receptor models for GPCRs and the detection and quantification of allosteric effects. Moreover, we provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding the location of possible allosteric sites on GPCRs and candidate endogenous allosteric modulators. Finally, we discuss the potential for allosteric effects arising from the formation of GPCR oligomers or GPCRs complexed with accessory cellular proteins. It is proposed that the study of allosteric phenomena will become of progressively greater import to the drug discovery process due to the advent of newer and more sensitive GPCR screening technologies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The tachykinin peptide family.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    Cinzia Severini,Giovanna Improta,Giuliana Falconieri-Erspamer,Severo Salvadori,Vittorio Erspamer

    The tachykinin peptide family certainly represents one of the largest peptide families described in the animal organism. So far, more than 40 tachykinins have been isolated from invertebrate (insects, worms, and molluscs), protochordate, and vertebrate (skin, gastrointestinal tract, peripheral and central nervous system) tissues. Substance P (SP), first identified by bioassay as early as 1931 but sequenced only in 1971, several years after the elucidation of the structure of eledoisin from molluscan tissues and of physalaemin from amphibian skin, may be considered as a prototype of the tachykinins. Hitherto, as many as 19 tachykinins have been isolated from amphibian integument, and eight additional peptides have been isolated from amphibian gut and brain. Counterparts of skin tachykinins in mammalian tissues are SP, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B. Three main receptor subtypes for the tachykinins have been identified (NK1, NK2, and NK3), but their number is probably destined to increase. It is obvious that the peripheral and central effects of the tachykinins may substantially vary depending on the activation of different receptor subtypes. Matters are further complicated by the frequent capacity of the single tachykinins to bind, although with different affinity, to more receptors. It has been recognized that tachykinins have a variety of effects in physiological and pathological conditions, and there is evidence suggesting intrinsic neuroprotective and neurodegenerative properties of these neuropeptides. This review provides an update on the current body of knowledge regarding tachykinin occurrence and distribution in the animal kingdom, from the lowest invertebrates to man, and the physiological and pharmacological actions of tachykinins outlining the pregnant importance of this large peptide family.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antioxidant therapy in acute central nervous system injury: current state.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    Yossi Gilgun-Sherki,Ziv Rosenbaum,Eldad Melamed,Daniel Offen

    Free radicals are highly reactive molecules generated predominantly during cellular respiration and normal metabolism. Imbalance between cellular production of free radicals and the ability of cells to defend against them is referred to as oxidative stress (OS). OS has been implicated as a potential contributor to the pathogenesis of acute central nervous system (CNS) injury. After brain injury by ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or trauma, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may increase, sometimes drastically, leading to tissue damage via several different cellular molecular pathways. Radicals can cause damage to cardinal cellular components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (e.g., DNA), leading to subsequent cell death by modes of necrosis or apoptosis. The damage can become more widespread due to weakened cellular antioxidant defense systems. Moreover, acute brain injury increases the levels of excitotoxic amino acids (such as glutamate), which also produce ROS, thereby promoting parenchymatous destruction. Therefore, treatment with antioxidants may theoretically act to prevent propagation of tissue damage and improve both the survival and neurological outcome. Several such agents of widely varying chemical structures have been investigated as therapeutic agents for acute CNS injury. Although a few of the antioxidants showed some efficacy in animal models or in small clinical studies, these findings have not been supported in comprehensive, controlled trials in patients. Reasons for these equivocal results may include, in part, inappropriate timing of administration or suboptimal drug levels at the target site in CNS. Better understanding of the pathological mechanisms of acute CNS injury would characterize the exact primary targets for drug intervention. Improved antioxidant design should take into consideration the relevant and specific harmful free radical, blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, dose, and time administration. Novel combinations of drugs providing protection against various types injuries will probably exploit the potential synergistic effects of antioxidants in stroke.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXXIV. Lysophospholipid receptor nomenclature.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    Jerold Chun,Edward J Goetzl,Timothy Hla,Yasuyuki Igarashi,Kevin R Lynch,Wouter Moolenaar,Susan Pyne,Gabor Tigyi

    The lysophospholipids, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), are now recognized as important extracellular signaling molecules. These lipid mediators are pleiotropic; among the most common cellular responses are mitogenesis, cell survival (anti-apoptosis), inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and calcium mobilization. Physiologic events associated with these mediators include platelet aggregation, vasopressor activity, wound healing, immune modulation, and angiogenesis. Many of the actions of LPA and S1P are mediated through a set of eight G protein-coupled receptors. Five of these are S1P-prefering while the remaining three are LPA receptors. These receptors are expressed widely and in aggregate signal through a variety of heterotrimeric G proteins. The lysophospholipid receptor family is referred to commonly as the "Edg" group (e.g., Edg-1, Edg-2, etc.). Herein, the molecular pharmacology of the lysophospholipid receptors is reviewed briefly, and a rational nomenclature for LPA and S1P receptors that is consistent with the International Union of Pharmacology guidelines is proposed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXXIII. Mammalian gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) receptors: structure and function.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    N G Bowery,B Bettler,W Froestl,J P Gallagher,F Marshall,M Raiteri,T I Bonner,S J Enna

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptor was first demonstrated on presynaptic terminals where it serves as an autoreceptor and also as a heteroreceptor to influence transmitter release by suppressing neuronal Ca(2+) conductance. Subsequent studies showed the presence of the receptor on postsynaptic neurones where activation produces an increase in membrane K(+) conductance and associated neuronal hyperpolarization. (-)-Baclofen is a highly selective agonist for GABA(B) receptors, whereas the established GABA(A) receptor antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, do not block GABA(B) receptors. The receptor is G(i)/G(o) protein-coupled with mixed effects on adenylate cyclase activity. The receptor comprises a heterodimer with similar subunits currently designated 1 and 2. These subunits are coupled via coiled-coil domains at their C termini. The evidence for splice variants is critically reviewed. Thus far, no unique pharmacological or functional properties have been assigned to either subunit or the variants. The emergence of high-affinity antagonists for GABA(B) receptors has enabled a synaptic role to be established. However, the antagonists have generally failed to establish the existence of pharmacologically distinct receptor types within the GABA(B) receptor class. The advent of GABA(B1) knockout mice has also failed to provide support for multiple receptor types.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXXII. The mammalian calcitonin gene-related peptides, adrenomedullin, amylin, and calcitonin receptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    David R Poyner,Patrick M Sexton,Ian Marshall,David M Smith,Remi Quirion,Walter Born,Roman Muff,Jan A Fischer,Steven M Foord

    The calcitonin family of peptides comprises calcitonin, amylin, two calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRPs), and adrenomedullin. The first calcitonin receptor was cloned in 1991. Its pharmacology is complicated by the existence of several splice variants. The receptors for the other members the family are made up of subunits. The calcitonin-like receptor (CL receptor) requires a single transmembrane domain protein, termed receptor activity modifying protein, RAMP1, to function as a CGRP receptor. RAMP2 and -3 enable the same CL receptor to behave as an adrenomedullin receptor. Although the calcitonin receptor does not require RAMP to bind and respond to calcitonin, it can associate with the RAMPs, resulting in a series of receptors that typically have high affinity for amylin and varied affinity for CGRP. This review aims to reconcile what is observed when the receptors are reconstituted in vitro with the properties they show in native cells and tissues. Experimental conditions must be rigorously controlled because different degrees of protein expression may markedly modify pharmacology in such a complex situation. Recommendations, which follow International Union of Pharmacology guidelines, are made for the nomenclature of these multimeric receptors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXXI. Recommendations for the nomenclature of multimeric G protein-coupled receptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    M Spedding,T I Bonner,S P Watson

    A receptor is defined by the International Union of Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC-IUPHAR) as a protein, or a complex of proteins, which recognizes physiologically relevant ligands that can regulate the protein to mediate cellular events (Ruffolo et al., 2000). This definition does not include associated proteins, which are not required for agonist recognition and/or receptor assembly. Thus, G proteins are not included in the nomenclature of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Similarly, proteins which modify receptor disposition, such as proteins with a PDZ domain (Sheng and Sala, 2001), and which associate with the cytosolic portion of the receptor are not included. The question arises, however, as to the way to name multimeric receptors where subunits influence receptor assembly and agonist recognition. The essential issue is whether to name the individual proteins or the association of proteins? NC-IUPHAR recommends that, where possible, the functional receptor complex be given a different name from that of the subunits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXX. Update on chemokine receptor nomenclature.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    Philip M Murphy

    An update of the International Union of Pharmacology nomenclature for chemokines is outlined, defining one new receptor type, CXCR6, and disqualifying the putative receptor, CCR11.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXIX. Update on endothelin receptor nomenclature.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    Anthony P Davenport

    In mammals, the endothelin (ET) family comprises three endogenous isoforms, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3. ET-1 is the principal isoform in the human cardiovascular system and remains the most potent and long-lasting constrictor of human vessels discovered. In humans, endothelins mediate their actions via only two receptor types that have been cloned and classified as the ET(A) and ET(B) receptors in the first NC-IUPHAR (International Union of Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification) report on nomenclature in 1994. This report was compiled before the discovery of the majority of endothelin receptor antagonists (particularly nonpeptides) currently used in the characterization of receptors and now updated in the present review. Endothelin receptors continue to be classified according to their rank order of potency for the three endogenous isoforms of endothelin. A selective ET(A) receptor agonist has not been discovered, but highly selective antagonists include peptides (BQ123, cyclo-[D-Asp-L-Pro-D-Val-L-Leu-D-Trp-]; FR139317, N- [(hexahydro-1-azepinyl)carbonyl]L-Leu(1-Me)D-Trp-3 (2-pyridyl)-D-Ala) and the generally more potent nonpeptides, such as PD156707, SB234551, L754142, A127722, and TBC11251. Sarafotoxin S6c, BQ3020 ([Ala(11,15)]Ac-ET-1((6-21))), and IRL1620 [Suc-(Glu(9), Ala(11,15))-ET-1((8-21))] are widely used synthetic ET(B) receptor agonists. A limited number of peptide (BQ788) and nonpeptide (A192621) ET(B) antagonists have also been developed. They are generally less potent than ET(A) antagonists and display lower selectivity (usually only 1 to 2 orders of magnitude) for the ET(B) receptor. Radioligands highly selective for either ET(A) ((125)I-PD151242, (125)I-PD164333, and (3)H-BQ123) or ET(B) receptors ((125)I-BQ3020 and (125)I-IRL1620) have further consolidated classification into only these two types, with no strong molecular or pharmacological evidence to support the existence of further receptors in mammals.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXVIII. Proteinase-activated receptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    Morley D Hollenberg,Steven J Compton

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) represent a unique subclass of G-protein-coupled receptors of which four family members have now been cloned from a number of species. The novel mechanism of receptor activation involves the proteolytic unmasking of a cryptic N-terminal receptor sequence that, remaining tethered, binds to and triggers receptor function. In addition, short (five to six amino acids) synthetic peptides, based on the proteolytically revealed motif, can activate PARs without the unmasking of the tethered ligand. This article summarizes the experiments leading to the pharmacological characterization and cloning of the four PAR family members and provides a rationale for their designation by the acronym "PAR". The ability to distinguish among the PARs pharmacologically 1) with selective proteinase activators, 2) with receptor-selective peptide agonists, and 3) with peptide and nonpeptide antagonists is discussed, as are the molecular mechanisms of receptor activation and desensitization/internalization. Finally, the potential physiological roles of the PARs, which are widely distributed in many organs in the settings of tissue injury, repair, and remodeling, including embryogenesis and oncogenesis are discussed, and the newly appreciated roles of proteinases as signaling molecules that can act as either functional agonists or antagonists are highlighted.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XXVII. Classification of cannabinoid receptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-05-31
    A C Howlett,F Barth,T I Bonner,G Cabral,P Casellas,W A Devane,C C Felder,M Herkenham,K Mackie,B R Martin,R Mechoulam,R G Pertwee

    Two types of cannabinoid receptor have been discovered so far, CB(1) (2.1: CBD:1:CB1:), cloned in 1990, and CB(2) (2.1:CBD:2:CB2:), cloned in 1993. Distinction between these receptors is based on differences in their predicted amino acid sequence, signaling mechanisms, tissue distribution, and sensitivity to certain potent agonists and antagonists that show marked selectivity for one or the other receptor type. Cannabinoid receptors CB(1) and CB(2) exhibit 48% amino acid sequence identity. Both receptor types are coupled through G proteins to adenylyl cyclase and mitogen-activated protein kinase. CB(1) receptors are also coupled through G proteins to several types of calcium and potassium channels. These receptors exist primarily on central and peripheral neurons, one of their functions being to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Indeed, endogenous CB(1) agonists probably serve as retrograde synaptic messengers. CB(2) receptors are present mainly on immune cells. Such cells also express CB(1) receptors, albeit to a lesser extent, with both receptor types exerting a broad spectrum of immune effects that includes modulation of cytokine release. Of several endogenous agonists for cannabinoid receptors identified thus far, the most notable are arachidonoylethanolamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and 2-arachidonylglyceryl ether. It is unclear whether these eicosanoid molecules are the only, or primary, endogenous agonists. Hence, we consider it premature to rename cannabinoid receptors after an endogenous agonist as is recommended by the International Union of Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification. Although pharmacological evidence for the existence of additional types of cannabinoid receptor is emerging, other kinds of supporting evidence are still lacking.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Liver-enriched transcription factors in liver function and development. Part I: the hepatocyte nuclear factor network and liver-specific gene expression.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-03-01
    Harald Schrem,Jürgen Klempnauer,Jürgen Borlak

    Numerous studies have established the pivotal role of liver-enriched transcription factors in organ development and cellular function, and there is conclusive evidence for transcription factors to act in concert in liver-specific gene expression. During organ development and in progenitor cells the timely expression of certain transcription factors is necessary for cellular differentiation, and there is overwhelming evidence for hierarchical and cooperative principles in a networked environment of transcription factors. The search for molecular switches that control stem cell imprinting and liver-specific functions has lead to the discovery of many interactions between such different molecules as transcription factors, coactivators, corepressors, enzymes, DNA, and RNA. Many of these interactions either repress or activate liver-specific gene expression. It thus can be demonstrated that specific mutational changes in liver-enriched transcription factors lead to altered intermolecular interactions with the consequence of human disease. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge about liver-enriched transcription factors and their role in liver function and development. We review the basic principles of gene transcription, the role of liver-enriched transcription factors in liver gene regulation, and the classification of transcription factors by their DNA-binding domains.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mitochondria as a pharmacological target.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-03-01
    Adam Szewczyk,Lech Wojtczak

    Mitochondria play a central role in energy metabolism within the cell. Mitochondrial dysfunctions lead to various neurodegenerative disorders and to the so-called "mitochondrial diseases". A vast amount of evidence points to the implication of mitochondria in such complex processes as apoptosis and cardioprotection. The purpose of this review is to present a recent state of our knowledge and understanding of the action of various therapeutically applied substances on mitochondria. These include antitumor, immunosuppressant, and antiviral drugs, potassium channel openers, sulfonylureas, and anesthetics. Some of these substances are specifically designed to affect mitochondrial functions. In other cases, drugs with primary targets in other cellular locations may modify mitochondrial functions as side effects. In any case, identification of mitochondria as primary or secondary targets of a drug may help us to better understand the drug's mechanism of action and open new perspectives for its application. As far as possible, the molecular mechanisms of the interference of particular drugs in the mitochondrial metabolism will be described. In some cases, metabolic routes in which the drugs interfere will also be briefly outlined.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fine tuning of sympathetic transmitter release via ionotropic and metabotropic presynaptic receptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-03-01
    Stefan Boehm,Helmut Kubista

    The release of transmitters at sympathoeffector junctions is not constant, but subject to modulation by a plethora of different mechanisms. In this respect, presynaptic receptors located on the sympathetic axon terminals are of utmost importance, because they are activated by exogenous agonists and by endogenous neurotransmitters. In the latter case, the transmitters that activate the presynaptic receptors of a nerve terminal may be released either from the very same nerve ending or from a different axon terminal, and the receptors involved are auto- and heteroreceptors, respectively. In terms of their structural and functional features, receptors of sympathetic axon terminals can be categorized as either ionotropic (transmitter-gated ion channels) or metabotropic (most commonly G protein-coupled) receptors. This review summarizes results on more than 30 different metabotropic and four different ionotropic receptors that have been found to control the amount of transmitter being released from sympathetic neurons. Each of these receptors may not only stimulate, facilitate, and reduce sympathetic transmitter release, respectively, but also interact with the functions of other receptors present on the same axonal varicosity. This provides a multitude of mechanisms that regulate the amount of sympathetic transmitter output. Accordingly, a sophisticated cross-talk within and between extra- and intracellular signals is integrated at axon terminals to adapt the strength of sympathoeffector transmission to a given situation. This will not only determine the function of the sympathetic nervous system in health and disease, but also therapeutic and untoward effects of drugs that bind to the presynaptic receptors in sympathetically innervated tissues.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neurobiology of relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking: a review.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2002-03-01
    Uri Shalev,Jeffrey W Grimm,Yavin Shaham

    The objective of this article is to review data from studies that used a reinstatement model in rats to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking induced by exposure to the self-administered drug (drug priming), conditioned drug cues, and stressors. These factors were reported to contribute to relapse to drug use in humans following prolonged abstinence periods. In the reinstatement model, the ability of acute exposure to drug or nondrug stimuli to reinstate drug seeking is determined following training for drug self-administration and subsequent extinction of the drug-reinforced behavior. We will review studies in which pharmacological agents were injected systemically or intracranially to block (or mimic) reinstatement by drug priming, drug cues, and stressors. We also will review studies in which brain lesions, in vivo microdialysis and electrochemistry, and gene expression methods were used to map brain sites involved in relapse to drug seeking. Subsequently, we will discuss theoretical issues related to the processes underlying relapse to drugs and address methodological issues in studies on reinstatement of drug seeking. Finally, the implications of the findings from the studies reviewed for addiction theories and treatment will be discussed. The main conclusion of this review is that the neuronal mechanisms involved in relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking induced by drug priming, drug cues, and stressors are to a large degree dissociable. The data reviewed also suggest that the neuronal events mediating drug-induced reinstatement are to some degree dissociable from those mediating drug reinforcement.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily in therapy and diagnosis.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2011-09-02
    Vanesa Gabriela Martínez,Søren Kragh Moestrup,Uffe Holmskov,Jan Mollenhauer,Francisco Lozano

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of soluble or membrane-bound protein receptors is characterized by the presence of one or several repeats of an ancient and highly conserved protein module, the SRCR domain. This superfamily (SRCR-SF) has been in constant and progressive expansion, now up to more than 30 members. The study of these members is attracting growing interest, which parallels that in innate immunity. No unifying function has been described to date for the SRCR domains, this being the result of the limited knowledge still available on the physiology of most members of the SRCR-SF, but also of the sequence versatility of the SRCR domains. Indeed, involvement of SRCR-SF members in quite different functions, such as pathogen recognition, modulation of the immune response, epithelial homeostasis, stem cell biology, and tumor development, have all been described. This has brought to us new information, unveiling the possibility that targeting or supplementing SRCR-SF proteins could result in diagnostic and/or therapeutic benefit for a number of physiologic and pathologic states. Recent research has provided structural and functional insight into these proteins, facilitating the development of means to modulate the activity of SRCR-SF members. Indeed, some of these approaches are already in use, paving the way for a more comprehensive use of SRCR-SF members in the clinic. The present review will illustrate some available evidence on the potential of well known and new members of the SRCR-SF in this regard.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nomenclature and classification of purinoceptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 1994-06-01
    B B Fredholm,M P Abbracchio,G Burnstock,J W Daly,T K Harden,K A Jacobson,P Leff,M Williams

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of galanin peptides and receptors: three decades of emerging diversity.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2014-11-28
    Roland Lang,Andrew L Gundlach,Fiona E Holmes,Sally A Hobson,David Wynick,Tomas Hökfelt,Barbara Kofler

    Galanin was first identified 30 years ago as a "classic neuropeptide," with actions primarily as a modulator of neurotransmission in the brain and peripheral nervous system. Other structurally-related peptides-galanin-like peptide and alarin-with diverse biologic actions in brain and other tissues have since been identified, although, unlike galanin, their cognate receptors are currently unknown. Over the last two decades, in addition to many neuronal actions, a number of nonneuronal actions of galanin and other galanin family peptides have been described. These include actions associated with neural stem cells, nonneuronal cells in the brain such as glia, endocrine functions, effects on metabolism, energy homeostasis, and paracrine effects in bone. Substantial new data also indicate an emerging role for galanin in innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Galanin has been shown to regulate its numerous physiologic and pathophysiological processes through interactions with three G protein-coupled receptors, GAL1, GAL2, and GAL3, and signaling via multiple transduction pathways, including inhibition of cAMP/PKA (GAL1, GAL3) and stimulation of phospholipase C (GAL2). In this review, we emphasize the importance of novel galanin receptor-specific agonists and antagonists. Also, other approaches, including new transgenic mouse lines (such as a recently characterized GAL3 knockout mouse) represent, in combination with viral-based techniques, critical tools required to better evaluate galanin system physiology. These in turn will help identify potential targets of the galanin/galanin-receptor systems in a diverse range of human diseases, including pain, mood disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative conditions, diabetes, and cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions: current concepts.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2013-03-12
    Jack Uetrecht,Dean J Naisbitt

    Idiosyncratic drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for patients; they also markedly increase the uncertainty of drug development. The major targets are skin, liver, and bone marrow. Clinical characteristics suggest that IDRs are immune mediated, and there is substantive evidence that most, but not all, IDRs are caused by chemically reactive species. However, rigorous mechanistic studies are very difficult to perform, especially in the absence of valid animal models. Models to explain how drugs or reactive metabolites interact with the MHC/T-cell receptor complex include the hapten and P-I models, and most recently it was found that abacavir can interact reversibly with MHC to alter the endogenous peptides that are presented to T cells. The discovery of HLA molecules as important risk factors for some IDRs has also significantly contributed to our understanding of these adverse reactions, but it is not yet clear what fraction of IDRs have a strong HLA dependence. In addition, with the exception of abacavir, most patients who have the HLA that confers a higher IDR risk with a specific drug will not have an IDR when treated with that drug. Interindividual differences in T-cell receptors and other factors also presumably play a role in determining which patients will have an IDR. The immune response represents a delicate balance, and immune tolerance may be the dominant response to a drug that can cause IDRs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) handling in excitable cells in health and disease.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2011-07-09
    Grace E Stutzmann,Mark P Mattson

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a morphologically and functionally diverse organelle capable of integrating multiple extracellular and internal signals and generating adaptive cellular responses. It plays fundamental roles in protein synthesis and folding and in cellular responses to metabolic and proteotoxic stress. In addition, the ER stores and releases Ca(2+) in sophisticated scenarios that regulate a range of processes in excitable cells throughout the body, including muscle contraction and relaxation, endocrine regulation of metabolism, learning and memory, and cell death. One or more Ca(2+) ATPases and two types of ER membrane Ca(2+) channels (inositol trisphosphate and ryanodine receptors) are the major proteins involved in ER Ca(2+) uptake and release, respectively. There are also direct and indirect interactions of ER Ca(2+) stores with plasma membrane and mitochondrial Ca(2+)-regulating systems. Pharmacological agents that selectively modify ER Ca(2+) release or uptake have enabled studies that revealed many different physiological roles for ER Ca(2+) signaling. Several inherited diseases are caused by mutations in ER Ca(2+)-regulating proteins, and perturbed ER Ca(2+) homeostasis is implicated in a range of acquired disorders. Preclinical investigations suggest a therapeutic potential for use of agents that target ER Ca(2+) handling systems of excitable cells in disorders ranging from cardiac arrhythmias and skeletal muscle myopathies to Alzheimer disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIII. Nomenclature for the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2009-06-06
    Richard D Ye,François Boulay,Ji Ming Wang,Claes Dahlgren,Craig Gerard,Marc Parmentier,Charles N Serhan,Philip M Murphy

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a small group of seven-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed mainly by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and are known to be important in host defense and inflammation. The three human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2/ALX, and FPR3) share significant sequence homology and are encoded by clustered genes. Collectively, these receptors bind an extraordinarily numerous and structurally diverse group of agonistic ligands, including N-formyl and nonformyl peptides of different composition, that chemoattract and activate phagocytes. N-formyl peptides, which are encoded in nature only by bacterial and mitochondrial genes and result from obligatory initiation of bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine, is the only ligand class common to all three human receptors. Surprisingly, the endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide annexin 1 and its N-terminal fragments also bind human FPR1 and FPR2/ALX, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid lipoxin A4 is an agonist at FPR2/ALX. In comparison, fewer agonists have been identified for FPR3, the third member in this receptor family. Structural and functional studies of the FPRs have produced important information for understanding the general pharmacological principles governing all leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. This article aims to provide an overview of the discovery and pharmacological characterization of FPRs, to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature, and to discuss unmet challenges, including the mechanisms used by these receptors to bind diverse ligands and mediate different biological functions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signalling: roles in Alzheimer's disease and amyloid neuroprotection.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2009-03-19
    Steven D Buckingham,Andrew K Jones,Laurence A Brown,David B Sattelle

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the major contributor to dementia in the elderly, involves accumulation in the brain of extracellular plaques containing the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. AD is also characterized by a loss of neurons, particularly those expressing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), thereby leading to a reduction in nAChR numbers. The Abeta(1-42) protein, which is toxic to neurons, is critical to the onset and progression of AD. The discovery of new drug therapies for AD is likely to be accelerated by an improved understanding of the mechanisms whereby Abeta causes neuronal death. We examine the evidence for a role in Abeta(1-42) toxicity of nAChRs; paradoxically, nAChRs can also protect neurons when activated by nicotinic ligands. Abeta peptides and nicotine differentially activate several intracellular signaling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase, and JAK-2/STAT-3 pathways. These pathways control cell death or survival and the secretion of Abeta peptides. We propose that understanding the differential activation of these pathways by nicotine and/or Abeta(1-42) may offer the prospect of new routes to therapy for AD.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endogenous cardiotonic steroids: physiology, pharmacology, and novel therapeutic targets.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2009-03-28
    Alexei Y Bagrov,Joseph I Shapiro,Olga V Fedorova

    Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS), also called digitalis-like factors, have been postulated to play important roles in health and disease for nearly half a century. Recent discoveries, which include the specific identification of endogenous cardenolide (endogenous ouabain) and bufadienolide (marinobufagenin) CTS in humans along with the delineation of an alternative mechanism by which CTS can signal through the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, have increased the interest in this field substantially. Although CTS were first considered important in the regulation of renal sodium transport and arterial pressure, more recent work implicates these hormones in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and fibrosis, the modulation of immunity and of carbohydrate metabolism, and the control of various central nervous functions and even behavior. This review focuses on the physiological interactions between CTS and other regulatory systems that may be important in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension, preeclampsia, end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. Based on our increasing understanding of the regulation of CTS as well as the molecular mechanisms of these hormone increases, we also discuss potential therapeutic strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of incretins in glucose homeostasis and diabetes treatment.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2008-12-17
    Wook Kim,Josephine M Egan

    Incretins are gut hormones that are secreted from enteroendocrine cells into the blood within minutes after eating. One of their many physiological roles is to regulate the amount of insulin that is secreted after eating. In this manner, as well as others to be described in this review, their final common raison d'être is to aid in disposal of the products of digestion. There are two incretins, known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), that share many common actions in the pancreas but have distinct actions outside of the pancreas. Both incretins are rapidly deactivated by an enzyme called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). A lack of secretion of incretins or an increase in their clearance are not pathogenic factors in diabetes. However, in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), GIP no longer modulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion, even at supraphysiological (pharmacological) plasma levels, and therefore GIP incompetence is detrimental to beta-cell function, especially after eating. GLP-1, on the other hand, is still insulinotropic in T2DM, and this has led to the development of compounds that activate the GLP-1 receptor with a view to improving insulin secretion. Since 2005, two new classes of drugs based on incretin action have been approved for lowering blood glucose levels in T2DM: an incretin mimetic (exenatide, which is a potent long-acting agonist of the GLP-1 receptor) and an incretin enhancer (sitagliptin, which is a DPP4 inhibitor). Exenatide is injected subcutaneously twice daily and its use leads to lower blood glucose and higher insulin levels, especially in the fed state. There is glucose-dependency to its insulin secretory capacity, making it unlikely to cause low blood sugars (hypoglycemia). DPP4 inhibitors are orally active and they increase endogenous blood levels of active incretins, thus leading to prolonged incretin action. The elevated levels of GLP-1 are thought to be the mechanism underlying their blood glucose-lowering effects.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modulation of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier: opportunities to improve central nervous system pharmacotherapy.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    David S Miller,Björn Bauer,Anika M S Hartz

    Pharmacotherapy of central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g., neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, brain cancer, and neuro-AIDS) is limited by the blood-brain barrier. P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven, drug efflux transporter, is a critical element of that barrier. High level of expression, luminal membrane location, multispecificity, and high transport potency make P-glycoprotein a selective gatekeeper of the blood-brain barrier and thus a primary obstacle to drug delivery into the brain. As such, P-glycoprotein limits entry into the CNS for a large number of prescribed drugs, contributes to the poor success rate of CNS drug candidates, and probably contributes to patient-to-patient variability in response to CNS pharmacotherapy. Modulating P-glycoprotein could therefore improve drug delivery into the brain. Here we review the current understanding of signaling mechanisms responsible for the modulation of P-glycoprotein activity/expression at the blood-brain barrier with an emphasis on recent studies from our laboratories. Using intact brain capillaries from rats and mice, we have identified multiple extracellular and intracellular signals that regulate this transporter; several signaling pathways have been mapped. Three pathways are triggered by elements of the brain's innate immune response, one by glutamate, one by xenobiotic-nuclear receptor (pregnane X receptor) interactions, and one by elevated beta-amyloid levels. Signaling is complex, with several pathways sharing common signaling elements [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1, endothelin (ET) B receptor, protein kinase C, and nitric-oxide synthase), suggesting a regulatory network. Several pathways include autocrine/paracrine elements, involving release of the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, and the polypeptide hormone, ET-1. Finally, several steps in signaling are potential therapeutic targets that could be used to modulate P-glycoprotein activity in the clinic.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. LXVIII. Mammalian bombesin receptors: nomenclature, distribution, pharmacology, signaling, and functions in normal and disease states.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2007-12-07
    R T Jensen,J F Battey,E R Spindel,R V Benya

    The mammalian bombesin receptor family comprises three G protein-coupled heptahelical receptors: the neuromedin B (NMB) receptor (BB(1)), the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor (BB(2)), and the orphan receptor bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) (BB(3)). Each receptor is widely distributed, especially in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and central nervous system (CNS), and the receptors have a large range of effects in both normal physiology and pathophysiological conditions. The mammalian bombesin peptides, GRP and NMB, demonstrate a broad spectrum of pharmacological/biological responses. GRP stimulates smooth muscle contraction and GI motility, release of numerous GI hormones/neurotransmitters, and secretion and/or hormone release from the pancreas, stomach, colon, and numerous endocrine organs and has potent effects on immune cells, potent growth effects on both normal tissues and tumors, potent CNS effects, including regulation of circadian rhythm, thermoregulation; anxiety/fear responses, food intake, and numerous CNS effects on the GI tract as well as the spinal transmission of chronic pruritus. NMB causes contraction of smooth muscle, has growth effects in various tissues, has CNS effects, including effects on feeding and thermoregulation, regulates thyroid-stimulating hormone release, stimulates various CNS neurons, has behavioral effects, and has effects on spinal sensory transmission. GRP, and to a lesser extent NMB, affects growth and/or differentiation of various human tumors, including colon, prostate, lung, and some gynecologic cancers. Knockout studies show that BB(3) has important effects in energy balance, glucose homeostasis, control of body weight, lung development and response to injury, tumor growth, and perhaps GI motility. This review summarizes advances in our understanding of the biology/pharmacology of these receptors, including their classification, structure, pharmacology, physiology, and role in pathophysiological conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2006-09-14
    Pál Pacher,Sándor Bátkai,George Kunos

    The recent identification of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous lipid ligands has triggered an exponential growth of studies exploring the endocannabinoid system and its regulatory functions in health and disease. Such studies have been greatly facilitated by the introduction of selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists and inhibitors of endocannabinoid metabolism and transport, as well as mice deficient in cannabinoid receptors or the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amidohydrolase. In the past decade, the endocannabinoid system has been implicated in a growing number of physiological functions, both in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in peripheral organs. More importantly, modulating the activity of the endocannabinoid system turned out to hold therapeutic promise in a wide range of disparate diseases and pathological conditions, ranging from mood and anxiety disorders, movement disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, to cancer, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, glaucoma, obesity/metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, to name just a few. An impediment to the development of cannabinoid medications has been the socially unacceptable psychoactive properties of plant-derived or synthetic agonists, mediated by CB(1) receptors. However, this problem does not arise when the therapeutic aim is achieved by treatment with a CB(1) receptor antagonist, such as in obesity, and may also be absent when the action of endocannabinoids is enhanced indirectly through blocking their metabolism or transport. The use of selective CB(2) receptor agonists, which lack psychoactive properties, could represent another promising avenue for certain conditions. The abuse potential of plant-derived cannabinoids may also be limited through the use of preparations with controlled composition and the careful selection of dose and route of administration. The growing number of preclinical studies and clinical trials with compounds that modulate the endocannabinoid system will probably result in novel therapeutic approaches in a number of diseases for which current treatments do not fully address the patients' need. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview on the current state of knowledge of the endocannabinoid system as a target of pharmacotherapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology LVIII: update on the P2Y G protein-coupled nucleotide receptors: from molecular mechanisms and pathophysiology to therapy.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2006-09-14
    Maria P Abbracchio,Geoffrey Burnstock,Jean-Marie Boeynaems,Eric A Barnard,José L Boyer,Charles Kennedy,Gillian E Knight,Marta Fumagalli,Christian Gachet,Kenneth A Jacobson,Gary A Weisman

    There have been many advances in our knowledge about different aspects of P2Y receptor signaling since the last review published by our International Union of Pharmacology subcommittee. More receptor subtypes have been cloned and characterized and most orphan receptors de-orphanized, so that it is now possible to provide a basis for a future subdivision of P2Y receptor subtypes. More is known about the functional elements of the P2Y receptor molecules and the signaling pathways involved, including interactions with ion channels. There have been substantial developments in the design of selective agonists and antagonists to some of the P2Y receptor subtypes. There are new findings about the mechanisms underlying nucleotide release and ectoenzymatic nucleotide breakdown. Interactions between P2Y receptors and receptors to other signaling molecules have been explored as well as P2Y-mediated control of gene transcription. The distribution and roles of P2Y receptor subtypes in many different cell types are better understood and P2Y receptor-related compounds are being explored for therapeutic purposes. These and other advances are discussed in the present review.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Therapeutic effects of xanthine oxidase inhibitors: renaissance half a century after the discovery of allopurinol.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2006-03-02
    Pál Pacher,Alex Nivorozhkin,Csaba Szabó

    The prototypical xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor allopurinol, has been the cornerstone of the clinical management of gout and conditions associated with hyperuricemia for several decades. More recent data indicate that XO also plays an important role in various forms of ischemic and other types of tissue and vascular injuries, inflammatory diseases, and chronic heart failure. Allopurinol and its active metabolite oxypurinol showed considerable promise in the treatment of these conditions both in experimental animals and in small-scale human clinical trials. Although some of the beneficial effects of these compounds may be unrelated to the inhibition of the XO, the encouraging findings rekindled significant interest in the development of additional, novel series of XO inhibitors for various therapeutic indications. Here we present a critical overview of the effects of XO inhibitors in various pathophysiological conditions and also review the various emerging therapeutic strategies offered by this approach.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Pharmacology. XVIII. Nomenclature of receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 1998-07-02
    A J Harmar,A Arimura,I Gozes,L Journot,M Laburthe,J R Pisegna,S R Rawlings,P Robberecht,S I Said,S P Sreedharan,S A Wank,J A Waschek

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCII. Urotensin II, urotensin II-related peptide, and their receptor: from structure to function.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2014-12-24
    Hubert Vaudry,Jérôme Leprince,David Chatenet,Alain Fournier,David G Lambert,Jean-Claude Le Mével,Eliot H Ohlstein,Adel Schwertani,Hervé Tostivint,David Vaudry

    Urotensin II (UII) is a cyclic neuropeptide that was first isolated from the urophysis of teleost fish on the basis of its ability to contract the hindgut. Subsequently, UII was characterized in tetrapods including humans. Phylogenetic studies and synteny analysis indicate that UII and its paralogous peptide urotensin II-related peptide (URP) belong to the somatostatin/cortistatin superfamily. In mammals, the UII and URP genes are primarily expressed in cholinergic neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. UII and URP mRNAs are also present in various organs notably in the cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine systems. UII and URP activate a common G protein-coupled receptor, called UT, that exhibits relatively high sequence identity with somatostatin, opioid, and galanin receptors. The UT gene is widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral tissues including the retina, heart, vascular bed, lung, kidney, adrenal medulla, and skeletal muscle. Structure-activity relationship studies and NMR conformational analysis have led to the rational design of a number of peptidic and nonpeptidic UT agonists and antagonists. Consistent with the wide distribution of UT, UII has now been shown to exert a large array of biologic activities, in particular in the CNS, the cardiovascular system, and the kidney. Here, we review the current knowledge concerning the pleiotropic actions of UII and discusses the possible use of antagonists for future therapeutic applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXV: calcium-activated chloride channels.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2011-11-18
    Fen Huang,Xiuming Wong,Lily Y Jan

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are widely expressed in various tissues and implicated in physiological processes such as sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Transmembrane proteins with unknown function 16 (TMEM16A) has recently been identified as a major component of CaCCs. Detailed molecular analysis of TMEM16A will be needed to understand its structure-function relationships. The role this channel plays in physiological systems remains to be established and is currently a subject of intense investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XC. multisite pharmacology: recommendations for the nomenclature of receptor allosterism and allosteric ligands.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2014-07-17
    Arthur Christopoulos,Jean-Pierre Changeux,William A Catterall,Doriano Fabbro,Thomas P Burris,John A Cidlowski,Richard W Olsen,John A Peters,Richard R Neubig,Jean-Philippe Pin,Patrick M Sexton,Terry P Kenakin,Frederick J Ehlert,Michael Spedding,Christopher J Langmead

    Allosteric interactions play vital roles in metabolic processes and signal transduction and, more recently, have become the focus of numerous pharmacological studies because of the potential for discovering more target-selective chemical probes and therapeutic agents. In addition to classic early studies on enzymes, there are now examples of small molecule allosteric modulators for all superfamilies of receptors encoded by the genome, including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. As a consequence, a vast array of pharmacologic behaviors has been ascribed to allosteric ligands that can vary in a target-, ligand-, and cell-/tissue-dependent manner. The current article presents an overview of allostery as applied to receptor families and approaches for detecting and validating allosteric interactions and gives recommendations for the nomenclature of allosteric ligands and their properties.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pharmacogenetics and cardiovascular disease--implications for personalized medicine.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2013-05-21
    Julie A Johnson,Larisa H Cavallari

    The past decade has seen tremendous advances in our understanding of the genetic factors influencing response to a variety of drugs, including those targeted at treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the case of clopidogrel, warfarin, and statins, the literature has become sufficiently strong that guidelines are now available describing the use of genetic information to guide treatment with these therapies, and some health centers are using this information in the care of their patients. There are many challenges in moving from research data to translation to practice; we discuss some of these barriers and the approaches some health systems are taking to overcome them. The body of literature that has led to the clinical implementation of CYP2C19 genotyping for clopidogrel, VKORC1, CYP2C9; and CYP4F2 for warfarin; and SLCO1B1 for statins is comprehensively described. We also provide clarity for other genes that have been extensively studied relative to these drugs, but for which the data are conflicting. Finally, we comment briefly on pharmacogenetics of other cardiovascular drugs and highlight β-blockers as the drug class with strong data that has not yet seen clinical implementation. It is anticipated that genetic information will increasingly be available on patients, and it is important to identify those examples where the evidence is sufficiently robust and predictive to use genetic information to guide clinical decisions. The review herein provides several examples of the accumulation of evidence and eventual clinical translation in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contrasting Regulation of Catecholamine Neurotransmission in the Behaving Brain: Pharmacological Insights from an Electrochemical Perspective.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2017-03-08
    Megan E Fox,R Mark Wightman

    Catecholamine neurotransmission plays a key role in regulating a variety of behavioral and physiologic processes, and its dysregulation is implicated in both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Over the last four decades, in vivo electrochemistry has enabled the discovery of contrasting catecholamine regulation in the brain. These rapid and spatially resolved measurements have been conducted in brain slices, and in anesthetized and freely behaving animals. In this review, we describe the methods enabling in vivo measurements of dopamine and norepinephrine, and subsequent findings regarding their release and regulation in intact animals. We thereafter discuss key studies in awake animals, demonstrating that these catecholamines are not only differentially regulated, but are released in opposition of each other during appetitive and aversive stimuli.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The molecular pharmacology and cell biology of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2005-05-26
    Claire L Palmer,Lucy Cotton,Jeremy M Henley

    Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs) are of fundamental importance in the brain. They are responsible for the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission, and their overactivation is potently excitotoxic. Recent findings have implicated AMPARs in synapse formation and stabilization, and regulation of functional AMPARs is the principal mechanism underlying synaptic plasticity. Changes in AMPAR activity have been described in the pathology of numerous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and epilepsy. Unsurprisingly, the developmental and activity-dependent changes in the functional synaptic expression of these receptors are under tight cellular regulation. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that control the postsynaptic insertion, arrangement, and lifetime of surface-expressed AMPARs are the subject of intense and widespread investigation. For example, there has been an explosion of information about proteins that interact with AMPAR subunits, and these interactors are beginning to provide real insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the cell biology of AMPARs. As a result, there has been considerable progress in this field, and the aim of this review is to provide an account of the current state of knowledge.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychedelics.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2016-02-05
    David E Nichols

    Psychedelics (serotonergic hallucinogens) are powerful psychoactive substances that alter perception and mood and affect numerous cognitive processes. They are generally considered physiologically safe and do not lead to dependence or addiction. Their origin predates written history, and they were employed by early cultures in many sociocultural and ritual contexts. After the virtually contemporaneous discovery of (5R,8R)-(+)-lysergic acid-N,N-diethylamide (LSD)-25 and the identification of serotonin in the brain, early research focused intensively on the possibility that LSD and other psychedelics had a serotonergic basis for their action. Today there is a consensus that psychedelics are agonists or partial agonists at brain serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptors, with particular importance on those expressed on apical dendrites of neocortical pyramidal cells in layer V. Several useful rodent models have been developed over the years to help unravel the neurochemical correlates of serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor activation in the brain, and a variety of imaging techniques have been employed to identify key brain areas that are directly affected by psychedelics. Recent and exciting developments in the field have occurred in clinical research, where several double-blind placebo-controlled phase 2 studies of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy in patients with cancer-related psychosocial distress have demonstrated unprecedented positive relief of anxiety and depression. Two small pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy also have shown positive benefit in treating both alcohol and nicotine addiction. Recently, blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography have been employed for in vivo brain imaging in humans after administration of a psychedelic, and results indicate that intravenously administered psilocybin and LSD produce decreases in oscillatory power in areas of the brain's default mode network.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Therapeutic implications for striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) in neuropsychiatric disorders.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2011-11-18
    Susan M Goebel-Goody,Matthew Baum,Constantinos D Paspalas,Stephanie M Fernandez,Niki C Carty,Pradeep Kurup,Paul J Lombroso

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-specific phosphatase that modulates key signaling molecules involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function. Targets include extracellular-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), stress-activated protein kinase p38 (p38), the Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). STEP-mediated dephosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and Fyn leads to inactivation of these enzymes, whereas STEP-mediated dephosphorylation of surface NMDARs and AMPARs promotes their endocytosis. Accordingly, the current model of STEP function posits that it opposes long-term potentiation and promotes long-term depression. Phosphorylation, cleavage, dimerization, ubiquitination, and local translation all converge to maintain an appropriate balance of STEP in the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence over the past decade indicates that STEP dysregulation contributes to the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, fragile X syndrome, epileptogenesis, alcohol-induced memory loss, Huntington's disease, drug abuse, stroke/ischemia, and inflammatory pain. This comprehensive review discusses STEP expression and regulation and highlights how disrupted STEP function contributes to the pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVII. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor and Its Pharmacologic Modulators.
    Pharmacol. Rev. (IF 18.886) Pub Date : 2015-05-30
    Eric R Prossnitz,Jeffrey B Arterburn

    Estrogens are critical mediators of multiple and diverse physiologic effects throughout the body in both sexes, including the reproductive, cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, and immune systems. As such, alterations in estrogen function play important roles in many diseases and pathophysiological conditions (including cancer), exemplified by the lower prevalence of many diseases in premenopausal women. Estrogens mediate their effects through multiple cellular receptors, including the nuclear receptor family (ERα and ERβ) and the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family (GPR30/G protein-coupled estrogen receptor [GPER]). Although both receptor families can initiate rapid cell signaling and transcriptional regulation, the nuclear receptors are traditionally associated with regulating gene expression, whereas GPCRs are recognized as mediating rapid cellular signaling. Estrogen-activated pathways are not only the target of multiple therapeutic agents (e.g., tamoxifen, fulvestrant, raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors) but are also affected by a plethora of phyto- and xeno-estrogens (e.g., genistein, coumestrol, bisphenol A, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). Because of the existence of multiple estrogen receptors with overlapping ligand specificities, expression patterns, and signaling pathways, the roles of the individual receptors with respect to the diverse array of endogenous and exogenous ligands have been challenging to ascertain. The identification of GPER-selective ligands however has led to a much greater understanding of the roles of this receptor in normal physiology and disease as well as its interactions with the classic estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ and their signaling pathways. In this review, we describe the history and characterization of GPER over the past 15 years focusing on the pharmacology of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds that have been employed to unravel the biology of this most recently recognized estrogen receptor.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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