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  • Beyond linear mediation: Toward a dynamic network approach to study treatment processes
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Stefan G. Hofmann; Joshua E. Curtiss; Steven C. Hayes

    Few clinical scientists would disagree that more research is needed on the underlying mechanisms and processes of change in psychological therapies. In the dominant current approach, processes of change are studied through mediation. The study of mediation has been largely structured around a distinction between moderation and mediation first popularized by Baron and Kenny's (1986) seminal article, which is based on a nomothetic and cross-sectional framework. In this article, we argue that this approach is unable to adequately address change processes in psychological therapies, because it falsely assumes that treatment change is a linear, unidirectional, pauci-variate process and that the statistical assumptions are met to study processes of change in an individual using a nomothetic approach. In contrast, we propose that treatment is a dynamic process involving numerous variables that may form bi-directional and complex relationships that differ between individuals. Such relationships can best be studied using an individual dynamic network approach connected to nomothetic generalization methods that are based on a firm idiographic foundation. We argue that our proposal is available, viable, and can readily be integrated into existing research strategies. We further argue that adopting an individual dynamic network approach combined with experimental analyses will accelerate the study of treatment change processes, which is necessary as the field of evidence-based care moves toward a process-based model. We encourage future research to gather empirical evidence to examine this approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Growth Mindsets and psychological distress: A meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Jeni L. Burnette; Laura E. Knouse; Dylan T. Vavra; Ernest O'Boyle; Milan A. Brooks

    We investigated if growth mindsets—the belief in the malleable nature of human attributes—are negatively related to psychological distress and if they are positively related to treatment value and active coping. In the meta-analysis, we included articles published between 1988 and 2019, written in English, that reported on mindsets as well as a qualifying dependent variable and included information required to calculate an effect size. With a random effects approach, meta-analytic results (k = 72 samples, N = 17,692) demonstrated that mindsets relate to, albeit with minimal effects, to distress, treatment and coping. Specifically, there is a negative relation between growth mindsets and psychological distress (r = −0.220), a positive relation between growth mindsets and treatment value (r = 0.137) and a positive relation between growth mindsets and active coping (r = 0.207). Differences in mindset domain, assessment method of mindsets and timing of assessments moderated effects. There were not differences based on operationalization of psychological distress outcome or sample characteristics (i.e., developmental stage, diagnostic status, ethnicity). We discuss theoretical and practical applications of the findings.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The effect of four Immeasurables meditations on depressive symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    L.V. Jing; Qiuling Liu; Xianglong Zeng; Tian P.S. Oei; Yidan Liu; X.U. Kexin; Wenxiang Sun; Hanchao Hou; Jing Liu

    The Four Immeasurables Meditations (FIM) intervention have been shown as a promising intervention for reducing depressive symptoms. The current study is a systematic review of FIM intervention effects on depressive symptoms. Among 192 empirical research articles on FIM published before May 2019, 40 independent trials from 35 records measured depressive symptoms. The meta-analysis included 21 randomized controlled trials (RCT; n = 1468) and 16 uncontrolled trials (n = 376). The results supported overall effectiveness of FIM on depressive symptoms (d = 0.38 for RCT and d = 0.87 for uncontrolled trials). Moderator analysis indicated the effects differed across protocols, and effects were smaller in RCT using active control groups. No significant differences were observed for participant type, measures, intervention length, or intervention components. Individual studies found no direct association between meditation practice time and effects, and mindfulness and self-compassion were widely supported as mechanisms of change. Current evidence supports FIM as an effective intervention for reducing depressive symptoms, but additional studies with more rigorous designs using active control groups are needed. Further investigation should be encouraged regarding specific protocols and participants, the contribution of meditation practice, and other mechanisms such as positive emotions.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Mediators in psychological and psychoeducational interventions for the prevention of depression and anxiety. A systematic review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Patricia Moreno-Peral; Juan Ángel Bellón; Marcus J.H. Huibers; José M. Mestre; Luís Joaquín García-López; Svenja Taubner; Alberto Rodríguez-Morejón; Felix Bolinski; Célia M.D. Sales; Sonia Conejo-Cerón

    Although efforts have been undertaken to determine how psychological interventions exert their effects, research on mediators and mechanisms of change remains limited, especially in the field of prevention. We aimed to assess available evidence on mediators of psychological and psychoeducational interventions for the prevention of depression and anxiety in varied populations. A systematic review using PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, OpenGrey, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility criteria of all articles, extracted data, determined the risk of bias in randomized controlled trials, and the requirements for mediators. The outcomes were mediators of the incidence of depression or anxiety and/or the reduction of symptoms of depression or anxiety. We identified 28 nested mediator studies within randomized controlled trials involving 7442 participants. Potential cognitive, behavioral, emotional and interpersonal mediators were evaluated in different psychological and psychoeducational interventions to prevent depression and anxiety. The effects were mediated mainly by cognitive variables, which were the most commonly assessed factors. For depression, the mediator with the strongest empirical support was negative thinking in adults. Cognitive change is an important mediator in preventive psychological and psychoeducational interventions for both anxiety and depression. Registration details Registration number (PROSPERO): CRD42018092393.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • How do recovery-oriented interventions contribute to personal mental health recovery? A systematic review and logic model
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Catherine Winsper; Anne Crawford Docherty; Scott Weich; Sarah-Jane Fenton; Swaran P. Singh

    The emergent recovery paradigm prioritises adaption to serious mental illness and a move towards personally meaningful goals. In this review, we combine a theory driven logic model approach with systematic review techniques to forward understanding of how recovery-oriented interventions can help service users in their personal recovery journey. We identified 309 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Our logic model mapped out intervention typologies and their recovery outcomes, the mechanisms of action underpinning these links, and the contextual moderators of these mechanisms and outcomes. Interventions were associated with recovery outcomes (functional, existential and social) directly and through a sequence of processes, which were underpinned by four common mechanisms: 1) providing information and skills; 2) promoting a working alliance; 3) role modelling recovery; and 4) increasing choice. Moderators of these mechanisms were observed at the service user (e.g., motivation), mental health service (e.g., professional attitudes) and wider environmental (e.g., unemployment rates) level. Recovery-oriented interventions share common critical mechanisms, which can help propel service users towards recovery especially when delivered within pro-recovery and non-stigmatising contexts. Future studies should further examine ways to reduce (or remove) barriers preventing individuals with mental health problems from experiencing the same citizenship entitlements as everyone else.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Perceptions of mental health and perceived barriers to mental health help-seeking amongst refugees: A systematic review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Yulisha Byrow; Rosanna Pajak; Philippa Specker; Angela Nickerson

    Despite elevated rates of psychological disorders amongst individuals from a refugee background, levels of mental health help-seeking in these populations are low. There is an urgent need to understand the key barriers that prevent refugees and asylum-seekers from accessing help for psychological symptoms. This review synthesises literature examining perceptions of mental health and barriers to mental health help-seeking in individuals from a refugee background. Our analysis, which complies with PRISMA reporting guidelines, identified 62 relevant studies. Data extraction and thematic analytic techniques were used to synthesise findings from quantitative (n = 26) and qualitative (n = 40) studies. We found that the salient barriers to help-seeking were: (a) cultural barriers, including mental health stigma and knowledge of dominant models of mental health; (b) structural barriers, including financial strain, language proficiency, unstable accommodation, and a lack of understanding of how to access services, and (c) barriers specific to the refugee experience, including immigration status, a lack of trust in authority figures and concerns about confidentiality. We discuss and contextualise these key themes and consider how these findings can inform the development of policies and programs to increase treatment uptake and ultimately reduce the mental health burden amongst refugees and asylum-seekers.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Treating treatment non-responders: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled psychotherapy trials
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Andrew T. Gloster; Marcia T.B. Rinner; Myria Ioannou; Jeanette Villanueva; Victoria J. Firsching; Giovanna Ferrari; Charles Benoy; Klaus Bader; Maria Karekla

    Background Non-responsiveness to treatment occurs in approximately one third of patients. Randomized clinical trials of psychotherapy options for these patients are scarce and systematic knowledge about whether psychotherapy is a viable option is lacking. Objectives This meta-analysis aimed to 1) determine the amount of evidence available for treatment non-response using psychotherapy relative to pharmacological procedures; 2) systematically review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials (RCTs) used to treat non-responders; and 3) examine whether some psychotherapies are more efficacious than others. Data sources Online databases were systematically examined and references of relevant systematic reviews were hand-searched. Study eligibility criteria RCTs that administered a psychotherapy new to non-responders were considered. All Mood and Anxiety Disorders were considered. No limitations were made with respect to type of treatment. Review method A meta-analytic review of the psychotherapy RCTs for treatment non-responders. Results Results showed that psychotherapy was successful in treating treatment non-responders with a medium to large effect size. Between-group comparisons did not reveal significant differences in treatment effects for any of the assessed disorder or treatment types. Effects were maintained at follow-up. Conclusions Psychotherapy is a viable treatment option for treatment non-responders. More attention to this group of patients is needed and more research with better quality studies is warranted. Recommendations are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • How imagining personal future scenarios influences affect: Systematic review and meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Torben Schubert; Renée Eloo; Jana Scharfen; Nexhmedin Morina

    Imagining the future is a fundamental human capacity that occupies a large part of people's waking time and impacts their affective well-being. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of (1) positive future imagination and (2) negative future imagination on affect, and (3) compared the affective responses between imagining the future and remembering the past; lastly, we (4) examined potential moderating variables in this regard. We identified 63 experimental studies (N = 6813) from different research areas and combined studies that applied the best possible self imagination task, future worry induction, and episodic future simulation, respectively. Findings yielded that imagining the future has a moderate to strong impact on affect, and it has a stronger influence on affect compared to remembering the past. Relevant moderator variables in each research area were also identified. We discuss the findings for the field of psychology in general and clinical psychology in particular. More elaborate research on personal future imagination seems crucial for the further advancement of clinical applications for mental health complaints. We conclude with recommendations for future research on the impact of future imagination on affective well-being.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Why check? A meta-analysis of checking in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Threat vs. distrust of senses
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Asher Y. Strauss; Isaac Fradkin; Richard J. McNally; Omer Linkovski; Gidon Anholt; Jonathan D. Huppert

    Compulsive checking is the most common ritual among individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Yet, other than uncertainty, the variables prompting checking are not fully understood. Laboratory studies suggest that task conditions - whether threatening (anxiety-relevant) or neutral, and task type - whether requiring perceptual or reasoning decision-making – may be influential. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to compare OCD participants and healthy controls on experimental tasks involving uncertainty in which a behavioral measure of checking was obtained. Four databases were searched. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, including 43 conditions comparing 663 OCD participants to 614 healthy controls. Due to the dependent structure of the data a robust variance estimation analysis approach was used. Overall effects were similar for neutral and threatening conditions. However, OCD participants responded with greater checking compared to controls on perceptual tasks, but not on reasoning tasks. Results support previous reports suggesting that OCD checking can be observed in neutral conditions, possibly posing as a risk factor for a checking vicious cycle. In addition, our results support OCD models which focus on checking as stemming from interference with automatic processes and distrust of sensory modalities.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A meta-analysis of the associations between callous-unemotional traits and empathy, prosociality, and guilt
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Rebecca Waller, Nicholas J. Wagner, Matthew G. Barstead, Anni Subar, Jennifer L. Petersen, Janet S. Hyde, Luke W. Hyde

    Antisocial behavior is harmful, financially costly to society, and hard to treat. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, which predict greater risk for antisocial behavior, are defined in theoretical and diagnostic models as representing low empathy, guilt, and prosociality. However, no meta-analytic reviews have systematically integrated the findings of studies that have reported associations between measures of CU traits and empathy, guilt, or prosociality, or potential moderators of these associations, including gender, age, severity of antisocial behavior, and informant (i.e., self or other reports of measures). To address this gap in the literature, we conducted three separate meta-analyses exploring the association between CU traits and empathy, guilt, and prosociality. In follow-up analyses, we explored associations between CU traits and affective versus cognitive empathy. The results revealed statistically significant and moderate-to-large negative associations between measures of CU traits and empathy (ρ = −.57), guilt (ρ = −.40), and prosociality (ρ = −.66). The negative association between CU traits and cognitive empathy was stronger when the informant was a parent or teacher rather than the child, and in younger children. CU traits were also more strongly related to cognitive empathy than affective empathy when the informant was a parent or teacher rather than the child, and in younger children. The findings establish that CU traits are moderately-to-strongly correlated with the presence of callous (low empathy), uncaring (low prosociality), and remorseless (low guilt) behaviors.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Psychological theories of depressive relapse and recurrence: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Marlies E. Brouwer, Alishia D. Williams, Mitzy Kennis, Zhongfang Fu, Nicola S. Klein, Pim Cuijpers, Claudi L.H. Bockting

    Psychological factors hypothesized to account for relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD) roughly originate from five main theories: Cognitive, diathesis-stress, behavioural, psychodynamic, and personality-based. In a meta-analysis we investigated prospective, longitudinal evidence for these leading psychological theories and their factors in relation to depressive relapse. Included studies needed to establish history of MDD and prospective depressive relapse through a clinical interview, have a longitudinal and prospective design, and measure at least one theory-derived factor before relapse. We identified 66 eligible articles out of 43,586 records published up to November 2018. Pooled odds ratios (OR) indicated a significant relationship between the cognitive, behavioural, and personality-based theories and depressive relapse (cognitive: k = 17, OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.10–1.40; behavioural, k = 8, OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.05–1.25; personality: k = 12, OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.02–1.54), but not for the psychodynamic theories (k = 4, OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.83–1.99). Pooled hazard ratios of the theories were not significant. There were no articles identified for the diathesis-stress theories. To conclude, there is a restricted number of prospective studies, and some evidence that the cognitive, behavioural, and personality-based theories indeed partially account for depressive relapse.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • The diagnostic accuracy of brief screening instruments for problem gambling: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    N.A. Dowling, S.S. Merkouris, S. Dias, S.N. Rodda, V. Manning, G. Youssef, D.I. Lubman, R.A. Volberg

    Non-gambling specialist services, such as primary care, alcohol and other drug use, and mental health services, are well placed to enhance the identification of people with gambling problems and offer appropriate generalist first level interventions or referral. Given time and resource demands, many of these clinical services may only have the capacity to administer very short screening instruments. This systematic review was conducted to provide a resource for health service providers and researchers in identifying the most accurate brief (1–5 item) screening instruments to identify problem and at-risk gambling for their specific purposes and populations. A systematic search of peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1990 to 2019 identified 25 articles for inclusion. Meta-analysis revealed five of the 20 available instruments met criteria for satisfactory diagnostic accuracy in detecting both problem and at-risk gambling: Brief Problem Gambling Screen (BPGS-2), NODS-CLiP, Problem Gambling Severity Index-Short Form (PGSI-SF), NODS-PERC, and NODS-CLiP2. Of these, the NODS-CLiP and NODS-PERC have the largest volume of diagnostic data. The Lie/Bet Questionnaire and One-Item Screen are also promising shorter options. Because these conclusions are drawn from a relatively limited evidence base, future studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of existing brief instruments across settings, age groups, and timeframes are needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • The Computations of hostile biases (CHB) model: Grounding hostility biases in a unified cognitive framework
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Danique Smeijers, Erik B.H. Bulten, Inti A. Brazil

    Our behavior is partly a product of our perception of the world, and aggressive individuals have been found to have ‘hostility biases’ in their perception and interpretation of social information. Four types of hostility biases can be distinguished: the hostile attribution, interpretation, expectation, and perception bias. Such low-level biases are believed to have a profound influence on decision-making, and possibly also increase the likelihood of engaging in aggressive acts. The current review systematically examined extant research on the four types of hostility bias, with a particular focus on the associations between each type of hostility bias and aggressive behavior. The results confirmed the robust association between hostility biases and aggressive behavior. However, it is still unknown how exactly hostility biases are acquired. This is also caused by a tendency to study hostility biases separately, as if they are non-interacting phenomena. Another issue is that current approaches cannot directly quantify the latent cognitive processes pertaining to the hostility biases, thus creating an explanatory gap. To fill this gap, we embedded the results of the systematic review in a state-of-the-art computational framework, which provides a novel mechanistic account with testable predictions.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • The relationship between trait mindfulness and affective symptoms: A meta-analysis of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Joseph K. Carpenter, Kristina Conroy, Angelina F. Gomez, Laura C. Curren, Stefan G. Hofmann

    Trait mindfulness appears to be related to lower levels of negative affective symptoms, but it remains uncertain which facets of mindfulness are most important in this relationship. Accordingly, the present meta-analysis examined studies reporting correlations between affective symptoms and trait mindfulness as assessed by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. A comprehensive search yielded 148 eligible studies, comprising 157 distinct samples and 44,075 participants. The weighted mean correlation for affective symptoms and overall trait mindfulness was r = −0.53. Among mindfulness facets, Nonjudge (r = −0.48) and Act with Awareness (r = −0.47) demonstrated the largest correlations, followed by Nonreact (r = −0.33) and Describe (r = −0.29). Observe was not significantly correlated with affective symptoms. No significant differences in the strength of correlations were found between anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, though symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder exhibited a weaker negative relationship with the Describe facet compared to PTSD symptoms. Describe also showed a stronger relationship with affective symptoms in Eastern samples compared to Western samples, whereas Western samples had a stronger relationship with Nonjudge. These results provide insight into the nature of the association between trait mindfulness and negative affect.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Prevalence and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Richard T. Liu, Ana E. Sheehan, Rachel F.L. Walsh, Christina M. Sanzari, Shayna M. Cheek, Evelyn M. Hernandez

    The current review presents a meta-analysis of the existing empirical literature on the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals, as well as on correlates of NSSI within sexual and gender minority populations. Eligible publications (n = 51) were identified through a systematic search of PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and Embase, supplemented by a search of references of prior reviews on this topic. NSSI prevalence rates were quite elevated among sexual (29.68% lifetime) and gender (46.65% lifetime) minority individuals compared to heterosexual and/or cisgender peers (14.57% lifetime), with transgender (46.65% lifetime) and bisexual (41.47% lifetime) individuals being at greatest risk. Even among these group findings, sexual minority youth emerged as an especially vulnerable population. Moreover, current evidence suggests these rates and differences between LGBT and heterosexual and/or cisgender peers have not declined over time. These findings may in some measure be due to the existence of LGBT-specific risk correlates combined with general risk correlates being more severe among sexual and gender minority populations. Additional research, particularly employing a longitudinal design, is needed in this area to advance efforts to reduce risk for NSSI among sexual and gender minority individuals.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • The effectiveness of initial therapy contact: A systematic review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Katie Aafjes-van Doorn, Kristen Sweeney

    ‘Initial therapy contacts’, defined as (the first) 3 h or less of face-to-face psychological treatment, encompassing both the early phase of a longer therapy and one-off single session therapies, are seen as a critical phase of treatment. However, little is known about the direct effect of initial therapy contacts on change in common symptoms typically presented by patients in psychological therapy services. Our systematic literature search resulted in 35 identified empirical studies on the effect of initial therapy contacts. These studies were analyzed in three stages: 1) A systematic comparison of study characteristics using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses; 2) A domain-based evaluation of methodological rigor of the studies, in line with Cochrane's guidelines on assessing risk of bias; 3) A narrative synthesis of reported findings. The considerable variability in therapy format (a stand-alone single session, 2 + 1 format, or initial session of multisession therapy) and study design (post/pre-post measurement, with/without control) limited comparability of studies. The quality assessment indicated that the majority of studies had relatively weak methodologies overall. Qualitative synthesis of the effectiveness results suggests that a significant proportion of patients reported benefits, including symptom change. This positive effect is especially clear when compared to no-treatment controls, and appears to be maintained at follow-up. The findings suggest that a broad range of initial therapy formats, could in itself be beneficial to patients in primary care treatment settings, and that further research is warranted.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • The impact of methodological and measurement factors on transdiagnostic associations with intolerance of uncertainty: A meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Peter M. McEvoy, Matthew P. Hyett, Sarah Shihata, Jordan E. Price, Laura Strachan

    Intolerance of uncertainty is a dispositional trait associated with a range of psychological disorders, but the influence of methodological factors on theses associations remains unknown. The first aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the strengths of the association between IU and symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and eating disorders. The second aim was to assess the influence of methodological factors on these relationships, including clinical (vs. non-clinical) status, age group, sex, IU measure, and symptom measure. We extracted 181 studies (N participants = 52,402) reporting 335 independent effect sizes (Pearson's r). Overall, there was a moderate association between IU and symptoms (r = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.50–0.52), although heterogeneity was high (I2 = 83.50, p < .001). Some small but significant moderator effects emerged between and within disorders. Effect sizes were not impacted by sample size. The results indicate that IU has robust, moderate associations with a range of disorder symptoms, providing definitive evidence for the transdiagnostic nature of IU.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maladaptive player-game relationships in problematic gaming and gaming disorder: A systematic review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Daniel L. King, Paul H. Delfabbro, Jose C. Perales, Jory Deleuze, Orsolya Király, Elfrid Krossbakken, Joël Billieux

    While certain player vulnerabilities are known to increase risk of gaming disorder (GD), the topic of maladaptive player × game relationships in GD has received limited attention. This review aimed to: (1) identify game types associated with GD symptomatology; and (2) evaluate individual differences (e.g., age, personality, depression) in the relationship between gaming and GD symptomatology. A systematic review of six databases identified 23 studies of the relations between game types and GD, including 13 studies employing multivariate analyses. Player vulnerabilities implicated in GD included impulsivity, risk-taking, psychopathological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), and stronger gaming motivations (e.g., escapism, achievement). MMORPG involvement had the strongest positive association with GD. Problematic MMORPG players tend to have a socially anxious profile and may be attracted to the work-like roles and conventions of this genre. Problematic players of shooters tend to score higher on measures of sensation-seeking and impulsivity than other players. These findings suggest that GD may develop more readily and at more severe levels in complex, endless, socially driven games, irrespective of person-level characteristics. Some player vulnerabilities may selectively increase risk of GD for certain game types. Further research should investigate different player-game interactions to refine current models and interventions for GD.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Attachment and attention problems: A meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Susanna Pallini, Mara Morelli, Antonio Chirumbolo, Roberto Baiocco, Fiorenzo Laghi, Nancy Eisenberg

    Attachment theorists have argued that securely attached children tend to exhibit flexible attention; the attention of children with resistant attachments is centered on attachment-related worries; children with avoidant attachments defensively focus attention away from attachment-related emotions/thoughts; and children with disorganized attachments exhibit the collapse of attention and disorientation. In this meta-analysis, the relation between attachment security status and attention problems (APs) in children (18 years and younger) was found. In total, 62 studies (67 samples) met the inclusion criteria. Children with insecure attachments were higher in APs than those with a secure attachment (r = 0.21); those with avoidant or resistant attachments were higher than securely attached children (rs = 0.10 and 0.21, respectively); children with disorganized attachments were higher than those with organized attachments (r = 0.27). Effects were larger when attachment and APs were measured concurrently/closer in time (for secure versus all; disorganized versus organized attachment); for representational versus observational measures of attachment, non-parental reports of APs, and attachment assessed at an older age (for disorganized versus organized attachment); for samples with proportionally fewer boys (secure versus resistant attachment); in recent studies (secure versus avoidant attachment); and when disorganized children were in a high-risk sample or resistant children were in a low-risk condition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Romantic attachment style and borderline personality pathology: A meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Madison Smith, Susan South

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) implies profound impairment in interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships (Daley, Burge, & Hammen, 2000). Insecure attachment bears striking resemblance to BPD traits in both empirical and theoretical work (Levy et al., 2015) and may be particularly suited for understanding the BPD-related deficits in romantic functioning. Despite several qualitative reviews concluding that secure attachment is disrupted in those with BPD traits, no consensus has emerged regarding the form of this disruption (Levy et al., 2015), with most reviews focusing on whether BPD is best captured as high levels of attachment anxiety or attachment avoidance. The purpose of the current review is to provide a quantitative synthesis of the strength and direction of the associations between attachment insecurity and BPD traits. Searches on PsycINFO and Pubmed resulted in 27 effect sizes that measured BPD and adult romantic attachment on the two primary dimensions of anxiety and avoidance (Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000). Results demonstrated that attachment anxiety correlates most strongly with BPD traits (r = 0.48); however, attachment avoidance also evinced a significant effect (r = 0.29). Findings from regression analyses indicate that attachment anxiety and avoidance interact, suggesting a particularly strong relationship between attachment disorganization and BPD traits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with a history of traumatic brain injury: A systematic review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Ana Mikolić, Suzanne Polinder, Isabel R.A. Retel Helmrich, Juanita A. Haagsma, Maryse C. Cnossen

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occurs with traumatic brain injury (TBI). We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of treatments for PTSD in adult patients with a history of TBI. We searched for longitudinal studies aimed at treatments for PTSD patients who sustained a TBI, published in English between 1980 and February 2019. Twenty-three studies were found eligible, and 26 case studies were included for a separate overview. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Research Triangle Institute item bank. The majority of studies included types of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in male service members and veterans with a history of mild TBI in the United States. Studies using prolonged exposure (PE), cognitive-processing therapy (CPT) or other types of CBT, usually in combination with additional treatments, showed favorable outcomes. A smaller number of studies described complementary and novel therapies, which showed promising results. Overall, the quality of studies was considered low. We concluded that CBT seem appropriate for the patient population with history of TBI. The evidence is less strong for other therapies. We recommend controlled studies of PTSD treatments including more female patients and those with a history of moderate to severe TBIs in civilian and military populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The developmental origins of ruminative response style: An integrative review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Zoey A. Shaw, Lori M. Hilt, Lisa R. Starr
    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of body image disturbance in the onset, maintenance, and relapse of anorexia nervosa: A systematic review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Klaske A. Glashouwer, M.L. Van der Veer, Fayanadya Adipatria, Peter J. de Jong, Silja Vocks

    Body image disturbance is an important feature of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Some researchers have argued that body image disturbance is not just a symptom of AN, but plays a causal role in the development, persistence, and relapse of AN. Our aim was to systematically review the existing empirical evidence concerning the role of the cognitive-affective, perceptual, and behavioral components of body image disturbance in AN. 46 studies fulfilled eligibility criteria reporting about 4928 participants with AN. There is some evidence suggesting that body image disturbance is related to the course of AN. However, experimental studies were missing and operationalizations of body image constructs and AN outcome measures varied greatly across studies. Therefore, on the basis of the available empirical data, it remained unclear whether body image disturbance is indeed a causal risk factor for AN. For future studies, it is crucial to use more consistent terminology and more specific and precise definitions of body image constructs as well as experimental designs, adequately powered samples, and well-validated measures. Altogether, this would set the stage to generate the high-quality data that are necessary to clarify the role of body image disturbance in the onset, maintenance and relapse of AN.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An examination of the relationship between shame, guilt and self-harm: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Kate Sheehy, Amna Noureen, Ayesha Khaliq, Katie Dhingra, Nusrat Husain, Eleanor E. Pontin, Rosanne Cawley, Peter J. Taylor

    Self-harm is a major public health concern associated with suicide risk and significant psychological distress. Theories suggest that aversive emotional states are an important process that drives self-harm. Shame and guilt may, in particular, be important emotions in self-harm. This review therefore sought to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between shame, guilt, and self-harm. A systematic search of electronic databases (PsycINFO; Medline; CINAHL Plus; Web of Science and ProQuest) was undertaken to identify studies measuring shame, guilt and self-harm (including suicidal and non-suicidal behaviour). Meta-analysis was undertaken where papers focused on the same subtype of shame or guilt and shared a common outcome. Thirty studies were identified for inclusion. Most forms of shame were associated with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), but research was sparse concerning suicidal behaviour. Fewer studies examined guilt and findings were more varied. Methodological issues included a paucity of longitudinal designs and lack of justification for sample sizes. Results of this review support the link between shame and self-harm, particularly NSSI. The direction of this relationship is yet to be established. Clinically, consideration should be given to the role of shame amongst individuals who present with NSSI. This review was pre-registered on PROSPERO (CRD42017056165).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Is there a sleeper effect of exposure-based vs. cognitive-only intervention for anxiety disorders? A longitudinal multilevel meta-analysis
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Ioana R. Podina, Andreea Vîslă, Liviu A. Fodor, Christoph Flückiger

    There is a longstanding debate in the cognitive behavioral literature whether exposure-based methods produce more sustainable outcomes relative to cognitive methods or vice versa. This debate concerns particularly the time after treatment termination (at follow-up assessments), also referred to as the sleeper effect. Therefore, the aim of the current meta-analysis was to examine the enduring efficacy of Exposure Therapy (ET) in comparison to Cognitive Therapy (CT) from treatment termination to follow-up in anxiety disorders. Available literature also allowed for the assessment of their long-term additive benefits relative to ET only. Traditional random effects analyses with restricted maximum likelihood estimators and multilevel longitudinal analyses were conducted on 39 randomized controlled trials (N = 1878). Traditional analyses revealed no differential efficacy at post-treatment or follow-up. Similarly, the multilevel longitudinal analyses identified no differential growth in efficacy from treatment termination to follow-up. The majority of the variables investigated did not moderate the results. However, there was evidence suggesting that CT was superior to ET when treatment was delivered individually, while ET was superior to CT when delivered as group therapy. Overall, the findings did not validate a number of assumptions, such as the existence of a sleeper effect. Several strengths and limitations are further discussed in the paper.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Measuring social and occupational functioning of people with bipolar disorder: A systematic review
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Nadia Akers, Fiona Lobban, Claire Hilton, Katerina Panagaki, Steven H. Jones

    Previous literature has focused on impaired social and occupational functioning in Bipolar Disorder (BD), however this ignores people who may be functioning well or even exceptionally. This paper presents the first systematic review of how functioning is measured and the range of functioning observed in BD to aid applied research and practice in this area. Identified measures from studies reporting use of a social and/or occupational functioning measure in BD were organised according to frequency of use over the last 10 years, resulting in six measures (Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), Social Adjustment Scale (SAS)), Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and LIFE-Range of Impaired Functioning (LIFE-RIFT). Descriptive statistics of sample scores were extracted and pooled to provide cross-study values for each measure. Around 16% of individuals with BD can be estimated to function at a high level, defined as those falling within two standard deviations of the mean score on each measure. Evidence of a ceiling effect for some measures suggests that BD functioning may have been underestimated during measure development. Future research is needed to further understand higher functioning in people with BD, and factors which may support this.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bilingualism, brain injury, and recovery: implications for understanding the bilingual and for therapy.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Madelin Z Marrero,Charles J Golden,Patricia Espe-Pfeifer

    Psychologists and other therapists are seeing an increasingly large number of bilingual individuals. Such clients are a special challenge when there has been some type of brain injury or disease because of the seemingly unpredictable effect such disorders may have on language skills, impacting either or both of the client's languages and interfering with internal speech that plays a role in higher cognitive functions such as insight and awareness. While there are many clinical assumptions about which language will show the least impairment or recover the best, such suppositions based on clinical lore are often contradictory. A review of the literature finds that the outcome of brain injury may be influenced by factors such as cerebral representation of a secondary language, method of language acquisition, age of acquisition, premorbid language proficiency, and style of learning in an individual. Neuropsychological concepts that can explain these findings are examined, along with their implications for therapy, and rehabilitation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuropsychological consequences of HIV in children: a review of current literature.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Jana L Wachsler-Felder,Charles J Golden

    Pediatric HIV has reached epidemic proportions. In 1997, 1.1 million children younger than 15 were living with HIV or AIDS. The virus affects children cognitively and developmentally due to the immaturity of their nervous systems and immune systems. Studies in the area of neuropsychological deficits are as yet limited in number and less well developed than studies on adult HIV. However, despite methodological weaknesses, the literature has proven conclusively that pediatric HIV affects children cognitively, developmentally, emotionally, psychologically, behaviorally, and educationally. Although treatments are allowing these children to live longer, the effects of the virus remain, requiring special care. This review examines the mechanisms behind HIV in children, the neuropsychological findings to date, and the limitations of this work. Possible useful future approaches in understanding the neuropsychological course of the disorder, as well as directions for treatment and prevention are addressed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Social support interventions: do they work?
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Brenda E Hogan,Wolfgang Linden,Bahman Najarian

    Presence of support has repeatedly been linked to good long-term health outcomes based on demonstrations of better immune function, lower blood pressures, and reduced mortality (among others). Despite a massive literature on the benefits of support, there is surprisingly little hard evidence about how, and how well, social support interventions work. Using a computerized search strategy, 100 studies that evaluated the efficacy of such interventions were located. The presenting problems ranged from cancer, loneliness, weight loss, and substance abuse to lack in parenting skills, surgery, and birth preparation. For the purpose of review and evaluation, studies were subdivided into (1) group vs. individual interventions, (2) professionally led vs. peer-provided treatment, and (3) interventions where an increase of network size or perceived support was the primary target vs. those where building social skills (to facilitate support creation) was the focus. On the whole, this review provided some support for the overall usefulness of social support interventions. However, because of the large variety of existing different treatment protocols and areas of application, there is still not enough evidence to conclude which interventions work best for what problems. Specific methodological and conceptual difficulties that plague this area of research and directions for future research are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychotherapy and social support: integrating research on psychological helping.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Chris Barker,Nancy Pistrang

    Psychotherapy interactions and social support conversations have many similarities, as well as some important differences. Researchers studying these two manifestations of psychological helping--often known as formal and informal helping--usually apply a separate set of concepts and methods to each and tend to locate their work in separate bodies of literature. This paper argues that such a division of the field is unnecessary and unproductive. It outlines several ways in which the two bodies of literature might inform each other and argues for conceptual integration of the two fields.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Foundations of psychosocial dynamic personality theory of collective people.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Marwan Dwairy

    The concept of personality emerged as a part of the development of individualism in the western world to understand the quality of the newborn (individual). In premodern society, roles were the elements that constituted the person. Presently, about 80% of the people (Africa, Asia, and South America) in the world still live in a collective, authoritarian system. Personality theories that have been developed in Europe and North America seem to be limited in understanding and predicting the behavior of these people. One major difference between individualistic and collective peoples is their degree of individuation from the family. Western social-political systems enable individuals at the end of their development course to form an independent personality (or self) that is unique and different from others. For westerners, personality structures and processes enable us to predict behavior. Psychopathology is attributed to an intrapsychic disorder within the personality. Typically, psychotherapy aims to restore that order. For people who live in collective social systems, individuation does not take place. Therefore, norms, values, roles, and familial authority directives predict behavior more than personality. Psychopathology among these people has to do with interpersonal disorder within the family. Therefore, psychotherapy should aim to restore that order. This manuscript suggests foundations of a new psychosocial dynamic theory of personality to better fit our understanding of people living in collective societies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Expressed emotion: a review of assessment instruments.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    G Van Humbeeck,Ch Van Audenhove,M De Hert,G Pieters,G Storms

    Expressed emotion (EE) refers to the quality of the emotional climate between a relative and a family member with a serious psychiatric disorder. Well-established, it has proven to be a reliable predictor of the relapse rate of psychiatric patients. In this article, the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), the standard instrument, and 11 alternative EE measures will be presented and discussed with regard to their psychometric properties. It is concluded that the CFI remains the best instrument for assessing the quality of the relationship.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding marriage and stress: essential questions and challenges.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2004-01-20
    Lisa B Story,Thomas N Bradbury

    This paper explores the complex interplay between stressors and marital functioning, beginning with a discussion of how key concepts from the stress and coping literature can be extended to the study of dyads. Five essential questions are outlined as a means of advancing research in this domain, addressing protective dyadic processes, the competing demands of individual and dyadic coping agendas, the role of individual well-being in couples' stress and coping, stress in the broader context of couples' lives, and prospects for intervention. Following an overview of methodological and procedural challenges, the paper concludes by noting that research devoted to understanding marriages in the context of stress is at a crossroads, poised between a set of provocative questions, preliminary findings, and intervention possibilities on one hand, and important theoretical and empirical challenges on the other.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Treatment motivation: An attempt for clarification of an ambiguous concept.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2004-01-20
    Klaus H Drieschner,Sylvia M M Lammers,Cees P F van der Staak

    Although the concept of treatment motivation is generally regarded as highly relevant, it has since long been surrounded by conceptual confusion, resulting in miscommunication, ambiguous measures, and contradictory conclusions of research. This article provides an analysis of three major sources of confusion in the conceptualization of treatment motivation: (a) negligence of the concepts' intrinsic relationship with behavior, (b) entanglement of the concept with its determining factors and behavioral consequences, and (c) conceptualization in a stage model. Following the conceptual analysis, causes of the problems and implications for clinical praxis and research are considered. Finally, a more adequate conceptualization of treatment motivation is proposed and suggestions for future research are made.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2004-01-20
    Namrata Raylu,Tian Po Oei

    There has been a significant gap in the gambling literature regarding the role of culture in gambling and problem gambling (PG). This paper aims to this such gap by presenting a systematic review of the cultural variations in gambling and PG as well as a discussion of the role cultural variables can play in the initiation and maintenance of gambling in order to stimulate further research. The review shows that although studies investigating prevalence rates of gambling and PG among different cultures are not plentiful, evidence does suggest certain cultural groups are more vulnerable to begin gambling and to develop PG. Significant factors including familial/genetic, sociological, and individual factors have been found in the Western gambling literature as playing important roles in the development and maintenance of PG. These factors need to be examined now in other cultural groups so we can better understand the etiological processes involved in PG and design culturally sensitive treatments. In addition, variables, such as cultural values and beliefs, the process of acculturation, and the influence of culturally determined, help-seeking behaviors need to be also examined in relation to the role they could play in the initiation of and maintenance of gambling. Understanding the contribution of cultural variables will allow us to devise better prevention and treatment options for PG. Methodological problems in this area of research are highlighted, and suggestions for future research are included.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: A meta-analytic review.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2004-01-20
    Lisa M Saulsman,Andrew C Page

    The current meta-analysis reviews research examining the relationships between each of the five-factor model personality dimensions and each of the 10 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) personality disorder diagnostic categories. Effect sizes representing the relationships between these two constructs were compiled from 15 independent samples. Results were analyzed both within each individual personality disorder category and across personality disorders, indicating how personality disorders are different and similar, respectively, with regard to underlying personality traits. In terms of how personality disorders differ, the results showed that each disorder displays a five-factor model profile that is meaningful and predictable given its unique diagnostic criteria. With regard to their similarities, the findings revealed that the most prominent and consistent personality dimensions underlying a large number of the personality disorders are positive associations with Neuroticism and negative associations with Agreeableness. Extraversion appears to be a more discriminating dimension, as indicated by prominent but directionally variable associations with the personality disorders. The implications of these meta-analytic findings for clinical application and the advancement of future research are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2004-01-20
    Julia C Babcock,Charles E Green,Chet Robie

    This meta-analytic review examines the findings of 22 studies evaluating treatment efficacy for domestically violent males. The outcome literature of controlled quasi-experimental and experimental studies was reviewed to test the relative impact of Duluth model, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and other types of treatment on subsequent recidivism of violence. Study design and type of treatment were tested as moderators. Treatment design tended to have a small influence on effect size. There were no differences in effect sizes in comparing Duluth model vs. CBT-type interventions. Overall, effects due to treatment were in the small range, meaning that the current interventions have a minimal impact on reducing recidivism beyond the effect of being arrested. Analogies to treatment for other populations are presented for comparison. Implications for policy decisions and future research are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Attentional biases in eating disorders: a meta-analytic review of Stroop performance.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2004-01-20
    Keith S Dobson,David J A Dozois

    The Stroop task has been adapted from cognitive psychology to be able to examine attentional biases in various forms of psychopathology, including the eating disorders. This paper reviews the research on the Stroop task in the eating disorders research area in both descriptive and meta-analytic fashions. Twenty-eight empirical studies are identified, which predominantly examine food and body/weight stimuli in bulimic, anorexic, or dieting/food-restricted samples. It is concluded that there is evidence of an attentional bias in bulimia for a range of stimuli but that the effect seems to be limited to body/weight stimuli in anorexia. The evidence to date is that there is no attentional bias in dieting samples. Limitations of the methodology employed in the extant literature include small sample sizes, unstandardized Stroop methodology, restricted gender, and a general lack of consideration of individual differences variables. Recommendations for future research are provided.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • For better or for worse? The effects of alcohol use on marital functioning.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Michael P Marshal

    Two competing hypotheses propose opposite effects for the relation between alcohol use and marital functioning. One hypothesis conceptualizes alcohol use as maladaptive and proposes that it serves as a chronic stressor that causes marital dysfunction and subsequent dissolution. An opposing hypothesis proposes that alcohol use is adaptive and serves to temporarily relieve stressors that cause marital dysfunction, stabilizing the marital relationship, and perhaps preventing dissolution. Sixty studies were reviewed that tested the relation between alcohol use and one of three marital functioning domains (satisfaction, interaction, and violence). Results provide overwhelming support for the notion that alcohol use is maladaptive, and that it is associated with dissatisfaction, negative marital interaction patterns, and higher levels of marital violence. A small subset of studies found that light drinking patterns are associated with adaptive marital functioning; however, more research is necessary to replicate these effects and identify specific conditions under which they occur.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effects of induced abortion on emotional experiences and relationships: a critical review of the literature.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Zoë Bradshaw,Pauline Slade

    This paper reviews post-1990 literature concerning psychological experiences and sexual relationships prior to and following induced abortion. It assesses whether conclusions drawn from earlier reviews are still supported and evaluates the extent to which previous methodological problems have been addressed. Following discovery of pregnancy and prior to abortion, 40-45% of women experience significant levels of anxiety and around 20% experience significant levels of depressive symptoms. Distress reduces following abortion, but up to around 30% of women are still experiencing emotional problems after a month. Women due to have an abortion are more anxious and distressed than other pregnant women or women whose pregnancy is threatened by miscarriage, but in the long term they do no worse psychologically than women who give birth. Self-esteem appears unaffected by the process. Less research has considered impact on the quality of relationships and sexual functioning, but negative effects were reported by up to 20% of women. Conclusions were generally concordant with previous reviews. However, anxiety symptoms are now clearly identified as the most common adverse response. There has been increasing understanding of abortion as a potential trauma, and studies less commonly explore guilt. The quality of studies has improved, although there are still some methodological weaknesses.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Compulsive hoarding: current status of the research.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Gail Steketee,Randy Frost

    This article reviews the literature on compulsive hoarding, including the definition and manifestations of the problem and a conceptual model for understanding hoarding behavior. This model addresses information processing deficits (e.g., attention, organization, memory, decision-making), beliefs about and emotional attachments to possessions, and distress and avoidance. Research regarding the diagnostic categorization of hoarding, its course and phenomenology, and evidence to support the model is presented. The limited research on treatment provides evidence that current serotonergic medications for OCD are largely ineffective for treating hoarding, but cognitive and behavioral treatments, especially those focused on deficits identified in the model, have some utility. Recommendations for further research on the psychopathology and treatment of hoarding are provided.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Assessing malingered posttraumatic stress disorder: a critical review.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-11-20
    Jennifer Guriel,William Fremouw

    This article is a critical examination of the current state of the literature regarding the assessment of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). First, published empirical studies that examine the assessment of malingering in PTSD claimants using the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual criteria are summarized. Next, conceptual and methodological strengths, weakness, and limitations of existing research are outlined. Currently, there is no method or single instrument that is universally recognized as being the best tool to detect malingering in PTSD claimants. Lastly, recommendations for future investigations are provided.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Attributions and expressed emotion: a review.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-10-08
    Christine Barrowclough,Jill M Hooley

    This review examines the contribution of an attribution-based framework to our understanding of both expressed emotion (EE) and the process of patient relapse. It considers all published studies that have assessed the attributions of high- and low-EE relatives and carers. Across these studies, a great deal of consistency is apparent. Critical relatives are more likely to hold patients responsible for their difficulties. On the other hand, attributions made by emotionally overinvolved relatives are similar to the attributions made by those who are low EE. In reviewing the association between attributions and patient relapse, it is concluded that carers' beliefs may play a role in the relapse process in a variety of ways. These include mediating controlling behavior, which may serve to increase patient stress or decrease patients' sense of self-worth. A major limitation of research in this area is the cross-sectional and correlational nature of the data. This makes it impossible to draw conclusions about directions of effect in the association of EE and attributions. Nonetheless, an argument can be made for the development and evaluation of interventions designed to help relatives adopt less blaming and more flexible beliefs about the nature of patients' problems. Particularly helpful in this regard may be interventions that use verbal and behavioral reattribution techniques similar to those described in the cognitive behavioral treatment of emotional disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Anxiety and depression: why and how to measure their separate effects.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-10-08
    Carl J Beuke,Ronald Fischer,John McDowall

    It is well recognized that depression and anxiety are closely associated, but nonetheless, they may be associated with distinct causes and consequences. For example, anxiety and depression are associated with different effects on information processing. This paper argues that experiments should not study anxiety or depression in isolation, but should measure both variables. It is argued that this methodological step is both important and commonly overlooked. Even when both depression and anxiety are measured, methodological difficulties can confuse their effects. Common difficulties in choice of measures and in participant selection criteria are discussed, and recommendations are made for overcoming them. The argument is made drawing from illustrations within the experimental cognitive literature, but conclusions and recommendations are equally applicable outside this area.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Searching for the attention deficit in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the case of visuospatial orienting.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-10-08
    Cynthia L Huang-Pollock,Joel T Nigg

    We review all 14 extant studies of covert visuospatial attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (total N=248). Metaanalysis showed that intriguing but isolated findings of alerting or posterior disengage deficits were too small to reliably detect with the sample sizes typically employed. Posterior move and engage operations and the vigilance sustained attention process were normal in ADHD. For exogenous cues, effect sizes for group differences were homogeneously small across all repeated-measures conditions, as were calculations of cost, benefit, and validity effects. For endogenous cues, effect sizes were heterogeneous; however, calculations of cost, benefit, and validity effects were small and homogenous. The most parsimonious conclusion may be that ADHD is not characterized by significant visual orienting dysfunction, but questions remain about the extent of anterior lateralized effects in the combined subtype and about attentional functioning in the inattentive subtype.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Anxiety and depression in juvenile diabetes: a critical review.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-10-08
    Cécile Dantzer,Joel Swendsen,Sylvie Maurice-Tison,Roger Salamon

    A critical examination of the recent literature on anxiety and depression in juvenile diabetes is presented. The objectives of this review are: (1) to determine the general association of psychological factors, especially anxiety and depression, with diabetes, (2) to examine the specific association of anxiety and depression with metabolic control, and (3) to propose methodological changes that are needed to advance future research in this field. The major conclusions of this review support the notion of a general association of psychological disorders with juvenile diabetes. However, while anxiety and depression appear to play an important and complex role in determining adaptation to the disease, their relationship to metabolic control does not yet appear clear. Additional prospective and controlled studies as well as multivariate models of chronic disease are now necessary to more fully understand the etiology and impact of these disorders in the adolescent population.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The etiology of social phobia: toward a developmental profile.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-10-08
    Jo Anne Neal,Robert J Edelmann

    Social phobia is an extremely disruptive and distressing anxiety disorder that can impact on many areas of an individual's life. Yet, despite the fact that lifetime prevalence rates are relatively high, its etiology is still poorly understood. The aim of this review is to draw together findings from the broad base of nonclinical literature associated with behavioral inhibition (BI), shyness, social anxiety, and passive-anxious withdrawal and to compare these findings with those from the limited number of clinical studies with social phobics. Such comparison is not unproblematic due to conceptual differences between terms used and methodological divergence; these issues are discussed in some detail. The consonance of findings, however, suggests a viable profile for the developmental course of social phobia. This profile incorporates temperament variables, behavioral motivational, parenting styles, peer relationships, and internalization problems. Finally, specific suggestions for future research are offered.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • College students and problematic drinking: a review of the literature.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-09-16
    Lindsay S Ham,Debra A Hope

    Problem drinking during the college years is a significant public health concern. The goal of the current review was to examine the primary psychosocial factors that predict problem drinking in college students. Variables examined included demographic variables, personality, drinking history, alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, stress and coping, activity involvement, and peer and family influence. Evidence from studies of college drinking indicated that the variables associated with college drinking seem to vary at levels dealing with one's personality and coping mechanisms, one's thought processes about drinking, and the environment. It seems that expectancies and drinking motives may serve as explanations for the pathways from certain personality types (i.e., sensation seeking and neurotic) to problem drinking in the college setting. Factors that predicted future drinking problems after college were also examined. Overall, it seems that interventions and prevention programs would need to reach college students at all three levels--the environment, individual personality traits, and cognitive processes. Future research should address the limitations in the previous research as well as test comprehensive models of college drinking.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contemporary behavioral activation treatments for depression: procedures, principles, and progress.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-09-16
    Derek R Hopko,C W Lejuez,Kenneth J Ruggiero,Georg H Eifert

    In the past decade, there has been renewed interest in the feasibility and efficacy of purely behavioral treatments for clinical depression. Emphasizing the functional aspects of depressive and nondepressive behavior, these treatments focus on the concept of behavioral activation, which guides implementation of procedures aimed at increasing patient activity and access to reinforcement. Although researchers have provided positive preliminary support for behavioral activation-based interventions, many fundamental issues concerning strategies, principles, and change processes involved in behavioral activation have yet to be addressed. In this paper, we compare and contrast contemporary behavioral activation interventions, explore strategies and process of change issues, clarify the basic behavioral principles underlying activation strategies, and outline questions that need to be addressed to improve outcomes and better understand the potential significance of behavioral activation as it pertains to the future of behavior therapy for depression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Advances in the assessment of object relations in the 1990s.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-09-16
    Steven K Huprich,Roger P Greenberg

    In this paper, we review the empirical publications from the 1990s on the assessment of object relations (OR). Twelve different measures are referenced. Major findings of studies, conclusions, and evaluations of each measure are provided. In general, it was found that the most recent empirical literature has compared OR across diagnostic groups or evaluated therapy process and outcome by the quality of one's OR. Current strengths and limitations of the extant OR literature are provided, along with methodological recommendations to expand the utility and validity of OR assessment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Self-help for substance-use disorders: history, effectiveness, knowledge gaps, and research opportunities.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-09-16
    John F Kelly

    Scientific evidence suggests substance-use disorder (SUD)-focused self-help group involvement is a helpful adjunct to SUD treatment, yet significant knowledge gaps remain. The principal aim of this review is to highlight areas of knowledge deficit and their implications for research and practice. To accomplish this, evidence regarding whether self-help group involvement is effective, for whom, and why, is reviewed. The appropriateness of self-help groups for certain subpopulations is considered with respect to psychiatric comorbidity, religious orientation, gender, and age. An increasingly rigorous body of evidence suggests consistent benefits of self-help group involvement. Regarding subpopulations, current evidence suggests non- or less-religious individuals benefit as much from self-help groups as more religious individuals and women become as involved and benefit as much as men. However, participation in, and effects from, traditional self-help groups for dually diagnosed patients may be moderated by type of psychiatric comorbidity. Some youth appear to benefit, but remain largely unstudied. Dropout and nonattendance rates are high, despite clinical recommendations to attend. Clinicians can significantly influence the effectiveness of self-help, but optimal methods and duration of facilitation efforts need testing. Greater understanding of the reasons why many do not attend or drop out would benefit facilitation efforts.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The relation between depression and anxiety: an evaluation of the tripartite, approach-withdrawal and valence-arousal models.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-06-06
    Stewart A Shankman,Daniel N Klein

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported that depressive and anxiety disorders co-occur frequently. This paper reviews the evidence for three models that have been proposed to explain the relation between these two conditions-the tripartite, the approach-withdrawal, and valence-arousal models. Specifically, we focus on predictions that the three models generate for cross-sectional studies, prospective and family/twin studies of personality, and EEG studies. In sum, no model was strongly supported across all types of studies, though specific aspects of each model were. Because of the heterogeneity of depression and anxiety disorders, a model with 2-4 factors or dimensions may not be sufficient to explain the relation between the two conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Posttraumatic disorders following injury: an empirical and methodological review.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-06-06
    Meaghan L O'Donnell,Mark Creamer,Richard A Bryant,Ulrich Schnyder,Arik Shalev

    Although there has been a marked increase in research on psychological disorders following physical injury in recent years, there are many discrepancies between the reported findings. This paper reviews the prevalence outcomes of recent studies of the mental health sequelae of physical injury with a focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder (ASD), and depression. The review critically outlines some of the methodological factors that may have contributed to these discrepancies. The phenomenological overlap between organic and psychogenic symptoms, the use of narcotic analgesia, the role of brain injury, the timing and content of assessments, and litigation are discussed in terms of their potential to confound findings with this population. Recommendations are proposed to clarify methodological approaches in this area. It is suggested that a clearer understanding of the psychological effects of physical injury will require the widespread adoption of more rigorous, standardized and transparent methodological procedures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Towards a better understanding of gambling treatment failure: implications of translational research.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-06-06
    Stacey B Daughters,C W Lejuez,Henry R Lesieur,David R Strong,Michael J Zvolensky

    Despite a recent proliferation of gambling treatment protocols and studies examining the success of these protocols, there exists an absence of attention to mechanisms of change and the individual characteristics that predict treatment outcome. A better understanding of the characteristics that place particular individuals at-risk for treatment failure will be vital for developing new treatments as well as modifying existing treatments. Furthermore, the development of tools to identify those at risk for treatment failure, prior to treatment initiation, will allow for the tailoring of protocols to suit individual needs and vulnerabilities. In the current paper, we review the state of gambling treatment and suggest a framework for better understanding and ultimately reducing gambling treatment failure.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of childhood sexual abuse sequelae in the sexual revictimization of women: an empirical review and theoretical reformulation.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-06-06
    Terri L Messman-Moore,Patricia J Long

    There is now widespread empirical evidence that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors are at greater risk for sexual revictimization in adulthood, but less is known of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Despite the lack of a conceptual framework to guide research, there has been a recent influx of studies examining explanatory variables, with most focusing on the psychological sequelae of CSA: alcohol and drug use, sexual behavior, dissociation, posttraumatic symptomatology, poor risk recognition, and interpersonal difficulties. With the exception of sexual behavior, the studies reviewed here provide limited or mixed support for the role of intrapersonal factors in revictimization. Future research may benefit from a focus on the function of psychological distress that is expressed as psychological vulnerability, as opposed to individual forms of psychopathology or maladaptive behavior. An ecological framework may be useful as a guide to future investigations, as this model focuses on factors outside of the victim, including childhood factors such as family environment, contextual factors including the behavior of the perpetrator, and societal and cultural factors that impact revictimization. Future investigations should focus on the interaction between victim vulnerability and perpetrator behavior. Implications for prevention programming, clinical intervention, and future research are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Promoting communication with older adults: protocols for resolving interpersonal conflicts and for enhancing interactions with doctors.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-06-06
    Patricia Flynn Weitzman,Eben A Weitzman

    In this paper, we review the importance of effective communication in older adulthood, and ideas for promoting it. We focus on theoretical and applied work in two communicative encounters that have particular relevance for older adult health, i.e., interpersonal conflict and visits with a healthcare provider. Little applied work has aimed to adapt training protocols for older adults in these two areas. We will present training protocols we have developed in constructive conflict resolution for older adults, and on enhancing doctor-patient communication. We present these protocols to stimulate ideas on the part of the reader on how to further develop and refine training efforts for older adults in effective communication.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cognitive behaviour therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-05-06
    Allison G Harvey,Richard A Bryant,Nicholas Tarrier

    Following considerable empirical scrutiny, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article overviews the general principles of treatment and describes the components that comprise CBT for PTSD. We then move on to review the efficacy of CBT for the treatment of PTSD caused by various traumas, including assault, road traffic accident (RTA), combat, and terrorism. Recent advances in early intervention and in the treatment of disorders that are comorbid with PTSD are reviewed. Finally, future directions are discussed. In particular, it is proposed that randomised controlled trials (RCT) of CBT for PTSD must be conducted with enhanced methodological rigour and public health relevance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Single-session early psychological interventions following traumatic events.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-05-06
    Jonathan I Bisson

    Single-session early psychological interventions became widely advocated during the 1980s and 1990s as a way to prevent the development of psychological sequalae following traumatic events. There have now been 13 randomised controlled trials of single-session interventions within 1 month of a traumatic event. Notwithstanding their methodological shortcomings and clinical heterogeneity, the results are neutral overall in terms of clinical effectiveness. Possible explanations include a failure to encourage individuals' personal coping mechanisms and defence mechanisms and that insufficient time was allowed for habituation to intense exposure to occur. With the present evidence, the routine use of single-session interventions following traumatic events cannot be justified. This does not mean that there should be nothing offered, as many individuals involved in traumatic events clearly have emotional needs. Hopefully, future research will identify alternative forms of early intervention that prove useful to those individuals who would otherwise develop more significant psychological difficulties.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vicarious traumatization: implications for the mental health of health workers?
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-05-06
    Rachel Sabin-Farrell,Graham Turpin

    It has been suggested that a unique feature of some mental heath practitioners' work is exposure through their role as therapists to clients' descriptions of and reactions to trauma, and that these experiences may actually indirectly cause distress and traumatization to the therapist. This proposed phenomenon has been termed "vicarious traumatization" (VT) and is the focus of the current review. The concept of VT, together with other related concepts such as "burnout," "compassion fatigue," "secondary traumatic stress" (STS), and "work stress" are appraised. Psychological mechanisms that might be theoretically involved in VT are considered. The measurement of VT is reviewed alongside the limited research evidence supporting its existence. Factors such as direct trauma exposure and the personal attributes of mental health workers, which have been suggested to be associated with VT, are also assessed. It is concluded that the evidence to support the existence of VT is meager and inconsistent. Future research needs to be directed at distinguishing VT from other sources of distress arising within the workplace. Finally, the organizational relevance of VT and its possible implications for the management of mental health workers are critically appraised.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sleep and posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2003-05-06
    Allison G Harvey,Charlie Jones,D Anne Schmidt

    Research seeking to establish the relationship between sleep and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in its infancy. An empirically supported theory of the relationship is yet to emerge. The aims of the present paper are threefold: to summarise the literature on the prevalence and treatment of sleep disturbance characteristic of acute stress disorder (ASD) and PTSD, to critically review this literature, and to draw together the disparate theoretical perspectives that have been proposed to account for the empirical findings. After a brief overview of normal human sleep, the literature specifying the relation between sleep disturbance and PTSD is summarized. This includes studies of the prevalence of sleep disturbance and nightmares, content of nightmares, abnormalities in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, arousal threshold during sleep, body movement during sleep, and breathing-related sleep disorders. In addition, studies of the treatment of sleep disturbance in individuals with PTSD are reviewed. We conclude that the role of sleep in PTSD is complex, but that it is an important area for further elucidating the nature and treatment of PTSD. Areas for future research are specified. In particular, a priority is to improve the methodology of the research conducted.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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