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  • Mitochondria and T2D: Role of Autophagy, ER Stress, and Inflammasome
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Milagros Rocha; Nadezda Apostolova; Ruben Diaz-Rua; Jordi Muntane; Victor M. Victor

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the main current threats to human health. Both T2D and its numerous clinical complications are related to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Over the past decade, great progress has been made in extending our knowledge about the signaling events regulated by mitochondria. However, the links among mitochondrial impairment, oxidative stress, autophagy, endoplasmic

  • Placenta Disrupted: Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Pregnancy
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Jeremy Gingrich; Elvis Ticiani; Almudena Veiga-Lopez

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are chemicals that can interfere with normal endocrine signals. Human exposure to EDCs is particularly concerning during vulnerable periods of life, such as pregnancy. However, often overlooked is the effect that EDCs may pose to the placenta. The abundance of hormone receptors makes the placenta highly sensitive to EDCs. We have reviewed the most recent advances

  • Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Does Sex Matter?
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Giovanna Muscogiuri; Luigi Barrea; Tiziana Feola; Marco Gallo; Erika Messina; Mary Anna Venneri; Antongiulio Faggiano; Annamaria Colao

    Genetic and molecular disparities between men and women have a role in the differing incidence, pathophysiology, clinical signs, and treatment outcome of several cancers. Sex differences in cancer incidence are attributed to regulation at the genetic/molecular level and to sex hormones that in turn modulate gene expression in various cancers. Sex differences in the incidence of cancer, its aggressiveness

  • Partial Leptin Reduction: An Emerging Weight Loss Paradigm
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Mohammed K. Hankir; Florian Seyfried

    Leptin-based obesity pharmacotherapies were originally developed according to the lipostatic view that elevated circulating leptin levels promote a negative energy balance. A series of independent preclinical findings suggest, however, that a partial reduction in circulating leptin levels (either by immunoneutralization, a peripherally restricted CB1 receptor inverse agonist, or bariatric surgery)

  • Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity Susceptibility
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    Stephanie E. King; Michael K. Skinner

    The prevalence of obesity and associated diseases has reached pandemic levels. Obesity is often associated with overnutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, but clearly other factors also increase the susceptibility of metabolic disease states. Ancestral and direct exposures to environmental toxicants and altered nutrition have been shown to increase susceptibility for obesity and metabolic dysregulation

  • Metabolic Implications of Circadian–HIF Crosstalk
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    Clara B. Peek

    Research over the past few decades has shed light on the mechanisms underlying the link between circadian disruption and the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. However, how the clock network interacts with tissue-specific nutrient-sensing pathways during conditions of nutrient stress or pathological states remains incompletely understood. Recent work has

  • Polyphenols as Caloric Restriction Mimetics Regulating Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Mitophagy
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Sergio Davinelli; Diego De Stefani; Immaculata De Vivo; Giovanni Scapagnini

    The tight coordination between mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy can be dysregulated during aging, critically influencing whole-body metabolism, health, and lifespan. To date, caloric restriction (CR) appears to be the most effective intervention strategy to improve mitochondrial turnover in aging organisms. The development of pharmacological mimetics of CR has gained attention as an attractive

  • Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis: Animal Models and Therapeutic Advances
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Suowen Xu; Jianping Weng

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), mainly arising from loss-of-function mutation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), is a life-threatening inherited cardiometabolic disorder with limited therapies. In a recent study, Zhao et al. created a new model of FH and demonstrate that LDLR gene editing protects against both FH and atherosclerosis.

  • How May GIP Enhance the Therapeutic Efficacy of GLP-1?
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Ricardo J. Samms; Matthew P. Coghlan; Kyle W. Sloop

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists improve glucose homeostasis, reduce body weight, and over time benefit cardiovascular health in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, dose-related gastrointestinal effects limit efficacy, and therefore agents possessing GLP-1 pharmacology that can also target alternative pathways may expand the therapeutic index. One approach is to engineer GLP-1

  • Intestinal Organoids: A Tool for Modelling Diet–Microbiome–Host Interactions
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Josep Rubert; Pawel J. Schweiger; Fulvio Mattivi; Kieran Tuohy; Kim B. Jensen; Andrea Lunardi

    Dietary patterns, microbiome dysbiosis, and gut microbial metabolites (GMMs) have a pivotal role in the homeostasis of intestinal epithelial cells and in disease progression, such as that of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although GMMs and microorganisms have crucial roles in many biological activities, models for deciphering diet–microbiome–host relationships are largely limited to animal models. Thus,

  • Inositols in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Overview on the Advances
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Fabio Facchinetti; Vittorio Unfer; Didier Dewailly; Zdravko A. Kamenov; Evanthia Diamanti-Kandarakis; Antonio Simone Laganà; John E. Nestler; Christophe O. Soulage

    This review details the physiologic roles of two insulin sensitizers, myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI). In the human ovary, MI is a second messenger of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and DCI is an aromatase inhibitor. These activities allow a treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to be defined based on the combined administration of MI and DCI, where the best MI:DCI ratio is

  • Nanomedicine-Based Strategies for Diabetes: Diagnostics, Monitoring, and Treatment
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Luke R. Lemmerman; Devleena Das; Natalia Higuita-Castro; Raghavendra G. Mirmira; Daniel Gallego-Perez

    Traditional methods for diabetes management require constant and tedious glucose monitoring (GM) and insulin injections, impacting quality of life. The global diabetic population is expected to increase to 439 million, with approximately US$490 billion in healthcare expenditures by 2030, imposing a significant burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Recent advances in nanotechnology have emerged as

  • Interplay between Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential and Metabolism
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Man K.S. Lee; Dragana Dragoljevic; Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga; Nan Wang; Laurent Yvan-Charvet; Andrew J. Murphy

    Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), defined as a clone of hematopoietic cells consisting of a single acquired mutation during a lifetime, has recently been discovered to be a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). As such, this phenomenon has sparked interest into the role that these single mutations may play in CVD. Atherosclerotic CVD is a complex

  • Dyslipidemia in Type 1 Diabetes: A Masked Danger
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Bruno Vergès

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients show lipid disorders which are likely to play a role in their increased cardiovascular (CV) disease risk. Quantitative abnormalities of lipoproteins are noted in T1D with poor glycemic control. In T1D with optimal glycemic control, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol are normal or slightly decreased whereas HDL-cholesterol is normal or slightly increased. T1D patients,

  • Müller Cell Metabolic Signatures: Evolutionary Conservation and Disruption in Disease
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Rebecca L. Pfeiffer; Robert E. Marc; Bryan W. Jones

    Müller cells are glia that play important regulatory roles in retinal metabolism. These roles have been evolutionarily conserved across at least 300 million years. Müller cells have a tightly locked metabolic signature in the healthy retina, which rapidly degrades in response to insult and disease. This variation in metabolic signature occurs in a chaotic fashion, involving some central metabolic pathways

  • Deconstructing the Role of PKC Epsilon in Glucose Homeostasis
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Carsten Schmitz-Peiffer

    The failure of insulin to suppress glucose production by the liver is a key aspect of the insulin resistance seen in type 2 diabetes. Lipid-activated protein kinase C epsilon has long been identified as an important mediator of diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic insulin resistance and the current view emphasizes a mechanism involving phosphorylation of the insulin receptor by the kinase to

  • Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition by Metformin: Drug–Exercise Interactions
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    S. Martín-Rodríguez; P. de Pablos-Velasco; J.A.L. Calbet

    Metformin has antidiabetic, anticancer, and prolongevity effects, but seems to interfere with aerobic training mitochondrial adaptations. The primary mechanism of action has been suggested to be the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Recent papers (Wang et al. and Cameron et al.), however, provide evidence to deny the hypothesis of a direct action of metformin on complex I.

  • Acromegaly and Vertebral Fractures: Facts and Questions
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Andrea Giustina

    Here I review vertebral fractures (VFs) as an emerging complication of acromegaly through a pathway of key questions in order to help clinicians manage the disease. Peculiarities of acromegalic osteopathy are that VFs are common but not explained by low bone mineral density (BMD) being related to disease duration and activity, and occurring even after remission.

  • Debunking the Myth of the Endogenous Antiangiogenic Vegfaxxxb Transcripts
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Hugues Dardente; William R. English; Manoj K. Valluru; Chryso Kanthou; David Simpson

    In this opinion article we critically assess evidence for the existence of a family of antiangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfaxxxb) transcripts, arising from the use of a phylogenetically conserved alternative distal splice site within exon 8 of the VEGFA gene. We explain that prior evidence for Vegfaxxxb transcripts in tissues rests heavily upon flawed RT-PCR methodologies, with the

  • Blood Microbiota and Circulating Microbial Metabolites in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Ganesan Velmurugan; Vasudevan Dinakaran; Jeyaprakash Rajendhran; Krishnan Swaminathan

    Diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have evolved as the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In addition to traditional risk factors, recent studies have established that the human microbiota, particularly gut bacteria, plays a role in the development of diabetes and CVD. Although the presence of microbes in blood has been known for centuries, mounting evidence in this metagenomic

  • Trained Immunity: Linking Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease across the Life-Course?
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Siroon Bekkering; Christoph Saner; Niels P. Riksen; Mihai G. Netea; Matthew A. Sabin; Richard Saffery; Rinke Stienstra; David P. Burgner

    Obesity, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood. Recent developments have challenged the dogma of immunological memory occurring exclusively in the adaptive immune system and show that the innate immune system has potential to be reprogrammed. This innate immune

  • Time for a New Perspective on Prolactin in Metabolism.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Yazmín Macotela,Jakob Triebel,Carmen Clapp

    The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates a variety of functions beyond reproduction. The association between physiological (pregnancy) and pathological (prolactinoma) hyperprolactinemia and metabolic alterations led to the concept of this hormone being diabetogenic. However, large cohort clinical studies have recently shown that low circulating PRL levels are associated with metabolic disease

  • Glucocorticoid Sexual Dimorphism in Metabolism: Dissecting the Role of Sex Hormones.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Jan Kroon,Alberto M Pereira,Onno C Meijer

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are of pivotal importance in human physiology. Glucocorticoid signaling is complex in nature and dependent on many interacting factors. As glucocorticoids exhibit sexually dimorphic effects on several key processes including in metabolism, crosstalk with the sex steroid hormones (androgens and estrogens) is relevant. In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art

  • Meditation and Endocrine Health and Wellbeing.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Michaela C Pascoe,David R Thompson,Chantal F Ski

    Meditation is a popular practice for reducing stress and improving mental health and wellbeing. Its effects are mediated largely by the endocrine system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and energy homeostasis. The limited evidence available indicates that changes associated with endocrine function

  • Mitochondrial Adaptations in the Growing Heart.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    María Sánchez-Díaz,José Ángel Nicolás-Ávila,Mario D Cordero,Andrés Hidalgo

    The heart pumps blood throughout the whole life of an organism, without rest periods during which to replenish energy or detoxify. Hence, cardiomyocytes, the working units of the heart, have mechanisms to ensure constitutive production of energy and detoxification to preserve fitness and function for decades. Even more challenging, the heart must adapt to the varying conditions of the organism from

  • Hypothalamic IRX3: A New Player in the Development of Obesity.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Thiago Matos de Araújo,Licio A Velloso

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified SNPs of the fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene as the most important risk alleles for obesity. However, how the presence of risk alleles affect phenotype is still a matter of intense investigation. In 2014, a study revealed that long-range enhancers from the intronic regions of the FTO gene regulate iroquois-class homeobox protein (IRX)3 expression

  • Frozen IVF Cycles to Circumvent the Hormonal Storm on Endometrium.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Paola Viganò,Alessandra Alteri,Andrea Busnelli,Valeria Stella Vanni,Edgardo Somigliana

    Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) determines an anticipation of endometrial maturation and a premature occurrence of the implantation window, as shown by histological, histochemical, and molecular studies and indirectly by clinical trials. There is growing agreement that in patients hyper-responding to COH and in those undergoing transfer at the blastocyst stage, deferring the transfer in a

  • Wharton's Jelly MSCs: Potential Weapon to Sharpen for Our Battle against DM.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Dina H Kassem,Mohamed M Kamal

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a devastating metabolic disease. Stem cell therapy provides great hope to all diabetic patients. Umbilical cord (UC) Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs) specifically provides a potential cell therapy for DM. In this article, we discuss major advantages of WJ-MSCs and challenges facing their clinical utility in DM.

  • A Novel Role for CETP as Immunological Gatekeeper: Raising HDL to Cure Sepsis?
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Lisanne L Blauw,Yanan Wang,Ko Willems van Dijk,Patrick C N Rensen

    Raising HDL using cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors failed to show a clinically relevant risk reduction of cardiovascular disease in clinical trials, inviting reconsideration of the role of CETP and HDL in human physiology. Based on solid evidence from studies with isolated macrophages, rodents, and humans, we propose that a major function of CETP may be to modulate HDL in order

  • Chronic Diabetes Complications: The Need to Move beyond Classical Concepts.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Dídac Mauricio,Núria Alonso,Mònica Gratacòs

    Chronic-diabetes-related complications simultaneously compromise both the micro- and macrovascular trees, with target organs considered as the paradigm of large vessel injury also entailing microangiopathic changes. However, complications independent or partially independent from vascular damage are often overlooked. This includes neuronal dysfunction (e.g., retinal neurodegeneration), interstitial

  • Melatonin Effects on Glucose Metabolism: Time To Unlock the Controversy.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Marta Garaulet,Jingyi Qian,Jose C Florez,Josephine Arendt,Richa Saxena,Frank A J L Scheer

    The past decade has witnessed a revival of interest in the hormone melatonin, partly attributable to the discovery that genetic variation in MTNR1B - the melatonin receptor gene - is a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite intensive investigation, there is considerable confusion and seemingly conflicting data on the metabolic effects of melatonin and MTNR1B variation

  • Uterine Luminal Epithelium as the Transient Gateway for Embryo Implantation.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Xiaoqin Ye

    The uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is the first maternal contact for an implanting embryo. Intrauterine fluid resorption, cessation of LE proliferation and apoptosis, and LE structural changes are prerequisites for establishing transient uterine receptivity for embryo implantation. Vesicle trafficking in the LE and receptor-mediated paracrine and autocrine mechanisms are crucial both for LE preparation

  • Metabolism, Epigenetics, and Causal Inference in Heart Failure
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Todd H. Kimball; Thomas M. Vondriska

    Eukaryotes must balance the metabolic and cell death actions of mitochondria via control of gene expression and cell fate by chromatin, thereby functionally binding the metabolome and epigenome. This interaction has far-reaching implications for chronic diseases in humans, the most common of which are those of the cardiovascular system. The most devastating consequence of cardiovascular disease, heart

  • Science and Health Policies to Tackle Chronic Diseases in Chile.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Claudia Bambs,Roberto Bravo-Sagua,Paula Margozzini,Sergio Lavandero

    Chile has experienced rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by decreasing infant mortality, population aging, and a shift towards obesity with an increase in noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Today, tobacco, alcohol, and ultraprocessed foods are the main risk factors for these diseases. Based on Chile's experience in tobacco control, we discuss paths to make progress in population evidence-based

  • Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Metabolic Syndrome: From Physiology to Disease.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Alessandra Feraco,Vincenzo Marzolla,Angelo Scuteri,Andrea Armani,Massimiliano Caprio

    Over the past decade, several studies have shown that activity of extra-renal mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) regulates vascular tone, adipogenesis, adipose tissue function, and cardiomyocyte contraction. In mice, abnormal activation of MR in the vasculature and in adipose tissue favors the occurrence of several components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as hypertension, obesity, and glucose

  • Endocrinological Toxicity Secondary to Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (GEP-NENs).
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Krystallenia I Alexandraki,Kosmas Daskalakis,Marina Tsoli,Ashley B Grossman,Gregory A Kaltsas

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) are increasingly recognized, characterized by prolonged survival even with metastatic disease. Their medical treatment is complex involving various specialties, necessitating awareness of treatment-related adverse effects (AEs). As GEP-NENs express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), long-acting somatostatin analogs (SSAs) that are used for secretory

  • Role of Lipoproteins in the Microenvironment of Hormone-Dependent Cancers.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Monica Gomaraschi

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is an attractive target to develop novel strategies for hormone-dependent cancers. Several molecules in the TME can favor tumor development and progression, including lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are taken up by cancer cells, providing them with cholesterol and fatty acids. Cholesterol regulates cell signaling and it is converted into a series of bioactive metabolites

  • Reducing Type 1 Diabetes Mortality: Role for Adjunctive Therapies?
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Jennifer R Snaith,Deborah J Holmes-Walker,Jerry R Greenfield

    Individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently fail to achieve glycemic goals and have excess cardiovascular risk and premature death. Adjunctive agents may play a role in reducing morbidity, mortality, and the adverse sequelae of insulin treatment. A surge in type 2 diabetes drug development has revealed agents with benefits beyond glucose lowering, including cardiovascular risk reduction. Could

  • Impacts of Caffeine during Pregnancy
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Jingjing Qian, Qi Chen, Sean M. Ward, Enkui Duan, Ying Zhang

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with adverse gestational outcomes, yet the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent animal studies with physiologically relevant dosages have begun to dissect adverse effects of caffeine during pregnancy with respect to oviduct contractility, embryo development, uterine receptivity, and placentation that

  • Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction and Estrogen Receptor Signaling.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Elif Tunc,Alicia Arredondo Eve,Zeynep Madak-Erdogan

    Chest pain with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) occurs more frequently in women than in men and is mainly related to coronary microvascular disease (CMD). The majority of CMD patients are postmenopausal women, suggesting a role for lack of estrogens in the development and progression of CMD. Patients are often discharged without a clear treatment plan due to the limited understanding

  • A Novel Mechanism for Th17 Inflammation in Human Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Kaitlin Kiernan,Nancie J MacIver

    In their recent study, Nicholas et al. challenge the current dogma that T cell inflammation must be fueled by glycolysis and demonstrate a novel metabolic mechanism for Th17 inflammation in human type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): a combination of increased environmental long-chain fatty acid metabolites coupled with decreased fatty acid oxidation.

  • Methylglyoxal Metabolism and Aging-Related Disease: Moving from Correlation toward Causation.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Rasmus Kold-Christensen,Mogens Johannsen

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a ubiquitous metabolite that spontaneously reacts with biopolymers forming advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). AGEs are strongly associated with aging-related diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. As the formation of AGEs is nonenzymatic, the damage caused by MG and AGEs has been regarded as unspecific. This may have resulted in the field generally

  • Diet-Induced Modification of the Sperm Epigenome Programs Metabolism and Behavior.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Carina Bodden,Anthony J Hannan,Amy C Reichelt

    Globally, obesity has reached epidemic proportions. The rapidly increasing numbers of overweight people can be traced back to overconsumption of energy-dense, poor-quality foods as well as physical inactivity. This development has far-reaching and costly implications. Not only is obesity associated with serious physiological and psychological complications, but mounting evidence also indicates a ripple

  • Immunoregulatory Functions of Nuclear Receptors: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Linjie Zhao,Ryan C Gimple,Zhengnan Yang,Yuquan Wei,Jan-Åke Gustafsson,Shengtao Zhou

    Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily serve as master regulators in signaling by either positively or negatively regulating gene expression. Accumulating evidence has suggested that nuclear receptors are actively involved in immune responses, with specific roles in different immune cell compartments that contribute to both normal function and to disease development. The druggable properties of

  • Temporally Tuned Corticosteroid Feedback Regulation of the Stress Axis
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Joon S. Kim, Karl J. Iremonger

    Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is tuned by corticosteroid feedback. Corticosteroids regulate cellular function via genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, which operate over diverse time scales. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of how corticosteroid feedback regulates hypothalamic stress neuron function and output through synaptic plasticity, changes

  • Epigenetic Mechanisms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Andrew A. Bartlett, Hannah E. Lapp, Richard G. Hunter

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has been shown to be important for mediating cellular responses to stress and circulating glucocorticoids. Ligand-dependent transcriptional changes induced by GR are observed across numerous tissues. However, the mechanisms by which GR achieves cell and tissue-specific effects are less clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have been proposed to explain some of these differences

  • Avian Leptin: Bird’s-Eye View of the Evolution of Vertebrate Energy-Balance Control
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Miriam Friedman-Einat, Eyal Seroussi

    Discovery of the satiety hormone leptin in 1994 and its characterization in mammals provided a key tool to deciphering the complex mechanism governing adipose tissue regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. Surprisingly, despite the perfectly logical notion of an energy-storing tissue announcing the amount of fat stores using leptin signaling, alternate mechanisms were chosen in bird evolution

  • Diabetes Type 2 and Kisspeptin: Central and Peripheral Sex-Specific Actions
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Monika Dudek, Kamil Ziarniak, Marie-Line Cateau, Laurence Dufourny, Joanna Helena Sliwowska

    Kisspeptin (KP) plays a major role in the regulation of reproduction governed by the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis. However, recent findings suggest that the KP system is present not only centrally (at the level of the hypothalamus), but also in the peripheral organs crucial for the control of metabolism. The KP system is sexually differentiated in the hypothalamus, and it is of particular

  • PTH/PTHrP Receptor Signaling, Allostery, and Structures.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Ieva Sutkeviciute,Lisa J Clark,Alex D White,Thomas J Gardella,Jean-Pierre Vilardaga

    The parathyroid hormone (PTH) type 1 receptor (PTHR) is the canonical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for PTH and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) and the key regulator of calcium homeostasis and bone turnover. PTHR function is critical for human health to maintain homeostatic control of ionized serum Ca2+ levels and has several unusual signaling features, such as endosomal cAMP signaling, that are well-studied

  • Pros and Cons of Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy in Cancer Biology.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Esperanza Arias,Ana Maria Cuervo

    Autophagy contributes to cellular quality control and energetics through lysosomal breakdown and recycling of essential cellular components. Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) adds to these autophagic functions the ability to timely and selectively degrade single tagged proteins to terminate their cellular function and, in this way, participate in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. Many

  • Growth Factor-Dependent and -Independent Activation of mTORC2.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Jonas R Knudsen,Andreas M Fritzen,David E James,Thomas E Jensen,Maximilian Kleinert,Erik A Richter

    The target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2) was discovered in 2002 in budding yeast. Its mammalian counterpart, mTORC2, was first described in 2004. Soon thereafter it was demonstrated that mTORC2 directly phosphorylates Akt on Ser473, ending a long search for the elusive 'second' insulin-responsive Akt kinase. In this review we discuss key evidence pertaining to the subcellular localization of mTORC2

  • Role of Nitric Oxide in Insulin Secretion and Glucose Metabolism.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Zahra Bahadoran,Parvin Mirmiran,Asghar Ghasemi

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to carbohydrate metabolism and decreased NO bioavailability is involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NO donors may improve insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in T2DM and insulin resistance (IR), suggesting the potential clinical importance of NO-based interventions. In this review, site-specific roles of the NO synthase (NOS)-NO pathway

  • Intersection of the Gut Microbiome and Circadian Rhythms in Metabolism.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Katya Frazier,Eugene B Chang

    The gut microbiome and circadian rhythms (CRs) both exhibit unique influence on mammalian hosts and have been implicated in the context of many diseases, particularly metabolic disorders. It has become increasingly apparent that these systems also interact closely to alter host physiology and metabolism. However, the mechanisms that underlie these observations remain largely unknown. Recent findings

  • TEM at 30: Advancing Topics in Endocrinology.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    M Beymer

  • Mitochondrial Metabolism: Yin and Yang for Tumor Progression.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2017-09-25
    Lorea Valcarcel-Jimenez,Edoardo Gaude,Veronica Torrano,Christian Frezza,Arkaitz Carracedo

    Altered metabolism is a distinct feature of cancer cells. During transformation, the entire metabolic network is rewired to efficiently convert nutrients to biosynthetic precursors to sustain cancer cell growth and proliferation. Whilst the molecular underpinnings of this metabolic reprogramming have been described, its role in tumor progression is still under investigation. Importantly, the mitochondrion

  • Molecular Mechanisms Determining Lifespan in Short- and Long-Lived Species.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2017-09-11
    Xiao Tian,Andrei Seluanov,Vera Gorbunova

    Aging is a global decline of physiological functions, leading to an increased susceptibility to diseases and ultimately death. Maximum lifespans differ up to 200-fold between mammalian species. Although considerable progress has been achieved in identifying conserved pathways that regulate individual lifespan within model organisms, whether the same pathways are responsible for the interspecies differences

  • AMPK as a Therapeutic Target for Treating Metabolic Diseases.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2017-06-26
    Emily A Day,Rebecca J Ford,Gregory R Steinberg

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the ubiquitous expression of AMPK, it has been a challenge to evaluate which tissue types may be most beneficially poised for

  • Tumour-Derived Human Growth Hormone As a Therapeutic Target in Oncology.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2017-06-18
    Jo K Perry,Zheng-Sheng Wu,Hichem C Mertani,Tao Zhu,Peter E Lobie

    The growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) axis is the key regulator of longitudinal growth, promoting postnatal bone and muscle growth. The available data suggest that GH expression by tumour cells is associated with the aetiology and progression of various cancers such as endometrial, breast, liver, prostate, and colon cancer. Accordingly there has been increased interest in

  • Update on GLUT4 Vesicle Traffic: A Cornerstone of Insulin Action.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2017-06-13
    Javier R Jaldin-Fincati,Martin Pavarotti,Scott Frendo-Cumbo,Philip J Bilan,Amira Klip

    Glucose transport is rate limiting for dietary glucose utilization by muscle and fat. The glucose transporter GLUT4 is dynamically sorted and retained intracellularly and redistributes to the plasma membrane (PM) by insulin-regulated vesicular traffic, or 'GLUT4 translocation'. Here we emphasize recent findings in GLUT4 translocation research. The application of total internal reflection fluorescence

  • Gut Microbiota, Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals, and the Diabetes Epidemic.
    Trends Endocrin. Met. (IF 9.777) Pub Date : 2017-06-03
    Ganesan Velmurugan,Tharmarajan Ramprasath,Mithieux Gilles,Krishnan Swaminathan,Subbiah Ramasamy

    Diabetes is rapidly emerging as one of the biggest health concerns worldwide, with profound implications for disability, mortality, and costs. This suddenly escalating rate of diabetes correlates with global industrialization and the production of plastics, pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, electronic waste, and food additives that release endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) into the environment

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿