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  • Single-cell analysis of the developing human testis reveals somatic niche cell specification and fetal germline stem cell establishment
    Cell Stem Cell (IF 20.86) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Jingtao Guo; Enrique Sosa; Tsotne Chitiashvili; Xichen Nie; Ernesto Javier Rojas; Elizabeth Oliver; Kathrin Plath; James M. Hotaling; Jan-Bernd Stukenborg; Amander T. Clark; Bradley R. Cairns
    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Infection trains the host for microbiota-enhanced resistance to pathogens
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Apollo Stacy; Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira; John A. McCulloch; Benedikt Hild; Ji Hoon Oh; P. Juliana Perez-Chaparro; Choon K. Sim; Ai Ing Lim; Verena M. Link; Michel Enamorado; Giorgio Trinchieri; Julia A. Segre; Barbara Rehermann; Yasmine Belkaid
    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Author Correction: Suppression of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the Italian municipality of Vo’
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Enrico Lavezzo; Elisa Franchin; Constanze Ciavarella; Gina Cuomo-Dannenburg; Luisa Barzon; Claudia Del Vecchio; Lucia Rossi; Riccardo Manganelli; Arianna Loregian; Nicolò Navarin; Davide Abate; Manuela Sciro; Stefano Merigliano; Ettore De Canale; Maria Cristina Vanuzzo; Valeria Besutti; Francesca Saluzzo; Francesco Onelia; Monia Pacenti; Saverio G. Parisi; Giovanni Carretta; Daniele Donato; Luciano

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2956-7.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Tiny hard drives that are alive — and multiplying
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15

    A common bacterium can be engineered to carry coded messages in its genome.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • A case of ‘stomach flu’ arms the microbiome against invaders
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15

    Gut-wrenching infection encourages production of an amino acid consumed by helpful bacteria.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Feeling fit? A little more sweat could still help your heart
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15

    Data from nearly 100,000 people find no upper limit to the heart benefits of increasing exercise levels

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Publisher Correction: Unveiling the strong interaction among hadrons at the LHC
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-03142-2.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Science family of journals announces change to open-access policy
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Richard Van Noorden

    Subscription journals will let some Plan S funded researchers share accepted manuscripts under open licences.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • ‘Can you work with less-qualified people?’ and 19 other curveball questions to navigate at industry interviews
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Tina Persson

    Be ready for queries that reflect stereotypes about academia and that probe why you’re switching sectors, says Tina Persson.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • China COVID vaccine reports mixed results — what does that mean for the pandemic?
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Smriti Mallapaty

    Scientists say CoronaVac could reduce cases of severe disease, particularly in countries with raging outbreaks.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Coronavirus diaries: making plans in a changing world
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    John Tregoning

    John Tregoning grapples with a shifting schedule and a new UK lockdown.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • ‘A bloody mess’: Confusion reigns over naming of new COVID variants
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Ewen Callaway

    “The nomenclature is a bloody mess.”

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • COVID curbed carbon emissions in 2020 — but not by much
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Jeff Tollefson

    Despite sharp drops early in the pandemic, global emissions of carbon dioxide rebounded, new data show.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Daily briefing: Underwhelming trial results for leading Chinese COVID vaccine
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Flora Graham

    The CoronaVac vaccine, developed by Sinovac in China, reports mixed results in Brazil. Plus, what we know about COVID’s toll on smell and taste, and the mysterious extinction of the dire wolf.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Alarming COVID variants show vital role of genomic surveillance
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    David Cyranoski

    Efforts to track SARS-CoV-2 sequences have helped identify worrying variants — but researchers are blind to emerging mutations in some regions.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • The chemical flare that warns plants of rough going ahead
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-14

    Elevated levels of a plant hormone tip off roots about compacted soil.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Water stress will rise in parts of Asia even as glaciers melt and rain pours
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-14

    Northern India is among the regions facing shortages from climate change’s effects on mountain rivers.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • COVID’s toll on smell and taste: what scientists do and don’t know
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-14
    Michael Marshall

    Researchers are studying the sensory impact of the coronavirus, how long it lasts and what can be done to treat it.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • Daily briefing: Insects face ‘death by a thousand cuts’
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2021-01-14
    Flora Graham

    Interim results show COVID immunity for at least five months. Plus, insects face ‘death by a thousand cuts’ and thieving monkeys can spot ransom-worthy items.

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • The natural axis of transmitter receptor distribution in the human cerebral cortex [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Alexandros Goulas, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Konrad Wagstyl, Katrin Amunts, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Claus C. Hilgetag

    Transmitter receptors constitute a key component of the molecular machinery for intercellular communication in the brain. Recent efforts have mapped the density of diverse transmitter receptors across the human cerebral cortex with an unprecedented level of detail. Here, we distill these observations into key organizational principles. We demonstrate that receptor densities form a natural axis in the

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Thermodynamics of interfaces extended to nanoscales by introducing integral and differential surface tensions [Chemistry]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    W. Dong

    As a system shrinks down in size, more and more molecules are found in its surface region, so surface contribution becomes a large or even a dominant part of its thermodynamic potentials. Surface tension is a venerable scientific concept; Gibbs defined it as the excess of grand potential of an inhomogeneous system with respect to its bulk value per interface area [J. W. Gibbs, “The Collected Works”

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Astrocytic cAMP modulates memory via synaptic plasticity [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Zhiwen Zhou, Kazuki Okamoto, Junya Onodera, Toshimitsu Hiragi, Megumi Andoh, Masahito Ikawa, Kenji F. Tanaka, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama

    Astrocytes play a key role in brain homeostasis and functions such as memory. Specifically, astrocytes express multiple receptors that transduce signals via the second messenger cAMP. However, the involvement of astrocytic cAMP in animal behavior and the underlying glial–neuronal interactions remains largely unknown. Here, we show that an increase in astrocytic cAMP is sufficient to induce synaptic

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Systematic analysis of differential rhythmic liver gene expression mediated by the circadian clock and feeding rhythms [Systems Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Benjamin D. Weger, Cédric Gobet, Fabrice P. A. David, Florian Atger, Eva Martin, Nicholas E. Phillips, Aline Charpagne, Meltem Weger, Felix Naef, Frédéric Gachon

    The circadian clock and feeding rhythms are both important regulators of rhythmic gene expression in the liver. To further dissect the respective contributions of feeding and the clock, we analyzed differential rhythmicity of liver tissue samples across several conditions. We developed a statistical method tailored to compare rhythmic liver messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in mouse knockout models of

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • The harsh microenvironment in early breast cancer selects for a Warburg phenotype [Evolution]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Mehdi Damaghi, Jeffrey West, Mark Robertson-Tessi, Liping Xu, Meghan C. Ferrall-Fairbanks, Paul A. Stewart, Erez Persi, Brooke L. Fridley, Philipp M. Altrock, Robert A. Gatenby, Peter A. Sims, Alexander R. A. Anderson, Robert J. Gillies

    The harsh microenvironment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) exerts strong evolutionary selection pressures on cancer cells. We hypothesize that the poor metabolic conditions near the ductal center foment the emergence of a Warburg Effect (WE) phenotype, wherein cells rapidly ferment glucose to lactic acid, even in normoxia. To test this hypothesis, we subjected low-glycolytic breast cancer cells

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • OCT4 induces embryonic pluripotency via STAT3 signaling and metabolic mechanisms [Developmental Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Giuliano G. Stirparo, Agata Kurowski, Ayaka Yanagida, Lawrence E. Bates, Stanley E. Strawbridge, Siarhei Hladkou, Hannah T. Stuart, Thorsten E. Boroviak, Jose C. R. Silva, Jennifer Nichols

    OCT4 is a fundamental component of the molecular circuitry governing pluripotency in vivo and in vitro. To determine how OCT4 establishes and protects the pluripotent lineage in the embryo, we used comparative single-cell transcriptomics and quantitative immunofluorescence on control and OCT4 null blastocyst inner cell masses at two developmental stages. Surprisingly, activation of most pluripotency-associated

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Prior activation state shapes the microglia response to antihuman TREM2 in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease [Immunology and Inflammation]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Daniel C. Ellwanger, Shoutang Wang, Simone Brioschi, Zhifei Shao, Lydia Green, Ryan Case, Daniel Yoo, Dawn Weishuhn, Palaniswami Rathanaswami, Jodi Bradley, Sara Rao, Diana Cha, Peng Luan, Shilpa Sambashivan, Susan Gilfillan, Samuel A. Hasson, Ian N. Foltz, Menno van Lookeren Campagne, Marco Colonna

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) sustains microglia response to brain injury stimuli including apoptotic cells, myelin damage, and amyloid β (Aβ). Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk is associated with the TREM2R47H variant, which impairs ligand binding and consequently microglia responses to Aβ pathology. Here, we show that TREM2 engagement by the mAb hT2AB as surrogate ligand activates

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • An immunohistochemical study of lymphatic elements in the human brain [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Éva Mezey, Ildikó Szalayova, Christopher T. Hogden, Alexandra Brady, Ágnes Dósa, Péter Sótonyi, Miklós Palkovits

    Almost 150 papers about brain lymphatics have been published in the last 150 years. Recently, the information in these papers has been synthesized into a picture of central nervous system (CNS) “glymphatics,” but the fine structure of lymphatic elements in the human brain based on imaging specific markers of lymphatic endothelium has not been described. We used LYVE1 and PDPN antibodies to visualize

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • An in vivo screen of noncoding loci reveals that Daedalus is a gatekeeper of an Ikaros-dependent checkpoint during haematopoiesis [Immunology and Inflammation]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Christian C. D. Harman, Will Bailis, Jun Zhao, Louisa Hill, Rihao Qu, Ruaidhrí P. Jackson, Justin A. Shyer, Holly R. Steach, Yuval Kluger, Loyal A. Goff, John L. Rinn, Adam Williams, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Richard A. Flavell

    Haematopoiesis relies on tightly controlled gene expression patterns as development proceeds through a series of progenitors. While the regulation of hematopoietic development has been well studied, the role of noncoding elements in this critical process is a developing field. In particular, the discovery of new regulators of lymphopoiesis could have important implications for our understanding of

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Reply to Green and Hume: Nonmicroglia peripheral immune effects of short-term CSF1R inhibition with PLX5622 [Biological Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-26
    Fengyang Lei, Naiwen Cui, Chengxin Zhou, James Chodosh, Demetrios G. Vavvas, Eleftherios I. Paschalis

    Our study (1) was designed to provide definitive direct data to the microglia community that PLX5622 does not act solely on microglia but also affects other peripheral macrophage populations. Many microglia papers have assumed or claimed that CSFR1 inhibition has no to minimal effects on peripheral immune cells.* The nonmicroglia effects of CSFR1 inhibition have direct ramifications for the interpretation

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • On the utility of CSF1R inhibitors [Biological Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-01-26
    Kim N. Green, David A. Hume

    We refer to an article pointedly titled “CSF1R inhibition by a small-molecule inhibitor is not microglia specific; affecting hematopoiesis and the function of macrophages” in PNAS (1). This Brief Report addresses a straw man. Thirty years of studies on CSF1 signaling in peripheral populations, assessed via small-molecule inhibitors, antibodies, and mutations, document effects outside of the brain (reviewed

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Identification of existing pharmaceuticals and herbal medicines as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection [Medical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-02-02
    Jia-Tsrong Jan, Ting-Jen Rachel Cheng, Yu-Pu Juang, Hsiu-Hua Ma, Ying-Ta Wu, Wen-Bin Yang, Cheng-Wei Cheng, Xiaorui Chen, Ting-Hung Chou, Jiun-Jie Shie, Wei-Chieh Cheng, Rong-Jie Chein, Shi-Shan Mao, Pi-Hui Liang, Che Ma, Shang-Cheng Hung, Chi-Huey Wong

    The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in more than 50 million confirmed cases and over 1 million deaths worldwide as of November 2020. Currently, there are no effective antivirals approved by the Food and Drug Administration to contain this pandemic except the antiviral agent remdesivir. In addition, the trimeric spike protein on the viral surface is highly glycosylated and almost

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Orthogonal immunoassays for IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 antigens reveal that immune response lasts beyond 4 mo post illness onset [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-02-02
    Varun Sasisekharan, Niharika Pentakota, Akila Jayaraman, Kannan Tharakaraman, Gerald N. Wogan, Uma Narayanasami

    Immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the current pandemic remains a field of immense interest and active research worldwide. Although the severity of acute infection may depend on the intensity of innate and adaptive immunity, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, the longevity of IgG antibodies, including neutralizing activity to SARS-CoV-2

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Reductions in 2020 US life expectancy due to COVID-19 and the disproportionate impact on the Black and Latino populations
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2021-02-02
    Theresa Andrasfay, Noreen Goldman

    COVID-19 has resulted in a staggering death toll in the United States: over 215,000 by mid-October 2020, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black and Latino Americans have experienced a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, reflecting persistent structural inequalities that increase risk of exposure to COVID-19 and mortality risk for those infected.

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • News at a glance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    In science news around the world, several science advocacy groups join calls for President Donald Trump to resign or be immediately removed from office for inciting the 6 January attack by a violent mob on the U.S. Capitol. In a reversal, the Trump administration decides to release its entire stockpile of two authorized COVID-19 vaccines to speed a so far sluggish campaign to vaccinate people. Facing

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Science could benefit as Democrats take power
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    David Malakoff, Jeffrey Mervis

    Science advocates are hoping the new Democratic majority in both houses of Congress will team up with President-elect Joe Biden "to move forward in ways that are transformational and not incremental." The narrow edge in the Senate will make it easier for Biden to win confirmation of his appointees and for Congress to revoke controversial rules finalized in the final 5 months of President Donald Trump's

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Are monarchs in trouble?
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Elizabeth Pennisi

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) has declared that one of North America's best known butterflies, the monarch, might be in trouble. But the agency put off protecting the insect under the federal Endangered Species Act, which may give researchers time to resolve a long-standing debate over how best to gauge the health of monarch populations. In recent months, dueling preprints and publications

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Anemone shows mechanism of rapid evolution
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Elizabeth Pennisi

    Anyone who has been stung by a jellyfish might think they know more than enough about cnidocytes, the cells that deliver the sting. But one researcher has found that these cells have much more to tell, including insight into a simple evolutionary mechanism that, hundreds of millions of years ago, might have enabled jellyfish, sea anemones, corals, and their relatives—collectively known as cnidarians—to

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Fallen giant
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Daniel Clery

    The story of the collapse of the Arecibo telescope is now well known. On 10 August 2020, a steel cable supporting a 900-ton instrument platform high above the dish broke at one end and fell, slicing into the dish. A second support cable snapped on 6 November and the National Science Foundation said attempting repairs was too dangerous: Arecibo would be dismantled. On 1 December, fate took control as

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • From nuclear clusters to neutron stars
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Or Hen

    When neutron stars are formed, their massive gravitational pressure “crushes” most of their protons and electrons into neutrons. Understanding the interaction between the remaining protons (∼5%) and neutrons in the star's core is required to model the neutron star equation of state, which relates its pressure and density and determines many of its macroscopical properties. These proton-neutron interactions

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • The language of a virus
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Yoo-Ah Kim, Teresa M. Przytycka

    Uncovering connections between seemingly unrelated branches of science might accelerate research in one branch by using the methods developed in the other branch as stepping stones. On page 284 of this issue, Hie et al. (1) provide an elegant example of such unexpected connections. The authors have uncovered a parallel between the properties of a virus and its interpretation by the host immune system

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Targeting metabolism to influence aging
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Christopher Pan, Jason W. Locasale

    Glutamine has a host of metabolic functions, including biosynthesis, redox maintenance, and chromatin biology. Drugs are currently available to target glutamine and related metabolism. However, the use of these compounds has been limited by finding appropriate applications because the role of glutamine in health and disease is still poorly understood. Some studies have pointed to a limited role of

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Behavioral convergence in humans and animals
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Kim Hill, Robert Boyd

    Over the 20th century, the social sciences developed without taking much notice of humans' nature as products of evolution. In the 1970s this attitude was challenged by behavioral biologists (1, 2) who asserted that general principles concerning the behavior of life forms must also be relevant to understanding human behavior. They argued that because human cognition and emotions had evolved by natural

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Tracking, targeting, and conserving soil biodiversity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Carlos A. Guerra, Richard D. Bardgett, Lucrezia Caon, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Luca Montanarella, Laetitia M. Navarro, Alberto Orgiazzi, Brajesh K. Singh, Leho Tedersoo, Ronald Vargas-Rojas, Maria J. I. Briones, François Buscot, Erin K. Cameron, Simone Cesarz, Antonis Chatzinotas, Don A. Cowan, Ika Djukic, Johan van den Hoogen, Anika Lehmann, Fernando T. Maestre, César Marín, Thomas

    Nature conservation literature and policy instruments mainly focus on the impacts of human development and the benefits of nature conservation for oceans and aboveground terrestrial organisms (e.g., birds and plants) and processes (e.g., food production), but these efforts almost completely ignore the majority of terrestrial biodiversity that is unseen and living in the soil (1). Little is known about

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Fighting the good fight
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Adrienne Hollis

    In Michael Mann's latest book, The New Climate War, the reader is afforded a unique perspective on the struggle for climate action and climate protection. This perspective, covering the span of a few centuries and ending in the present, weaves together the missteps, manipulations, and misrepresentations that have occurred throughout the so-called climate war between those who believe that human actions

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Deflating the opaque online ad bubble
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Steve Tadelis

    General Motors and Ford, the two largest U.S. automakers, are together worth about US$100 billion. The combined value of Google and Facebook is about $2 trillion—20 times higher. What makes these companies worth so much? Ads. In Subprime Attention Crisis: Advertising and the Time Bomb at the Heart of the Internet, Tim Hwang suggests that the digital advertising industry may be on the brink of a global

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Controlled hydroxylations of diterpenoids allow for plant chemical defense without autotoxicity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Jiancai Li, Rayko Halitschke, Dapeng Li, Christian Paetz, Haichao Su, Sven Heiling, Shuqing Xu, Ian T. Baldwin

    Many plant specialized metabolites function in herbivore defense, and abrogating particular steps in their biosynthetic pathways frequently causes autotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their defense and autotoxicity remain unclear. Here, we show that silencing two cytochrome P450s involved in diterpene biosynthesis in the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata causes severe autotoxicity

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Formation of α clusters in dilute neutron-rich matter
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Junki Tanaka, Zaihong Yang, Stefan Typel, Satoshi Adachi, Shiwei Bai, Patrik van Beek, Didier Beaumel, Yuki Fujikawa, Jiaxing Han, Sebastian Heil, Siwei Huang, Azusa Inoue, Ying Jiang, Marco Knösel, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Yuki Kubota, Wei Liu, Jianling Lou, Yukie Maeda, Yohei Matsuda, Kenjiro Miki, Shoken Nakamura, Kazuyuki Ogata, Valerii Panin, Heiko Scheit, Fabia Schindler, Philipp Schrock, Dmytro Symochko

    The surface of neutron-rich heavy nuclei, with a neutron skin created by excess neutrons, provides an important terrestrial model system to study dilute neutron-rich matter. By using quasi-free α cluster–knockout reactions, we obtained direct experimental evidence for the formation of α clusters at the surface of neutron-rich tin isotopes. The observed monotonous decrease of the reaction cross sections

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Senolysis by glutaminolysis inhibition ameliorates various age-associated disorders
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Yoshikazu Johmura, Takehiro Yamanaka, Satotaka Omori, Teh-Wei Wang, Yuki Sugiura, Masaki Matsumoto, Narumi Suzuki, Soichiro Kumamoto, Kiyoshi Yamaguchi, Seira Hatakeyama, Tomoyo Takami, Rui Yamaguchi, Eigo Shimizu, Kazutaka Ikeda, Nobuyuki Okahashi, Ryuta Mikawa, Makoto Suematsu, Makoto Arita, Masataka Sugimoto, Keiichi I. Nakayama, Yoichi Furukawa, Seiya Imoto, Makoto Nakanishi

    Removal of senescent cells (senolysis) has been proposed to be beneficial for improving age-associated pathologies, but the molecular pathways for such senolytic activity have not yet emerged. Here, we identified glutaminase 1 (GLS1) as an essential gene for the survival of human senescent cells. The intracellular pH in senescent cells was lowered by lysosomal membrane damage, and this lowered pH induced

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • GPER1 is required to protect fetal health from maternal inflammation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Alfred T. Harding, Marisa A. Goff, Heather M. Froggatt, Jean K. Lim, Nicholas S. Heaton

    Type I interferon (IFN) signaling in fetal tissues causes developmental abnormalities and fetal demise. Although pathogens that infect fetal tissues can induce birth defects through the local production of type I IFN, it remains unknown why systemic IFN generated during maternal infections only rarely causes fetal developmental defects. Here, we report that activation of the guanine nucleotide–binding

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Plant roots sense soil compaction through restricted ethylene diffusion
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Bipin K. Pandey, Guoqiang Huang, Rahul Bhosale, Sjon Hartman, Craig J. Sturrock, Lottie Jose, Olivier C. Martin, Michal Karady, Laurentius A. C. J. Voesenek, Karin Ljung, Jonathan P. Lynch, Kathleen M. Brown, William R. Whalley, Sacha J. Mooney, Dabing Zhang, Malcolm J. Bennett

    Soil compaction represents a major challenge for modern agriculture. Compaction is intuitively thought to reduce root growth by limiting the ability of roots to penetrate harder soils. We report that root growth in compacted soil is instead actively suppressed by the volatile hormone ethylene. We found that mutant Arabidopsis and rice roots that were insensitive to ethylene penetrated compacted soil

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Driving energetically unfavorable dehydrogenation dynamics with plasmonics
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Katherine Sytwu, Michal Vadai, Fariah Hayee, Daniel K. Angell, Alan Dai, Jefferson Dixon, Jennifer A. Dionne

    Nanoparticle surface structure and geometry generally dictate where chemical transformations occur, with higher chemical activity at sites with lower activation energies. Here, we show how optical excitation of plasmons enables spatially modified phase transformations, activating otherwise energetically unfavorable sites. We have designed a crossed-bar Au-PdHx antenna-reactor system that localizes

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Learning the language of viral evolution and escape
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Brian Hie, Ellen D. Zhong, Bonnie Berger, Bryan Bryson

    The ability for viruses to mutate and evade the human immune system and cause infection, called viral escape, remains an obstacle to antiviral and vaccine development. Understanding the complex rules that govern escape could inform therapeutic design. We modeled viral escape with machine learning algorithms originally developed for human natural language. We identified escape mutations as those that

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Three-quarters attack rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brazilian Amazon during a largely unmitigated epidemic
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Lewis F. Buss, Carlos A. Prete, Claudia M. M. Abrahim, Alfredo Mendrone, Tassila Salomon, Cesar de Almeida-Neto, Rafael F. O. França, Maria C. Belotti, Maria P. S. S. Carvalho, Allyson G. Costa, Myuki A. E. Crispim, Suzete C. Ferreira, Nelson A. Fraiji, Susie Gurzenda, Charles Whittaker, Leonardo T. Kamaura, Pedro L. Takecian, Pedro da Silva Peixoto, Marcio K. Oikawa, Anna S. Nishiya, Vanderson Rocha

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly in Manaus, the capital of Amazonas state in northern Brazil. The attack rate there is an estimate of the final size of the largely unmitigated epidemic that occurred in Manaus. We use a convenience sample of blood donors to show that by June 2020, 1 month after the epidemic peak in Manaus, 44% of the population had detectable

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Local convergence of behavior across species
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Toman Barsbai, Dieter Lukas, Andreas Pondorfer

    Behavior is a way for organisms to respond flexibly to the environmental conditions they encounter. Our own species exhibits large behavioral flexibility and occurs in all terrestrial habitats, sharing these environments with many other species. It remains unclear to what extent a shared environment constrains behavior and whether these constraints apply similarly across species. Here, we show that

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Topological pumping of a 1D dipolar gas into strongly correlated prethermal states
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Wil Kao, Kuan-Yu Li, Kuan-Yu Lin, Sarang Gopalakrishnan, Benjamin L. Lev

    Long-lived excited states of interacting quantum systems that retain quantum correlations and evade thermalization are of great fundamental interest. We create nonthermal states in a bosonic one-dimensional (1D) quantum gas of dysprosium by stabilizing a super-Tonks-Girardeau gas against collapse and thermalization with repulsive long-range dipolar interactions. Stiffness and energy-per-particle measurements

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Cryo-EM structure of the B cell co-receptor CD19 bound to the tetraspanin CD81
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Katherine J. Susa, Shaun Rawson, Andrew C. Kruse, Stephen C. Blacklow

    Signaling through the CD19-CD81 co-receptor complex, in combination with the B cell receptor, is a critical determinant of B cell development and activation. It is unknown how CD81 engages CD19 to enable co-receptor function. Here, we report a 3.8-angstrom structure of the CD19-CD81 complex bound to a therapeutic antigen-binding fragment, determined by cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Structure of a transcribing RNA polymerase II–U1 snRNP complex
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Suyang Zhang, Shintaro Aibara, Seychelle M. Vos, Dmitry E. Agafonov, Reinhard Lührmann, Patrick Cramer

    To initiate cotranscriptional splicing, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruits the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP) to nascent precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). Here, we report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of a mammalian transcribing Pol II–U1 snRNP complex. The structure reveals that Pol II and U1 snRNP interact directly. This interaction positions the pre-mRNA 5′ splice

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Noncanonical transnitrosylation network contributes to synapse loss in Alzheimer’s disease
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Tomohiro Nakamura, Chang-ki Oh, Lujian Liao, Xu Zhang, Kevin M. Lopez, Daniel Gibbs, Amanda K. Deal, Henry R. Scott, Brian Spencer, Eliezer Masliah, Robert A. Rissman, John R. Yates, Stuart A. Lipton

    Here we describe mechanistically distinct enzymes (a kinase, a guanosine triphosphatase, and a ubiquitin protein hydrolase) that function in disparate biochemical pathways and can also act in concert to mediate a series of redox reactions. Each enzyme manifests a second, noncanonical function—transnitrosylation—that triggers a pathological biochemical cascade in mouse models and in humans with Alzheimer’s

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Transmission heterogeneities, kinetics, and controllability of SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Kaiyuan Sun, Wei Wang, Lidong Gao, Yan Wang, Kaiwei Luo, Lingshuang Ren, Zhifei Zhan, Xinghui Chen, Shanlu Zhao, Yiwei Huang, Qianlai Sun, Ziyan Liu, Maria Litvinova, Alessandro Vespignani, Marco Ajelli, Cécile Viboud, Hongjie Yu

    A long-standing question in infectious disease dynamics concerns the role of transmission heterogeneities, which are driven by demography, behavior, and interventions. On the basis of detailed patient and contact-tracing data in Hunan, China, we find that 80% of secondary infections traced back to 15% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primary infections, which indicates

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Aberrant type 1 immunity drives susceptibility to mucosal fungal infections
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Timothy J. Break, Vasileios Oikonomou, Nicolas Dutzan, Jigar V. Desai, Marc Swidergall, Tilo Freiwald, Daniel Chauss, Oliver J. Harrison, Julie Alejo, Drake W. Williams, Stefania Pittaluga, Chyi-Chia R. Lee, Nicolas Bouladoux, Muthulekha Swamydas, Kevin W. Hoffman, Teresa Greenwell-Wild, Vincent M. Bruno, Lindsey B. Rosen, Wint Lwin, Andy Renteria, Sergio M. Pontejo, John P. Shannon, Ian A. Myles,

    Human monogenic disorders have revealed the critical contribution of type 17 responses in mucosal fungal surveillance. We unexpectedly found that in certain settings, enhanced type 1 immunity rather than defective type 17 responses can promote mucosal fungal infection susceptibility. Notably, in mice and humans with AIRE deficiency, an autoimmune disease characterized by selective susceptibility to

    更新日期:2021-01-15
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