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  • Influence of glycosphingolipids on cancer cell energy metabolism
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Nina Schömel; Gerd Geisslinger; Marthe-Susanna Wegner

    A growing number of studies describe a connection between glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and glutamine metabolism, glucose metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells. Since deregulated cell energy metabolism is one of cancer cells hallmarks, investigating this connection is an important step in the development of anti-cancer therapies. GSL species are often aberrantly regulated in human cancers

  • 更新日期:2020-06-28
  • The memory of the fatty acid system
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Rainer H. Straub

    Mental memory system has sensory memory, short-term memory, working memory, and long-term memory. Working memory “keeps things in mind in parallel” when performing complex tasks. Similar aspects can be found for immunological memory. However, there exists another one, the memory of the fatty acid system. This article shows sensory memory of the fatty acid system, which is the perception apparatus of

  • Molecular mechanisms for biosynthesis and assembly of nutritionally important very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in microorganisms.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Xiao Qiu,Xi Xie,Dauenpen Meesapyodsuk

    Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5-n3) are nutritionally important for humans and animals. De novo biosynthesis of these fatty acids mainly occurs in microorganisms and goes through either an aerobic pathway catalyzed by type I/II fatty acid synthase, desaturases and

  • Structure, function, and regulation of thioesterases.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Crystall M D Swarbrick,Jeffrey D Nanson,Edward I Patterson,Jade K Forwood

    Thioesterases are present in all living cells and perform a wide range of important biological functions by catalysing the cleavage of thioester bonds present in a diverse array of cellular substrates. Thioesterases are organised into 25 families based on their sequence conservation, tertiary and quaternary structure, active site configuration, and substrate specificity. Recent structural and functional

  • Fat taste signal transduction and its possible negative modulator components.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Deepankumar Shanmugamprema,Karthi Muthuswamy,Gowtham Subramanian,Vinithra Ponnusamy,Vasanth Krishnan,Selvakumar Subramaniam

    The incidence of obesity and its associated diseases including diabetes and various cardiovascular disease continues to escalate. Since the energy homeostasis executes a substantial role in fat-rich food intake and body weight regulation, it grows into a prevalent subject of interest for its strong energy density and high palatability. Over the decade, the notion that the dietary fatty acids convey

  • Maresin-1 resolution with RORα and LGR6.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Dong-Soon Im

    Maresin-1, a pro-resolving lipid mediator, is drawing a great deal of attention in receptor pharmacology, largely because two distinct types of receptor molecules have been reported as the targets of maresin-1. One is retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα) and the other is leucine-rich repeat domain-containing G protein-coupled receptor 6 (LGR6). RORα is a nuclear receptor and LGR6 is a plasma

  • Squalene monooxygenase: a journey to the heart of cholesterol synthesis.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Ngee Kiat Chua,Hudson W Coates,Andrew J Brown

    Squalene monooxygenase (SM) is a vital sterol synthesis enzyme across eukaryotic life. In yeast, it is a therapeutic target for treating certain fungal infections, and in mammals it is a rate-limiting enzyme that represents a key control point in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. SM introduces an oxygen atom to squalene, which becomes the signature oxygen of the hydroxyl group in cholesterol. Our

  • Lipid droplets throughout the evolutionary tree.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Peter K Lundquist,Kiran-Kumar Shivaiah,Roberto Espinoza-Corral

    Intracellular lipid droplets are utilized for lipid storage and metabolism in organisms as evolutionarily diverse as animals, fungi, plants, bacteria, and archaea. These lipid droplets demonstrate great diversity in biological functions and protein and lipid compositions, yet fundamentally share common molecular and ultrastructural characteristics. Lipid droplet research has been largely fragmented

  • Preference for dietary fat: From detection to disease.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Amira S Khan,Russell Keast,Naim A Khan

    Recent advances in the field of taste physiology have clarified the role of different basic taste modalities and their implications in health and disease and proposed emphatically that there might be a distinct cue for oro-sensory detection of dietary long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). Hence, fat taste can be categorized as a taste modality. During mastication, LCFAs activate tongue lipid sensors like

  • Lipid-based biomarkers for CVD, COPD, and aging - A translational perspective.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Kim Ekroos,Oksana Lavrynenko,Bjoern Titz,Calin Pater,Julia Hoeng,Nikolai V Ivanov

    For many diseases, there is an unmet need for new or better biomarkers for improved disease risk assessment and monitoring, as available markers lack sufficient specificity. Lipids are drawing major interest as potential candidates for filling these gaps. This has recently been demonstrated by the identification of selective ceramides for prediction of cardiovascular mortality, enabling improved risk

  • Emerging roles for human glycolipid transfer protein superfamily members in the regulation of autophagy, inflammation, and cell death.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Shrawan K Mishra,Yong-Guang Gao,Xianqiong Zou,Daniel J Stephenson,Lucy Malinina,Edward H Hinchcliffe,Charles E Chalfant,Rhoderick E Brown

    Glycolipid transfer proteins (GLTPs) were first identified over three decades ago as ~24kDa, soluble, amphitropic proteins that specifically accelerate the intermembrane transfer of glycolipids. Upon discovery that GLTPs use a unique, all-α-helical, two-layer 'sandwich' architecture (GLTP-fold) to bind glycosphingolipids (GSLs), a new protein superfamily was born. Structure/function studies have provided

  • Regulation of coenzyme A levels by degradation: the 'Ins and Outs'.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2020-03-29
    Philippe Naquet,Evan W Kerr,Schuyler D Vickers,Roberta Leonardi

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is the predominant acyl carrier in mammalian cells and a cofactor that plays a key role in energy and lipid metabolism. CoA and its thioesters (acyl-CoAs) regulate a multitude of metabolic processes at different levels: as substrates, allosteric modulators, and via post-translational modification of histones and other non-histone proteins. Evidence is emerging that synthesis and degradation

  • A global perspective on the crosstalk between saturated fatty acids and Toll-like receptor 4 in the etiology of inflammation and insulin resistance.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Bin Li,Joseph C K Leung,Loretta Y Y Chan,Wai Han Yiu,Sydney C W Tang

    Obesity is featured by chronic systemic low-grade inflammation that eventually contributes to the development of insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important mediator that triggers the innate immune response by activating inflammatory signaling cascades. Human, animal and cell culture studies identified saturated fatty acids (SFAs), the dominant non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in

  • The (endo)cannabinoid signaling in female reproduction: What are the latest advances?
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Sandra Cecconi,Cinzia Rapino,Valentina Di Nisio,Gianna Rossi,Mauro Maccarrone

    Cannabis extracts like marijuana have the highest consumption rate worldwide. Yet, their societal acceptance as recreational and therapeutic drugs could represent a serious hazard to female human reproduction, because cannabis ingredients [termed (phyto)cannabinoids] can perturb an endogenous system of lipid signals known as endocannabinoids. Accumulated evidence on animal models and humans has demonstrated

  • Mammalian phospholipase D: Function, and therapeutics.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    M I McDermott,Y Wang,M J O Wakelam,V A Bankaitis

    Despite being discovered over 60 years ago, the precise role of phospholipase D (PLD) is still being elucidated. PLD enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of glycerophospholipids producing phosphatidic acid and the free headgroup. PLD family members are found in organisms ranging from viruses, and bacteria to plants, and mammals. They display a range of substrate specificities

  • The highly unnatural fatty acid profile of cells in culture.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Paul L Else

    The fatty acid profile of cells in culture are unlike those of natural cells with twice the monounsaturated (MUFA) and half the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) level (Mol%). This is not due to cell lines primarily being derived from cancers but is due to limited access to lipid and an inability to make PUFA de novo as vertebrate cells. Classic culture methods use media with 10% serum (the only exogenous

  • Eighteen‑carbon trans fatty acids and inflammation in the context of atherosclerosis.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Carina A Valenzuela,Ella J Baker,Elizabeth A Miles,Philip C Calder

    Endothelial dysfunction is a pro-inflammatory state characterized by chronic activation of the endothelium, which leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Intake of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of CVD. This risk is usually associated with industrial TFAs (iTFAs) rather than ruminant TFAs (rTFAs); however it is not clear how specific TFA isomers differ

  • Mammalian sphingoid bases: Biophysical, physiological and pathological properties.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    A C Carreira,T C Santos,M A Lone,E Zupančič,E Lloyd-Evans,R F M de Almeida,T Hornemann,L C Silva

    Sphingoid bases encompass a group of long chain amino alcohols which form the essential structure of sphingolipids. Over the last years, these amphiphilic molecules were moving more and more into the focus of biomedical research due to their role as bioactive molecules. In fact, free sphingoid bases interact with specific receptors and target molecules and have been associated with numerous biological

  • Biochemistry of very-long-chain and long-chain ceramides in cystic fibrosis and other diseases: The importance of side chain.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Dušan Garić,Juan B De Sanctis,Juhi Shah,Daciana Catalina Dumut,Danuta Radzioch

    Ceramides, the principal building blocks of all sphingolipids, have attracted the attention of many scientists around the world interested in developing treatments for cystic fibrosis, the most common genetic disease of Caucasians. Many years of fruitful research in this field have produced some fundamentally important, yet controversial results. Here, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge on

  • Galectin-3 modulation of T-cell activation: mechanisms of membrane remodelling.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Rebecca C Gilson,Sachith D Gunasinghe,Ludger Johannes,Katharina Gaus

    Galectin-3 (Gal3) is a multifaceted protein which belongs to a family of lectins and binds β-galactosides. Gal3 expression is altered in many types of cancer, with increased expression generally associated with poor prognosis. Although the mechanisms remain unknown, Gal3 has been implicated in several biological processes involved in cancer progression, including suppression of T cell-mediated immune

  • Enzymes of triacylglycerol synthesis and their regulation.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-12-05
    Rosalind A Coleman,Douglas P Lee

    Since the pathways of glycerolipid biosynthesis were elucidated in the 1950's, considerable knowledge has been gained about the enzymes that catalyze the lipid biosynthetic reactions and the factors that regulate triacylglycerol biosynthesis. In the last few decades, in part due to advances in technology and the wide availability of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, we have made enormous strides

  • The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-12-05
    Huiling Mu,Carl-Erik Høy

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG structure and the species composition are of importance when considering the nutritional effects of a dietary

  • Regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturases and role in metabolism.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-12-05
    James M Ntambi,Makoto Miyazaki

    Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is the rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleate (18:1) and palmitoleate (16:1). These represent the major monounsaturated fatty acids of membrane phospholipids, triglycerides, wax esters and cholesterol esters. The ratio of saturated to monounsaturated fatty acids affects phospholipid composition and alteration in this

  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs): metabolism and biochemical function.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    Arthur A Spector,Xiang Fang,Gary D Snyder,Neal L Weintraub

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, function primarily as autocrine and paracrine effectors in the cardiovascular system and kidney. They modulate ion transport and gene expression, producing vasorelaxation as well as anti-inflammatory and pro-fibrinolytic effects. EETs are incorporated into the sn-2 position of phospholipids

  • Elongation of long-chain fatty acids.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    Amanda E Leonard,Suzette L Pereira,Howard Sprecher,Yung-Sheng Huang

  • Recent advances in molecular biology and physiology of the prostaglandin E2-biosynthetic pathway.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-11-26
    Makoto Murakami,Ichiro Kudo

    Prostanoids represent a group of lipid mediators that are produced from arachidonic acid via the cyclooxygenase pathway. Once formed, the prostanoids are released from the cells and act on their cognate receptors on cell surfaces to exert their biological actions. Of these, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is the most common prostanoid, being produced by a wide variety of cells and tissues and has a broad

  • Problems with essential fatty acids: time for a new paradigm?
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    Stephen C Cunnane

    The term 'essential fatty acid' is ambiguous and inappropriately inclusive or exclusive of many polyunsaturated fatty acids. When applied most rigidly to linoleate and alpha-linolenate, this term excludes the now well accepted but conditional dietary need for two long chain polyunsaturates (arachidonate and docosahexaenoate) during infancy. In addition, because of the concomitant absence of dietary

  • Membrane fluidity and the perception of environmental signals in cyanobacteria and plants.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    Koji Mikami,Norio Murata

    Photosynthetic organisms, namely, plants and cyanobacteria, are directly exposed to changes in their environment and their survival depends on their ability to acclimate to such changes. Several lines of evidence suggest that temperature stress, such as unusually low or high temperatures, and osmotic stress might be perceived by plants and cyanobacteria via changes in the fluidity of their cell membranes

  • Molecular mechanisms of lysophosphatidic acid action.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    Gabor Tigyi,Abby L Parrill

  • Regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis: co-operation or competition?
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    Geoffrey F Gibbons

    Fatty acids and sterols originally evolved symbiotically as structural components of cell membranes. In some respects, control of their biosynthetic pathways reflects their mutual interdependence in defining changes in the physicochemical properties of the membranes in response to the changing internal and external cellular environments. In some tissues of higher animals, however, cholesterol and fatty

  • Stealth liposomes and long circulating nanoparticles: critical issues in pharmacokinetics, opsonization and protein-binding properties.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    S M Moghimi,J Szebeni

    This article critically examines and evaluates the likely mechanisms that contribute to prolonged circulation times of sterically protected nanoparticles and liposomes. It is generally assumed that the macrophage-resistant property of sterically protected particles is due to suppression in surface opsonization and protein adsorption. However, recent evidence shows that sterically stabilized particles

  • Ligand-targeted liposomal anticancer drugs.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-06-20
    P Sapra,T M Allen

    Antibody or ligand-mediated targeting of liposomal anticancer drugs to antigens expressed selectively or over-expressed on tumor cells is increasingly being recognized as an effective strategy for increasing the therapeutic indices of anticancer drugs. This review summarizes some recent advances in the field of ligand-targeted liposomes (LTLs) for the delivery of anticancer drugs. New approaches used

  • Exposure of platelet membrane phosphatidylserine regulates blood coagulation.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-06-20
    Barry R Lentz

    This article addresses the role of platelet membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) in regulating the production of thrombin, the central regulatory molecule of blood coagulation. PS is normally located on the cytoplasmic face of the resting platelet membrane but appears on the plasma-oriented surface of discrete membrane vesicles that derive from activated platelets. Thrombin, the central molecule of coagulation

  • The role of vitamin E in atherosclerosis.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-06-20
    Joanne M Upston,Leonard Kritharides,Roland Stocker

    Epidemiological and biochemical studies infer that oxidative processes, including the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), are involved in atherosclerosis. Vitamin E has been the focus of several large supplemental studies of cardiovascular disease, yet its potential to attenuate or even prevent atherosclerosis has not been realised. The scientific rationale for vitamin E supplements protecting

  • Comparison of the properties of prostaglandin H synthase-1 and -2.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-06-20
    Richard J Kulmacz,Wilfred A van der Donk,Ah-Lim Tsai

    Biosynthesis of prostanoid lipid signaling agents from arachidonic acid begins with prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS), a hemoprotein in the myeloperoxidase family. Vertebrates from humans to fish have two principal isoforms of PGHS, termed PGHS-1 and-2. These two isoforms are structurally quite similar, but they have very different pathophysiological roles and are regulated very differently at the level

  • The chemical biology of branched-chain lipid metabolism.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-06-20
    Mridul Mukherji,Christopher J Schofield,Anthony S Wierzbicki,Gerbert A Jansen,Ronald J A Wanders,Matthew D Lloyd

    Mammalian metabolism of some lipids including 3-methyl and 2-methyl branched-chain fatty acids occurs within peroxisomes. Such lipids, including phytanic and pristanic acids, are commonly found within the human diet and may be derived from chlorophyll in plant extracts. Due to the presence of a methyl group at its beta-carbon, the well-characterised beta-oxidation pathway cannot degrade phytanic acid

  • Pleiotropic actions of sphingosine-1-phosphate.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-06-07
    Kenneth Watterson,Heidi Sankala,Sheldon Milstien,Sarah Spiegel

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (SIP) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates diverse cellular responses including, growth, survival, cytoskeleton rearrangements and movement. SIP plays an important role during development, particularly in vascular maturation and has been implicated in pathophysiology of cancer, wound healing, and atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the evidence showing that

  • 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal: a product and mediator of oxidative stress.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-04-12
    Koji Uchida

    The onset of lipid peroxidation within cellular membranes is associated with changes in their physiochemical properties and with the impairment of enzymatic functions located in the membrane environment. There is increasing evidence that aldehydic molecules generated endogenously during the process of lipid peroidation are causally involved in most of the pathophysiological effects associated with

  • Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-04-12
    Stuart Smith,Andrzej Witkowski,Anil K Joshi

    The entire pathway of palmitate synthesis from malonyl-CoA in mammals is catalyzed by a single, homodimeric, multifunctional protein, the fatty acid synthase. Each subunit contains three N-terminal domains, the beta-ketoacyl synthase, malonyl/acetyl transferase and dehydrase separated by a structural core from four C-terminal domains, the enoyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, acyl carrier protein

  • Selective mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue triacylglycerols.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-04-12
    Thierry Raclot

    Adipose tissue triacylglycerols represent the main storage of a wide spectrum of fatty acids differing by molecular structure. The release of individual fatty acids from adipose tissue is selective according to carbon chain length and unsaturation degree in vitro and in vivo in animal studies and also in humans. The mechanism of selective fatty acid mobilization from white fat cells is not known. Lipolysis

  • AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) control of fatty acid and glucose metabolism in the ischemic heart.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-04-12
    Nandakumar Sambandam,Gary D Lopaschuk

    Myocardial ischemia is the leading cause of all cardiovascular deaths in North America. Myocardial ischemia is accompanied by profound changes in metabolism including alterations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism, increased uncoupling of glucose oxidation from glycolysis and accumulation of protons within the myocardium. These changes can contribute to a poor functional recovery of the heart. One

  • Antiphospholipid antibodies: discovery, definitions, detection and disease.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-04-12
    John A McIntyre,Dawn R Wagenknecht,W Page Faulk

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are immunoglobulins of IgG, IgM and IgA isotypes that target phospholipid (PL) and/or PL-binding plasma proteins. Detection of aPL in the laboratory is done currently by both immunoassays and functional coagulation tests. Convention defines aPL specificity in immunoassays according to the particular PL substrate present, for example aPS represents antiphosphatidylserine

  • The role of sterols in plant growth and development.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-04-12
    Hubert Schaller

    Sterols found in all eukaryotic organisms are membrane components which regulate the fluidity and the permeability of phospholipid bilayers. Certain sterols in minute amounts, such as campesterol in Arabidopsis thaliana, are precursors of oxidized steroids acting as growth hormones collectively named brassinosteroids. The crucial importance of brassinosteroids upon growth and development has been established

  • Biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in bacteria.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-01-28
    Christian Sohlenkamp,Isabel M López-Lara,Otto Geiger

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the major membrane-forming phospholipid in eukaryotes and can be synthesized by either of two pathways, the methylation pathway or the CDP-choline pathway. Many prokaryotes lack PC, but it can be found in significant amounts in membranes of rather diverse bacteria and based on genomic data, we estimate that more than 10% of all bacteria possess PC. Enzymatic methylation

  • Plasma platelet activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH).
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-01-28
    Ken Karasawa,Ayako Harada,Noriko Satoh,Keizo Inoue,Morio Setaka

    The platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetyl ester at the sn-2 position of PAF. The family of PAF-AHs consists of two intracellular isoforms (Ib and II), and one secreted isoform (plasma). These PAF-AHs show different biochemical characteristics and molecular structures. Plasma PAF-AH and intracellular isoform, II degrade not only PAF

  • Effects of HIV protease inhibitor therapy on lipid metabolism.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2003-01-28
    David Y Hui

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy, which includes a combination of protease inhibitors, is highly successful in controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and reducing the morbidity and mortality of autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, the benefits of HIV protease inhibitors are compromised by numerous undesirable side effects. These include peripheral fat wasting and excessive

  • Biosynthesis and secretion of plant cuticular wax.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-12-07
    L Kunst,A L Samuels

    The cuticle covers the aerial portions of land plants. It consists of amorphous intracuticular wax embedded in cutin polymer, and epicuticular wax crystalloids that coat the outer plant surface and impart a whitish appearance. Cuticular wax is mainly composed of long-chain aliphatic compounds derived from very long chain fatty acids. Wax biosynthesis begins with fatty acid synthesis in the plastid

  • Squalene epoxidase as hypocholesterolemic drug target revisited.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-12-07
    Anita Chugh,Abhijit Ray,Jung B Gupta

    Therapeutic success of statins has distinctly established inhibition of de novo hepatic cholesterol synthesis as an effective approach to lower plasma LDL-cholesterol, the major risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Statins inhibit HMG CoA reductase, a rate limiting enzyme which catalyses conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonic acid. However, in this process statins also inhibit the

  • Structure of the skin barrier and its modulation by vesicular formulations.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-12-07
    Joke A Bouwstra,P Loan Honeywell-Nguyen,Gert S Gooris,Maria Ponec

    The natural function of the skin is to protect the body from unwanted influences from the environment. The main barrier of the skin is located in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum. Since the lipids regions in the stratum corneum form the only continuous structure, substances applied onto the skin always have to pass these regions. For this reason the organization in the lipid domains

  • The biosynthesis of mycolic acids by Mycobacteria: current and alternative hypotheses.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-08-10
    Cécile Asselineau,Jean Asselineau,Gilbert Lanéelle,Marie-Antoinette Lanéelle

    Experimental observations, accumulated during several decades, have allowed an overall scheme for the biosynthesis of the mycolic acids, which are very long chain fatty acids of Mycobacteria to be proposed. But, in almost every step, several hypotheses are compatible with the experimental results, leading to variations of the overall scheme. The aim of this review is to point to some additional possibilities

  • Phytosterols, phytostanols, and their conjugates in foods: structural diversity, quantitative analysis, and health-promoting uses.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-08-10
    Robert A Moreau,Bruce D Whitaker,Kevin B Hicks

    Phytosterols (plant sterols) are triterpenes that are important structural components of plant membranes, and free phytosterols serve to stabilize phospholipid bilayers in plant cell membranes just as cholesterol does in animal cell membranes. Most phytosterols contain 28 or 29 carbons and one or two carbon-carbon double bonds, typically one in the sterol nucleus and sometimes a second in the alkyl

  • New advances in the chemistry of methoxylated lipids.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-08-10
    N M Carballeira

    Methoxylated lipids have been reviewed emphasizing the alkylglycerol ethers and fatty acids bearing the methoxy group in the alkyl chain. The literature on methoxylated lipids and their derivatives has been divided into four main groups, namely 2-methoxylated alkyl glycerols, omega-methoxylated fatty acids, mid-chain methoxylated fatty acids, and alpha-methoxylated fatty acids. The natural occurrence

  • Multi-subunit acetyl-CoA carboxylases.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-07-18
    John E Cronan,Grover L Waldrop

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) catalyses the first committed step of fatty acid synthesis, the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Two physically distinct types of enzymes are found in nature. Bacterial and most plant chloroplasts contain a multi-subunit ACC (MS-ACC) enzyme that is readily dissociated into its component proteins. Mammals, fungi, and plant cytosols contain the second type of ACC

  • A lipid based depot (DepoFoam technology) for sustained release drug delivery.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-07-18
    Sankaram Mantripragada

    Encapsulation of drugs into multivesicular liposomes (DepoFoam) offers a novel approach to sustained-release drug delivery. While encapsulation of drugs into unilamellar and multilamellar liposomes, and complexation of drugs with lipids, resulted in products with better performance over a period lasting several hours to a few days after intravascular administration, DepoFoam-encapsulation has been

  • Central role of peroxisomes in isoprenoid biosynthesis.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-07-18
    Werner J Kovacs,Lisa M Olivier,Skaidrite K Krisans

    Peroxisomes contain enzymes catalyzing a number of indispensable metabolic functions mainly related to lipid metabolism. The importance of peroxisomes in man is stressed by the existence of genetic disorders in which the biogenesis of the organelle is defective, leading to complex developmental and metabolic phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to emphasize some of the recent findings related

  • Natural halogenated fatty acids: their analogues and derivatives.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-04-18
    Valery M Dembitsky,Morris Srebnik

    A comprehensive survey has been made of all fatty acids containing halogen atoms covalently bonded to carbon and which are deemed as naturally occurring. Generally thought to be minor components produced by many different organisms, these interesting compounds now number more than 300. Recent research, especially in the marine area, indicates this number will increase in the future. Sources of halogenated

  • The mechanism of action of antioxidants against lipoprotein peroxidation, evaluation based on kinetic experiments.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-04-18
    Ilya Pinchuk,Dov Lichtenberg

    Peroxidation of blood lipoproteins is regarded as a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Hence, attenuation of the oxidative modification of lipoproteins by natural and synthetic antioxidants in vivo is considered a possible way of prevention of cardiovascular disorders. The assessment of the susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation is commonly based on in vitro oxidation experiments

  • Mutants of Arabidopsis reveal many roles for membrane lipids.
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-01-30
    James G Wallis,John Browse

    Polyunsaturated acyl lipids constitute approximately 50% of the hydrophobic membrane barriers that delineate the compartments of cells. The composition of these lipids is critically important for many membrane functions and, thus, for proper growth and development of all living organisms. In the model plant Arabidopsis, the isolation of mutants with altered lipid compositions has facilitated biochemical

  • In vitro studies on the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer: tumour or tissue specific effects?
    Prog. Lipid. Res. (IF 15.083) Pub Date : 2002-01-30
    Christine P Diggle

    In vitro cell culture experiments have lead to the consensus in the literature that certain PUFAs have a selective cytotoxic or anti-proliferative effect on tumour cells and a minimal, or no effect on normal cells. Re-examination of key publications showed that when normal cells were used for comparison, they were generally not from the same cell, tissue, or species type as the tumour cells. Recently

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