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  • Caseum: a Niche for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug-Tolerant Persisters
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Jansy P. Sarathy, Véronique Dartois

    Caseum, the central necrotic material of tuberculous lesions, is a reservoir of drug-recalcitrant persisting mycobacteria. Caseum is found in closed nodules and in open cavities connecting with an airway. Several commonly accepted characteristics of caseum were established during the preantibiotic era, when autopsies of deceased tuberculosis (TB) patients were common but methodologies were limited

  • Human Melioidosis
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-03-11
    I. Gassiep, M. Armstrong, R. Norton

    The causative agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a tier 1 select agent, is endemic in Southeast Asia and northern Australia, with increased incidence associated with high levels of rainfall. Increasing reports of this condition have occurred worldwide, with estimates of up to 165,000 cases and 89,000 deaths per year. The ecological niche of the organism has yet to be clearly defined,

  • Imported Malaria in Countries where Malaria Is Not Endemic: a Comparison of Semi-immune and Nonimmune Travelers
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-03-11
    Johannes Mischlinger, Caroline Rönnberg, Míriam J. Álvarez-Martínez, Silja Bühler, Małgorzata Paul, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Eskild Petersen, Michael Ramharter

    The continuous increase in long-distance travel and recent large migratory movements have changed the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in countries where malaria is not endemic (here termed non-malaria-endemic countries). While malaria was primarily imported to nonendemic countries by returning travelers, the proportion of immigrants from malaria-endemic regions and travelers visiting

  • Hepatitis B Virus: Advances in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Mindie H Nguyen,Grace Wong,Edward Gane,Jia-Horng Kao,Geoffrey Dusheiko

    SUMMARYCurrently, despite the use of a preventive vaccine for several decades as well as the use of effective and well-tolerated viral suppressive medications since 1998, approximately 250 million people remain infected with the virus that causes hepatitis B worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are the leading causes of liver cancer and overall mortality globally, surpassing

  • Epidemiology of β-Lactamase-Producing Pathogens.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Karen Bush,Patricia A Bradford

    SUMMARYβ-Lactam antibiotics have been widely used as therapeutic agents for the past 70 years, resulting in emergence of an abundance of β-lactam-inactivating β-lactamases. Although penicillinases in Staphylococcus aureus challenged the initial uses of penicillin, β-lactamases are most important in Gram-negative bacteria, particularly in enteric and nonfermentative pathogens, where collectively they

  • Consolidation of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories and Introduction of Transformative Technologies.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Olivier Vandenberg,Géraldine Durand,Marie Hallin,Andreas Diefenbach,Vanya Gant,Patrick Murray,Zisis Kozlakidis,Alex van Belkum

    SUMMARYClinical microbiology is experiencing revolutionary advances in the deployment of molecular, genome sequencing-based, and mass spectrometry-driven detection, identification, and characterization assays. Laboratory automation and the linkage of information systems for big(ger) data management, including artificial intelligence (AI) approaches, also are being introduced. The initial optimism associated

  • Mumps: an Update on Outbreaks, Vaccine Efficacy, and Genomic Diversity.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Eugene Lam,Jennifer B Rosen,Jane R Zucker

    SUMMARYMumps is an acute viral infection characterized by inflammation of the parotid and other salivary glands. Persons with mumps are infectious from 2 days before through 5 days after parotitis onset, and transmission is through respiratory droplets. Despite the success of mumps vaccination programs in the United States and parts of Europe, a recent increase in outbreaks of mumps virus infections

  • Immunomodulatory Strategies in Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Jocelyne Piret,Guy Boivin

    SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can be responsible for life-threatening HSV encephalitis (HSE). The mortality rate of patients with HSE who do not receive antiviral treatment is 70%, with most survivors suffering from permanent neurological sequelae. The use of intravenous acyclovir together with improved diagnostic technologies such as PCR and magnetic resonance imaging has resulted in a reduction

  • Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Susan Madison-Antenucci,Laura D Kramer,Linda L Gebhardt,Elizabeth Kauffman

    SUMMARYIncreases in tick-borne disease prevalence and transmission are important public health issues. Efforts to control these emerging diseases are frustrated by the struggle to control tick populations and to detect and treat infections caused by the pathogens that they transmit. This review covers tick-borne infectious diseases of nonrickettsial bacterial, parasitic, and viral origins. While tick

  • Performance of Zika Assays in the Context of Toxoplasma gondii, Parvovirus B19, Rubella Virus, and Cytomegalovirus (TORCH) Diagnostic Assays.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Bettie Voordouw,Barry Rockx,Thomas Jaenisch,Pieter Fraaij,Philippe Mayaud,Ann Vossen,Marion Koopmans

    Infections during pregnancy that may cause congenital abnormalities have been recognized for decades, but their diagnosis is challenging. This was again illustrated with the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), highlighting the inherent difficulties in estimating the extent of pre- and postnatal ZIKV complications because of the difficulties in establishing definitive diagnoses. We reviewed the epidemiology

  • Chagas Disease in the United States: a Public Health Approach.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Caryn Bern,Louisa A Messenger,Jeffrey D Whitman,James H Maguire

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, usually transmitted by triatomine vectors. An estimated 20 to 30% of infected individuals develop potentially lethal cardiac or gastrointestinal disease. Sylvatic transmission cycles exist in the southern United States, involving 11 triatomine vector species and infected mammals such as rodents, opossums, and dogs. Nevertheless, imported

  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Pablo Yagupsky,Pilar Morata,Juan D Colmenero

    The clinical presentation of brucellosis in humans is variable and unspecific, and thus, laboratory corroboration of the diagnosis is essential for the patient's proper treatment. The diagnosis of brucellar infections can be made by culture, serological tests, and nucleic acid amplification assays. Modern automated blood culture systems enable detection of acute cases of brucellosis within the routine

  • The Global Ascendency of OXA-48-Type Carbapenemases.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Johann D D Pitout,Gisele Peirano,Marleen M Kock,Kathy-Anne Strydom,Yasufumi Matsumura

    Surveillance studies have shown that OXA-48-like carbapenemases are the most common carbapenemases in Enterobacterales in certain regions of the world and are being introduced on a regular basis into regions of nonendemicity, where they are responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-232, OXA-204, OXA-162, and OXA-244, in that order, are the most common enzymes identified among the OXA-48-like

  • Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis in 2019.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Jean-Paul Latgé,Georgios Chamilos

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic fungus; its primary habitat is the soil. In its ecological niche, the fungus has learned how to adapt and proliferate in hostile environments. This capacity has helped the fungus to resist and survive against human host defenses and, further, to be responsible for one of the most devastating lung infections in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this review

  • Correction for Kraft et al., "A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) and Algorithms Including NAATs for the Diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Adults".
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Colleen S Kraft,J Scott Parrott,Nancy E Cornish,Matthew L Rubinstein,Alice S Weissfeld,Peggy McNult,Irving Nachamkin,Romney M Humphries,Thomas J Kirn,Jennifer Dien Bard,Joseph D Lutgring,Jonathan C Gullett,Cassiana E Bittencourt,Susan Benson,April M Bobenchik,Robert L Sautter,Vickie Baselski,Michel C Atlas,Elizabeth M Marlowe,Nancy S Miller,Monika Fischer,Sandra S Richter,Peter Gilligan,James W Snyder

  • Point-of-Care HIV Viral Load Testing: an Essential Tool for a Sustainable Global HIV/AIDS Response.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Paul K Drain,Jienchi Dorward,Andrew Bender,Lorraine Lillis,Francesco Marinucci,Jilian Sacks,Anna Bershteyn,David S Boyle,Jonathan D Posner,Nigel Garrett

    The global public health community has set ambitious treatment targets to end the HIV/AIDS pandemic. With the notable absence of a cure, the goal of HIV treatment is to achieve sustained suppression of an HIV viral load, which allows for immunological recovery and reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission. Monitoring HIV viral load in people living with HIV is therefore central to maintaining effective

  • Extended Dosing Regimens for Fungal Prophylaxis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Thomas Lehrnbecher,Konrad Bochennek,Thomas Klingebiel,Silke Gastine,Georg Hempel,Andreas H Groll

    Invasive fungal diseases carry high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In order to prevent these life-threatening infections, antifungal chemoprophylaxis plays an important role in daily clinical practice. Broad-spectrum antifungal triazoles are widely used but exhibit disadvantages such as

  • Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Thomas A Russo,Candace M Marr

    Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) is an evolving pathotype that is more virulent than classical K. pneumoniae (cKp). hvKp usually infects individuals from the community, who are often healthy. Infections are more common in the Asian Pacific Rim but are occurring globally. hvKp infection frequently presents at multiple sites or subsequently metastatically spreads, often requiring source control. hvKp

  • Correction for Quainoo et al., "Whole-Genome Sequencing of Bacterial Pathogens: the Future of Nosocomial Outbreak Analysis".
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Scott Quainoo,Jordy P M Coolen,Sacha A F T van Hijum,Martijn A Huynen,Willem J G Melchers,Willem van Schaik,Heiman F L Wertheim

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Primer on Infectious Disease Bacterial Genomics.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2017-06-08
    Tarah Lynch,Aaron Petkau,Natalie Knox,Morag Graham,Gary Van Domselaar

    The number of large-scale genomics projects is increasing due to the availability of affordable high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies. The use of HTS for bacterial infectious disease research is attractive because one whole-genome sequencing (WGS) run can replace multiple assays for bacterial typing, molecular epidemiology investigations, and more in-depth pathogenomic studies. The computational

  • Clinical Manifestations, Treatment, and Diagnosis of Tropheryma whipplei Infections.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2017-03-17
    Ruben A V Dolmans,C H Edwin Boel,Miangela M Lacle,Johannes G Kusters

    Whipple's disease is a rare infectious disease that can be fatal if left untreated. The disease is caused by infection with Tropheryma whipplei, a bacterium that may be more common than was initially assumed. Most patients present with nonspecific symptoms, and as routine cultivation of the bacterium is not feasible, it is difficult to diagnose this infection. On the other hand, due to the generic

  • BK Polyomavirus: Clinical Aspects, Immune Regulation, and Emerging Therapies.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2017-03-17
    George R Ambalathingal,Ross S Francis,Mark J Smyth,Corey Smith,Rajiv Khanna

    BK polyomavirus (BKV) causes frequent infections during childhood and establishes persistent infections within renal tubular cells and the uroepithelium, with minimal clinical implications. However, reactivation of BKV in immunocompromised individuals following renal or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may cause serious complications, including BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN), ureteric stenosis

  • Polymyxins: Antibacterial Activity, Susceptibility Testing, and Resistance Mechanisms Encoded by Plasmids or Chromosomes.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2017-03-10
    Laurent Poirel,Aurélie Jayol,Patrice Nordmann

    Polymyxins are well-established antibiotics that have recently regained significant interest as a consequence of the increasing incidence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin and polymyxin B are being seriously reconsidered as last-resort antibiotics in many areas where multidrug resistance is observed in clinical medicine. In parallel, the heavy use of polymyxins

  • The Human Immune Response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2017-02-10
    Clark D Russell,Stefan A Unger,Marc Walton,Jürgen Schwarze

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important etiological agent of respiratory infections, particularly in children. Much information regarding the immune response to RSV comes from animal models and in vitro studies. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the human immune response to RSV infection, based on a systematic literature review of research on infected humans. There is an initial

  • A Decade of Development of Chromogenic Culture Media for Clinical Microbiology in an Era of Molecular Diagnostics.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2017-01-27
    John D Perry

    In the last 25 years, chromogenic culture media have found widespread application in diagnostic clinical microbiology. In the last decade, the range of media available to clinical laboratories has expanded greatly, allowing specific detection of additional pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, group B streptococci, Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. New media

  • Clinical and Pathophysiological Overview of Acinetobacter Infections: a Century of Challenges.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-12-16
    Darren Wong,Travis B Nielsen,Robert A Bonomo,Paul Pantapalangkoor,Brian Luna,Brad Spellberg

    Acinetobacter is a complex genus, and historically, there has been confusion about the existence of multiple species. The species commonly cause nosocomial infections, predominantly aspiration pneumonia and catheter-associated bacteremia, but can also cause soft tissue and urinary tract infections. Community-acquired infections by Acinetobacter spp. are increasingly reported. Transmission of Acinetobacter

  • Antimicrobial Stewardship: How the Microbiology Laboratory Can Right the Ship.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-12-16
    Philippe Morency-Potvin,David N Schwartz,Robert A Weinstein

    Antimicrobial stewardship is a bundle of integrated interventions employed to optimize the use of antimicrobials in health care settings. While infectious-disease-trained physicians, with clinical pharmacists, are considered the main leaders of antimicrobial stewardship programs, clinical microbiologists can play a key role in these programs. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive discussion

  • The Human Ureaplasma Species as Causative Agents of Chorioamnionitis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-12-16
    Emma L Sweeney,Samantha J Dando,Suhas G Kallapur,Christine L Knox

    The human Ureaplasma species are the most frequently isolated microorganisms from the amniotic fluid and placentae of women who deliver preterm and are also associated with spontaneous abortions or miscarriages, neonatal respiratory diseases, and chorioamnionitis. Despite the fact that these microorganisms have been habitually found within placentae of pregnancies with chorioamnionitis, the role of

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection, Detection, and New Options for Prevention and Treatment.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-12-03
    Cameron Griffiths,Steven J Drews,David J Marchant

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a significant cause of hospitalization of children in North America and one of the leading causes of death of infants less than 1 year of age worldwide, second only to malaria. Despite its global impact on human health, there are relatively few therapeutic options available to prevent or treat RSV infection. Paradoxically, there is a very large volume

  • Chronic Rhinosinusitis and the Evolving Understanding of Microbial Ecology in Chronic Inflammatory Mucosal Disease.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-12-03
    Michael Hoggard,Brett Wagner Mackenzie,Ravi Jain,Michael W Taylor,Kristi Biswas,Richard G Douglas

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of debilitating chronic inflammatory sinonasal diseases. Despite considerable research, the etiology of CRS remains poorly understood, and debate on potential roles of microbial communities is unresolved. Modern culture-independent (molecular) techniques have vastly improved our understanding of the microbiology of the human body. Recent

  • From Q Fever to Coxiella burnetii Infection: a Paradigm Change.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-11-20
    Carole Eldin,Cléa Mélenotte,Oleg Mediannikov,Eric Ghigo,Matthieu Million,Sophie Edouard,Jean-Louis Mege,Max Maurin,Didier Raoult

    Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, or "query fever," a zoonosis first described in Australia in 1937. Since this first description, knowledge about this pathogen and its associated infections has increased dramatically. We review here all the progress made over the last 20 years on this topic. C. burnetii is classically a strict intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium. However, a major step

  • Gleaning Insights from Fecal Microbiota Transplantation and Probiotic Studies for the Rational Design of Combination Microbial Therapies.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-11-20
    Lauren E Hudson,Sarah E Anderson,Anita H Corbett,Tracey J Lamb

    Beneficial microorganisms hold promise for the treatment of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. The transfer of whole microbiota via fecal transplantation has already been shown to ameliorate the severity of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and others. However, the exact mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant efficacy and the particular strains conferring

  • Chromoblastomycosis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-11-20
    Flavio Queiroz-Telles,Sybren de Hoog,Daniel Wagner C L Santos,Claudio Guedes Salgado,Vania Aparecida Vicente,Alexandro Bonifaz,Emmanuel Roilides,Liyan Xi,Conceição de Maria Pedrozo E Silva Azevedo,Moises Batista da Silva,Zoe Dorothea Pana,Arnaldo Lopes Colombo,Thomas J Walsh

    Chromoblastomycosis (CBM), also known as chromomycosis, is one of the most prevalent implantation fungal infections, being the most common of the gamut of mycoses caused by melanized or brown-pigmented fungi. CBM is mainly a tropical or subtropical disease that may affect individuals with certain risk factors around the world. The following characteristics are associated with this disease: (i) traumatic

  • Human Parvoviruses.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-11-04
    Jianming Qiu,Maria Söderlund-Venermo,Neal S Young

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional

  • Clinical Laboratory Testing in the Era of Directly Acting Antiviral Therapies for Hepatitis C.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-11-01
    Eleanor M Wilson,Elana S Rosenthal,Sarah Kattakuzhy,Lydia Tang,Shyam Kottilil

    Directly acting antiviral (DAA) combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are highly effective, but treatment decisions remain complex. Laboratory testing is important to evaluate a range of viral, host, and pharmacological factors when considering HCV treatment, and patients must be monitored during and after therapy for safety and to assess the viral response. In this review

  • Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae in South and Southeast Asia.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-11-01
    Li-Yang Hsu,Anucha Apisarnthanarak,Erum Khan,Nuntra Suwantarat,Abdul Ghafur,Paul Anantharajah Tambyah

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae, are escalating global public health threats. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of these carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among countries in South and Southeast Asia, where the rates of resistance are some of the highest in the world. These countries

  • Microbiome Changes during Tuberculosis and Antituberculous Therapy.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-09-10
    Bo-Young Hong,Nancy Paula Maulén,Alexander J Adami,Hector Granados,María Elvira Balcells,Jorge Cervantes

    The critical role of commensal microbiota in the human body has been increasingly recognized, and our understanding of its implications in human health and disease has expanded rapidly. The lower respiratory tract contains diverse communities of microbes known as lung microbiota, which are present in healthy individuals and in individuals with respiratory diseases. The dysbiosis of the airway microbiota

  • Total HIV-1 DNA, a Marker of Viral Reservoir Dynamics with Clinical Implications.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-08-26
    Véronique Avettand-Fènoël,Laurent Hocqueloux,Jade Ghosn,Antoine Cheret,Pierre Frange,Adeline Melard,Jean-Paul Viard,Christine Rouzioux

    HIV-1 DNA persists in infected cells despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), forming viral reservoirs. Recent trials of strategies targeting latent HIV reservoirs have rekindled hopes of curing HIV infection, and reliable markers are thus needed to evaluate viral reservoirs. Total HIV DNA quantification is simple, standardized, sensitive, and reproducible. Total HIV DNA load influences the

  • Navigating Microbiological Food Safety in the Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-08-26
    J Ronholm,Neda Nasheri,Nicholas Petronella,Franco Pagotto

    The epidemiological investigation of a foodborne outbreak, including identification of related cases, source attribution, and development of intervention strategies, relies heavily on the ability to subtype the etiological agent at a high enough resolution to differentiate related from nonrelated cases. Historically, several different molecular subtyping methods have been used for this purpose; however

  • Survival of the Fittest: How Bacterial Pathogens Utilize Bile To Enhance Infection.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-07-29
    Jeticia R Sistrunk,Kourtney P Nickerson,Rachael B Chanin,David A Rasko,Christina S Faherty

    Bacterial pathogens have coevolved with humans in order to efficiently infect, replicate within, and be transmitted to new hosts to ensure survival and a continual infection cycle. For enteric pathogens, the ability to adapt to numerous host factors under the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract is critical for establishing infection. One such host factor readily encountered by enteric bacteria

  • Modulation of Host Immunity by the Human Metapneumovirus.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-07-15
    Pablo F Céspedes,Christian E Palavecino,Alexis M Kalergis,Susan M Bueno

    Globally, as a leading agent of acute respiratory tract infections in children <5 years of age and the elderly, the human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has gained considerable attention. As inferred from studies comparing vaccinated and experimentally infected mice, the acquired immune response elicited by this pathogen fails to efficiently clear the virus from the airways, which leads to an exaggerated inflammatory

  • Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Past, Present, and Future.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-07-15
    M Jana Broadhurst,Tim J G Brooks,Nira R Pollock

    Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended

  • Continuous and Prolonged Intravenous β-Lactam Dosing: Implications for the Clinical Laboratory.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-07-15
    Mordechai Grupper,Joseph L Kuti,David P Nicolau

    Beta-lactam antibiotics serve as a cornerstone in the management of bacterial infections because of their wide spectrum of activity and low toxicity. Since resistance rates among bacteria are continuously on the rise and the pipeline for new antibiotics does not meet this trend, an optimization of current beta-lactam treatment is needed. This review provides an overview of optimization through use

  • ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-07-13
    Arturo Casadevall,Stefano Bertuzzi,Michael J Buchmeier,Roger J Davis,Harold Drake,Ferric C Fang,Jack Gilbert,Barbara M Goldman,Michael J Imperiale,Philip Matsumura,Alexander J McAdam,Marcela F Pasetti,Rozanne M Sandri-Goldin,Thomas Silhavy,Louis Rice,Jo-Anne H Young,Thomas Shenk

  • Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus (XMRV) and the Safety of the Blood Supply.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-07-01
    Andrew D Johnson,Claudia S Cohn

    In 2006, a new virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), was discovered in a cohort of U.S. men with prostate cancer. Soon after this initial finding, XMRV was also detected in samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The blood community, which is highly sensitive to the threat of emerging infectious diseases since the HIV/AIDS crisis, recommended indefinite deferral

  • Approved Antiviral Drugs over the Past 50 Years.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-06-10
    Erik De Clercq,Guangdi Li

    Since the first antiviral drug, idoxuridine, was approved in 1963, 90 antiviral drugs categorized into 13 functional groups have been formally approved for the treatment of the following 9 human infectious diseases: (i) HIV infections (protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and acyclic

  • Emerging Role of Zika Virus in Adverse Fetal and Neonatal Outcomes.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-06-10
    Alice Panchaud,Miloš Stojanov,Anne Ammerdorffer,Manon Vouga,David Baud

    The rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its potential association with thousands of suspected cases of microcephaly in Brazil and higher rates of Guillain-Barré syndrome meet the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, as stated by the World Health Organization in February 2016. Two months later, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced

  • Prions: Beyond a Single Protein.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-05-27
    Alvin S Das,Wen-Quan Zou

    Since the term protein was first coined in 1838 and protein was discovered to be the essential component of fibrin and albumin, all cellular proteins were presumed to play beneficial roles in plants and mammals. However, in 1967, Griffith proposed that proteins could be infectious pathogens and postulated their involvement in scrapie, a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goats

  • Inhaled Antibiotics for Gram-Negative Respiratory Infections.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-05-27
    Eric Wenzler,Dustin R Fraidenburg,Tonya Scardina,Larry H Danziger

    Gram-negative organisms comprise a large portion of the pathogens responsible for lower respiratory tract infections, especially those that are nosocomially acquired, and the rate of antibiotic resistance among these organisms continues to rise. Systemically administered antibiotics used to treat these infections often have poor penetration into the lung parenchyma and narrow therapeutic windows between

  • Dientamoeba fragilis, the Neglected Trichomonad of the Human Bowel.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-05-14
    Damien Stark,Joel Barratt,Douglas Chan,John T Ellis

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan parasite of the human bowel, commonly reported throughout the world in association with gastrointestinal symptoms. Despite its initial discovery over 100 years ago, arguably, we know less about this peculiar organism than any other pathogenic or potentially pathogenic protozoan that infects humans. The details of its life cycle and mode of transmission are not completely

  • Biological and Epidemiological Features of Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Pre- and Post-Conjugate Vaccine Eras: a United States Perspective.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-04-15
    Lindsay Kim,Lesley McGee,Sara Tomczyk,Bernard Beall

    Streptococcus pneumoniae inflicts a huge disease burden as the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and meningitis. Soon after mainstream antibiotic usage, multiresistant pneumococcal clones emerged and disseminated worldwide. Resistant clones are generated through adaptation to antibiotic pressures imposed while naturally residing within the human upper respiratory tract. Here, a huge array

  • Pertussis: Microbiology, Disease, Treatment, and Prevention.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-04-01
    Paul E Kilgore,Abdulbaset M Salim,Marcus J Zervos,Heinz-Josef Schmitt

    Pertussis is a severe respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis, and in 2008, pertussis was associated with an estimated 16 million cases and 195,000 deaths globally. Sizeable outbreaks of pertussis have been reported over the past 5 years, and disease reemergence has been the focus of international attention to develop a deeper understanding of pathogen virulence and genetic evolution of

  • Zika Virus.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-04-01
    Didier Musso,Duane J Gubler

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the genus Flavivirus and the family Flaviviridae. ZIKV was first isolated from a nonhuman primate in 1947 and from mosquitoes in 1948 in Africa, and ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic for half a century before emerging in the Pacific and the Americas. ZIKV is usually transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. The clinical presentation

  • The Point-of-Care Laboratory in Clinical Microbiology.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-04-01
    Michel Drancourt,Audrey Michel-Lepage,Sylvie Boyer,Didier Raoult

    Point-of-care (POC) laboratories that deliver rapid diagnoses of infectious diseases were invented to balance the centralization of core laboratories. POC laboratories operate 24 h a day and 7 days a week to provide diagnoses within 2 h, largely based on immunochromatography and real-time PCR tests. In our experience, these tests are conveniently combined into syndrome-based kits that facilitate sampling

  • Clinical Significance and Pathogenesis of Staphylococcal Small Colony Variants in Persistent Infections.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-03-11
    Barbara C Kahl,Karsten Becker,Bettina Löffler

    Small colony variants (SCVs) were first described more than 100 years ago for Staphylococcus aureus and various coagulase-negative staphylococci. Two decades ago, an association between chronic staphylococcal infections and the presence of SCVs was observed. Since then, many clinical studies and observations have been published which tie recurrent, persistent staphylococcal infections, including device-associated

  • Fosfomycin.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-03-11
    Matthew E Falagas,Evridiki K Vouloumanou,George Samonis,Konstantinos Z Vardakas

    The treatment of bacterial infections suffers from two major problems: spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) pathogens and lack of development of new antibiotics active against such MDR and XDR bacteria. As a result, physicians have turned to older antibiotics, such as polymyxins, tetracyclines, and aminoglycosides. Lately, due to development of resistance to these

  • Update on Baylisascariasis, a Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-03-11
    Carlos Graeff-Teixeira,Alessandra Loureiro Morassutti,Kevin R Kazacos

    Baylisascaris procyonis, the raccoon roundworm, infects a wide range of vertebrate animals, including humans, in which it causes a particularly severe type of larva migrans. It is an important cause of severe neurologic disease (neural larva migrans [NLM]) but also causes ocular disease (OLM; diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis [DUSN]), visceral larva migrans (VLM), and covert/asymptomatic infections

  • Plesiomonas shigelloides Revisited.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-03-11
    J Michael Janda,Sharon L Abbott,Christopher J McIver

    After many years in the family Vibrionaceae, the genus Plesiomonas, represented by a single species, P. shigelloides, currently resides in the family Enterobacteriaceae, although its most appropriate phylogenetic position may yet to be determined. Common environmental reservoirs for plesiomonads include freshwater ecosystems and estuaries and inhabitants of these aquatic environs. Long suspected as

  • Methodological and Clinical Aspects of the Molecular Epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Other Mycobacteria.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.75) Pub Date : 2016-02-26
    Tomasz Jagielski,Alina Minias,Jakko van Ingen,Nalin Rastogi,Anna Brzostek,Anna Żaczek,Jarosław Dziadek

    Molecular typing has revolutionized epidemiological studies of infectious diseases, including those of a mycobacterial etiology. With the advent of fingerprinting techniques, many traditional concepts regarding transmission, infectivity, or pathogenicity of mycobacterial bacilli have been revisited, and their conventional interpretations have been challenged. Since the mid-1990s, when the first typing

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿