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  • Emerging Tick-Borne Diseases
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Susan Madison-Antenucci, Laura D. Kramer, Linda L. Gebhardt, Elizabeth Kauffman

    Increases in tick-borne disease prevalence and transmission are important public health issues. Efforts to control these emerging diseases are frustrated by the struggle to control tick populations and to detect and treat infections caused by the pathogens that they transmit. This review covers tick-borne infectious diseases of nonrickettsial bacterial, parasitic, and viral origins. While tick surveillance and tracking inform our understanding of the importance of the spread and ecology of ticks and help identify areas of risk for disease transmission, the vectors are not the focus of this document. Here, we emphasize the most significant pathogens that infect humans as well as the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases that they cause. Although detection via molecular or immunological methods has improved, tick-borne diseases continue to remain underdiagnosed, making the scope of the problem difficult to assess. Our current understanding of the incidence of tick-borne diseases is discussed in this review. An awareness of the diseases that can be transmitted by ticks in specific locations is key to detection and selection of appropriate treatment. As tick-transmitted pathogens are discovered and emerge in new geographic regions, our ability to detect, describe, and understand the growing public health threat must also grow to meet the challenge.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Performance of Zika Assays in the Context of Toxoplasma gondii, Parvovirus B19, Rubella Virus, and Cytomegalovirus (TORCH) Diagnostic Assays
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Bettie Voordouw, Barry Rockx, Thomas Jaenisch, Pieter Fraaij, Philippe Mayaud, Ann Vossen, Marion Koopmans

    Infections during pregnancy that may cause congenital abnormalities have been recognized for decades, but their diagnosis is challenging. This was again illustrated with the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV), highlighting the inherent difficulties in estimating the extent of pre- and postnatal ZIKV complications because of the difficulties in establishing definitive diagnoses. We reviewed the epidemiology, infection kinetics, and diagnostic methods used for Toxoplasma gondii, parvovirus B19, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus (TORCH) infections and compared the results with current knowledge of ZIKV diagnostic assays to provide a basis for the inclusion of ZIKV in the TORCH complex evaluations. Similarities between TORCH pathogens and ZIKV support inclusion of ZIKV as an emerging TORCH infection. Our review evaluates the diagnostic performance of various TORCH diagnostic assays for maternal screening, fetal screening, and neonatal screening. We show that the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of TORCH complex pathogens are widely variable, stressing the importance of confirmatory testing and the need for novel techniques for earlier and accurate diagnosis of maternal and congenital infections. In this context it is also important to acknowledge different needs and access to care for different geographic and resource settings.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Chagas Disease in the United States: a Public Health Approach
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Caryn Bern, Louisa A. Messenger, Jeffrey D. Whitman, James H. Maguire

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, usually transmitted by triatomine vectors. An estimated 20 to 30% of infected individuals develop potentially lethal cardiac or gastrointestinal disease. Sylvatic transmission cycles exist in the southern United States, involving 11 triatomine vector species and infected mammals such as rodents, opossums, and dogs. Nevertheless, imported chronic T. cruzi infections in migrants from Latin America vastly outnumber locally acquired human cases. Benznidazole is now FDA approved, and clinical and public health efforts are under way by researchers and health departments in a number of states. Making progress will require efforts to improve awareness among providers and patients, data on diagnostic test performance and expanded availability of confirmatory testing, and evidence-based strategies to improve access to appropriate management of Chagas disease in the United States.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Pablo Yagupsky, Pilar Morata, Juan D. Colmenero

    The clinical presentation of brucellosis in humans is variable and unspecific, and thus, laboratory corroboration of the diagnosis is essential for the patient’s proper treatment. The diagnosis of brucellar infections can be made by culture, serological tests, and nucleic acid amplification assays. Modern automated blood culture systems enable detection of acute cases of brucellosis within the routine 5- to 7-day incubation protocol employed in clinical microbiology laboratories, although a longer incubation and performance of blind subcultures may be needed for protracted cases. Serological tests, though they lack specificity and provide results that may be difficult to interpret in individuals repeatedly exposed to Brucella organisms, nevertheless remain a diagnostic cornerstone in resource-poor countries. Nucleic acid amplification assays combine exquisite sensitivity, specificity, and safety and enable rapid diagnosis of the disease. However, long-term persistence of positive molecular test results in patients that have apparently fully recovered is common and has unclear clinical significance and therapeutic implications. Therefore, as long as there are no sufficiently validated commercial tests or studies that demonstrate an adequate interlaboratory reproducibility of the different homemade PCR assays, cultures and serological methods will remain the primary tools for the diagnosis and posttherapeutic follow-up of human brucellosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • The Global Ascendency of OXA-48-Type Carbapenemases
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Johann D. D. Pitout, Gisele Peirano, Marleen M. Kock, Kathy-Anne Strydom, Yasufumi Matsumura

    Surveillance studies have shown that OXA-48-like carbapenemases are the most common carbapenemases in Enterobacterales in certain regions of the world and are being introduced on a regular basis into regions of nonendemicity, where they are responsible for nosocomial outbreaks. OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-232, OXA-204, OXA-162, and OXA-244, in that order, are the most common enzymes identified among the OXA-48-like carbapenemase group. OXA-48 is associated with different Tn1999 variants on IncL plasmids and is endemic in North Africa and the Middle East. OXA-162 and OXA-244 are derivatives of OXA-48 and are present in Europe. OXA-181 and OXA-232 are associated with ISEcp1, Tn2013 on ColE2, and IncX3 types of plasmids and are endemic in the Indian subcontinent (e.g., India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) and certain sub-Saharan African countries. Overall, clonal dissemination plays a minor role in the spread of OXA-48-like carbapenemases, but certain high-risk clones (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae sequence type 147 [ST147], ST307, ST15, and ST14 and Escherichia coli ST38 and ST410) have been associated with the global dispersion of OXA-48, OXA-181, OXA-232, and OXA-204. Chromosomal integration of blaOXA-48 within Tn6237 occurred among E. coli ST38 isolates, especially in the United Kingdom. The detection of Enterobacterales with OXA-48-like enzymes using phenotypic methods has improved recently but remains challenging for clinical laboratories in regions of nonendemicity. Identification of the specific type of OXA-48-like enzyme requires sequencing of the corresponding genes. Bacteria (especially K. pneumoniae and E. coli) with blaOXA-48, blaOXA-181, and blaOXA-232 are emerging in different parts of the world and are most likely underreported due to problems with the laboratory detection of these enzymes. The medical community should be aware of the looming threat that is posed by bacteria with OXA-48-like carbapenemases.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis in 2019
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Jean-Paul Latgé, Georgios Chamilos

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic fungus; its primary habitat is the soil. In its ecological niche, the fungus has learned how to adapt and proliferate in hostile environments. This capacity has helped the fungus to resist and survive against human host defenses and, further, to be responsible for one of the most devastating lung infections in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we will provide (i) a description of the biological cycle of A. fumigatus; (ii) a historical perspective of the spectrum of aspergillus disease and the current epidemiological status of these infections; (iii) an analysis of the modes of immune response against Aspergillus in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients; (iv) an understanding of the pathways responsible for fungal virulence and their host molecular targets, with a specific focus on the cell wall; (v) the current status of the diagnosis of different clinical syndromes; and (vi) an overview of the available antifungal armamentarium and the therapeutic strategies in the clinical context. In addition, the emergence of new concepts, such as nutritional immunity and the integration and rewiring of multiple fungal metabolic activities occurring during lung invasion, has helped us to redefine the opportunistic pathogenesis of A. fumigatus.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Correction for Kraft et al., "A Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) and Algorithms Including NAATs for the Diagnosis of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in Adults".
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Colleen S Kraft,J Scott Parrott,Nancy E Cornish,Matthew L Rubinstein,Alice S Weissfeld,Peggy McNult,Irving Nachamkin,Romney M Humphries,Thomas J Kirn,Jennifer Dien Bard,Joseph D Lutgring,Jonathan C Gullett,Cassiana E Bittencourt,Susan Benson,April M Bobenchik,Robert L Sautter,Vickie Baselski,Michel C Atlas,Elizabeth M Marlowe,Nancy S Miller,Monika Fischer,Sandra S Richter,Peter Gilligan,James W Snyder

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Point-of-Care HIV Viral Load Testing: an Essential Tool for a Sustainable Global HIV/AIDS Response.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Paul K Drain,Jienchi Dorward,Andrew Bender,Lorraine Lillis,Francesco Marinucci,Jilian Sacks,Anna Bershteyn,David S Boyle,Jonathan D Posner,Nigel Garrett

    The global public health community has set ambitious treatment targets to end the HIV/AIDS pandemic. With the notable absence of a cure, the goal of HIV treatment is to achieve sustained suppression of an HIV viral load, which allows for immunological recovery and reduces the risk of onward HIV transmission. Monitoring HIV viral load in people living with HIV is therefore central to maintaining effective individual antiretroviral therapy as well as monitoring progress toward achieving population targets for viral suppression. The capacity for laboratory-based HIV viral load testing has increased rapidly in low- and middle-income countries, but implementation of universal viral load monitoring is still hindered by several barriers and delays. New devices for point-of-care HIV viral load testing may be used near patients to improve HIV management by reducing the turnaround time for clinical test results. The implementation of near-patient testing using these new and emerging technologies may be an essential tool for ensuring a sustainable response that will ultimately enable an end to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In this report, we review the current and emerging technology, the evidence for decentralized viral load monitoring by non-laboratory health care workers, and the additional considerations for expanding point-of-care HIV viral load testing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Extended Dosing Regimens for Fungal Prophylaxis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Thomas Lehrnbecher,Konrad Bochennek,Thomas Klingebiel,Silke Gastine,Georg Hempel,Andreas H Groll

    Invasive fungal diseases carry high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In order to prevent these life-threatening infections, antifungal chemoprophylaxis plays an important role in daily clinical practice. Broad-spectrum antifungal triazoles are widely used but exhibit disadvantages such as relevant drug-drug interactions. Therefore, amphotericin B products or echinocandins can be an alternative in selected patient populations. As these compounds are available as intravenous formulations only, there is growing interest in extended dosing regimens. Although not approved for these agents, this strategy is a rational option, as these compounds have properties suitable for this strategy, including dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, prolonged elimination half-life, and a large therapeutic window. As the use of extended dosing regimens in antifungal prophylaxis is expanding in clinical practice, we reviewed the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic rationale for this strategy, animal model data, dose escalation studies, and clinical trials supporting this concept.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Thomas A Russo,Candace M Marr

    Hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) is an evolving pathotype that is more virulent than classical K. pneumoniae (cKp). hvKp usually infects individuals from the community, who are often healthy. Infections are more common in the Asian Pacific Rim but are occurring globally. hvKp infection frequently presents at multiple sites or subsequently metastatically spreads, often requiring source control. hvKp has an increased ability to cause central nervous system infection and endophthalmitis, which require rapid recognition and site-specific treatment. The genetic factors that confer hvKp's hypervirulent phenotype are present on a large virulence plasmid and perhaps integrative conjugal elements. Increased capsule production and aerobactin production are established hvKp-specific virulence factors. Similar to cKp, hvKp strains are becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobials via acquisition of mobile elements carrying resistance determinants, and new hvKp strains emerge when extensively drug-resistant cKp strains acquire hvKp-specific virulence determinants, resulting in nosocomial infection. Presently, clinical laboratories are unable to differentiate cKp from hvKp, but recently, several biomarkers and quantitative siderophore production have been shown to accurately predict hvKp strains, which could lead to the development of a diagnostic test for use by clinical laboratories for optimal patient care and for use in epidemiologic surveillance and research studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The airway epithelium: soldier in the fight against respiratory viruses.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2011-01-15
    Marjolaine Vareille,Elisabeth Kieninger,Michael R Edwards,Nicolas Regamey

    The airway epithelium acts as a frontline defense against respiratory viruses, not only as a physical barrier and through the mucociliary apparatus but also through its immunological functions. It initiates multiple innate and adaptive immune mechanisms which are crucial for efficient antiviral responses. The interaction between respiratory viruses and airway epithelial cells results in production of antiviral substances, including type I and III interferons, lactoferrin, β-defensins, and nitric oxide, and also in production of cytokines and chemokines, which recruit inflammatory cells and influence adaptive immunity. These defense mechanisms usually result in rapid virus clearance. However, respiratory viruses elaborate strategies to evade antiviral mechanisms and immune responses. They may disrupt epithelial integrity through cytotoxic effects, increasing paracellular permeability and damaging epithelial repair mechanisms. In addition, they can interfere with immune responses by blocking interferon pathways and by subverting protective inflammatory responses toward detrimental ones. Finally, by inducing overt mucus secretion and mucostasis and by paving the way for bacterial infections, they favor lung damage and further impair host antiviral mechanisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular genetic basis of ribotyping.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2008-04-11
    Valérie Bouchet,Heather Huot,Richard Goldstein

    Nearly 2,000 ribotyping-based studies exist, ranging from epidemiology to phylogeny and taxonomy. None precisely reveals the molecular genetic basis, with many incorrectly attributing detected polymorphisms to rRNA gene sequences. Based on in silico genomics, we demonstrate that ribotype polymorphisms result from sequence variability in neutral housekeeping genes flanking rRNA operons, with rRNA gene sequences serving solely as conserved, flank-linked tags. We also reveal that from such an informatics perspective, it is readily feasible a priori to design an interpretable ribotyping scheme for a genomically sequenced microbial species, and we discuss limitations to the basic restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method as well as alternate PCR ribotyping-based schemes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Foot-and-mouth disease.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Marvin J Grubman,Barry Baxt

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control strategies. The etiologic agent, FMD virus (FMDV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is examined in detail at the genetic, structural, and biochemical levels and in terms of its antigenic diversity. The virus replication cycle, including virus-receptor interactions as well as unique aspects of virus translation and shutoff of host macromolecular synthesis, is discussed. This information has been the basis for the development of improved protocols to rapidly identify disease outbreaks, to differentiate vaccinated from infected animals, and to begin to identify and test novel vaccine candidates. Furthermore, this knowledge, coupled with the ability to manipulate FMDV genomes at the molecular level, has provided the framework for examination of disease pathogenesis and the development of a more complete understanding of the virus and host factors involved.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Animal pneumoviruses: molecular genetics and pathogenesis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Andrew J Easton,Joseph B Domachowske,Helene F Rosenberg

    Pneumoviruses are single-stranded, negative-sense, nonsegmented RNA viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Pneumovirinae, and include pathogens that infect humans (respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus), domestic mammals (bovine, ovine, and caprine respiratory syncytial viruses), rodents (pneumonia virus of mice), and birds (avian metapneumovirus). Among the topics considered in this review are recent studies focused on the roles of the individual virus-encoded components in promoting virus replication as well as in altering and evading innate antiviral host defenses. Advances in the molecular technology of pneumoviruses and the emergence of recombinant pneumoviruses that are leading to improved virus-based vaccine formulations are also discussed. Since pneumovirus infection in natural hosts is associated with a profound inflammatory response that persists despite adequate antiviral therapy, we also review the recent experimental treatment strategies that have focused on combined antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory approaches.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Intraspecific diversity of Yersinia pestis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Andrey P Anisimov,Luther E Lindler,Gerald B Pier

    Increased interest in the pathogenic potential of Yersinia pestis has emerged because of the potential threats from bioterrorism. Pathogenic potential is based on genetic factors present in a population of microbes, yet most studies evaluating the role of specific genes in virulence have used a limited number of strains. For Y. pestis this issue is complicated by the fact that most strains available for study in the Americas are clonally derived and thus genetically restricted, emanating from a strain of Y. pestis introduced into the United States in 1902 via marine shipping and subsequent spread of this strain throughout North and South America. In countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), Mongolia, and China there are large areas of enzootic foci of Y. pestis infection containing genetically diverse strains that have been intensely studied by scientists in these countries. However, the results of these investigations are not generally known outside of these countries. Here we describe the variety of methods used in the FSU to classify Y. pestis strains based on genetic and phenotypic variation and show that there is a high level of diversity in these strains not reflected by ones obtained from sylvatic areas and patients in the Americas.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Gilbert Greub,Didier Raoult

    Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human "Troy," and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • DNA vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the past decade.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Malavika Giri,Kenneth E Ugen,David B Weiner

    This article reviews advances in the field of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and AIDS vaccine development over the last decade, with an emphasis on the DNA vaccination approach. Despite the discovery of HIV-1 and AIDS in humans nearly 20 years ago, there is no vaccine yet that can prevent HIV-1 infection. The focus has shifted toward developing vaccines that can control virus replication and disease progression by eliciting broadly cross-reactive T-cell responses. Among several approaches evaluated, the DNA-based modality has shown considerable promise in terms of its ability to elicit cellular immune responses in primate studies. Of great importance are efforts aimed at improvement of the potency of this modality in the clinic. The review discusses principles of DNA vaccine design and the various mechanisms of plasmid-encoded antigen presentation. The review also outlines current DNA-based vaccine strategies and vectors that have successfully been shown to control virus replication and slow disease progression in animal models. Finally, it lists recent strategies that have been developed as well as novel approaches under consideration to enhance the immunogenicity of plasmid-encoded HIV-1 antigen in various animal models.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Invasion of the central nervous system by intracellular bacteria.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Douglas A Drevets,Pieter J M Leenen,Ronald A Greenfield

    Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is a severe and frequently fatal event during the course of many diseases caused by microbes with predominantly intracellular life cycles. Examples of these include the facultative intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Brucella and Salmonella spp. and obligate intracellular microbes of the Rickettsiaceae family and Tropheryma whipplei. Unfortunately, the mechanisms used by intracellular bacterial pathogens to enter the CNS are less well known than those used by bacterial pathogens with an extracellular life cycle. The goal of this review is to elaborate on the means by which intracellular bacterial pathogens establish infection within the CNS. This review encompasses the clinical and pathological findings that pertain to the CNS infection in humans and includes experimental data from animal models that illuminate how these microbes enter the CNS. Recent experimental data showing that L. monocytogenes can invade the CNS by more than one mechanism make it a useful model for discussing the various routes for neuroinvasion used by intracellular bacterial pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • HLA-B27-associated reactive arthritis: pathogenetic and clinical considerations.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Inés Colmegna,Raquel Cuchacovich,Luis R Espinoza

    Current evidence supports the concept that reactive arthritis (ReA) is an immune-mediated synovitis resulting from slow bacterial infections and showing intra-articular persistence of viable, non-culturable bacteria and/or immunogenetic bacterial antigens synthesized by metabolically active bacteria residing in the joint and/or elsewhere in the body. The mechanisms that lead to the development of ReA are complex and basically involve an interaction between an arthritogenic agent and a predisposed host. The way in which a host accommodates to invasive facultative intracellular bacteria is the key to the development of ReA. The details of the molecular pathways that explain the articular and extra-articular manifestations of the disease are still under investigation. Several studies have been done to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of ReA; these constitute the basis for a more rational therapeutic approach to this disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Surface glycans of Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi: physiological roles, clinical uses, and experimental challenges.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    James Masuoka

    Although fungi have always been with us as commensals and pathogens, fungal infections have been increasing in frequency over the past few decades. There is a growing body of literature describing the involvement of carbohydrate groups in various aspects of fungal disease. Carbohydrates comprising the cell wall or capsule, or as a component of glycoproteins, are the fungal cell surface entities most likely to be exposed to the surrounding environment. Thus, the fungus-host interaction is likely to involve carbohydrates before DNA, RNA, or even protein. The interaction between fungal and host cells is also complex, and early studies using whole cells or crude cell fractions often produced seemingly conflicting results. What was needed, and what has been developing, is the ability to identify specific glycan structures and determine how they interact with immune system components. Carbohydrate analysis is complicated by the complexity of glycan structures and by the challenges of separating and detecting carbohydrates experimentally. Advances in carbohydrate chemistry have enabled us to move from the foundation of composition analysis to more rapid characterization of specific structures. This, in turn, will lead to a greater understanding of how fungi coexist with their hosts as commensals or exist in conflict as pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical disease, and treatment.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Cheng-Hsun Chiu,Lin-Hui Su,Chishih Chu

    Nontyphoid Salmonella strains are important causes of reportable food-borne infection. Among more than 2,000 serotypes, Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis shows the highest predilection to cause systemic infections in humans. The most feared complication of serotype Cholearesuis bacteremia in adults is the development of mycotic aneurysm, which previously was almost uniformally fatal. The advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical care, and antimicrobial therapy have greatly improved the survival of these patients. However, the recent emergence of serotype Choleraesuis that is resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and, notably, fluoroquinolone antibiotics has aroused concern about the use of these agents for the empirical treatment of systemic infection caused by this organism. In view of the serious implications of the situation, the chain of transmission and mechanism of resistance should be carefully studied to reduce the spread of infection and threat to human health. To date, there are no vaccines available to prevent serotype Choleraesuis infections in humans. The availability, in the near future, of the genome sequence of serotype Cholearesuis will facilitate the development of effective vaccines as well as the discovery of new targets for novel antimicrobial agents.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determination of fungicidal activities against yeasts and molds: lessons learned from bactericidal testing and the need for standardization.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    M A Pfaller,D J Sheehan,J H Rex

    In certain unique clinical settings, the ability of the antimicrobial agent administered to kill the pathogen outright may be quite important. These situations invariably involve infection of a site not easily accessed by host defenses and/or of a structure with essential anatomic or physiologic function such as the heart (endocarditis), central nervous system (meningitis), or bone (osteomyelitis). Likewise, infections in immunosuppressed hosts, especially those who are neutropenic, are often thought to require microbicidal therapy. Proof of the cidal nature of an antimicrobial agent in vitro is tedious, complex, and fraught with error. Although several methods for assessing in vitro bactericidal activity have been standardized (NCCLS M26-A and M21-A), the clinical relevance of these determinations is questionable and the tests are performed infrequently in most laboratories. Most of the clinical data supporting the need for microbicidal therapy and testing have focused on bacterial infections. However, given the fact that most serious fungal infections occur in profoundly immunosuppressed individuals, it is generally assumed that a cidal regimen would be preferable in that setting as well. In view of this clinical concern and the perceived need to assess the fungicidal activity of a variety of agents, we considered that it would be useful to review what is known about the issues and problems in assessing bactericidal activity and the clinical utility of such measurements. Following this review, we discuss the issue of how one defines fungicidal activity in vitro and in vivo and how feasible it might be to determine the fungicidal activity of organism-drug combinations for purposes of both drug development and clinical care. Proposed methods for fungal time-kill determinations and minimal fungicidal concentration determinations are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Candida infections of medical devices.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-04-16
    Erna M Kojic,Rabih O Darouiche

    The number of indwelling medical devices is escalating, and an increasing proportion of device-related infections are being caused by Candida spp. Candida spp. produce biofilms on synthetic materials, which facilitates adhesion of the organisms to devices and renders them relatively refractory to medical therapy. Management of device-related Candida infections can be challenging. Removal of the infected device is generally needed to establish cure of Candida infections of medical devices. However, since the pathogenesis of Candida bloodstream infection is complicated, more studies are necessary to determine the role of catheter exchange in patients with both gastrointestinal tract mucositis and indwelling catheters. The medical and economic impact of these infections is enormous.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Theiler's virus infection: a model for multiple sclerosis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Emilia L Oleszak,J Robert Chang,Herman Friedman,Christos D Katsetos,Chris D Platsoucas

    Both genetic background and environmental factors, very probably viruses, appear to play a role in the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Lessons from viral experimental models suggest that many different viruses may trigger inflammatory demyelinating diseases resembling MS. Theiler's virus, a picornavirus, induces in susceptible strains of mice early acute disease resembling encephalomyelitis followed by late chronic demyelinating disease, which is one of the best, if not the best, animal model for MS. During early acute disease the virus replicates in gray matter of the central nervous system but is eliminated to very low titers 2 weeks postinfection. Late chronic demyelinating disease becomes clinically apparent approximately 2 weeks later and is characterized by extensive demyelinating lesions and mononuclear cell infiltrates, progressive spinal cord atrophy, and axonal loss. Myelin damage is immunologically mediated, but it is not clear whether it is due to molecular mimicry or epitope spreading. Cytokines, nitric oxide/reactive nitrogen species, and costimulatory molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of both diseases. Close similarities between Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease in mice and MS in humans, include the following: major histocompatibility complex-dependent susceptibility; substantial similarities in neuropathology, including axonal damage and remyelination; and paucity of T-cell apoptosis in demyelinating disease. Both diseases are immunologically mediated. These common features emphasize the close similarities of Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease in mice and MS in humans.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • History, dynamics, and public health importance of malaria parasite resistance.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Ambrose O Talisuna,Peter Bloland,Umberto D'Alessandro

    Despite considerable efforts, malaria is still one of the most devastating infectious diseases in the tropics. The rapid spread of antimalarial drug resistance currently compounds this grim picture. In this paper, we review the history of antimalarial drug resistance and the methods for monitoring it and assess the current magnitude and burden of parasite resistance to two commonly used drugs: chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Furthermore, we review the factors involved in the emergence and spread of drug resistance and highlight its public health importance. Finally, we discuss ways of dealing with such a problem by using combination therapy and suggest some of the research themes needing urgent answers.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharides.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Katherine O'Riordan,Jean C Lee

    Serotype 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides predominate among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. The results of experiments in animal models of infection have revealed that staphylococcal capsules are important in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections. The capsule enhances staphylococcal virulence by impeding phagocytosis, resulting in bacterial persistence in the bloodstream of infected hosts. S. aureus capsules also promote abscess formation in rats. Although the capsule has been shown to modulate S. aureus adherence to endothelial surfaces in vitro, animal studies suggest that it also promotes bacterial colonization and persistence on mucosal surfaces. S. aureus capsular antigens are surface associated, limited in antigenic specificity, and highly conserved among clinical isolates. With the emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus in the United States in 2002, new strategies are needed to combat staphylococcal infections. Purified serotype 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharides offer promise as target antigens for a vaccine to prevent staphylococcal infections, although the inclusion of other antigens is likely to be essential in the development of an effective S. aureus vaccine. The genetics and mechanisms of capsule biosynthesis are complex, and much work remains to enhance our understanding of capsule biosynthesis and its regulation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Strongyloides stercoralis in the Immunocompromised Population.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Paul B Keiser,Thomas B Nutman

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode of humans that infects tens of millions of people worldwide. S. stercoralis is unique among intestinal nematodes in its ability to complete its life cycle within the host through an asexual autoinfective cycle, allowing the infection to persist in the host indefinitely. Under some conditions associated with immunocompromise, this autoinfective cycle can become amplified into a potentially fatal hyperinfection syndrome, characterized by increased numbers of infective filariform larvae in stool and sputum and clinical manifestations of the increased parasite burden and migration, such as gastrointestinal bleeding and respiratory distress. S. stercoralis hyperinfection is often accompanied by sepsis or meningitis with enteric organisms. Glucocorticoid treatment and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection are the two conditions most specifically associated with triggering hyperinfection, but cases have been reported in association with hematologic malignancy, malnutrition, and AIDS. Anthelmintic agents such as ivermectin have been used successfully in treating the hyperinfection syndrome as well as for primary and secondary prevention of hyperinfection in patients whose exposure history and underlying condition put them at increased risk.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Global change and human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Robert W Sutherst

    Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Johannes Eckert,Peter Deplazes

    Echinococcosis in humans is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages (metacestodes) of cestode species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by E. multilocularis, and polycystic forms are caused by either E. vogeli or E. oligarthrus. In untreated cases, AE has a high mortality rate. Although control is essentially feasible, CE remains a considerable health problem in many regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. AE is restricted to the northern hemisphere regions of North America and Eurasia. Recent studies have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of AE, is more widely distributed than previously thought. There are also some hints of an increasing significance of polycystic forms of the disease, which are restricted to Central and South America. Various aspects of human echinococcosis are discussed in this review, including data on the infectivity of genetic variants of E. granulosus to humans, the increasing invasion of cities in Europe and Japan by red foxes, the main definitive hosts of E. multilocularis, and the first demonstration of urban cycles of the parasite. Examples of emergence or reemergence of CE are presented, and the question of potential spreading of E. multilocularis is critically assessed. Furthermore, information is presented on new and improved tools for diagnosing the infection in final hosts (dogs, foxes, and cats) by coproantigen or DNA detection and the application of molecular techniques to epidemiological studies. In the clinical field, the available methods for diagnosing human CE and AE are described and the treatment options are summarized. The development of new chemotherapeutic options for all forms of human echinococcosis remains an urgent requirement. A new option for the control of E. granulosus in the intermediate host population (mainly sheep and cattle) is vaccination. Attempts are made to reduce the prevalence of E. multilocualaris in fox populations by regular baiting with an anthelmintic (praziquantel). Recent data have shown that this control option may be used in restricted areas, for example in cities, with the aim of reducing the infection risk for humans.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Health impacts of environmental mycobacteria.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Todd P Primm,Christie A Lucero,Joseph O Falkinham

    Environmental mycobacteria are emerging pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans and animals. The health impacts of human-mycobacterial interactions are complex and likely much broader than currently recognized. Environmental mycobacteria preferentially survive chlorination in municipal water, using it as a vector to infect humans. Widespread chlorination of water has likely selected more resistant environmental mycobacteria species and potentially explains the shift from M. scrofulaceum to M. avium as a cause of cervical lymphadenitis in children. Thus, human activities have affected mycobacterial ecology. While the slow growth and hydrophobicity of environmental mycobacteria appear to be disadvantages, the unique cell wall architecture also grants high biocide and antibiotic resistance, while hydrophobicity facilitates nutrient acquisition, biofilm formation, and spread by aerosolization. The remarkable stress tolerance of environmental mycobacteria is the major reason they are human pathogens. Environmental mycobacteria invade protozoans, exhibiting parasitic and symbiotic relationships. The molecular mechanisms of mycobacterial intracellular pathogenesis in animals likely evolved from similar mechanisms facilitating survival in protozoans. In addition to outright infection, environmental mycobacteria may also play a role in chronic bowl diseases, allergies, immunity to other pulmonary infections, and the efficacy of bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cryptosporidium taxonomy: recent advances and implications for public health.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Lihua Xiao,Ronald Fayer,Una Ryan,Steve J Upton

    There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baïleyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pathogenicity islands in bacterial pathogenesis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Herbert Schmidt,Michael Hensel

    In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Infection control in cystic fibrosis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    Lisa Saiman,Jane Siegel

    Over the past 20 years there has been a greater interest in infection control in cystic fibrosis (CF) as patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens has been increasingly demonstrated in this unique patient population. The CF Foundation sponsored a consensus conference to craft recommendations for infection control practices for CF care providers. This review provides a summary of the literature addressing infection control in CF. Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus have all been shown to spread between patients with CF. Standard precautions, transmission-based precautions including contact and droplet precautions, appropriate hand hygiene for health care workers, patients, and their families, and care of respiratory tract equipment to prevent the transmission of infectious agents serve as the foundations of infection control and prevent the acquisition of potential pathogens by patients with CF. The respiratory secretions of all CF patients potentially harbor clinically and epidemiologically important microorganisms, even if they have not yet been detected in cultures from the respiratory tract. CF patients should be educated to contain their secretions and maintain a distance of >3 ft from other CF patients to avoid the transmission of potential pathogens, even if culture results are unavailable or negative. To prevent the acquisition of pathogens from respiratory therapy equipment used in health care settings as well as in the home, such equipment should be cleaned and disinfected. It will be critical to measure the dissemination, implementation, and potential impact of these guidelines to monitor changes in practice and reduction in infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neonatal herpes simplex infection.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2004-01-17
    David W Kimberlin

    Tremendous advances have occurred over the past 30 years in the diagnosis and management of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease. Mortality in patients with disseminated disease has decreased from 85 to 29%, and that in patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease has decreased from 50 to 4%. Morbidity has been improved more modestly: the proportion of patients with disseminated disease who are developing normally at 1 year has increased from 50 to 83%. While the proportion of patients with neurologic morbidity following CNS disease has remained essentially unchanged over the past three decades, the total number of patients who are developing normally following HSV CNS disease has increased due to the improved survival. Although additional therapeutic advances in the future are possible, more immediate methods for further improvements in outcome for patients with this potentially devastating disease lie in an enhanced awareness of neonatal HSV infection and disease. A thorough understanding of the biology and natural history of HSV in the gravid woman and the neonate provides the basis for such an index of suspicion and is provided in this article.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Current perspectives on ophthalmic mycoses.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Philip A Thomas

    Fungi may infect the cornea, orbit and other ocular structures. Species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida, dematiaceous fungi, and Scedosporium predominate. Diagnosis is aided by recognition of typical clinical features and by direct microscopic detection of fungi in scrapes, biopsy specimens, and other samples. Culture confirms the diagnosis. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, or DNA-based tests may also be needed. Pathogenesis involves agent (invasiveness, toxigenicity) and host factors. Specific antifungal therapy is instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made. Amphotericin B by various routes is the mainstay of treatment for life-threatening and severe ophthalmic mycoses. Topical natamycin is usually the first choice for filamentous fungal keratitis, and topical amphotericin B is the first choice for yeast keratitis. Increasingly, the triazoles itraconazole and fluconazole are being evaluated as therapeutic options in ophthalmic mycoses. Medical therapy alone does not usually suffice for invasive fungal orbital infections, scleritis, and keratitis due to Fusarium spp., Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Pythium insidiosum. Surgical debridement is essential in orbital infections, while various surgical procedures may be required for other infections not responding to medical therapy. Corticosteroids are contraindicated in most ophthalmic mycoses; therefore, other methods are being sought to control inflammatory tissue damage. Fungal infections following ophthalmic surgical procedures, in patients with AIDS, and due to use of various ocular biomaterials are unique subsets of ophthalmic mycoses. Future research needs to focus on the development of rapid, species-specific diagnostic aids, broad-spectrum fungicidal compounds that are active by various routes, and therapeutic modalities which curtail the harmful effects of fungus- and host tissue-derived factors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Laboratory diagnosis of amebiasis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Mehmet Tanyuksel,William A Petri

    The detection of Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, is an important goal of the clinical microbiology laboratory. To assess the scope of E. histolytica infection, it is necessary to utilize accurate diagnostic tools. As more is discovered about the molecular and cell biology of E. histolytica, there is great potential for further understanding the pathogenesis of amebiasis. Molecular biology-based diagnosis may become the technique of choice in the future because establishment of these protozoa in culture is still not a routine clinical laboratory process. In all cases, combination of serologic tests with detection of the parasite (by antigen detection or PCR) offers the best approach to diagnosis, while PCR techniques remain impractical in many developing country settings. The detection of amebic markers in serum in patients with amebic colitis and liver abscess appears promising but is still only a research tool. On the other hand, stool antigen detection tests offer a practical, sensitive, and specific way for the clinical laboratory to detect intestinal E. histolytica. All the current tests suffer from the fact that the antigens detected are denatured by fixation of the stool specimen, limiting testing to fresh or frozen samples.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antigens and alternatives for control of Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Katherine M Kocan,José de la Fuente,Alberto A Guglielmone,Roy D Meléndez

    Anaplasmosis, a tick-borne cattle disease caused by the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale, is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The disease causes considerable economic loss to both the dairy and beef industries worldwide. Analyses of 16S rRNA, groESL, and surface proteins have resulted in the recent reclassification of the order Rickettsiales. The genus Anaplasma, of which A. marginale is the type species, now also includes A. bovis, A. platys, and A. phagocytophilum, which were previously known as Ehrlichia bovis, E. platys, and the E. phagocytophila group (which causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis), respectively. Live and killed vaccines have been used for control of anaplasmosis, and both types of vaccines have advantages and disadvantages. These vaccines have been effective in preventing clinical anaplasmosis in cattle but have not blocked A. marginale infection. Thus, persistently infected cattle serve as a reservoir of infective blood for both mechanical transmission and infection of ticks. Advances in biochemical, immunologic, and molecular technologies during the last decade have been applied to research of A. marginale and related organisms. The recent development of a cell culture system for A. marginale provides a potential source of antigen for the development of improved killed and live vaccines, and the availability of cell culture-derived antigen would eliminate the use of cattle in vaccine production. Increased knowledge of A. marginale antigen repertoires and an improved understanding of bovine cellular and humoral immune responses to A. marginale, combined with the new technologies, should contribute to the development of more effective vaccines for control and prevention of anaplasmosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • American canine hepatozoonosis.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    S A Ewing,R J Panciera

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Gregor Reid,Jana Jass,M Tom Sebulsky,John K McCormick

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is now mounting evidence that selected probiotic strains can provide health benefits to their human hosts. Numerous clinical trials show that certain strains can improve the outcome of intestinal infections by reducing the duration of diarrhea. Further investigations have shown benefits in reducing the recurrence of urogenital infections in women, while promising studies in cancer and allergies require research into the mechanisms of activity for particular strains and better-designed trials. At present, only a small percentage of physicians either know of probiotics or understand their potential applicability to patient care. Thus, probiotics are not yet part of the clinical arsenal for prevention and treatment of disease or maintenance of health. The establishment of accepted standards and guidelines, proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, represents a key step in ensuring that reliable products with suitable, informative health claims become available. Based upon the evidence to date, future advances with single- and multiple-strain therapies are on the horizon for the management of a number of debilitating and even fatal conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacterial wall as target for attack: past, present, and future research.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Arthur L Koch

    When Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya separated from each other, a great deal of evolution had taken place. Only then did extensive diversity arise. The bacteria split off with the new property that they had a sacculus that protected them from their own turgor pressure. The saccular wall of murein (or peptidoglycan) was an effective solution to the osmotic pressure problem, but it then was a target for other life-forms, which created lysoymes and beta-lactams. The beta-lactams, with their four-member strained rings, are effective agents in nature and became the first antibiotic in human medicine. But that is by no means the end of the story. Over evolutionary time, bacteria challenged by beta-lactams evolved countermeasures such as beta-lactamases, and the producing organisms evolved variant beta-lactams. The biology of both classes became evident as the pharmaceutical industry isolated, modified, and produced new chemotherapeutic agents and as the properties of beta-lactams and beta-lactamases were examined by molecular techniques. This review attempts to fit the wall biology of current microbes and their clinical context into the way organisms developed on this planet as well as the changes arising since the work done by Fleming. It also outlines the scientific advances in our understanding of this broad area of biology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Infections in patients with inherited defects in phagocytic function.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Timothy Andrews,Kathleen E Sullivan

    Patients with defects in phagocytic function are predisposed to intracellular microorganisms and typically have early dissemination of the infection. Recognition of the underlying disorder and aggressive antimicrobial therapy has been beneficial for the patients. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology has also affected patient management by allowing specific, targeted immunomodulatory intervention. The disorders described in this review are not common but have had a significant impact on our understanding of the role of phagocytic cells in host defense. Conversely, understanding the role of the neutrophil and macrophage in infection has benefited not just the patients described in this review but also other patients with similar disease processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Ellen Meijer,Greet J Boland,Leo F Verdonck

    The main risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease in recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplants (SCT) are recipient CMV seropositivity and acute graft-versus-host disease. Currently, two antiviral strategies, prophylactic or preemptive antiviral treatment, are used for prevention of CMV disease. Preemptive treatment is most favorable when short-term (14-day) treatment is applied. Several methods are available for monitoring of CMV reactivation. PCR-based CMV DNA detection assays are the most sensitive methods; however, the clinical benefit of this high sensitivity is unclear. Even more, there is lack of clarity whether PCR tests can better be performed with plasma, whole blood, or peripheral blood leukocyte samples. Recovery of a CMV-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) response is necessary for preventing CMV reactivation and disease. Reconstitution of absolute CMV-specific CTL counts to values above 10 x 10(6) to 20 x 10(6) CTLs/liter is associated with protection from CMV disease. In the near future, preemptive therapy might be withheld in patients with CMV reactivation who are shown to have adequate CMV-specific cytotoxic T-cell levels. Antiviral therapy with (val)acyclovir has been studied only as prophylactic treatment for prevention of CMV infection. High-dose oral valacyclovir is more effective than acyclovir when used in addition to preemptive treatment of CMV reactivation with ganciclovir or foscarnet. Three antiviral drugs have been tested for preemptive therapy of CMV reactivation and/or treatment of CMV disease. Although intravenous ganciclovir is considered the drug of choice, foscarnet has similar efficacy and less toxicity, especially hematologic toxicity. Cidofovir has not been tested extensively, but so far the results are disappointing. Oral valganciclovir for preemptive treatment of SCT recipients is currently being studied. In addition to antiviral therapy, adoptive immunotherapy with CMV-specific cytotoxic T cells as prophylactic or preemptive therapy is a very elegant strategy; however, generation of these cells is expensive and time-consuming, and therefore the therapy is not available at every transplantation center. Magnetic selection of CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells from peripheral blood by using HLA class I-peptide tetramers may be very promising, making this strategy more accessible.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Babesia divergens, a bovine blood parasite of veterinary and zoonotic importance.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Annetta Zintl,Grace Mulcahy,Helen E Skerrett,Stuart M Taylor,Jeremy S Gray

    Babesia divergens is an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus, and is the main agent of bovine babesiosis in Europe. It is not only a cause of significant loss to the cattle industry; it can also infect immunocompromised humans, causing medical emergencies characterized by rapid fulmination and parasitemias that may exceed 70%. The current emphasis in Europe on sustainable agriculture and extensification is likely to lead to an increase in vector tick populations with increased risk of infection. Despite the veterinary and zoonotic importance of this parasite, relatively little research has been carried out on B. divergens, and many questions regarding the parasite's epidemiology and the host's response remain unanswered. A better understanding of the species' biology and host-parasite interactions may lead to improved control mechanisms and new trends in vaccine and antibabesial drug development. This review provides the first comprehensive summary of B. divergens biology, including its morphology, life cycle, and host specificity, and the current state of knowledge of both human and bovine infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognition.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    S Janssens,R Beyaert

    The innate immune system relies on a vast array of non-clonally expressed pattern recognition receptors for the detection of pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors bind conserved molecular structures shared by large groups of pathogens, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a recently discovered family of pattern recognition receptors which show homology with the Drosophila Toll protein and the human interleukin-1 receptor family. Engagement of different TLRs can induce overlapping yet distinct patterns of gene expression that contribute to an inflammatory response. The TLR family is characterized by the presence of leucine-rich repeats and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like domain, which mediate ligand binding and interaction with intracellular signaling proteins, respectively. Most TLR ligands identified so far are conserved microbial products which signal the presence of an infection, but evidence for some endogenous ligands that might signal other danger conditions has also been obtained. Molecular mechanisms for pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition still remain elusive but seem to be more complicated than initially anticipated. In most cases, direct binding of microbial ligands to TLRs still has to be demonstrated. Moreover, Drosophila TLRs bind endogenous ligands, generated through a proteolytic cascade in response to an infection. In the case of endotoxin, recognition involves a complex of TLR4 and a number of other proteins. Moreover, TLR heterodimerization further extends the spectrum of ligands and modulates the response towards specific ligands. The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Clinical potential of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates cidofovir, adefovir, and tenofovir in treatment of DNA virus and retrovirus infections.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-10-15
    Erik De Clercq

    The acyclic nucleoside phosphonates HPMPC (cidofovir), PMEA (adefovir), and PMPA (tenofovir) have proved to be effective in vitro (cell culture systems) and in vivo (animal models and clinical studies) against a wide variety of DNA virus and retrovirus infections: cidofovir against herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus [CMV], Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8), polyomavirus, papillomavirus, adenovirus, and poxvirus (variola virus, cowpox virus, vaccinia virus, molluscum contagiosum virus, and orf virus) infections; adefovir against herpesvirus, hepadnavirus (human hepatitis B virus), and retrovirus (human immunodeficiency virus types 1 [HIV-1] and 2 [HIV-2], simian immunodeficiency virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus) infections; and tenofovir against both hepadnavirus and retrovirus infections. Cidofovir (Vistide) has been officially approved for the treatment of CMV retinitis in AIDS patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Viread) has been approved for the treatment of HIV infections (i.e., AIDS), and adefovir dipivoxil (Hepsera) has been approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Nephrotoxicity is the dose-limiting side effect for cidofovir (Vistide) when used intravenously (5 mg/kg); no toxic side effects have been described for adefovir dipivoxil and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, at the approved doses (Hepsera at 10 mg orally daily and Viread at 300 mg orally daily).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Managing occupational risks for hepatitis C transmission in the health care setting.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    David K Henderson

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant contemporary health problem in the United States and elsewhere. Because it is primarily transmitted via blood, hepatitis C infection presents risks for both nosocomial transmission to patients and occupational spread to health care workers. Recent insights into the pathogenesis, immunopathogenesis, natural history, and treatment of infection caused by this unique flavivirus provide a rationale for the use of new strategies for managing occupational hepatitis C infections when they occur. This article reviews this developing information. Recently published data demonstrate success rates in the treatment of "acute hepatitis C syndrome" that approach 100\%, and although these studies are not directly applicable to all occupational infections, they may provide important clues to optimal management strategies. In addition, the article delineates approaches to the prevention of occupational exposures and also addresses the difficult issue of managing HCV-infected health care providers. The article summarizes currently available data about the nosocomial epidemiology of HCV infection and the magnitude of risk and discusses several alternatives for managing exposure and infection. No evidence supports the use of immediate postexposure prophylaxis with immunoglobulin, immunomodulators, or antiviral agents. Based on the very limited data available, the watchful waiting and preemptive therapy strategies described in detail in this article represent reasonable interim approaches to the complex problem of managing occupational HCV infections, at least until more definitive data are obtained.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Receptors, mediators, and mechanisms involved in bacterial sepsis and septic shock.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    Edwin S Van Amersfoort,Theo J C Van Berkel,Johan Kuiper

    Bacterial sepsis and septic shock result from the overproduction of inflammatory mediators as a consequence of the interaction of the immune system with bacteria and bacterial wall constituents in the body. Bacterial cell wall constituents such as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycans, and lipoteichoic acid are particularly responsible for the deleterious effects of bacteria. These constituents interact in the body with a large number of proteins and receptors, and this interaction determines the eventual inflammatory effect of the compounds. Within the circulation bacterial constituents interact with proteins such as plasma lipoproteins and lipopolysaccharide binding protein. The interaction of the bacterial constituents with receptors on the surface of mononuclear cells is mainly responsible for the induction of proinflammatory mediators by the bacterial constituents. The role of individual receptors such as the toll-like receptors and CD14 in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, the roles of a number of other receptors that bind bacterial compounds such as scavenger receptors and their modulating role in inflammation are described. Finally, the therapies for the treatment of bacterial sepsis and septic shock are discussed in relation to the action of the aforementioned receptors and proteins.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis and molecular determinants of virulence.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    Issar Smith

    Tuberculosis (TB), one of the oldest known human diseases. is still is one of the major causes of mortality, since two million people die each year from this malady. TB has many manifestations, affecting bone, the central nervous system, and many other organ systems, but it is primarily a pulmonary disease that is initiated by the deposition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contained in aerosol droplets, onto lung alveolar surfaces. From this point, the progression of the disease can have several outcomes, determined largely by the response of the host immune system. The efficacy of this response is affected by intrinsic factors such as the genetics of the immune system as well as extrinsic factors, e.g., insults to the immune system and the nutritional and physiological state of the host. In addition, the pathogen may play a role in disease progression since some M. tuberculosis strains are reportedly more virulent than others, as defined by increased transmissibility as well as being associated with higher morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Despite the widespread use of an attenuated live vaccine and several antibiotics, there is more TB than ever before, requiring new vaccines and drugs and more specific and rapid diagnostics. Researchers are utilizing information obtained from the complete sequence of the M. tuberculosis genome and from new genetic and physiological methods to identify targets in M. tuberculosis that will aid in the development of these sorely needed antitubercular agents.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Borna disease virus infection, a human mental-health risk.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    Liv Bode,Hans Ludwig

    This article focuses on human Borna disease virus (BDV) infections, most notably on the development of valid diagnostic systems, which have arisen as a major research issue in the past decade. The significance of a novel modular triple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that is capable of specifically measuring anti-BDV antibodies as well as major structural proteins N (p40) and P (p24) in the blood, either as free antigens in the plasma or as antibody-bound circulating immune complexes (CICs), is explained. The impact of CICs and plasma antigen, which indicate periods of antigenemia in the course of BDV infection, along with other infection markers that are still in use is discussed. The review further provides new insight into possible links of BDV to human diseases, summarizing cross-sectional and longitudinal data which correlate acute depression with the presence and amount of antigen and CICs. Moreover, BDV prevalence in healthy people is reevaluated, suggesting that this was previously underestimated. Antiviral efficacy of amantadine, in vivo and in vitro, is outlined as well, with emphasis on wild-type (human and equine) versus laboratory strains. Finally, the pros and cons of the association of BDV with human disease, as detailed in the literature, are critically discussed and related to our data and concepts. This article supports existing correlative evidence for a pathogenic role of BDV infection in particular human mental disorders, in analogy to what has been proven for a variety of animal species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Production of eicosanoids and other oxylipins by pathogenic eukaryotic microbes.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    Mairi C Noverr,John R Erb-Downward,Gary B Huffnagle

    Oxylipins are oxygenated metabolites of fatty acids. Eicosanoids are a subset of oxylipins and include the prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are potent regulators of host immune responses. Host cells are one source of eicosanoids and oxylipins during infection; however, another potential source of eicosanoids is the pathogen itself. A broad range of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, and helminths produce eicosanoids and other oxylipins by novel synthesis pathways. Why do these organisms produce oxylipins? Accumulating data suggest that phase change and differentiation in these organisms are controlled by oxylipins, including prostaglandins and lipoxygenase products. The precise role of pathogen-derived eicosanoids in pathogenesis remains to be determined, but the potential link between pathogen eicosanoids and the development of TH2 responses in the host is intriguing. Mammalian prostaglandins and leukotrienes have been studied extensively, and these molecules can modulate Th1 versus Th2 immune responses, chemokine production, phagocytosis, lymphocyte proliferation, and leukocyte chemotaxis. Thus, eicosanoids and oxylipins (host or microbe) may be mediators of a direct host-pathogen "cross-talk" that promotes chronic infection and hypersensitivity disease, common features of infection by eukaryotic pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mycotoxins.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    J W Bennett,M Klich

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Versatility of aminoglycosides and prospects for their future.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    Sergei B Vakulenko,Shahriar Mobashery

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics have had a major impact on our ability to treat bacterial infections for the past half century. Whereas the interest in these versatile antibiotics continues to be high, their clinical utility has been compromised by widespread instances of resistance. The multitude of mechanisms of resistance is disconcerting but also illuminates how nature can manifest resistance when bacteria are confronted by antibiotics. This article reviews the most recent knowledge about the mechanisms of aminoglycoside action and the mechanisms of resistance to these antibiotics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biology and pathogenesis of thrombosis and procoagulant activity in invasive infections caused by group A streptococci and Clostridium perfringens.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    Amy E Bryant

    Group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis/myonecrosis and Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene are two of the most fulminant gram-positive infections in humans. Tissue destruction associated with these infections progresses rapidly to involve an entire extremity. Multiple-organ failure is common, and morbidity and mortality remain high. Systemic activation of coagulation and dysregulation of the anticoagulation pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of many diverse disease entities of infectious etiology, and it has been our hypothesis that microvascular thrombosis contributes to reduced tissue perfusion, hypoxia, and subsequent regional tissue necrosis and organ failure in these invasive gram-positive infections. This article reviews the coagulation, anticoagulation, and fibrinolytic systems from cellular players to cytokines to novel antithrombotic therapies and discusses the mechanisms contributing to occlusive microvascular thrombosis and tissue destruction in invasive group A streptococcal and C. perfringens infections. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms may suggest novel therapeutic targets for patients with these devastating infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reprogramming the host response in bacterial meningitis: how best to improve outcome?
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    M van der Flier,S P M Geelen,J L L Kimpen,I M Hoepelman,E I Tuomanen

    Despite effective antibiotic therapy, bacterial meningitis is still associated with high morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Animal studies have shown that the host inflammatory response induced by bacterial products in the subarachnoid space is associated with central nervous system injury. Thus, attenuation of inflammation early in the disease process might improve the outcome. The feasibility of such an approach is demonstrated by the reduction in neurologic sequelae achieved with adjuvant dexamethasone therapy. Increased understanding of the pathways of inflammation and neuronal damage has suggested rational new targets to modulate the host response in bacterial meningitis, but prediction of which agents would be optimal has been difficult. This review compares the future promise of benefit from the use of diverse adjuvant agents. It appears unlikely that inhibition of a single proinflammatory mediator will prove useful in clinical practice, but several avenues to reprogram a wider array of mediators simultaneously are encouraging. Particularly promising are efforts to adjust combinations of cytokines, to inhibit neuronal apoptosis and to enhance brain repair.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Virulence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, a global pathogen.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    S C Clarke,R D Haigh,P P E Freestone,P H Williams

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) remains an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Research into EPEC is intense and provides a good virulence model of other E. coli infections as well as other pathogenic bacteria. Although the virulence mechanisms are now better understood, they are extremely complex and much remains to be learnt. The pathogenesis of EPEC depends on the formation of an ultrastructural lesion in which the bacteria make intimate contact with the host apical enterocyte membrane. The formation of this lesion is a consequence of the ability of EPEC to adhere in a localized manner to the host cell, aided by bundle-forming pili. Tyrosine phosphorylation and signal transduction events occur within the host cell at the lesion site, leading to a disruption of the host cell mechanisms and, consequently, to diarrhea. These result from the action of highly regulated EPEC secreted proteins which are released via a type III secretion system, many genes of which are located within a pathogenicity island known as the locus of enterocyte effacement. Over the last few years, dramatic increases in our knowledge of EPEC virulence have taken place. This review therefore aims to provide a broad overview of and update to the virulence aspects of EPEC.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vaccinations for adult solid-organ transplant recipients: current recommendations and protocols.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-07-15
    Andrea Duchini,John A Goss,Saul Karpen,Paul J Pockros

    Recipients of solid-organ transplantation are at risk of severe infections due to their life-long immunosuppression. Despite emerging evidence that vaccinations are safe and effective among immunosuppressed patients, most vaccines are still underutilized in these patients. The efficacy, safety, and protocols of several vaccines in this patient population are poorly understood. Timing of vaccination appears to be critical because response to vaccinations is decreased in patients with end-stage organ disease and in the first 6 months after transplantation. For these reasons, the primary immunizations should be given before transplantation, as early as possible during the course of disease. Vaccination strategy should include vaccination of household contacts and health care workers at transplant centers unless contraindicated. No conclusive data are available on the use of immunoadjuvants and screening for protective titers. Most vaccines appear to be safe in solid-organ transplantation recipients, but live vaccines should be avoided until further studies are available. The risk of rejection appears minimal. Recommended vaccines include pneumovax, hepatitis A and B, influenza, and tetanus-diphtheria. We outline specific protocols and recommendations in this particular patient population. Specific contraindications exist for other vaccines, such as yellow fever, oral polio vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and vaccinia. We conclude that solid-organ recipients will benefit from consistent immunization practices. Further studies are recommended to improve established protocols in this patient population.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-04-15
    Francine Marciano-Cabral,Guy Cabral

    Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amebae that inhabit a variety of air, soil, and water environments. However, these amebae can also act as opportunistic as well as nonopportunistic pathogens. They are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis and amebic keratitis and have been associated with cutaneous lesions and sinusitis. Immuno compromised individuals, including AIDS patients, are particularly susceptible to infections with Acanthamoeba. The immune defense mechanisms that operate against Acanthamoeba have not been well characterized, but it has been proposed that both innate and acquired immunity play a role. The ameba's life cycle includes an active feeding trophozoite stage and a dormant cyst stage. Trophozoites feed on bacteria, yeast, and algae. However, both trophozoites and cysts can retain viable bacteria and may serve as reservoirs for bacteria with human pathogenic potential. Diagnosis of infection includes direct microscopy of wet mounts of cerebrospinal fluid or stained smears of cerebrospinal fluid sediment, light or electron microscopy of tissues, in vitro cultivation of Acanthamoeba, and histological assessment of frozen or paraffin-embedded sections of brain or cutaneous lesion biopsy material. Immunocytochemistry, chemifluorescent dye staining, PCR, and analysis of DNA sequence variation also have been employed for laboratory diagnosis. Treatment of Acanthamoeba infections has met with mixed results. However, chlorhexidine gluconate, alone or in combination with propamidene isethionate, is effective in some patients. Furthermore, effective treatment is complicated since patients may present with underlying disease and Acanthamoeba infection may not be recognized. Since an increase in the number of cases of Acanthamoeba infections has occurred worldwide, these protozoa have become increasingly important as agents of human disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impact of genotypic studies on mycobacterial taxonomy: the new mycobacteria of the 1990s.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-04-15
    Enrico Tortoli

    The advancement of genetic techniques has greatly boosted taxonomic studies in recent years. Within the genus Mycobacterium, 42 new species have been detected since 1990, most of which were grown from clinical samples. Along with species for which relatively large numbers of strains have been reported, some of the new species of mycobacteria have been detected rarely or even only once. From the phenotypic point of view, among the new taxa, chromogens exceed nonchromogens while the numbers of slowly and rapidly growing species are equivalent. Whereas conventional identification tests were usually inconclusive, an important role was played by lipid analyses and in particular by high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotypic investigations based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene have certainly made the most important contribution. The investigation of genetic relatedness led to the redistribution of the species previously included in the classically known categories of slow and rapid growers into new groupings. Within slow growers, the intermediate branch related to Mycobacterium simiae and the cluster of organisms related to Mycobacterium terrae have been differentiated; among rapid growers, the group of thermotolerant mycobacteria has emerged. The majority of species are resistant to isoniazid and, to a lesser extent, to rifampin. Many of the new species of mycobacteria are potentially pathogenic, and there are numerous reports of their involvement in diseases. Apart from disseminated and localized diseases in immunocompromised patients, the most frequent infections in immunocompetent people involve the lungs, skin, and, in children, cervical lymph nodes. The awareness of such new mycobacteria, far from being a merely speculative exercise, is therefore important for clinicians and microbiologists.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pneumococcal vaccination and revaccination of older adults.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-04-15
    Andrew S Artz,William B Ershler,Dan L Longo

    As individuals advance in age, the risk of infection, bacteremia, and mortality caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae rises. Retrospective data demonstrate that the licensed penumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) is effective in older persons in reducing serotype-specific invasive disease. PPV demonstrates good immunogenicity in older adults, generally comparable to that in younger subjects, although certain cohorts respond less well. The response to PPV is T cell independent, however, and does not elicit immunologic memory. The duration of the anti-capsular polysaccharide antibody response appears to wane as early as 3 years after vaccination. In older persons, revaccination induces an antibody response, although it may not be as strong as that from the initial vaccine. While revaccination of older adults has been recommended, clinical efficacy has not yet been proven. Measures of antibody function may be at least as important in determining protection as are quantitative antibody levels. Additional studies of immunogenicity, particularly regarding revaccination, will facilitate the design of an optimal pneumococcal vaccination policy. Research into conjugate- and protein-based pneumococcal vaccines, which elicit T-cell-dependent responses and induce immunologic memory, is needed in older persons. In the meantime, administering to PPV to recommended groups should be a public health priority.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Parainfluenza viruses.
    Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (IF 17.750) Pub Date : 2003-04-15
    Kelly J Henrickson

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4. Further major subtypes of HPIV-4 (A and B) and subgroups/genotypes of HPIV-1 and HPIV-3 have been described. HPIV-1 to HPIV-3 are major causes of lower respiratory infections in infants, young children, the immunocompromised, the chronically ill, and the elderly. Each subtype can cause somewhat unique clinical diseases in different hosts. HPIV are enveloped and of medium size (150 to 250 nm), and their RNA genome is in the negative sense. These viruses belong to the Paramyxoviridae family, one of the largest and most rapidly growing groups of viruses causing significant human and veterinary disease. HPIV are closely related to recently discovered megamyxoviruses (Hendra and Nipah viruses) and metapneumovirus.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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