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  • BATF acts as an essential regulator of IL-25–responsive migratory ILC2 cell fate and function
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Mindy M. Miller, Preeyam S. Patel, Katherine Bao, Thomas Danhorn, Brian P. O’Connor, R. Lee Reinhardt

    A transitory, interleukin-25 (IL-25)–responsive, group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) subset induced during type 2 inflammation was recently identified as iILC2s. This study focuses on understanding the significance of this population in relation to tissue-resident nILC2s in the lung and intestine. RNA-sequencing and pathway analysis revealed the AP-1 superfamily transcription factor BATF (basic leucine zipper transcription factor, activating transcription factor–like) as a potential modulator of ILC2 cell fate. Infection of BATF-deficient mice with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis showed a selective defect in IL-25–mediated helminth clearance and a corresponding loss of iILC2s in the lung characterized as IL-17RBhigh, KLRG1high, BATFhigh, and Arg1low. BATF deficiency selectively impaired iILC2s because it had no impact on tissue-resident nILC2 frequency or function. Pulmonary-associated iILC2s migrated to the lung after infection, where they represented an early source of IL-4 and IL-13. Although the composition of ILC2s in the small intestine was distinct from those in the lung, their frequency and IL-13 expression remained dependent on BATF, which was also required for optimal goblet and tuft cell hyperplasia. Findings support IL-25–responsive ILC2s as early sentinels of mucosal barrier integrity.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Chronic allergen exposure drives accumulation of long-lived IgE plasma cells in the bone marrow, giving rise to serological memory
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Seblewongel Asrat, Navneet Kaur, Xia Liu, Li-Hong Ben, Daisuke Kajimura, Andrew J. Murphy, Matthew A. Sleeman, Andre Limnander, Jamie M. Orengo

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays an important role in allergic diseases. Nevertheless, the source of IgE serological memory remains controversial. We reexamined the mechanism of serological memory in allergy using a dual reporter system to track IgE+ plasma cells in mice. Short-term allergen exposure resulted in the generation of IgE+ plasma cells that resided mainly in secondary lymphoid organs and produced IgE that was unable to degranulate mast cells. In contrast, chronic allergen exposure led to the generation of long-lived IgE+ plasma cells that were primarily derived from sequential class switching of IgG1, accumulated in the bone marrow, and produced IgE capable of inducing anaphylaxis. IgE+ plasma cells were found in the bone marrow of human allergic, but not nonallergic donors, and allergen-specific IgE produced by these cells was able to induce mast cell degranulation when transferred to mice. These data demonstrate that long-lived IgE+ bone marrow plasma cells arise during chronic allergen exposure and establish serological memory in both mice and humans.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Targeted deletion of PD-1 in myeloid cells induces antitumor immunity
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Laura Strauss, Mohamed A. A. Mahmoud, Jessica D. Weaver, Natalia M. Tijaro-Ovalle, Anthos Christofides, Qi Wang, Rinku Pal, Min Yuan, John Asara, Nikolaos Patsoukis, Vassiliki A. Boussiotis

    PD-1, a T cell checkpoint receptor and target of cancer immunotherapy, is also expressed on myeloid cells. The role of myeloid-specific versus T cell–specific PD-1 ablation on antitumor immunity has remained unclear because most studies have used either PD-1–blocking antibodies or complete PD-1 KO mice. We generated a conditional allele, which allowed myeloid-specific (PD-1f/fLysMcre) or T cell–specific (PD-1f/fCD4cre) targeting of Pdcd1 gene. Compared with T cell–specific PD-1 ablation, myeloid cell–specific PD-1 ablation more effectively decreased tumor growth. We found that granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs), which accumulate during cancer-driven emergency myelopoiesis and give rise to myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), express PD-1. In tumor-bearing PD-1f/fLysMcre but not PD-1f/fCD4cre mice, accumulation of GMP and MDSC was prevented, whereas systemic output of effector myeloid cells was increased. Myeloid cell–specific PD-1 ablation induced an increase of T effector memory cells with improved functionality and mediated antitumor protection despite preserved PD-1 expression in T cells. In PD-1–deficient myeloid progenitors, growth factors driving emergency myelopoiesis induced increased metabolic intermediates of glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and TCA cycle but, most prominently, elevated cholesterol. Because cholesterol is required for differentiation of inflammatory macrophages and DC and promotes antigen-presenting function, our findings indicate that metabolic reprogramming of emergency myelopoiesis and differentiation of effector myeloid cells might be a key mechanism of antitumor immunity mediated by PD-1 blockade.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Regulation of host-microbe interactions at oral mucosal barriers by type 17 immunity
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sarah L. Gaffen, Niki M. Moutsopoulos

    The oral mucosa is a primary barrier site and a portal for entry of microbes, food, and airborne particles into the gastrointestinal tract. Nonetheless, mucosal immunity at this barrier remains understudied compared with other anatomical barrier sites. Here, we review basic aspects of oral mucosal histology, the oral microbiome, and common and clinically significant diseases that present at oral mucosal barriers. We particularly focus on the role of interleukin-17 (IL-17)/T helper 17 (TH17) responses in protective immunity and inflammation in the oral mucosa. IL-17/TH17 responses are highly relevant to maintaining barrier integrity and preventing pathogenic infections by the oral commensal fungus Candida albicans. On the other hand, aberrant IL-17/TH17 responses are implicated in driving the pathogenesis of periodontitis and consequent bone and tooth loss. We discuss distinct IL-17–secreting T cell subsets, emphasizing their regulation and function in oropharyngeal candidiasis and periodontitis.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Human T cell response to CD1a and contact dermatitis allergens in botanical extracts and commercial skin care products
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sarah Nicolai, Marcin Wegrecki, Tan-Yun Cheng, Elvire A. Bourgeois, Rachel N. Cotton, Jacob A. Mayfield, Gwennaëlle C. Monnot, Jérôme Le Nours, Ildiko Van Rhijn, Jamie Rossjohn, D. Branch Moody, Annemieke de Jong

    During industrialization, humans have been exposed to increasing numbers of foreign chemicals. Failure of the immune system to tolerate drugs, cosmetics, and other skin products causes allergic contact dermatitis, a T cell–mediated disease with rising prevalence. Models of αβ T cell response emphasize T cell receptor (TCR) contact with peptide-MHC complexes, but this model cannot readily explain activation by most contact dermatitis allergens, which are nonpeptidic molecules. We tested whether CD1a, an abundant MHC I–like protein in human skin, mediates contact allergen recognition. Using CD1a-autoreactive human αβ T cell clones to screen clinically important allergens present in skin patch testing kits, we identified responses to balsam of Peru, a tree oil widely used in cosmetics and toothpaste. Additional purification identified benzyl benzoate and benzyl cinnamate as antigenic compounds within balsam of Peru. Screening of structurally related compounds revealed additional stimulants of CD1a-restricted T cells, including farnesol and coenzyme Q2. Certain general chemical features controlled response: small size, extreme hydrophobicity, and chemical constraint from rings and unsaturations. Unlike lipid antigens that protrude to form epitopes and contact TCRs, the small size of farnesol allows sequestration deeply within CD1a, where it displaces self-lipids and unmasks the CD1a surface. These studies identify molecular connections between CD1a and hypersensitivity to consumer products, defining a mechanism that could plausibly explain the many known T cell responses to oily substances.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Cis interactions make immune checkpoint blockade more trans-parent
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Natasha Khatwani, Asha B. Pillai

    PD-L1:CD80 cis-heterodimer formation preferentially blocks CTLA-4 trans-signaling while allowing CD28-mediated effector T cell activation.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • “B”-fing up immune-mediated diseases
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Jeffrey Hsu, Gabriel K. Griffin

    Extensive characterization of B cell receptor repertoires across six immune-mediated diseases reveals novel insights into disease pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A new perspective in cancer immunotherapy: PD-1 on myeloid cells takes center stage in orchestrating immune checkpoint blockade
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Christopher E. Rudd

    PD-1 mediates antitumor immunity by regulating lineage fate commitment and function of myeloid cells (see related Research Article by Strauss et al..).

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Early-life programming of mesenteric lymph node stromal cell identity by the lymphotoxin pathway regulates adult mucosal immunity
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Conglei Li, Evelyn Lam, Christian Perez-Shibayama, Lesley A. Ward, Jianbo Zhang, Dennis Lee, Albert Nguyen, Musaddeque Ahmed, Emma Brownlie, Kirill V. Korneev, Olga Rojas, Tian Sun, William Navarre, Housheng Hansen He, Shan Liao, Alberto Martin, Burkhard Ludewig, Jennifer L. Gommerman

    Redundant mechanisms support immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses to intestinal antigens. These include multiple priming sites [mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), Peyer’s patches, and isolated lymphoid follicles] and various cytokines that promote class switch to IgA, even in the absence of T cells. Despite these backup mechanisms, vaccination against enteric pathogens such as rotavirus has limited success in some populations. Genetic and environmental signals experienced during early life are known to influence mucosal immunity, yet the mechanisms for how these exposures operate remain unclear. Here, we used rotavirus infection to follow antigen-specific IgA responses through time and in different gut compartments. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we tested the role of the lymphotoxin (LT) pathway—known to support IgA responses—at different developmental stages. We found that LT-β receptor (LTβR) signaling in early life programs intestinal IgA responses in adulthood by affecting antibody class switch recombination to IgA and subsequent generation of IgA antibody-secreting cells within an intact MLN. In addition, early-life LTβR signaling dictates the phenotype and function of MLN stromal cells to support IgA responses in the adult. Collectively, our studies uncover new mechanistic insights into how early-life LTβR signaling affects mucosal immune responses during adulthood.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Severe type I interferonopathy and unrestrained interferon signaling due to a homozygous germline mutation in STAT2
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Christopher J. A. Duncan, Benjamin J. Thompson, Rui Chen, Gillian I. Rice, Florian Gothe, Dan F. Young, Simon C. Lovell, Victoria G. Shuttleworth, Vicky Brocklebank, Bronte Corner, Andrew J. Skelton, Vincent Bondet, Jonathan Coxhead, Darragh Duffy, Cecile Fourrage, John H. Livingston, Julija Pavaine, Edmund Cheesman, Stephania Bitetti, Angela Grainger, Meghan Acres, Barbara A. Innes, Aneta Mikulasova, Ruyue Sun, Rafiqul Hussain, Ronnie Wright, Robert Wynn, Mohammed Zarhrate, Leo A. H. Zeef, Katrina Wood, Stephen M. Hughes, Claire L. Harris, Karin R. Engelhardt, Yanick J. Crow, Richard E. Randall, David Kavanagh, Sophie Hambleton, Tracy A. Briggs

    Excessive type I interferon (IFNα/β) activity is implicated in a spectrum of human disease, yet its direct role remains to be conclusively proven. We investigated two siblings with severe early-onset autoinflammatory disease and an elevated IFN signature. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a shared homozygous missense Arg148Trp variant in STAT2, a transcription factor that functions exclusively downstream of innate IFNs. Cells bearing STAT2R148W in homozygosity (but not heterozygosity) were hypersensitive to IFNα/β, which manifest as prolonged Janus kinase–signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signaling and transcriptional activation. We show that this gain of IFN activity results from the failure of mutant STAT2R148W to interact with ubiquitin-specific protease 18, a key STAT2-dependent negative regulator of IFNα/β signaling. These observations reveal an essential in vivo function of STAT2 in the regulation of human IFNα/β signaling, providing concrete evidence of the serious pathological consequences of unrestrained IFNα/β activity and supporting efforts to target this pathway therapeutically in IFN-associated disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • GCN2 drives macrophage and MDSC function and immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Marie Jo Halaby, Kebria Hezaveh, Sara Lamorte, M. Teresa Ciudad, Andreas Kloetgen, Bethany L. MacLeod, Mengdi Guo, Ankur Chakravarthy, Tiago Da Silva Medina, Stefano Ugel, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Vincenzo Bronte, David H. Munn, Trevor J. Pugh, Daniel D. De Carvalho, Marcus O. Butler, Pamela S. Ohashi, David G. Brooks, Tracy L. McGaha

    General control nonderepressible 2 (GCN2) is an environmental sensor controlling transcription and translation in response to nutrient availability. Although GCN2 is a putative therapeutic target for immuno-oncology, its role in shaping the immune response to tumors is poorly understood. Here, we used mass cytometry, transcriptomics, and transcription factor–binding analysis to determine the functional impact of GCN2 on the myeloid phenotype and immune responses in melanoma. We found that myeloid-lineage deletion of GCN2 drives a shift in the phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that promotes antitumor immunity. Time-of-flight mass cytometry (CyTOF) and single-cell RNA sequencing showed that this was due to changes in the immune microenvironment with increased proinflammatory activation of macrophages and MDSCs and interferon-γ expression in intratumoral CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, GCN2 altered myeloid function by promoting increased translation of the transcription factor CREB-2/ATF4, which was required for maturation and polarization of macrophages and MDSCs in both mice and humans, whereas targeting Atf4 by small interfering RNA knockdown reduced tumor growth. Last, analysis of patients with cutaneous melanoma showed that GCN2-dependent transcriptional signatures correlated with macrophage polarization, T cell infiltrates, and overall survival. Thus, these data reveal a previously unknown dependence of tumors on myeloid GCN2 signals for protection from immune attack.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • It takes 2 TOXes to Tfh Tango
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Jennifer S. Chen, Stephanie C. Eisenbarth

    TOX and TOX2 promote T follicular helper cell development through transcriptional changes and epigenetic remodeling.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Fast-acting autoantibodies muscle in on encephalitis
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Miriam L. Fichtner, Kevin C. O’Connor

    Autoantibodies that recognize the glycine receptor mediate pathology by directly interrupting glycinergic neurotransmission that manifests as a disorder characterized by muscle stiffness and spasms.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • IFN-γ: The T cell’s license to kill stem cells in the inflamed intestine
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Kai Kretzschmar, Hans Clevers

    IFN-γ produced by T cells directly induces intestinal stem cell death upon inflammation-induced intestinal injury (see the related Research Article by Takashima et al.).

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Clec10a regulates mite-induced dermatitis
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Kazumasa Kanemaru, Emiko Noguchi, Satoko Tahara-Hanaoka, Seiya Mizuno, Hiroaki Tateno, Kaori Denda-Nagai, Tatsuro Irimura, Hiroshi Matsuda, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Satoru Takahashi, Kazuko Shibuya, Akira Shibuya

    House dust mite (HDM) is a major allergen that causes allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of HDM-induced immune responses are incompletely understood. NC/Nga mice are an inbred strain that is more susceptible to HDM and develops more severe dermatitis than other strains. Using whole-exome sequencing, we found that NC/Nga mice carry a stop-gain mutation in Clec10a, which encodes a C-type lectin receptor, Clec10a (MGL1/CD301a). The repair of this gene mutation using the CRISPR-Cas9 system ameliorated HDM-induced dermatitis, indicating that the Clec10a mutation is responsible for hypersensitivity to HDM in NC/Nga mice. Similarly, Clec10a−/− mice on the C57BL/6J background showed exacerbated HDM-induced dermatitis. Clec10a expressed on skin macrophages inhibits HDM-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)–mediated inflammatory cytokine production through the inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine activating motif in its cytoplasmic portion. We identified asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (Asgr1) as a functional homolog of mouse Clec10a in humans. Moreover, we found that a mucin-like molecule in HDM is a ligand for mouse Clec10a and human Asgr1. Skin application of the ligand ameliorated a TLR4 ligand-induced dermatitis in mice. Our findings suggest that Clec10a in mice and Asgr1 in humans play an important role in skin homeostasis against inflammation associated with HDM-induced dermatitis.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • T cell–derived interferon-γ programs stem cell death in immune-mediated intestinal damage
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    S. Takashima, M. L. Martin, S. A. Jansen, Y. Fu, J. Bos, D. Chandra, M. H. O’Connor, A. M. Mertelsmann, P. Vinci, J. Kuttiyara, S. M. Devlin, S. Middendorp, M. Calafiore, A. Egorova, M. Kleppe, Y. Lo, N. F. Shroyer, E. H. Cheng, R. L. Levine, C. Liu, R. Kolesnick, C. A. Lindemans, A. M. Hanash

    Despite the importance of intestinal stem cells (ISCs) for epithelial maintenance, there is limited understanding of how immune-mediated damage affects ISCs and their niche. We found that stem cell compartment injury is a shared feature of both alloreactive and autoreactive intestinal immunopathology, reducing ISCs and impairing their recovery in T cell–mediated injury models. Although imaging revealed few T cells near the stem cell compartment in healthy mice, donor T cells infiltrating the intestinal mucosa after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) primarily localized to the crypt region lamina propria. Further modeling with ex vivo epithelial cultures indicated ISC depletion and impaired human as well as murine organoid survival upon coculture with activated T cells, and screening of effector pathways identified interferon-γ (IFNγ) as a principal mediator of ISC compartment damage. IFNγ induced JAK1- and STAT1-dependent toxicity, initiating a proapoptotic gene expression program and stem cell death. BMT with IFNγ–deficient donor T cells, with recipients lacking the IFNγ receptor (IFNγR) specifically in the intestinal epithelium, and with pharmacologic inhibition of JAK signaling all resulted in protection of the stem cell compartment. In addition, epithelial cultures with Paneth cell–deficient organoids, IFNγR-deficient Paneth cells, IFNγR–deficient ISCs, and purified stem cell colonies all indicated direct targeting of the ISCs that was not dependent on injury to the Paneth cell niche. Dysregulated T cell activation and IFNγ production are thus potent mediators of ISC injury, and blockade of JAK/STAT signaling within target tissue stem cells can prevent this T cell–mediated pathology.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Pathogenic CARD11 mutations affect B cell development and differentiation through a noncanonical pathway
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Zheng Wei, Yan Zhang, Jingjing Chen, Yu Hu, Pan Jia, Xuelei Wang, Qifang Zhao, Yicong Deng, Ni Li, Yi Zang, Jun Qin, Xiaoming Wang, Wei Lu

    Pathogenic CARD11 mutations cause aberrant nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, which is presumably responsible for multiple immunological disorders. However, whether there is an NF-κB–independent regulatory mechanism contributing to CARD11 mutations related to pathogenesis remains undefined. Using three distinct genetic mouse models, the Card11 knockout (KO) mouse model mimicking primary immunodeficiency, the CARD11 E134G point mutation mouse model representing BENTA (B cell expansion with NF-κB and T cell anergy) disease, and the mouse model bearing oncogenic K215M mutation, we show that CARD11 has a noncanonical function as a negative regulator of the AKT-FOXO1 signal axis, independent of NF-κB activation. Although BENTA disease–related E134G mutant elevates NF-κB activation, we find that E134G mutant mice phenotypically copy Card11 KO mice, in which NF-κB activation is disrupted. Mechanistically, the E134G mutant causes exacerbated AKT activation and reduced FOXO1 protein in B cells similar to that in Card11 KO cells. Moreover, the oncogenic CARD11 mutant K215M reinforces the importance of the noncanonical function of CARD11. In contrast to the E134G mutant, K215M shows a stronger inhibitory effect on AKT activation and more stabilized FOXO1. Likewise, E134G and K215M mutants have converse impacts on B cell development and differentiation. Our results demonstrate that, besides NF-κB, CARD11 also governs the AKT/FOXO1 signaling pathway in B cells. The critical role of CARD11 is further revealed by the effects of pathogenic CARD11 mutants on this noncanonical regulatory function on the AKT-FOXO1 signaling axis.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and connective tissue disorder in humans with impaired JNK1-dependent responses to IL-17A/F and TGF-β
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Juan Li, Marco Ritelli, Cindy S. Ma, Geetha Rao, Tanwir Habib, Emilie Corvilain, Salim Bougarn, Sophie Cypowyj, Lucie Grodecká, Romain Lévy, Vivien Béziat, Lei Shang, Kathryn Payne, Danielle T. Avery, Mélanie Migaud, Soraya Boucherit, Sabri Boughorbel, Andrea Guennoun, Maya Chrabieh, Franck Rapaport, Benedetta Bigio, Yuval Itan, Bertrand Boisson, Valérie Cormier-Daire, Delfien Syx, Fransiska Malfait, Nicoletta Zoppi, Laurent Abel, Tomáš Freiberger, Harry C. Dietz, Nico Marr, Stuart G. Tangye, Marina Colombi, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Anne Puel

    Genetic etiologies of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) disrupt human IL-17A/F–dependent immunity at mucosal surfaces, whereas those of connective tissue disorders (CTDs) often impair the TGF-β–dependent homeostasis of connective tissues. The signaling pathways involved are incompletely understood. We report a three-generation family with an autosomal dominant (AD) combination of CMC and a previously undescribed form of CTD that clinically overlaps with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patients are heterozygous for a private splice-site variant of MAPK8, the gene encoding c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), a component of the MAPK signaling pathway. This variant is loss-of-expression and loss-of-function in the patients’ fibroblasts, which display AD JNK1 deficiency by haploinsufficiency. These cells have impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17A and IL-17F. Moreover, the development of the patients’ TH17 cells was impaired ex vivo and in vitro, probably due to the involvement of JNK1 in the TGF-β–responsive pathway and further accounting for the patients’ CMC. Consistently, the patients’ fibroblasts displayed impaired JNK1- and c-Jun/ATF-2–dependent induction of key extracellular matrix (ECM) components and regulators, but not of EDS-causing gene products, in response to TGF-β. Furthermore, they displayed a transcriptional pattern in response to TGF-β different from that of fibroblasts from patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome caused by mutations of TGFBR2 or SMAD3, further accounting for the patients’ complex and unusual CTD phenotype. This experiment of nature indicates that the integrity of the human JNK1-dependent MAPK signaling pathway is essential for IL-17A– and IL-17F–dependent mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and for the TGF-β–dependent homeostasis of connective tissues.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Helios enhances the preferential differentiation of human fetal CD4+ naïve T cells into regulatory T cells
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Melissa S. F. Ng, Theodore L. Roth, Ventura F. Mendoza, Alexander Marson, Trevor D. Burt

    T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and cytokine cues drive the differentiation of CD4+ naïve T cells into effector T cell populations with distinct proinflammatory or regulatory functions. Unlike adult naïve T cells, human fetal naïve CD4+ T cells preferentially differentiate into FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells upon TCR activation independent of exogenous cytokine signaling. This cell-intrinsic predisposition for Treg differentiation is implicated in the generation of tolerance in utero; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we identify epigenetic and transcriptional programs shared between fetal naïve T and committed Treg cells that are inactive in adult naïve T cells and show that fetal-derived induced Treg (iTreg) cells retain this transcriptional program. We show that a subset of Treg-specific enhancers is accessible in fetal naïve T cells, including two active superenhancers at Helios. Helios is expressed in fetal naïve T cells but not in adult naïve T cells, and fetal iTreg cells maintain Helios expression. CRISPR-Cas9 ablation of Helios in fetal naïve T cells impaired their differentiation into iTreg cells upon TCR stimulation, reduced expression of immunosuppressive genes in fetal iTreg cells such as IL10, and increased expression of proinflammatory genes including IFNG. Consequently, Helios knockout fetal iTreg cells had reduced IL-10 and increased IFN-γ cytokine production. Together, our results reveal important roles for Helios in enhancing preferential fetal Treg differentiation and fine-tuning eventual Treg function. The Treg-biased programs identified within fetal naïve T cells could potentially be used to engineer enhanced iTreg populations for adoptive cellular therapies.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • A divergent transcriptional landscape underpins the development and functional branching of MAIT cells
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    H.-F. Koay, S. Su, D. Amann-Zalcenstein, S. R. Daley, I. Comerford, L. Miosge, C. E. Whyte, I. E. Konstantinov, Y. d’Udekem, T. Baldwin, P. F. Hickey, S. P. Berzins, J. Y. W. Mak, Y. Sontani, C. M. Roots, T. Sidwell, A. Kallies, Z. Chen, S. Nüssing, K. Kedzierska, L. K. Mackay, S. R. McColl, E. K. Deenick, D. P. Fairlie, J. McCluskey, C. C. Goodnow, M. E. Ritchie, G. T. Belz, S. H. Naik, D. G. Pellicci, D. I. Godfrey

    MR1-restricted mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells play a unique role in the immune system. These cells develop intrathymically through a three-stage process, but the events that regulate this are largely unknown. Here, using bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing–based transcriptomic analysis in mice and humans, we studied the changing transcriptional landscape that accompanies transition through each stage. Many transcripts were sharply modulated during MAIT cell development, including SLAM (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule) family members, chemokine receptors, and transcription factors. We also demonstrate that stage 3 “mature” MAIT cells comprise distinct subpopulations including newly arrived transitional stage 3 cells, interferon-γ–producing MAIT1 cells and interleukin-17–producing MAIT17 cells. Moreover, the validity and importance of several transcripts detected in this study are directly demonstrated using specific mutant mice. For example, MAIT cell intrathymic maturation was found to be halted in SLAM-associated protein (SAP)–deficient and CXCR6-deficient mouse models, providing clear evidence for their role in modulating MAIT cell development. These data underpin a model that maps the changing transcriptional landscape and identifies key factors that regulate the process of MAIT cell differentiation, with many parallels between mice and humans.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • IL-23 costimulates antigen-specific MAIT cell activation and enables vaccination against bacterial infection
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Huimeng Wang, Lars Kjer-Nielsen, Mai Shi, Criselle D’Souza, Troi J. Pediongco, Hanwei Cao, Lyudmila Kostenko, Xin Yi Lim, Sidonia B. G. Eckle, Bronwyn S. Meehan, Tianyuan Zhu, Bingjie Wang, Zhe Zhao, Jeffrey Y. W. Mak, David P. Fairlie, Michele W. L. Teng, Jamie Rossjohn, Di Yu, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth, George Lovrecz, Louis Lu, James McCluskey, Richard A. Strugnell, Alexandra J. Corbett, Zhenjun Chen

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are activated in a TCR-dependent manner by antigens derived from the riboflavin synthesis pathway, including 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU), bound to MHC-related protein-1 (MR1). However, MAIT cell activation in vivo has not been studied in detail. Here, we have found and characterized additional molecular signals required for optimal activation and expansion of MAIT cells after pulmonary Legionella or Salmonella infection in mice. We show that either bone marrow–derived APCs or non–bone marrow–derived cells can activate MAIT cells in vivo, depending on the pathogen. Optimal MAIT cell activation in vivo requires signaling through the inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS), which is highly expressed on MAIT cells. Subsequent expansion and maintenance of MAIT-17/1-type responses are dependent on IL-23. Vaccination with IL-23 plus 5-OP-RU augments MAIT cell–mediated control of pulmonary Legionella infection. These findings reveal cellular and molecular targets for manipulating MAIT cell function under physiological conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • Ketogenic diet activates protective γδ T cell responses against influenza virus infection
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Emily L. Goldberg, Ryan D. Molony, Eriko Kudo, Sviatoslav Sidorov, Yong Kong, Vishwa Deep Dixit, Akiko Iwasaki

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection–associated morbidity and mortality are a key global health care concern, necessitating the identification of new therapies capable of reducing the severity of IAV infections. In this study, we show that the consumption of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diet (KD) protects mice from lethal IAV infection and disease. KD feeding resulted in an expansion of γδ T cells in the lung that improved barrier functions, thereby enhancing antiviral resistance. Expansion of these protective γδ T cells required metabolic adaptation to a ketogenic diet because neither feeding mice a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet nor providing chemical ketone body substrate that bypasses hepatic ketogenesis protected against infection. Therefore, KD-mediated immune-metabolic integration represents a viable avenue toward preventing or alleviating influenza disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • VEGF-A drives TOX-dependent T cell exhaustion in anti–PD-1–resistant microsatellite stable colorectal cancers
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Chang Gon Kim, Mi Jang, Youngun Kim, Galam Leem, Kyung Hwan Kim, Hoyoung Lee, Tae-Shin Kim, Seong Jin Choi, Hyung-Don Kim, Ji Won Han, Minsuk Kwon, Jong Hoon Kim, Andrew J. Lee, Su Kyung Nam, Seok-Joo Bae, Sat Byol Lee, Sang Joon Shin, Sung Ho Park, Joong Bae Ahn, Inkyung Jung, Kang Young Lee, Su-Hyung Park, Hoguen Kim, Byung Soh Min, Eui-Cheol Shin

    Although immune checkpoint blockade therapies have demonstrated clinical efficacy in cancer treatment, harnessing this strategy is largely encumbered by resistance in multiple cancer settings. Here, we show that tumor-infiltrating T cells are severely exhausted in the microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer (CRC), a representative example of PD-1 blockade–resistant tumors. In MSS CRC, we found wound healing signature to be up-regulated and that T cell exhaustion is driven by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). We report that VEGF-A induces the expression of transcription factor TOX in T cells to drive exhaustion-specific transcription program in T cells. Using a combination of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo mouse studies, we demonstrate that combined blockade of PD-1 and VEGF-A restores the antitumor functions of T cells, resulting in better control of MSS CRC tumors.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Neutrophils restrain allergic airway inflammation by limiting ILC2 function and monocyte–dendritic cell antigen presentation
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Dhiren F. Patel, Teresa Peiró, Nicoletta Bruno, Juho Vuononvirta, Samia Akthar, Franz Puttur, Chloe J. Pyle, Kornelija Suveizdytė, Simone A. Walker, Aran Singanayagam, Leo M. Carlin, Lisa G. Gregory, Clare M. Lloyd, Robert J. Snelgrove

    Neutrophil mobilization, recruitment, and clearance must be tightly regulated as overexuberant neutrophilic inflammation is implicated in the pathology of chronic diseases, including asthma. Efforts to target neutrophils therapeutically have failed to consider their pleiotropic functions and the implications of disrupting fundamental regulatory pathways that govern their turnover during homeostasis and inflammation. Using the house dust mite (HDM) model of allergic airway disease, we demonstrate that neutrophil depletion unexpectedly resulted in exacerbated T helper 2 (TH2) inflammation, epithelial remodeling, and airway resistance. Mechanistically, this was attributable to a marked increase in systemic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) concentrations, which are ordinarily negatively regulated in the periphery by transmigrated lung neutrophils. Intriguingly, we found that increased G-CSF augmented allergic sensitization in HDM-exposed animals by directly acting on airway type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) to elicit cytokine production. Moreover, increased systemic G-CSF promoted expansion of bone marrow monocyte progenitor populations, which resulted in enhanced antigen presentation by an augmented peripheral monocyte-derived dendritic cell pool. By modeling the effects of neutrophil depletion, our studies have uncovered previously unappreciated roles for G-CSF in modulating ILC2 function and antigen presentation. More broadly, they highlight an unexpected regulatory role for neutrophils in limiting TH2 allergic airway inflammation.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Transplanting organs from pigs to humans
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Megan Sykes, David H. Sachs

    The success of organ transplantation is limited by the complications of immunosuppression, by chronic rejection, and by the insufficient organ supply, and thousands of patients die every year while waiting for a transplant. With recent progress in xenotransplantation permitting porcine organ graft survival of months or even years in nonhuman primates, there is renewed interest in its potential to alleviate the organ shortage. Many of these advances are the result of our heightened capacity to modify pigs genetically, particularly with the development of CRISPR-Cas9–based gene editing methodologies. Although this approach allows the engineering of pig organs that are less prone to rejection, the clinical application of xenotransplantation will require the ability to avoid the ravages of a multifaceted attack on the immune system while preserving the capacity to protect both the recipient and the graft from infectious microorganisms. In this review, we will discuss the potential and limitations of these modifications and how the engineering of the graft can be leveraged to alter the host immune response so that all types of immune attack are avoided.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • To debug or not to debug, a question worth asking
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Lauren E. Higdon, Jonathan S. Maltzman

    Recipient antibiotic pretreatment protects both mice and humans from ischemia-reperfusion injury after liver transplantation.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Game of clones: How measles remodels the B cell landscape
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Duane R. Wesemann

    B cell receptor sequencing sheds light on how measles cripples the immune system long after recovery from clinical disease (see related Research Articles by Petrova et al. and Mina et al.).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Incomplete genetic reconstitution of B cell pools contributes to prolonged immunosuppression after measles
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Velislava N. Petrova, Bevan Sawatsky, Alvin X. Han, Brigitta M. Laksono, Lisa Walz, Edyth Parker, Kathrin Pieper, Carl A. Anderson, Rory D. de Vries, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Paul Kellam, Veronika von Messling, Rik L. de Swart, Colin A. Russell

    Measles is a disease caused by the highly infectious measles virus (MeV) that results in both viremia and lymphopenia. Lymphocyte counts recover shortly after the disappearance of measles-associated rash, but immunosuppression can persist for months to years after infection, resulting in increased incidence of secondary infections. Animal models and in vitro studies have proposed various immunological factors underlying this prolonged immune impairment, but the precise mechanisms operating in humans are unknown. Using B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing of human peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after MeV infection, we identified two immunological consequences from measles underlying immunosuppression: (i) incomplete reconstitution of the naïve B cell pool leading to immunological immaturity and (ii) compromised immune memory to previously encountered pathogens due to depletion of previously expanded B memory clones. Using a surrogate model of measles in ferrets, we investigated the clinical consequences of morbillivirus infection and demonstrated a depletion of vaccine-acquired immunity to influenza virus, leading to a compromised immune recall response and increased disease severity after secondary influenza virus challenge. Our results show that MeV infection causes changes in naïve and memory B lymphocyte diversity that persist after the resolution of clinical disease and thus contribute to compromised immunity to previous infections or vaccinations. This work highlights the importance of MeV vaccination not only for the control of measles but also for the maintenance of herd immunity to other pathogens, which can be compromised after MeV infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • IL-10 induces a STAT3-dependent autoregulatory loop in TH2 cells that promotes Blimp-1 restriction of cell expansion via antagonism of STAT5 target genes.
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2017-07-18
    Amanda C Poholek,Dragana Jankovic,Alejandro V Villarino,Franziska Petermann,Angela Hettinga,Dror S Shouval,Scott B Snapper,Susan M Kaech,Stephen R Brooks,Golnaz Vahedi,Alan Sher,Yuka Kanno,John J O'Shea

    Blimp-1 expression in T cells extinguishes the fate of T follicular helper cells, drives terminal differentiation, and limits autoimmunity. Although various factors have been described to control Blimp-1 expression in T cells, little is known about what regulates Blimp-1 expression in T helper 2 (TH2) cells and the molecular basis of its actions. We report that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) unexpectedly played a critical role in regulating Blimp-1 in TH2 cells. Furthermore, we found that the cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) acted directly on TH2 cells and was necessary and sufficient to induce optimal Blimp-1 expression through STAT3. Together, Blimp-1 and STAT3 amplified IL-10 production in TH2 cells, creating a strong autoregulatory loop that enhanced Blimp-1 expression. Increased Blimp-1 in T cells antagonized STAT5-regulated cell cycle and antiapoptotic genes to limit cell expansion. These data elucidate the signals required for Blimp-1 expression in TH2 cells and reveal an unexpected mechanism of action of IL-10 in T cells, providing insights into the molecular underpinning by which Blimp-1 constrains T cell expansion to limit autoimmunity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Type I interferon suppresses virus-specific B cell responses by modulating CD8+ T cell differentiation.
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2016-11-05
    E Ashley Moseman,Tuoqi Wu,Juan Carlos de la Torre,Pamela L Schwartzberg,Dorian B McGavern

    Studies have established a role for T cells in resolving persistent viral infections, yet emerging evidence indicates that both T and B cells are required to control some viruses. During persistent infection, a marked lag or failure to generate neutralizing antibodies is commonly observed and likely contributes to an inability to control certain pathogens. Using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) as a model, we have examined how a persistent viral infection can suppress neutralizing humoral immunity. By tracking the fate of virus-specific B cells in vivo, we report that LCMV-specific B cells were rapidly deleted within a few days of persistent infection, and this deletion was completely reversed by blockade of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling. Early interference with IFN-I signaling promoted survival and differentiation of LCMV-specific B cells, which accelerated the generation of neutralizing antibodies. This marked improvement in antiviral humoral immunity did not rely on the cessation of IFN-I signaling in B cells but on alterations in the virus-specific CD8+ T cell response. Using two-photon microscopy and in vivo calcium imaging, we observed that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) productively engaged and killed LCMV-specific B cells in a perforin-dependent manner within the first few days of infection. Blockade of IFN-I signaling protected LCMV-specific B cells by promoting CTL dysfunction. Therapeutic manipulation of this pathway may facilitate efforts to promote humoral immunity during persistent viral infection in humans. Our findings illustrate how events that occur early after infection can disturb the resultant adaptive response and contribute to viral persistence.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conversion of antigen-specific effector/memory T cells into Foxp3-expressing Treg cells by inhibition of CDK8/19
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Masahiko Akamatsu, Norihisa Mikami, Naganari Ohkura, Ryoji Kawakami, Yohko Kitagawa, Atsushi Sugimoto, Keiji Hirota, Naoto Nakamura, Satoru Ujihara, Toshio Kurosaki, Hisao Hamaguchi, Hironori Harada, Guliang Xia, Yoshiaki Morita, Ichiro Aramori, Shuh Narumiya, Shimon Sakaguchi

    A promising way to restrain hazardous immune responses, such as autoimmune disease and allergy, is to convert disease-mediating T cells into immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells. Here, we show that chemical inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) and CDK19, or knockdown/knockout of the CDK8 or CDK19 gene, is able to induce Foxp3, a key transcription factor controlling Treg cell function, in antigen-stimulated effector/memory as well as naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The induction was associated with STAT5 activation, independent of TGF-β action, and not affected by inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, in vivo administration of a newly developed CDK8/19 inhibitor along with antigen immunization generated functionally stable antigen-specific Foxp3+ Treg cells, which effectively suppressed skin contact hypersensitivity and autoimmune disease in animal models. The results indicate that CDK8/19 is physiologically repressing Foxp3 expression in activated conventional T cells and that its pharmacological inhibition enables conversion of antigen-specific effector/memory T cells into Foxp3+ Treg cells for the treatment of various immunological diseases.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Influenza restriction factor MxA functions as inflammasome sensor in the respiratory epithelium
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    SangJoon Lee, Akari Ishitsuka, Masayuki Noguchi, Mikako Hirohama, Yuji Fujiyasu, Philipp P. Petric, Martin Schwemmle, Peter Staeheli, Kyosuke Nagata, Atsushi Kawaguchi

    The respiratory epithelium is exposed to the environment and initiates inflammatory responses to exclude pathogens. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection triggers inflammatory responses in the respiratory mucosa, but the mechanisms of inflammasome activation are poorly understood. We identified MxA as a functional inflammasome sensor in respiratory epithelial cells that recognizes IAV nucleoprotein and triggers the formation of ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) specks via interaction of its GTPase domain with the PYD domain of ASC. ASC specks were present in bronchiolar epithelial cells of IAV-infected MxA-transgenic mice, which correlated with early IL-1β production and early recruitment of granulocytes in the lungs of infected mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate that MxA contributes to IAV resistance by triggering a rapid inflammatory response in infected respiratory epithelial cells.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Neutrophil extracellular traps drive inflammatory pathogenesis in malaria
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Sebastian Lorenz Knackstedt, Athina Georgiadou, Falko Apel, Ulrike Abu-Abed, Christopher A. Moxon, Aubrey J. Cunnington, Bärbel Raupach, Deirdre Cunningham, Jean Langhorne, Renate Krüger, Valentina Barrera, Simon P. Harding, Aase Berg, Sam Patel, Kari Otterdal, Benjamin Mordmüller, Evelin Schwarzer, Volker Brinkmann, Arturo Zychlinsky, Borko Amulic

    Neutrophils are essential innate immune cells that extrude chromatin in the form of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) when they die. This form of cell death has potent immunostimulatory activity. We show that heme-induced NETs are essential for malaria pathogenesis. Using patient samples and a mouse model, we define two mechanisms of NET-mediated inflammation of the vasculature: activation of emergency granulopoiesis via granulocyte colony-stimulating factor production and induction of the endothelial cytoadhesion receptor intercellular adhesion molecule–1. Soluble NET components facilitate parasite sequestration and mediate tissue destruction. We demonstrate that neutrophils have a key role in malaria immunopathology and propose inhibition of NETs as a treatment strategy in vascular infections.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Multidimensional imaging provides evidence for down-regulation of T cell effector function by MDSC in human cancer tissue
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Yu Si, Simon F. Merz, Philipp Jansen, Baoxiao Wang, Kirsten Bruderek, Petra Altenhoff, Stefan Mattheis, Stephan Lang, Matthias Gunzer, Joachim Klode, Anthony Squire, Sven Brandau

    A high intratumoral frequency of neutrophils is associated with poor clinical outcome in most cancer entities. It is hypothesized that immunosuppressive MDSC (myeloid-derived suppressor cell) activity of neutrophils against tumor-reactive T cells contributes to this effect. However, direct evidence for such activity in situ is lacking. Here, we used whole-mount labeling and clearing, three-dimensional (3D) light sheet microscopy and digital image reconstruction supplemented by 2D multiparameter immunofluorescence, for in situ analyses of potential MDSC–T cell interactions in primary human head and neck cancer tissue. We could identify intratumoral hotspots of high polymorphonuclear (PMN)–MDSC and T cell colocalization. In these areas, the expression of effector molecules Granzyme B and Ki67 in T cells was strongly reduced, in particular for T cells that were in close proximity or physically engaged with PMN-MDSC, which expressed LOX-1 and arginase I. Patients with cancer with evidence for strong down-regulation of T cell function by PMN-MDSC had significantly impaired survival. In summary, our approach identifies areas of clinically relevant functional interaction between MDSC and T cells in human cancer tissue and may help to inform patient selection in future combination immunotherapies.

    更新日期:2019-10-19
  • Lifting the veil on macrophage diversity in tissue regeneration and fibrosis
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Catia T. Perciani, Sonya A. MacParland

    Sommerfeld et al. have used single-cell RNA sequencing to unravel the role of macrophages in driving tissue repair and fibrosis.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Interleukin-36γ–producing macrophages drive IL-17–mediated fibrosis
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Sven D. Sommerfeld, Christopher Cherry, Remi M. Schwab, Liam Chung, David R. Maestas, Philippe Laffont, Julie E. Stein, Ada Tam, Sudipto Ganguly, Franck Housseau, Janis M. Taube, Drew M. Pardoll, Patrick Cahan, Jennifer H. Elisseeff

    Biomaterials induce an immune response and mobilization of macrophages, yet identification and phenotypic characterization of functional macrophage subsets in vivo remain limited. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis on macrophages sorted from either a biologic matrix [urinary bladder matrix (UBM)] or synthetic biomaterial [polycaprolactone (PCL)]. Implantation of UBM promotes tissue repair through generation of a tissue environment characterized by a T helper 2 (TH2)/interleukin (IL)–4 immune profile, whereas PCL induces a standard foreign body response characterized by TH17/IL-17 and fibrosis. Unbiased clustering and pseudotime analysis revealed distinct macrophage subsets responsible for antigen presentation, chemoattraction, and phagocytosis, as well as a small population with expression profiles of both dendritic cells and skeletal muscle after UBM implantation. In the PCL tissue environment, we identified a CD9hi+IL-36γ+ macrophage subset that expressed TH17-associated molecules. These macrophages were virtually absent in mice lacking the IL-17 receptor, suggesting that they might be involved in IL-17–dependent immune and autoimmune responses. Identification and comparison of the unique phenotypical and functional macrophage subsets in mouse and human tissue samples suggest broad relevance of the new classification. These distinct macrophage subsets demonstrate previously unrecognized myeloid phenotypes involved in different tissue responses and provide targets for potential therapeutic modulation in tissue repair and pathology.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Meningeal γδ T cell–derived IL-17 controls synaptic plasticity and short-term memory
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Miguel Ribeiro, Helena C. Brigas, Mariana Temido-Ferreira, Paula A. Pousinha, Tommy Regen, Cátia Santa, Joana E. Coelho, Inês Marques-Morgado, Cláudia A. Valente, Sara Omenetti, Brigitta Stockinger, Ari Waisman, Bruno Manadas, Luísa V. Lopes, Bruno Silva-Santos, Julie C. Ribot

    The notion of “immune privilege” of the brain has been revised to accommodate its infiltration, at steady state, by immune cells that participate in normal neurophysiology. However, the immune mechanisms that regulate learning and memory remain poorly understood. Here, we show that noninflammatory interleukin-17 (IL-17) derived from a previously unknown fetal-derived meningeal-resident γδ T cell subset promotes cognition. When tested in classical spatial learning paradigms, mice lacking γδ T cells or IL-17 displayed deficient short-term memory while retaining long-term memory. The plasticity of glutamatergic synapses was reduced in the absence of IL-17, resulting in impaired long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Conversely, IL-17 enhanced glial cell production of brain-derived neurotropic factor, whose exogenous provision rescued the synaptic and behavioral phenotypes of IL-17–deficient animals. Together, our work provides previously unknown clues on the mechanisms that regulate short-term versus long-term memory and on the evolutionary and functional link between the immune and nervous systems.

    更新日期:2019-10-12
  • Going green with solar-powered ILC3 homeostasis
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Kyle Burrows, Arthur Mortha

    Circadian clock proteins BMAL1 and REV-ERBα harmonize the development and function of ILC3 (see related articles by Teng et al. and Wang et al.).

    更新日期:2019-10-05
  • A circadian clock is essential for homeostasis of group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the gut
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Fei Teng, Jeremy Goc, Lei Zhou, Coco Chu, Manish A. Shah, Gérard Eberl, Gregory F. Sonnenberg

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) critically orchestrate host-microbe interactions in the healthy mammalian intestine and become substantially impaired in the context of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the molecular pathways controlling the homeostasis of ILC3s remain incompletely defined. Here, we identify that intestinal ILC3s are highly enriched in expression of genes involved in the circadian clock and exhibit diurnal oscillations of these pathways in response to light cues. Classical ILC3 effector functions also exhibited diurnal oscillations, and lineage-specific deletion of BMAL1, a master regulator of the circadian clock, resulted in markedly reduced ILC3s selectively in the intestine. BMAL1-deficient ILC3s exhibit impaired expression of Nr1d1 and Per3, hyperactivation of RORγt-dependent target genes, and elevated proapoptotic pathways. Depletion of the microbiota with antibiotics partially reduced the hyperactivation of BMAL1-deficient ILC3s and restored cellular homeostasis in the intestine. Last, ILC3s isolated from the inflamed intestine of patients with IBD exhibit substantial alterations in expression of several circadian-related genes. Our results collectively define that circadian regulation is essential for the homeostasis of ILC3s in the presence of a complex intestinal microbiota and that this pathway is disrupted in the context of IBD.

    更新日期:2019-10-05
  • They Mite B GCs
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Margaret M. Lowe, Michael D. Rosenblum

    T follicular regulatory cells restrain and refine germinal center responses in vivo.

    更新日期:2019-10-05
  • Antibiotics bug the immune response
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Sarah E. Henrickson

    Changes in the gut microbiome caused by antibiotics can impair immune responses to influenza vaccination.

    更新日期:2019-10-05
  • Circadian rhythm–dependent and circadian rhythm–independent impacts of the molecular clock on type 3 innate lymphoid cells
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Qianli Wang, Michelle L. Robinette, Cyrielle Billon, Patrick L. Collins, Jennifer K. Bando, José Luís Fachi, Cristiane Sécca, Sofia I. Porter, Ankita Saini, Susan Gilfillan, Laura A. Solt, Erik S. Musiek, Eugene M. Oltz, Thomas P. Burris, Marco Colonna

    Many gut functions are attuned to circadian rhythm. Intestinal group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) include NKp46+ and NKp46− subsets, which are RORγt dependent and provide mucosal defense through secretion of interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17. Because ILC3s highly express some key circadian clock genes, we investigated whether ILC3s are also attuned to circadian rhythm. We noted circadian oscillations in the expression of clock and cytokine genes, such as REV-ERBα, IL-22, and IL-17, whereas acute disruption of the circadian rhythm affected cytokine secretion by ILC3s. Because of prominent and rhythmic expression of REV-ERBα in ILC3s, we also investigated the impact of constitutive deletion of REV-ERBα, which has been previously shown to inhibit the expression of a RORγt repressor, NFIL3, while also directly antagonizing DNA binding of RORγt. Development of the NKp46+ ILC3 subset was markedly impaired, with reduced cell numbers, RORγt expression, and IL-22 production in REV-ERBα–deficient mice. The NKp46− ILC3 subsets developed normally, potentially due to compensatory expression of other clock genes, but IL-17 secretion paradoxically increased, probably because RORγt was not antagonized by REV-ERBα. We conclude that ILC3s are attuned to circadian rhythm, but clock regulator REV-ERBα also has circadian-independent impacts on ILC3 development and functions due to its roles in the regulation of RORγt.

    更新日期:2019-10-05
  • Lin28b controls a neonatal to adult switch in B cell positive selection
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Stijn Vanhee, Hugo Åkerstrand, Trine Ahn Kristiansen, Sebak Datta, Giorgia Montano, Stefano Vergani, Stefan Lang, Jonas Ungerbäck, Alexander Doyle, Karin Olsson, Giulia Beneventi, Christina T. Jensen, Cristian Bellodi, Shamit Soneji, Mikael Sigvardsson, Elin Jaensson Gyllenbäck, Joan Yuan

    The ability of B-1 cells to become positively selected into the mature B cell pool, despite being weakly self-reactive, has puzzled the field since its initial discovery. Here, we explore changes in B cell positive selection as a function of developmental time by exploiting a link between CD5 surface levels and the natural occurrence of self-reactive B cell receptors (BCRs) in BCR wild-type mice. We show that the heterochronic RNA binding protein Lin28b potentiates a neonatal mode of B cell selection characterized by enhanced overall positive selection in general and the developmental progression of CD5+ immature B cells in particular. Lin28b achieves this by amplifying the CD19/PI3K/c-Myc positive feedback loop, and ectopic Lin28b expression restores both positive selection and mature B cell numbers in CD19−/− adult mice. Thus, the temporally restricted expression of Lin28b relaxes the rules for B cell selection during ontogeny by modulating tonic signaling. We propose that this neonatal mode of B cell selection represents a cell-intrinsic cue to accelerate the de novo establishment of the adaptive immune system and incorporate a layer of natural antibody-mediated immunity throughout life.

    更新日期:2019-09-28
  • Nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding HSV-2 glycoproteins C, D, and E prevents clinical and subclinical genital herpes
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Sita Awasthi, Lauren M. Hook, Norbert Pardi, Fushan Wang, Arpita Myles, Michael P. Cancro, Gary H. Cohen, Drew Weissman, Harvey M. Friedman

    The goals of a genital herpes vaccine are to prevent painful genital lesions and reduce or eliminate subclinical infection that risks transmission to partners and newborns. We evaluated a trivalent glycoprotein vaccine containing herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) entry molecule glycoprotein D (gD2) and two immune evasion molecules: glycoprotein C (gC2), which binds complement C3b, and glycoprotein E (gE2), which blocks immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc activities. The trivalent vaccine was administered as baculovirus proteins with CpG and alum, or the identical amino acids were expressed using nucleoside-modified mRNA in lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Both formulations completely prevented genital lesions in mice and guinea pigs. Differences emerged when evaluating subclinical infection. The trivalent protein vaccine prevented dorsal root ganglia infection, and day 2 and 4 vaginal cultures were negative in 23 of 30 (73%) mice compared with 63 of 64 (98%) in the mRNA group (P = 0.0012). In guinea pigs, 5 of 10 (50%) animals in the trivalent subunit protein group had vaginal shedding of HSV-2 DNA on 19 of 210 (9%) days compared with 2 of 10 (20%) animals in the mRNA group that shed HSV-2 DNA on 5 of 210 (2%) days (P = 0.0052). The trivalent mRNA vaccine was superior to trivalent proteins in stimulating ELISA IgG antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, antibodies that bind to crucial gD2 epitopes involved in entry and cell-to-cell spread, CD4+ T cell responses, and T follicular helper and germinal center B cell responses. The trivalent nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP vaccine is a promising candidate for human trials.

    更新日期:2019-09-21
  • Myeloid cell–synthesized coagulation factor X dampens antitumor immunity
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Claudine Graf, Petra Wilgenbus, Sven Pagel, Jennifer Pott, Federico Marini, Sabine Reyda, Maki Kitano, Stephan Macher-Göppinger, Hartmut Weiler, Wolfram Ruf

    Immune evasion in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is a crucial barrier for effective cancer therapy, and plasticity of innate immune cells may contribute to failures of targeted immunotherapies. Here, we show that rivaroxaban, a direct inhibitor of activated coagulation factor X (FX), promotes antitumor immunity by enhancing infiltration of dendritic cells and cytotoxic T cells at the tumor site. Profiling FX expression in the TME identifies monocytes and macrophages as crucial sources of extravascular FX. By generating mice with immune cells lacking the ability to produce FX, we show that myeloid cell–derived FX plays a pivotal role in promoting tumor immune evasion. In mouse models of cancer, we report that the efficacy of rivaroxaban is comparable with anti–programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy and that rivaroxaban synergizes with anti–PD-L1 in improving antitumor immunity. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that FXa promotes immune evasion by signaling through protease-activated receptor 2 and that rivaroxaban specifically targets this cell-autonomous signaling pathway to reprogram tumor-associated macrophages. Collectively, our results have uncovered the importance of FX produced in the TME as a regulator of immune cell activation and suggest translational potential of direct oral anticoagulants to remove persisting roadblocks for immunotherapy and provide extravascular benefits in other diseases.

    更新日期:2019-09-21
  • Inhibition of IL-2 responsiveness by IL-6 is required for the generation of GC-TFH cells
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Amber Papillion, Michael D. Powell, Danielle A. Chisolm, Holly Bachus, Michael J. Fuller, Amy S. Weinmann, Alejandro Villarino, John J. O’Shea, Beatriz León, Kenneth J. Oestreich, André Ballesteros-Tato

    Sustained T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation is required for maintaining germinal center T follicular helper (GC-TFH) cells. Paradoxically, TCR activation induces interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression and IL-2 production, thereby initiating a feedback loop of IL-2 signaling that normally inhibits TFH cells. It is unclear how GC-TFH cells can receive prolonged TCR signaling without succumbing to the detrimental effects of IL-2. Using an influenza infection model, we show here that GC-TFH cells secreted large amounts of IL-2 but responded poorly to it. To maintain their IL-2 hyporesponsiveness, GC-TFH cells required intrinsic IL-6 signaling. Mechanistically, we found that IL-6 inhibited up-regulation of IL-2Rβ (CD122) by preventing association of STAT5 with the Il2rb locus, thus allowing GC-TFH cells to receive sustained TCR signaling and produce IL-2 without initiating a TCR/IL-2 inhibitory feedback loop. Collectively, our results identify a regulatory mechanism that controls the generation of GC-TFH cells.

    更新日期:2019-09-14
  • Germinal center TFH cells: T(w)o be or not t(w)o be, IL-6 is the answer
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Pengcheng Zhou, Kaili Liang, Di Yu

    IL-6 inhibits the expression of IL-2Rβ (CD122) in germinal center TFH cells to maintain IL-2 hyporesponsiveness (see the related Research Article by Papillion et al.).

    更新日期:2019-09-14
  • RIG-I activation is critical for responsiveness to checkpoint blockade
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Simon Heidegger, Alexander Wintges, Florian Stritzke, Sarah Bek, Katja Steiger, Paul-Albert Koenig, Sascha Göttert, Thomas Engleitner, Rupert Öllinger, Tatiana Nedelko, Julius C. Fischer, Vladimir Makarov, Christof Winter, Roland Rad, Marcel R.M. van den Brink, Jürgen Ruland, Florian Bassermann, Timothy A. Chan, Tobias Haas, Hendrik Poeck

    Achieving durable clinical responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that immunotherapy with anti–CTLA-4 and its combination with anti–PD-1 rely on tumor cell–intrinsic activation of the cytosolic RNA receptor RIG-I. Mechanistically, tumor cell–intrinsic RIG-I signaling induced caspase-3–mediated tumor cell death, cross-presentation of tumor-associated antigen by CD103+ dendritic cells, subsequent expansion of tumor antigen–specific CD8+ T cells, and their accumulation within the tumor tissue. Consistently, therapeutic targeting of RIG-I with 5′– triphosphorylated RNA in both tumor and nonmalignant host cells potently augmented the efficacy of CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade in several preclinical cancer models. In humans, transcriptome analysis of primary melanoma samples revealed a strong association between high expression of DDX58 (the gene encoding RIG-I), T cell receptor and antigen presentation pathway activity, and prolonged overall survival. Moreover, in patients with melanoma treated with anti–CTLA-4 checkpoint blockade, high DDX58 RIG-I transcriptional activity significantly associated with durable clinical responses. Our data thus identify activation of RIG-I signaling in tumors and their microenvironment as a crucial component for checkpoint inhibitor–mediated immunotherapy of cancer.

    更新日期:2019-09-14
  • Tregs in fibrosis: To know your enemy, you must become your enemy
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Suzanne M. Bal, Ralph Stadhouders

    T helper 2–skewed regulatory T cells in the skin use GATA3 to suppress local profibrotic type 2 cytokine production. See the related Research Article by Kalekar et al.

    更新日期:2019-09-07
  • Gasdermin D activity in inflammation and host defense
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Judy Lieberman, Hao Wu, Jonathan C. Kagan

    The mechanisms underlying the release of interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines from phagocytes have been the subject of intense investigations for more than 30 years. The absence of an amino-terminal secretion signal from members of this family suggests a previously unknown mechanism of protein secretion that transfers cytosolic IL-1 directly across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space. The pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD) has emerged as the conduit for IL-1 secretion from the cytosol, serving to induce the release of IL-1 from living (hyperactive) or dead (pyroptotic) cells. In this Review, we discuss the mechanism by which GSDMD pore formation is regulated by the activity of inflammatory caspases, which are commonly associated with inflammasomes. We discuss how GSDMD promotes IL-1 release from hyperactive or pyroptotic cells, with a specific focus on defining how these distinct cell fates associated with GSDMD activity can be regulated. Last, the physiological consequences of GSDMD activity and therapeutic potential of targeting this pore-forming protein are discussed, which highlight the abundance of questions that remain to be answered by the community.

    更新日期:2019-09-07
  • Changing of the guard
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Rachael A. Clark

    Anti-PD-1 therapy induces clonal expansion of tumor-specific T cells with antigen specificities distinct from the tumor-specific T cells present before therapy.

    更新日期:2019-09-07
  • Sugar Mommy
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Shiv Pillai

    During pregnancy, mothers generate di-galactosylated IgGs that cross the placenta more readily and provide the fetus and the newborn infant with antibodies optimized for NK cell–mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    更新日期:2019-09-07
  • Regulatory T cells in skin are uniquely poised to suppress profibrotic immune responses
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Lokesh A. Kalekar, Jarish N. Cohen, Nicolas Prevel, Priscila Muñoz Sandoval, Anubhav N. Mathur, Joshua M. Moreau, Margaret M. Lowe, Audrey Nosbaum, Paul J. Wolters, Anna Haemel, Francesco Boin, Michael D. Rosenblum

    At the center of fibrosing diseases is the aberrant activation of tissue fibroblasts. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of how the immune system augments fibroblast activation have been described; however, little is known about how the immune system controls fibroblast function in tissues. Here, we identify regulatory T cells (Tregs) as important regulators of fibroblast activation in skin. Bulk cell and single-cell analysis of Tregs in murine skin and lungs revealed that Tregs in skin are transcriptionally distinct and skewed toward T helper 2 (TH2) differentiation. When compared with Tregs in lung, skin Tregs preferentially expressed high levels of GATA3, the master TH2 transcription factor. Genes regulated by GATA3 were highly enriched in skin “TH2 Treg” subsets. In functional experiments, Treg depletion resulted in a preferential increase in TH2 cytokine production in skin. Both acute depletion and chronic reduction of Tregs resulted in spontaneous skin fibroblast activation, profibrotic gene expression, and dermal fibrosis, all of which were exacerbated in a bleomycin-induced murine model of skin sclerosis. Lineage-specific deletion of Gata3 in Tregs resulted in an exacerbation of TH2 cytokine secretion that was preferential to skin, resulting in enhanced fibroblast activation and dermal fibrosis. Together, we demonstrate that Tregs play a critical role in regulating fibroblast activation in skin and do so by expressing a unique tissue-restricted transcriptional program that is mediated, at least in part, by GATA3.

    更新日期:2019-09-07
  • Position β57 of I-Ag7 controls early anti-insulin responses in NOD mice, linking an MHC susceptibility allele to type 1 diabetes onset
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Louis Gioia, Marie Holt, Anne Costanzo, Siddhartha Sharma, Brian Abe, Lisa Kain, Maki Nakayama, Xiaoxiao Wan, Andrew Su, Clayton Mathews, Yi-Guang Chen, Emil Unanue, Luc Teyton

    The class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus is the main contributor to the genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D). The loss of an aspartic acid at position 57 of diabetogenic HLA-DQβ chains supports this association; this single amino acid change influences how TCRs recognize peptides in the context of HLA-DQ8 and I-Ag7 using a mechanism termed the P9 switch. Here, we built register-specific insulin peptide MHC tetramers to examine CD4+ T cell responses to Ins12–20 and Ins13–21 peptides during the early prediabetic phase of disease in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. A single-cell analysis of anti-insulin CD4+ T cells performed in 6- and 12-week-old NOD mice revealed tissue-specific gene expression signatures. TCR signaling and clonal expansion were found only in the islets of Langerhans and produced either classical TH1 differentiation or an unusual Treg phenotype, independent of TCR usage. The early phase of the anti-insulin response was dominated by T cells specific for Ins12–20, the register that supports a P9 switch mode of recognition. The presence of the P9 switch was demonstrated by TCR sequencing, reexpression, mutagenesis, and functional testing of TCRαβ pairs in vitro. Genetic correction of the I-Aβ57 mutation in NOD mice resulted in the disappearance of D/E residues in the CDR3β of anti-Ins12–20 T cells. These results provide a mechanistic molecular explanation that links the characteristic MHC class II polymorphism of T1D with the recognition of islet autoantigens and disease onset.

    更新日期:2019-08-31
  • A wave of monocytes is recruited to replenish the long-term Langerhans cell network after immune injury
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Ivana R. Ferrer, Heather C. West, Stephen Henderson, Dmitry S. Ushakov, Pedro Santos e Sousa, Jessica Strid, Ronjon Chakraverty, Andrew J. Yates, Clare L. Bennett

    A dense population of embryo-derived Langerhans cells (eLCs) is maintained within the sealed epidermis without contribution from circulating cells. When this network is perturbed by transient exposure to ultraviolet light, short-term LCs are temporarily reconstituted from an initial wave of monocytes but thought to be superseded by more permanent repopulation with undefined LC precursors. However, the extent to which this process is relevant to immunopathological processes that damage LC population integrity is not known. Using a model of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, where alloreactive T cells directly target eLCs, we have asked whether and how the original LC network is ultimately restored. We find that donor monocytes, but not dendritic cells, are the precursors of long-term LCs in this context. Destruction of eLCs leads to recruitment of a wave of monocytes that engraft in the epidermis and undergo a sequential pathway of differentiation via transcriptionally distinct EpCAM+ precursors. Monocyte-derived LCs acquire the capacity of self-renewal, and proliferation in the epidermis matched that of steady-state eLCs. However, we identified a bottleneck in the differentiation and survival of epidermal monocytes, which, together with the slow rate of renewal of mature LCs, limits repair of the network. Furthermore, replenishment of the LC network leads to constitutive entry of cells into the epidermal compartment. Thus, immune injury triggers functional adaptation of mechanisms used to maintain tissue-resident macrophages at other sites, but this process is highly inefficient in the skin.

    更新日期:2019-08-25
  • Comment on “A subset of HLA-I peptides are not genomically templated: Evidence for cis- and trans-spliced peptide ligands”
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Zach Rolfs, Markus Müller, Michael R. Shortreed, Lloyd M. Smith, Michal Bassani-Sternberg

    There is still no convincing evidence for the frequent occurrence of posttranslationally spliced HLA-I peptides.

    更新日期:2019-08-18
  • Response to Comment on “A subset of HLA-I peptides are not genomically templated: Evidence for cis- and trans-spliced peptide ligands”
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Pouya Faridi, Chen Li, Sri H. Ramarathinam, Patricia T. Illing, Nicole A. Mifsud, Rochelle Ayala, Jiangning Song, Linden J. Gearing, Nathan P. Croft, Anthony W. Purcell

    This is our response to the Technical Comment by Rolfs et al. where we point out errors in their reanalysis of our data.

    更新日期:2019-08-18
  • Hypofractionated EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor limits tumor relapse through triggering innate and adaptive immunity
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Zhida Liu, Chuanhui Han, Chunbo Dong, Aijun Shen, Eric Hsu, Zhenhua Ren, Changzheng Lu, Longchao Liu, Anli Zhang, Casey Timmerman, Yang Pu, Yang Wang, Mingyi Chen, Jian Qiao, Yang-Xin Fu

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a first-line therapy for rapidly killing tumors such as those associated with non–small cell lung cancer by blocking oncogenic receptor signaling, but tumor relapse often occurs. Here, we have observed that hypofractionated EGFR TKI treatment (HypoTKI) is more potent than standard hyperfractionated EGFR TKI treatment (HyperTKI), and its antitumor effect associated with preventing tumor relapse depends on T cells. HypoTKI triggers greater innate sensing for type I IFN and CXCL10 production through the Myd88 signaling pathway to enhance tumor-specific T cell infiltration and reactivation. We also demonstrate that timely programmed cell death ligand–1 (PD-L1) blockade can synergize with HypoTKI to control advanced large tumors and effectively limit tumor relapse without severe side effects. Our study provides evidence for exploring the potential of a proper combination of EGFR TKIs and immunotherapy as a first-line treatment for treating EGFR-driven tumors.

    更新日期:2019-08-10
  • Gab3 is required for IL-2– and IL-15–induced NK cell expansion and limits trophoblast invasion during pregnancy
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Anna Sliz, Kathryn C. S. Locker, Kristin Lampe, Alzbeta Godarova, David R. Plas, Edith M. Janssen, Helen Jones, Andrew B. Herr, Kasper Hoebe

    The scaffolding protein Grb2-associated binding protein 3 (Gab3) is a member of the Gab family, whose functions have remained elusive. Here, we identify Gab3 as a key determinant of peripheral NK cell expansion. Loss of Gab3 resulted in impaired IL-2 and IL-15–induced NK cell priming and expansion due to a selective impairment in MAPK signaling but not STAT5 signaling. In vivo, we found that Gab3 is required for recognition and elimination of “missing-self” and tumor targets. Unexpectedly, our studies also revealed that Gab3 plays an important role during pregnancy. Gab3-deficient mice exhibited impaired uterine NK cell expansion associated with abnormal spiral artery remodeling and increased trophoblast invasion in the decidua basalis. This coincided with stillbirth, retained placenta, maternal hemorrhage, and undelivered fetoplacental units at term. Thus, Gab3 is a key component required for cytokine-mediated NK cell priming and expansion that is essential for antitumor responses and limits trophoblast cell invasion during pregnancy.

    更新日期:2019-08-03
  • Leukemic stem cells hiding in plain sight
    Sci. Immunol (IF 10.551) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Gabriel K. Griffin

    Activation of NK-mediated immune surveillance clears leukemic stem cell populations.

    更新日期:2019-08-03
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