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  • Multi-layered Spatial Transcriptomics Identify Secretory Factors Promoting Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Development
    Cell Stem Cell (IF 20.86) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Edie I. Crosse; Sabrina Gordon-Keylock; Stanislav Rybtsov; Anahi Binagui-Casas; Hannah Felchle; Nneka C. Nnadi; Kristina Kirschner; Tamir Chandra; Sara Tamagno; David J. Webb; Fiona Rossi; Richard A. Anderson; Alexander Medvinsky
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Preventing Outbreaks through Interactive, Experiential Real-Life Simulations
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Andrés Colubri; Molly Kemball; Kian Sani; Chloe Boehm; Karen Mutch-Jones; Ben Fry; Todd Brown; Pardis C. Sabeti

    Operation Outbreak (OO) is a Bluetooth-based simulation platform that teaches students how pathogens spread and the impact of interventions, thereby facilitating the safe reopening of schools. OO also generates data to inform epidemiological models and prevent future outbreaks. Before SARS-CoV-2 was reported, we repeatedly simulated a virus with similar features, correctly predicting many human behaviors

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • The Mind of a Mouse
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Larry F. Abbott; Davi D. Bock; Edward M. Callaway; Winfried Denk; Catherine Dulac; Adrienne L. Fairhall; Ila Fiete; Kristen M. Harris; Moritz Helmstaedter; Viren Jain; Narayanan Kasthuri; Yann LeCun; Jeff W. Lichtman; Peter B. Littlewood; Liqun Luo; John H.R. Maunsell; R. Clay Reid; Bruce R. Rosen; David C. Van Essen

    Large scientific projects in genomics and astronomy are influential not because they answer any single question but because they enable investigation of continuously arising new questions from the same data-rich sources. Advances in automated mapping of the brain’s synaptic connections (connectomics) suggest that the complicated circuits underlying brain function are ripe for analysis. We discuss benefits

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • A Metabolic Bottleneck for Stem Cell Transformation
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Sanjeethan C. Baksh; Elaine Fuchs

    Although oncogenic mutations predispose tissue stem cells to tumor initiation, the rate-limiting processes for stem cell immortalization remain unknown. In this issue of Cell, Bonnay et al. identify enhanced electron transport chain activity as a critical determinant of this process, establishing metabolic reprogramming as limiting for tumor initiation.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • cAMP Signaling in Nanodomains
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Peter K. Jackson

    Cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is an ancient second messenger but organizing signaling selectivity on the nanoscale is poorly understood. Examining transport of a new fluorescent cAMP probe, Bock and coworkers observe “buffered diffusion” and establish phosphodiesterase activity can organize cAMP nanodomains, while Zhao and coworkers find that protein kinase A regulatory subunits assemble

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Prokaryotic Argonautes Function beyond Immunity by Unlinking Replicating Chromosomes
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Daan C. Swarts

    Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins strictly mediate RNA-guided RNA interference. In contrast, prokaryotic Argonautes can utilize DNA guides to target complementary DNA sequences to protect their hosts against invading DNA. In this issue of Cell, Jolly and colleagues demonstrate that Thermus thermophilus Argonaute additionally participates in DNA replication by unlinking catenated chromosomes.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Unraveling Hematopoiesis through the Lens of Genomics
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    L. Alexander Liggett; Vijay G. Sankaran

    Hematopoiesis has long served as a paradigm of stem cell biology and tissue homeostasis. In the past decade, the genomics revolution has ushered in powerful new methods for investigating the hematopoietic system that have provided transformative insights into its biology. As part of the advances in genomics, increasingly accurate deep sequencing and novel methods of cell tracking have revealed hematopoiesis

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Elevated Calprotectin and Abnormal Myeloid Cell Subsets Discriminate Severe from Mild COVID-19
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Aymeric Silvin; Nicolas Chapuis; Garett Dunsmore; Anne-Gaëlle Goubet; Agathe Dubuisson; Lisa Derosa; Carole Almire; Clémence Hénon; Olivier Kosmider; Nathalie Droin; Philippe Rameau; Cyril Catelain; Alexia Alfaro; Charles Dussiau; Chloé Friedrich; Elise Sourdeau; Nathalie Marin; Tali-Anne Szwebel; Eric Solary
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Severe COVID-19 Is Marked by a Dysregulated Myeloid Cell Compartment
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Jonas Schulte-Schrepping; Nico Reusch; Daniela Paclik; Kevin Baßler; Stephan Schlickeiser; Bowen Zhang; Benjamin Krämer; Tobias Krammer; Sophia Brumhard; Lorenzo Bonaguro; Elena De Domenico; Daniel Wendisch; Martin Grasshoff; Theodore S. Kapellos; Michael Beckstette; Tal Pecht; Adem Saglam; Oliver Dietrich; John Ziebuhr
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Diet Diurnally Regulates Small Intestinal Microbiome-Epithelial-Immune Homeostasis and Enteritis.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Timur Tuganbaev,Uria Mor,Stavros Bashiardes,Timur Liwinski,Samuel Philip Nobs,Avner Leshem,Mally Dori-Bachash,Christoph A Thaiss,Elisha Y Pinker,Karina Ratiner,Lorenz Adlung,Sara Federici,Christian Kleimeyer,Claudia Moresi,Takahiro Yamada,Yotam Cohen,Xiao Zhang,Hassan Massalha,Efi Massasa,Yael Kuperman,Pandelakis A Koni,Alon Harmelin,Nan Gao,Shalev Itzkovitz,Kenya Honda,Hagit Shapiro,Eran Elinav
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Longitudinal Multi-omics Reveals Subset-Specific Mechanisms Underlying Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Ruben A.T. Mars; Yi Yang; Tonya Ward; Mo Houtti; Sambhawa Priya; Heather R. Lekatz; Xiaojia Tang; Zhifu Sun; Krishna R. Kalari; Tal Korem; Yogesh Bhattarai; Tenghao Zheng; Noam Bar; Gary Frost; Abigail J. Johnson; Will van Treuren; Shuo Han; Tamas Ordog; Purna C. Kashyap
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Large-Scale Topological Changes Restrain Malignant Progression in Colorectal Cancer.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Sarah E Johnstone,Alejandro Reyes,Yifeng Qi,Carmen Adriaens,Esmat Hegazi,Karin Pelka,Jonathan H Chen,Luli S Zou,Yotam Drier,Vivian Hecht,Noam Shoresh,Martin K Selig,Caleb A Lareau,Sowmya Iyer,Son C Nguyen,Eric F Joyce,Nir Hacohen,Rafael A Irizarry,Bin Zhang,Martin J Aryee,Bradley E Bernstein
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Oxidative Metabolism Drives Immortalization of Neural Stem Cells during Tumorigenesis
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    François Bonnay; Ana Veloso; Victoria Steinmann; Thomas Köcher; Merve Deniz Abdusselamoglu; Sunanjay Bajaj; Elisa Rivelles; Lisa Landskron; Harald Esterbauer; Robert P. Zinzen; Juergen A. Knoblich
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • The In Situ Structure of Parkinson's Disease-Linked LRRK2.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Reika Watanabe,Robert Buschauer,Jan Böhning,Martina Audagnotto,Keren Lasker,Tsan-Wen Lu,Daniela Boassa,Susan Taylor,Elizabeth Villa
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Optical Mapping of cAMP Signaling at the Nanometer Scale.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Andreas Bock,Paolo Annibale,Charlotte Konrad,Annette Hannawacker,Selma E Anton,Isabella Maiellaro,Ulrike Zabel,Sivaraj Sivaramakrishnan,Martin Falcke,Martin J Lohse
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Phase Separation of a PKA Regulatory Subunit Controls cAMP Compartmentation and Oncogenic Signaling.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Jason Z Zhang,Tsan-Wen Lu,Lucas M Stolerman,Brian Tenner,Jessica R Yang,Jin-Fan Zhang,Martin Falcke,Padmini Rangamani,Susan S Taylor,Sohum Mehta,Jin Zhang
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Thermus thermophilus Argonaute Functions in the Completion of DNA Replication.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Samson M Jolly,Ildar Gainetdinov,Karina Jouravleva,Han Zhang,Lara Strittmatter,Shannon M Bailey,Gregory M Hendricks,Avantika Dhabaria,Beatrix Ueberheide,Phillip D Zamore
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Structural Basis for Helicase-Polymerase Coupling in the SARS-CoV-2 Replication-Transcription Complex.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    James Chen,Brandon Malone,Eliza Llewellyn,Michael Grasso,Patrick M M Shelton,Paul Dominic B Olinares,Kashyap Maruthi,Edward T Eng,Hasan Vatandaslar,Brian T Chait,Tarun M Kapoor,Seth A Darst,Elizabeth A Campbell
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Structure of a Hallucinogen-Activated Gq-Coupled 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Kuglae Kim; Tao Che; Ouliana Panova; Jeffrey F. DiBerto; Jiankun Lyu; Brian E. Krumm; Daniel Wacker; Michael J. Robertson; Alpay B. Seven; David E. Nichols; Brian K. Shoichet; Georgios Skiniotis; Bryan L. Roth
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Hindbrain Double-Negative Feedback Mediates Palatability-Guided Food and Water Consumption.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Rong Gong,Shengjin Xu,Ann Hermundstad,Yang Yu,Scott M Sternson
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • The Human and Mouse Enteric Nervous System at Single-Cell Resolution.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Eugene Drokhlyansky,Christopher S Smillie,Nicholas Van Wittenberghe,Maria Ericsson,Gabriel K Griffin,Gokcen Eraslan,Danielle Dionne,Michael S Cuoco,Max N Goder-Reiser,Tatyana Sharova,Olena Kuksenko,Andrew J Aguirre,Genevieve M Boland,Daniel Graham,Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen,Ramnik J Xavier,Aviv Regev
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Cell Types of the Human Retina and Its Organoids at Single-Cell Resolution
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Cameron S. Cowan; Magdalena Renner; Martina De Gennaro; Brigitte Gross-Scherf; David Goldblum; Yanyan Hou; Martin Munz; Tiago M. Rodrigues; Jacek Krol; Tamas Szikra; Rachel Cuttat; Annick Waldt; Panagiotis Papasaikas; Roland Diggelmann; Claudia P. Patino-Alvarez; Patricia Galliker; Stefan E. Spirig; Dinko Pavlinic; Botond Roska
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Genome-Scale Imaging of the 3D Organization and Transcriptional Activity of Chromatin.
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Jun-Han Su,Pu Zheng,Seon S Kinrot,Bogdan Bintu,Xiaowei Zhuang
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • SnapShot: The Regulatory Genome
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    X.Y. Bing; P.J. Batut; M. Levo; M. Levine; J. Raimundo

    Enhancers switch genes on and off in response to a variety of intrinsic and external cellular signals. They are the cornerstone of gene regulation and the most pervasive constituents of the regulatory genome. Sequence polymorphisms in enhancer DNAs are a major source of population diversity and predilection to disease. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Neuronal Computation Underlying Inferential Reasoning in Humans and Mice
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Helen C. Barron; Hayley M. Reeve; Renée S. Koolschijn; Pavel V. Perestenko; Anna Shpektor; Hamed Nili; Roman Rothaermel; Natalia Campo-Urriza; Jill X. O’Reilly; David M. Bannerman; Timothy E.J. Behrens; David Dupret
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • pH-Gated Succinate Secretion Regulates Muscle Remodeling in Response to Exercise
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Anita Reddy; Luiz H.M. Bozi; Omar K. Yaghi; Evanna L. Mills; Haopeng Xiao; Hilary E. Nicholson; Margherita Paschini; Joao A. Paulo; Ryan Garrity; Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski; Julio C.B. Ferreira; Christian S. Carl; Kim A. Sjøberg; Jørgen F.P. Wojtaszewski; Jacob F. Jeppesen; Bente Kiens; Steven P. Gygi; Erik A. Richter; Edward T. Chouchani
    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • PD-L1 controls cancer pyroptosis
    Nat. Cell Biol. (IF 20.042) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    María Teresa Blasco; Roger R. Gomis

    Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is well known for its role as an immune checkpoint regulator, but little is known about its function in other cellular processes. A study now shows that in tumour cells PD-L1 mediates pyroptosis, an inflammatory form of cell death, by activating the expression of Gasdermine C, ultimately leading to tumour necrosis.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Author Correction: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasal swabs using MALDI-MS
    Nat. Biotechnol. (IF 36.558) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Fabiane M. Nachtigall; Alfredo Pereira; Oleksandra S. Trofymchuk; Leonardo S. Santos

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Publisher Correction: The making of the Biohub
    Nat. Biotechnol. (IF 36.558) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Laura DeFrancesco

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Author Correction: Coupling dinitrogen and hydrocarbons through aryl migration
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Sean F. McWilliams; Daniël L. J. Broere; Connor J. V. Halliday; Samuel M. Bhutto; Brandon Q. Mercado; Patrick L. Holland

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Receptor binding and priming of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 for membrane fusion
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Donald J. Benton; Antoni G. Wrobel; Pengqi Xu; Chloë Roustan; Stephen R. Martin; Peter B. Rosenthal; John J. Skehel; Steven J. Gamblin

    SARS-CoV-2 infection is initiated by virus binding to ACE2 cell surface receptors1–4, followed by fusion of virus and cell membranes to release the virus genome into the cell. Both receptor binding and membrane fusion activities are mediated by the virus Spike glycoprotein, S5–7. As with other class I membrane fusion proteins, S is post-translationally cleaved, in this case by furin, into S1 and S2

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • How the giant stinging tree of Australia can inflict months of agony
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-17

    A new type of peptide produces pain so intense that sometimes even morphine cannot quell it.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Who gets a COVID vaccine first? Access plans are taking shape
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Nidhi Subbaraman

    Advisory groups around the world release guidance to prioritize healthcare workers and others.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Daily briefing: World fails to meet every UN biodiversity goal
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Flora Graham

    We have not met any of the biodiversity targets agreed in 2010 — but there are hopeful signs to build on. Plus, how COVID-19 can damage the brain and a visually sumptuous tour of the latest dinosaur discoveries.

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Nanaerobic growth enables direct visualization of dynamic cellular processes in human gut symbionts [Microbiology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Leonor García-Bayona, Michael J. Coyne, Noam Hantman, Paula Montero-Llopis, Salena S. Von, Takeshi Ito, Michael H. Malamy, Marek Basler, Blanca Barquera, Laurie E. Comstock

    Mechanistic studies of anaerobic gut bacteria have been hindered by the lack of a fluorescent protein system to track and visualize proteins and dynamic cellular processes in actively growing bacteria. Although underappreciated, many gut “anaerobes” are able to respire using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor. The oxygen continually released from gut epithelial cells creates an oxygen gradient

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Insights into the future of soil erosion [Commentaries]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Timothy A. Quine, Kristof Van Oost

    Integrating a long-established soil erosion model with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) scenarios, Borrelli et al. (1) set out to meet the needs of policymakers and earth-system modelers to better understand the future of soil erosion this century. Policymakers need this insight because of the constraints erosion places on achievement of multiple sustainable development goals including

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Opinion: We have been in lockdown, but deforestation has not [Sustainability Science]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Douglas C. Daly

    Edilson Consuelo de Oliveira has regained his sense of taste and smell, so he has finally been able to enjoy a plate of pirapitinga, his favorite fish in all the Amazon. Before contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Edilson had been in lockdown on a small farm outside of Rio Branco, the capital of Acre state in Brazil, but in early June a nephew came to visit from the city, bringing a dry

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Shear-assisted grain coarsening in colloidal polycrystals [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Wei Li, Yi Peng, Yongjun Zhang, Tim Still, A. G. Yodh, Yilong Han

    Grain growth under shear annealing is crucial for controlling the properties of polycrystalline materials. However, their microscopic kinetics are not well understood because individual atomic trajectories are difficult to track. Here, we study grain growth with single-particle kinetics in colloidal polycrystals using video microscopy. Rich grain-growth phenomena are revealed in three shear regimes

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Hierarchical structure is employed by humans during visual motion perception [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Johannes Bill, Hrag Pailian, Samuel J. Gershman, Jan Drugowitsch

    In the real world, complex dynamic scenes often arise from the composition of simpler parts. The visual system exploits this structure by hierarchically decomposing dynamic scenes: When we see a person walking on a train or an animal running in a herd, we recognize the individual’s movement as nested within a reference frame that is, itself, moving. Despite its ubiquity, surprisingly little is understood

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Reconstruction of the birth of a male sex chromosome present in Atlantic herring [Evolution]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Nima Rafati, Junfeng Chen, Amaury Herpin, Mats E. Pettersson, Fan Han, Chungang Feng, Ola Wallerman, Carl-Johan Rubin, Sandrine Péron, Arianna Cocco, Mårten Larsson, Christian Trötschel, Ansgar Poetsch, Kai Korsching, Wolfgang Bönigk, Heinz G. Körschen, Florian Berg, Arild Folkvord, U. Benjamin Kaupp, Manfred Schartl, Leif Andersson

    The mechanisms underlying sex determination are astonishingly plastic. Particularly the triggers for the molecular machinery, which recalls either the male or female developmental program, are highly variable and have evolved independently and repeatedly. Fish show a huge variety of sex determination systems, including both genetic and environmental triggers. The advent of sex chromosomes is assumed

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • News at a glance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    In science news around the world, President Donald Trump admits he knew in February that the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 was "deadly," even as he publicly called the disease no worse than the seasonal flu. Scientists study the long-term health consequences of smoke from record wildfires on the U.S. West Coast. The virus that causes African swine fever, deadly to pigs, is discovered in Germany

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Trials begin for a new weapon against Parkinson's: light
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Gunjan Sinha

    Several studies about to start will explore whether near-infrared (NIR) light can improve symptoms of Parkinson's disease—including a study in France in which a fiber optic cable implanted in patients' brains will deliver NIR directly to the substantia nigra, a region that degenerates in Parkinson's disease. Animal models and small tests in people have suggested benefits, but some mainstream Parkinson's

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Ancient DNA tracks Vikings across Europe
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Andrew Curry

    A massive new study of DNA sequences from Viking Age burials around Europe presents the story of the Vikings written in genes. The results, published this week in Nature, trace how the Vikings radiated across Europe from their Scandinavian homeland, and how people with roots elsewhere also took up Viking ways, making "Viking" a job description, not a matter of heredity. Researchers gathered human remains

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Global efforts to protect biodiversity fall short
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Erik Stokstad

    A major report card on the state of biodiversity gives failing grades to the world's nations. The United Nations's Global Biodiversity Outlook 5, released this week, concludes the world has not met ambitious targets set 10 years ago to protect nature. The new assessment finds some bright spots, such as a substantial rise in the extent of protected areas. But only six of the U.N. Convention on Biological

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • The burden of stigma
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Vaishnavi Chandrashekhar

    After Mumbai dentist Azmera Shaikh and her mother tested positive for COVID-19, their neighbors ostracized the rest of her family, refusing to let them put out garbage or help them buy groceries. As the new coronavirus spread around the world early this year, some people around the world responded in similar ways. In Nepal, health workers were thrown out of accommodations. In Chennai, India, some doctors

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • The gut microbiota in kidney disease
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Jennifer L. Pluznick

    Chronic kidney disease affects 9% of the global population (1) and can have severe impacts on both the individual and societal levels. Although various conditions, such as diabetes, are well known risk factors for chronic kidney disease, in recent years interest has been growing regarding a potential role for the gut microbiota in modulating outcomes in kidney disease (2). Simultaneously, in the microbiology

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Messengers from the microbiota
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Fyza Y. Shaikh, Cynthia L. Sears

    Immunotherapy sometimes leads to stunning therapeutic success in a wide range of cancers. However—except in melanoma, microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma—only ∼15 to 30% of cancer patients respond to treatment. Thus, identification of the determinants of response are under intense investigation, and the gut microbiota is proposed to be a critical

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Tempus fugit: How time flies during development
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Ryohei Iwata, Pierre Vanderhaeghen

    “Fugit irreparabile tempus,” wrote Virgil, a reminder that our lives are defined by the irreversible flow of time. As soon as the egg is fertilized, embryonic cells follow a developmental program strictly organized in time. The sequence typically is conserved throughout evolution, but individual events can occur over species-specific time scales. Such differences can have marked effects. For instance

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Multiplicative suppression of decoherence
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Philip Hemmer

    Optically addressed quantum spin systems have been explored for a number of applications, with quantum information being one of the most exciting. However, noise fields destroy quantum information, especially in solids, through a process called decoherence. This process limits how well quantum information devices perform. The spin decoherence problem has been studied for decades, and many protocols

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Advance in global ocean acoustics
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Carl Wunsch

    In the past 50 years, the major conceptual revolution in physical oceanography is the transformation from considering the ocean as a large-scale, extremely slowly changing fluid to a fundamentally turbulent one. The ocean changes across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from millimeters to 30,000 km and from seconds to multimillennia, with major regional differences. Because ocean exploration

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Global citizen deliberation on genome editing
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    John S. Dryzek, Dianne Nicol, Simon Niemeyer, Sonya Pemberton, Nicole Curato, André Bächtiger, Philip Batterham, Bjørn Bedsted, Simon Burall, Michael Burgess, Gaetan Burgio, Yurij Castelfranchi, Hervé Chneiweiss, George Church, Merlin Crossley, Jantina de Vries, Mahmud Farooque, Marit Hammond, Baogang He, Ricardo Mendonça, Jennifer Merchant, Anna Middleton, John E. J. Rasko, Ine Van Hoyweghen, Antoine

    Genome editing technologies provide vast possibilities for societal benefit, but also substantial risks and ethical challenges. Governance and regulation of such technologies have not kept pace in a systematic or internationally consistent manner, leaving a complex, uneven, and incomplete web of national and international regulation (1). How countries choose to regulate these emergent technologies

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Why the West is WEIRD
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Pauline Grosjean

    As Joseph Henrich recounts in his new book, The WEIRDest People in the World, the Tajik civil war—which pitted clan against clan and, sometimes, neighbor against neighbor—resulted in a collapse of trust that made people more suspicious of nonrelatives. This trajectory is puzzling, as it contrasts sharply with political development in Western Europe. There, conflict and intergroup competition paved

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • A case study of Oliver Sacks
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Laura J. Snyder

    "I'm an inveterate storyteller," confesses the celebrated neurologist and writer Oliver Sacks at the start of Oliver Sacks: His Own Life. "I tell many stories, some comic, some tragic." Tales of both types abound in this elegiac yet lighthearted film based on director Ric Burns's interviews with Sacks and his friends, colleagues, family members, and patients in the months before and after the physician's

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Species-specific segmentation clock periods are due to differential biochemical reaction speeds
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Mitsuhiro Matsuda, Hanako Hayashi, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, Kumiko Yoshioka-Kobayashi, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Yoshihiro Yamanaka, Makoto Ikeya, Junya Toguchida, Cantas Alev, Miki Ebisuya

    Although mechanisms of embryonic development are similar between mice and humans, the time scale is generally slower in humans. To investigate these interspecies differences in development, we recapitulate murine and human segmentation clocks that display 2- to 3-hour and 5- to 6-hour oscillation periods, respectively. Our interspecies genome-swapping analyses indicate that the period difference is

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Evaluating scenarios toward zero plastic pollution.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Winnie W Y Lau,Yonathan Shiran,Richard M Bailey,Ed Cook,Martin R Stuchtey,Julia Koskella,Costas A Velis,Linda Godfrey,Julien Boucher,Margaret B Murphy,Richard C Thompson,Emilia Jankowska,Arturo Castillo Castillo,Toby D Pilditch,Ben Dixon,Laura Koerselman,Edward Kosior,Enzo Favoino,Jutta Gutberlet,Sarah Baulch,Meera E Atreya,David Fischer,Kevin K He,Milan M Petit,U Rashid Sumaila,Emily Neil,Mark V Bernhofen

    Plastic pollution is a pervasive and growing problem. To estimate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce plastic pollution, we modeled stocks and flows of municipal solid waste and four sources of microplastics through the global plastic system for five scenarios between 2016 and 2040. Implementing all feasible interventions reduced plastic pollution by 40% from 2016 rates and 78% relative to

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Following the microscopic pathway to adsorption through chemisorption and physisorption wells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Dmitriy Borodin, Igor Rahinov, Pranav R. Shirhatti, Meng Huang, Alexander Kandratsenka, Daniel J. Auerbach, Tianli Zhong, Hua Guo, Dirk Schwarzer, Theofanis N. Kitsopoulos, Alec M. Wodtke

    Adsorption involves molecules colliding at the surface of a solid and losing their incidence energy by traversing a dynamical pathway to equilibrium. The interactions responsible for energy loss generally include both chemical bond formation (chemisorption) and nonbonding interactions (physisorption). In this work, we present experiments that revealed a quantitative energy landscape and the microscopic

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Assessing the impact of coordinated COVID-19 exit strategies across Europe.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    N W Ruktanonchai,J R Floyd,S Lai,C W Ruktanonchai,A Sadilek,P Rente-Lourenco,X Ben,A Carioli,J Gwinn,J E Steele,O Prosper,A Schneider,A Oplinger,P Eastham,A J Tatem

    As rates of new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases decline across Europe owing to nonpharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing policies and lockdown measures, countries require guidance on how to ease restrictions while minimizing the risk of resurgent outbreaks. We use mobility and case data to quantify how coordinated exit strategies could delay continental resurgence and limit

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • 90S pre-ribosome transformation into the primordial 40S subunit
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Jingdong Cheng, Benjamin Lau, Giuseppe La Venuta, Michael Ameismeier, Otto Berninghausen, Ed Hurt, Roland Beckmann

    Production of small ribosomal subunits initially requires the formation of a 90S precursor followed by an enigmatic process of restructuring into the primordial pre-40S subunit. We elucidate this process by biochemical and cryo–electron microscopy analysis of intermediates along this pathway in yeast. First, the remodeling RNA helicase Dhr1 engages the 90S pre-ribosome, followed by Utp24 endonuclease–driven

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Cryo-EM structure of 90S small ribosomal subunit precursors in transition states
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Yifei Du, Weidong An, Xing Zhu, Qi Sun, Jia Qi, Keqiong Ye

    The 90S preribosome is a large, early assembly intermediate of small ribosomal subunits that undergoes structural changes to give a pre-40S ribosome. Here, we gained insight into this transition by determining cryo–electron microscopy structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae intermediates in the path from the 90S to the pre-40S. The full transition is blocked by deletion of RNA helicase Dhr1. A series

    更新日期:2020-09-17
  • Microbiome-derived inosine modulates response to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Lukas F Mager,Regula Burkhard,Nicola Pett,Noah C A Cooke,Kirsty Brown,Hena Ramay,Seungil Paik,John Stagg,Ryan A Groves,Marco Gallo,Ian A Lewis,Markus B Geuking,Kathy D McCoy

    Several species of intestinal bacteria have been associated with enhanced efficacy of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy, but the underlying mechanisms by which the microbiome enhances antitumor immunity are unclear. In this study, we isolated three bacterial species—Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Olsenella species—that significantly enhanced efficacy of immune checkpoint

    更新日期:2020-09-17
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