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  • CD81 Controls Beige Fat Progenitor Cell Growth and Energy Balance via FAK Signaling
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yasuo Oguri; Kosaku Shinoda; Hyeonwoo Kim; Diana L. Alba; W. Reid Bolus; Qiang Wang; Zachary Brown; Rachana N. Pradhan; Kazuki Tajima; Takeshi Yoneshiro; Kenji Ikeda; Yong Chen; Rachel T. Cheang; Kazuyuki Tsujino; Caroline R. Kim; Vanille Juliette Greiner; Ritwik Datta; Christopher D. Yang; Shingo Kajimura
    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Niche-Selective Inhibition of Pathogenic Th17 Cells by Targeting Metabolic Redundancy
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Lin Wu; Kate E.R. Hollinshead; Yuhan Hao; Christy Au; Lina Kroehling; Charles Ng; Woan-Yu Lin; Dayi Li; Hernandez Moura Silva; Jong Shin; Juan J. Lafaille; Richard Possemato; Michael E. Pacold; Thales Papagiannakopoulos; Alec C. Kimmelman; Rahul Satija; Dan R. Littman
    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Microglial Remodeling of the Extracellular Matrix Promotes Synapse Plasticity
    Cell (IF 38.637) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Phi T. Nguyen; Leah C. Dorman; Simon Pan; Ilia D. Vainchtein; Rafael T. Han; Hiromi Nakao-Inoue; Sunrae E. Taloma; Jerika J. Barron; Ari B. Molofsky; Mazen A. Kheirbek; Anna V. Molofsky
    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • What the atomic structure of enamel tells us about tooth decay
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Shamini Bundell; Nick Howe

    Hear the biggest stories from the world of science | 02 July 2020

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Structural basis of CXC chemokine receptor 2 activation and signalling
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Kaiwen Liu; Lijie Wu; Shuguang Yuan; Meng Wu; Yueming Xu; Qianqian Sun; Shu Li; Suwen Zhao; Tian Hua; Zhi-Jie Liu

    Chemokines and their receptors mediate cell migration, which influences multiple fundamental biological processes and disease conditions, such as inflammation and cancer1. Although ample efforts have been invested into the structural investigation of the chemokine receptors and receptor–chemokine recognition2–4, less is known about endogenous chemokine-induced receptor activation and G protein coupling

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Global thirst for electricity is fuelling the rise of a potent greenhouse gas
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01

    Emissions of sulfur hexafluoride soared over the 40 years to 2018, despite some countries’ efforts to curb its use.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Restoring Notre-Dame’s ‘magical’ windows
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Chris Woolston

    Conservation scientist Claudine Loisel is spellbound by the stained-glass splendours that survived a devastating fire at Paris’s famous cathedral.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Second Brazilian museum fire in two years reignites calls for reform
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Emiliano Rodríguez Mega

    A recent fire at a natural history museum in Minas Gerais is forcing some researchers to relive the pain of losing priceless specimens and artefacts.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The first five minutes of ReBirth
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Matt Thompson

    Time to prepare for another mission.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Daily briefing: LIGO turns huge mirrors into quantum objects to break precision limit
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Flora Graham

    Gravitational-wave detector goes quantum to overcome the limits of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Plus: why it’s so hard to know when we will reach herd immunity to COVID-19, and how flying snakes glide through the air.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Atomic forces mapped out by lasers
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Michael A. Sentef

    Indirect imaging of potential-energy landscapes in materials.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Observation of branched flow of light
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Anatoly Patsyk; Uri Sivan; Mordechai Segev; Miguel A. Bandres

    When waves propagate through a weak disordered potential with correlation length larger than the wavelength, they form channels (branches) of enhanced intensity that keep dividing as the waves propagate1. This fundamental wave phenomenon is known as branched flow. It was first observed for electrons1,2,3,4,5,6 and for microwave cavities7,8, and it is generally expected for waves with vastly different

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Suppression of proteolipid protein rescues Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Matthew S. Elitt; Lilianne Barbar; H. Elizabeth Shick; Berit E. Powers; Yuka Maeno-Hikichi; Mayur Madhavan; Kevin C. Allan; Baraa S. Nawash; Artur S. Gevorgyan; Stevephen Hung; Zachary S. Nevin; Hannah E. Olsen; Midori Hitomi; Daniela M. Schlatzer; Hien T. Zhao; Adam Swayze; David F. LePage; Weihong Jiang; Ronald A. Conlon; Frank Rigo; Paul J. Tesar

    Mutations in proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) result in failure of myelination and neurological dysfunction in the X-linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD)1,2. Most PLP1 mutations, including point mutations and supernumerary copy variants, lead to severe and fatal disease. PLP1-null patients and mice, however, can display comparatively mild phenotypes, suggesting that PLP1-suppression

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Ebola outbreak ends and a quiet star is found to host planets
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01

    The latest science news, in brief.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • An antiviral response beyond immune cells
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Tomás Gomes; Sarah A. Teichmann

    Fibroblast, epithelial and endothelial cells aid organ-specific defence.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Unexpected amount of blood-borne protein enters the young brain
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Roeben N. Munji; Richard Daneman

    Endogenous proteins tracked across the blood-brain barrier.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • How Europe can fix its forests data gap
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01

    The European Union must improve how it collects forest data, which are essential to its ambitions in biodiversity and climate change.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Quantum fluctuations have been shown to affect macroscopic objects
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Valeria Sequino; Mateusz Bawaj

    Effects of vacuum fluctuations in a gravitational-wave detector.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Chemical gradients in human enamel crystallites
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Karen A. DeRocher; Paul J. M. Smeets; Berit H. Goodge; Michael J. Zachman; Prasanna V. Balachandran; Linus Stegbauer; Michael J. Cohen; Lyle M. Gordon; James M. Rondinelli; Lena F. Kourkoutis; Derk Joester

    Dental enamel is a principal component of teeth1, and has evolved to bear large chewing forces, resist mechanical fatigue and withstand wear over decades2. Functional impairment and loss of dental enamel, caused by developmental defects or tooth decay (caries), affect health and quality of life, with associated costs to society3. Although the past decade has seen progress in our understanding of enamel

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Abrupt increase in harvested forest area over Europe after 2015
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Guido Ceccherini; Gregory Duveiller; Giacomo Grassi; Guido Lemoine; Valerio Avitabile; Roberto Pilli; Alessandro Cescatti

    Forests provide a series of ecosystem services that are crucial to our society. In the European Union (EU), forests account for approximately 38% of the total land surface1. These forests are important carbon sinks, and their conservation efforts are vital for the EU’s vision of achieving climate neutrality by 20502. However, the increasing demand for forest services and products, driven by the bioeconomy

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • A remnant planetary core in the hot-Neptune desert
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    David J. Armstrong; Théo A. Lopez; Vardan Adibekyan; Richard A. Booth; Edward M. Bryant; Karen A. Collins; Magali Deleuil; Alexandre Emsenhuber; Chelsea X. Huang; George W. King; Jorge Lillo-Box; Jack J. Lissauer; Elisabeth Matthews; Olivier Mousis; Louise D. Nielsen; Hugh Osborn; Jon Otegi; Nuno C. Santos; Sérgio G. Sousa; Keivan G. Stassun; Dimitri Veras; Carl Ziegler; Jack S. Acton; Jose M. Almenara;

    The interiors of giant planets remain poorly understood. Even for the planets in the Solar System, difficulties in observation lead to large uncertainties in the properties of planetary cores. Exoplanets that have undergone rare evolutionary processes provide a route to understanding planetary interiors. Planets found in and near the typically barren hot-Neptune ‘desert’1,2 (a region in mass–radius

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Structural cells are key regulators of organ-specific immune responses
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Thomas Krausgruber; Nikolaus Fortelny; Victoria Fife-Gernedl; Martin Senekowitsch; Linda C. Schuster; Alexander Lercher; Amelie Nemc; Christian Schmidl; André F. Rendeiro; Andreas Bergthaler; Christoph Bock

    The mammalian immune system implements a remarkably effective set of mechanisms for fighting pathogens1. Its main components are haematopoietic immune cells, including myeloid cells that control innate immunity, and lymphoid cells that constitute adaptive immunity2. However, immune functions are not unique to haematopoietic cells, and many other cell types display basic mechanisms of pathogen defence3

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Clinical targeting of HIV capsid protein with a long-acting small molecule
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    John O. Link; Martin S. Rhee; Winston C. Tse; Jim Zheng; John R. Somoza; William Rowe; Rebecca Begley; Anna Chiu; Andrew Mulato; Derek Hansen; Eric Singer; Luong K. Tsai; Rujuta A. Bam; Chien-Hung Chou; Eda Canales; Gediminas Brizgys; Jennifer R. Zhang; Jiayao Li; Michael Graupe; Philip Morganelli; Qi Liu; Qiaoyin Wu; Randall L. Halcomb; Roland D. Saito; Scott D. Schroeder; Scott E. Lazerwith; Steven

    Oral antiretroviral agents provide life-saving treatments for millions of people living with HIV, and can prevent new infections via pre-exposure prophylaxis1,2,3,4,5. However, some people living with HIV who are heavily treatment-experienced have limited or no treatment options, owing to multidrug resistance6. In addition, suboptimal adherence to oral daily regimens can negatively affect the outcome

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Laser picoscopy of valence electrons in solids
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    H. Lakhotia; H. Y. Kim; M. Zhan; S. Hu; S. Meng; E. Goulielmakis

    Valence electrons contribute a small fraction of the total electron density of materials, but they determine their essential chemical, electronic and optical properties. Strong laser fields can probe electrons in valence orbitals1,2,3 and their dynamics4,5,6 in the gas phase. Previous laser studies of solids have associated high-harmonic emission7,8,9,10,11,12 with the spatial arrangement of atoms

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Extensive signal integration by the phytohormone protein network
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Melina Altmann; Stefan Altmann; Patricia A. Rodriguez; Benjamin Weller; Lena Elorduy Vergara; Julius Palme; Nora Marín-de la Rosa; Mayra Sauer; Marion Wenig; José Antonio Villaécija-Aguilar; Jennifer Sales; Chung-Wen Lin; Ramakrishnan Pandiarajan; Veronika Young; Alexandra Strobel; Lisa Gross; Samy Carbonnel; Karl G. Kugler; Antoni Garcia-Molina; George W. Bassel; Claudia Falter; Klaus F. X. Mayer;

    Plant hormones coordinate responses to environmental cues with developmental programs1, and are fundamental for stress resilience and agronomic yield2. The core signalling pathways underlying the effects of phytohormones have been elucidated by genetic screens and hypothesis-driven approaches, and extended by interactome studies of select pathways3. However, fundamental questions remain about how information

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Systematic quantitative analysis of ribosome inventory during nutrient stress
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Heeseon An; Alban Ordureau; Maria Körner; Joao A. Paulo; J. Wade Harper

    Mammalian cells reorganize their proteomes in response to nutrient stress through translational suppression and degradative mechanisms using the proteasome and autophagy systems1,2. Ribosomes are central targets of this response, as they are responsible for translation and subject to lysosomal turnover during nutrient stress3,4,5. The abundance of ribosomal (r)-proteins (around 6% of the proteome;

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Physiological blood–brain transport is impaired with age by a shift in transcytosis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Andrew C. Yang; Marc Y. Stevens; Michelle B. Chen; Davis P. Lee; Daniel Stähli; David Gate; Kévin Contrepois; Winnie Chen; Tal Iram; Lichao Zhang; Ryan T. Vest; Aisling Chaney; Benoit Lehallier; Niclas Olsson; Haley du Bois; Ryan Hsieh; Haley C. Cropper; Daniela Berdnik; Lulin Li; Elizabeth Y. Wang; Gavin M. Traber; Carolyn R. Bertozzi; Jian Luo; Michael P. Snyder; Joshua E. Elias; Stephen R. Quake;

    The vascular interface of the brain, known as the blood–brain barrier (BBB), is understood to maintain brain function in part via its low transcellular permeability1,2,3. Yet, recent studies have demonstrated that brain ageing is sensitive to circulatory proteins4,5. Thus, it is unclear whether permeability to individually injected exogenous tracers—as is standard in BBB studies—fully represents blood-to-brain

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • A substrate-specific mTORC1 pathway underlies Birt–Hogg–Dubé syndrome
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Gennaro Napolitano; Chiara Di Malta; Alessandra Esposito; Mariana E. G. de Araujo; Salvatore Pece; Giovanni Bertalot; Maria Matarese; Valerio Benedetti; Angela Zampelli; Taras Stasyk; Diletta Siciliano; Alessandro Venuta; Marcella Cesana; Claudia Vilardo; Edoardo Nusco; Jlenia Monfregola; Alessia Calcagnì; Pier Paolo Di Fiore; Lukas A. Huber; Andrea Ballabio

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key metabolic hub that controls the cellular response to environmental cues by exerting its kinase activity on multiple substrates1,2,3. However, whether mTORC1 responds to diverse stimuli by differentially phosphorylating specific substrates is poorly understood. Here we show that transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Structure and flexibility in cortical representations of odour space
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Stan L. Pashkovski; Giuliano Iurilli; David Brann; Daniel Chicharro; Kristen Drummey; Kevin Franks; Stefano Panzeri; Sandeep Robert Datta

    The cortex organizes sensory information to enable discrimination and generalization1,2,3,4. As systematic representations of chemical odour space have not yet been described in the olfactory cortex, it remains unclear how odour relationships are encoded to place chemically distinct but similar odours, such as lemon and orange, into perceptual categories, such as citrus5,6,7. Here, by combining chemoinformatics

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Quantum correlations between light and the kilogram-mass mirrors of LIGO
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Haocun Yu; L. McCuller; M. Tse; N. Kijbunchoo; L. Barsotti; N. Mavalvala

    The measurement of minuscule forces and displacements with ever greater precision is inhibited by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which imposes a limit to the precision with which the position of an object can be measured continuously, known as the standard quantum limit1,2,3,4. When light is used as the probe, the standard quantum limit arises from the balance between the uncertainties of the

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Cryo-EM of elongating ribosome with EF-Tu•GTP elucidates tRNA proofreading
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Anna B. Loveland; Gabriel Demo; Andrei A. Korostelev

    Ribosomes accurately decode mRNA by proofreading each aminoacyl-tRNA that is delivered by the elongation factor EF-Tu1. To understand the molecular mechanism of this proofreading step it is necessary to visualize GTP-catalysed elongation, which has remained a challenge2,3,4. Here we use time-resolved cryogenic electron microscopy to reveal 33 ribosomal states after the delivery of aminoacyl-tRNA by

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Wapl repression by Pax5 promotes V gene recombination by Igh loop extrusion
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Louisa Hill; Anja Ebert; Markus Jaritz; Gordana Wutz; Kota Nagasaka; Hiromi Tagoh; Daniela Kostanova-Poliakova; Karina Schindler; Qiong Sun; Peter Bönelt; Maria Fischer; Jan-Michael Peters; Meinrad Busslinger

    Nuclear processes, such as V(D)J recombination, are orchestrated by the three-dimensional organization of chromosomes at multiple levels, including compartments1 and topologically associated domains (TADs)2,3 consisting of chromatin loops4. TADs are formed by chromatin-loop extrusion5,6,7, which depends on the loop-extrusion function of the ring-shaped cohesin complex8,9,10,11,12. Conversely, the cohesin-release

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Daily briefing: Pigs in China are widely infected with a risky swine-flu strain
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Flora Graham

    Scientists carrying out routine monitoring in China have found that pigs are widely infected with a virus with the potential to trigger a pandemic. Plus, cosmic rays could explain why DNA is right-handed, and quantum computers work better when no one’s around.

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Histone Acetyltransferase MOF Blocks Acquisition of Quiescence in Ground-State ESCs through Activating Fatty Acid Oxidation
    Cell Stem Cell (IF 20.86) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Le Tran Phuc Khoa; Yao-Chang Tsan; Fengbiao Mao; Daniel M. Kremer; Peter Sajjakulnukit; Li Zhang; Bo Zhou; Xin Tong; Natarajan V. Bhanu; Chunaram Choudhary; Benjamin A. Garcia; Lei Yin; Gary D. Smith; Thomas L. Saunders; Stephanie L. Bielas; Costas A. Lyssiotis; Yali Dou
    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Mitochondrial protein interaction landscape of SS-31.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Juan D Chavez,Xiaoting Tang,Matthew D Campbell,Gustavo Reyes,Philip A Kramer,Rudy Stuppard,Andrew Keller,Huiliang Zhang,Peter S Rabinovitch,David J Marcinek,James E Bruce

    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the etiology of a broad spectrum of diseases including heart disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and the general aging process. Therapeutics that restore healthy mitochondrial function hold promise for treatment of these conditions. The synthetic tetrapeptide, elamipretide (SS-31), improves mitochondrial function, but mechanistic details of its pharmacological

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Opinion: We need better data about the environmental persistence of plastic goods.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Collin P Ward,Christopher M Reddy

    Plastic pollution is one of the most visible and complex environmental issues today. Interested and concerned parties include researchers, governmental agencies, nongovernmental organizations, industry, media, and the general public. One key assumption behind the issue and the public outcry is that plastics last indefinitely in the environment, resulting in chronic exposure that harms animals and humans

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • The social context of nearest neighbors shapes educational attainment regardless of class origin.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Finn Hedefalk,Martin Dribe

    We study the association between sociospatial neighborhood conditions throughout childhood and educational attainment in adulthood. Using unique longitudinal microdata for a medium-sized Swedish town, we geocode its population at the address level, 1939 to 1967, and link individuals to national registers, 1968 to 2015. Thus, we adopt a long-term perspective on the importance of nearby neighbors during

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Lower socioeconomic status and the acceleration of aging: An outcome-wide analysis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Andrew Steptoe,Paola Zaninotto

    Aging involves decline in a range of functional abilities and phenotypes, many of which are also associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Here we assessed whether lower SES is a determinant of the rate of decline over 8 y in six domains—physical capability, sensory function, physiological function, cognitive performance, emotional well-being, and social function—in a sample of 5,018 men and women

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Changes in firearm mortality following the implementation of state laws regulating firearm access and use.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Terry L Schell,Matthew Cefalu,Beth Ann Griffin,Rosanna Smart,Andrew R Morral

    Although 39,000 individuals die annually from gunshots in the US, research examining the effects of laws designed to reduce these deaths has sometimes produced inconclusive or contradictory findings. We evaluated the effects on total firearm-related deaths of three classes of gun laws: child access prevention (CAP), right-to-carry (RTC), and stand your ground (SYG) laws. The analyses exploit changes

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • The ventral striatum dissociates information expectation, reward anticipation, and reward receipt.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Flavia Filimon,Jonathan D Nelson,Terrence J Sejnowski,Martin I Sereno,Garrison W Cottrell

    Do dopaminergic reward structures represent the expected utility of information similarly to a reward? Optimal experimental design models from Bayesian decision theory and statistics have proposed a theoretical framework for quantifying the expected value of information that might result from a query. In particular, this formulation quantifies the value of information before the answer to that query

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Scaling up behavioral science interventions in online education.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    René F Kizilcec,Justin Reich,Michael Yeomans,Christoph Dann,Emma Brunskill,Glenn Lopez,Selen Turkay,Joseph Jay Williams,Dustin Tingley

    Online education is rapidly expanding in response to rising demand for higher and continuing education, but many online students struggle to achieve their educational goals. Several behavioral science interventions have shown promise in raising student persistence and completion rates in a handful of courses, but evidence of their effectiveness across diverse educational contexts is limited. In this

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Vaccination as a social contract.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Lars Korn,Robert Böhm,Nicolas W Meier,Cornelia Betsch

    Most vaccines protect both the vaccinated individual and the society by reducing the transmission of infectious diseases. In order to eliminate infectious diseases, individuals need to consider social welfare beyond mere self-interest—regardless of ethnic, religious, or national group borders. It has therefore been proposed that vaccination poses a social contract in which individuals are morally obliged

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Temporal dynamics of sitting behavior at work.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Pam Ten Broeke,Merlijn Olthof,Debby G J Beckers,Nicola D Hopkins,Lee E F Graves,Sophie E Carter,Madeleine Cochrane,David Gavin,Abigail S Morris,Anna Lichtwarck-Aschoff,Sabine A E Geurts,Dick H J Thijssen,Erik Bijleveld

    Sitting for prolonged periods of time impairs people’s health. Prior research has mainly investigated sitting behavior on an aggregate level, for example, by analyzing total sitting time per day. By contrast, taking a dynamic approach, here we conceptualize sitting behavior as a continuous chain of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions. We use multilevel time-to-event analysis to analyze the timing

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Sustained representation of perspectival shape.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Jorge Morales,Axel Bax,Chaz Firestone

    Arguably the most foundational principle in perception research is that our experience of the world goes beyond the retinal image; we perceive the distal environment itself, not the proximal stimulation it causes. Shape may be the paradigm case of such “unconscious inference”: When a coin is rotated in depth, we infer the circular object it truly is, discarding the perspectival ellipse projected on

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Exaggerated meta-perceptions predict intergroup hostility between American political partisans.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Samantha L Moore-Berg,Lee-Or Ankori-Karlinsky,Boaz Hameiri,Emile Bruneau

    People’s actions toward a competitive outgroup can be motivated not only by their perceptions of the outgroup, but also by how they think the outgroup perceives the ingroup (i.e., meta-perceptions). Here, we examine the prevalence, accuracy, and consequences of meta-perceptions among American political partisans. Using a representative sample (n = 1,056) and a longitudinal convenience sample (n = 2

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Plastocyanin is the long-range electron carrier between photosystem II and photosystem I in plants.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Ricarda Höhner,Mathias Pribil,Miroslava Herbstová,Laura Susanna Lopez,Hans-Henning Kunz,Meng Li,Magnus Wood,Vaclav Svoboda,Sujith Puthiyaveetil,Dario Leister,Helmut Kirchhoff

    In photosynthetic electron transport, large multiprotein complexes are connected by small diffusible electron carriers, the mobility of which is challenged by macromolecular crowding. For thylakoid membranes of higher plants, a long-standing question has been which of the two mobile electron carriers, plastoquinone or plastocyanin, mediates electron transport from stacked grana thylakoids where photosystem

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Dynamic measurement of cytosolic pH and [NO3 -] uncovers the role of the vacuolar transporter AtCLCa in cytosolic pH homeostasis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Elsa Demes,Laetitia Besse,Paloma Cubero-Font,Béatrice Satiat-Jeunemaitre,Sébastien Thomine,Alexis De Angeli

    Ion transporters are key players of cellular processes. The mechanistic properties of ion transporters have been well elucidated by biophysical methods. Meanwhile, the understanding of their exact functions in cellular homeostasis is limited by the difficulty of monitoring their activity in vivo. The development of biosensors to track subtle changes in intracellular parameters provides invaluable tools

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Protein complex stoichiometry and expression dynamics of transcription factors modulate stem cell division.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Natalie M Clark,Adam P Fisher,Barbara Berckmans,Lisa Van den Broeck,Emily C Nelson,Thomas T Nguyen,Estefano Bustillo-Avendaño,Sophia G Zebell,Miguel A Moreno-Risueno,Rüdiger Simon,Kimberly L Gallagher,Rosangela Sozzani

    Stem cells divide and differentiate to form all of the specialized cell types in a multicellular organism. In the Arabidopsis root, stem cells are maintained in an undifferentiated state by a less mitotically active population of cells called the quiescent center (QC). Determining how the QC regulates the surrounding stem cell initials, or what makes the QC fundamentally different from the actively

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Wounding-induced changes in cellular pressure and localized auxin signalling spatially coordinate restorative divisions in roots.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Lukas Hoermayer,Juan Carlos Montesinos,Petra Marhava,Eva Benková,Saiko Yoshida,Jiří Friml

    Wound healing in plant tissues, consisting of rigid cell wall-encapsulated cells, represents a considerable challenge and occurs through largely unknown mechanisms distinct from those in animals. Owing to their inability to migrate, plant cells rely on targeted cell division and expansion to regenerate wounds. Strict coordination of these wound-induced responses is essential to ensure efficient, spatially

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • The 3' processing of antisense RNAs physically links to chromatin-based transcriptional control.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Xiaofeng Fang,Zhe Wu,Oleg Raitskin,Kimberly Webb,Philipp Voigt,Tiancong Lu,Martin Howard,Caroline Dean

    Noncoding RNA plays essential roles in transcriptional control and chromatin silencing. At Arabidopsis thaliana FLC, antisense transcription quantitatively influences transcriptional output, but the mechanism by which this occurs is still unclear. Proximal polyadenylation of the antisense transcripts by FCA, an RNA-binding protein that physically interacts with RNA 3′ processing factors, reduces FLC

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Abundant expression of maternal siRNAs is a conserved feature of seed development.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Jeffrey W Grover,Diane Burgess,Timmy Kendall,Abdul Baten,Suresh Pokhrel,Graham J King,Blake C Meyers,Michael Freeling,Rebecca A Mosher

    Small RNAs are abundant in plant reproductive tissues, especially 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Most 24-nt siRNAs are dependent on RNA Pol IV and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2) and establish DNA methylation at thousands of genomic loci in a process called RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). In Brassica rapa, RdDM is required in the maternal sporophyte for successful seed

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • EYES ABSENT and TIMELESS integrate photoperiodic and temperature cues to regulate seasonal physiology in Drosophila.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Antoine Abrieux,Yongbo Xue,Yao Cai,Kyle M Lewald,Hoang Nhu Nguyen,Yong Zhang,Joanna C Chiu

    Organisms possess photoperiodic timing mechanisms to detect variations in day length and temperature as the seasons progress. The nature of the molecular mechanisms interpreting and signaling these environmental changes to elicit downstream neuroendocrine and physiological responses are just starting to emerge. Here, we demonstrate that, in Drosophila melanogaster, EYES ABSENT (EYA) acts as a seasonal

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Supervised learning through physical changes in a mechanical system.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Menachem Stern,Chukwunonso Arinze,Leron Perez,Stephanie E Palmer,Arvind Murugan

    Mechanical metamaterials are usually designed to show desired responses to prescribed forces. In some applications, the desired force–response relationship is hard to specify exactly, but examples of forces and desired responses are easily available. Here, we propose a framework for supervised learning in thin, creased sheets that learn the desired force–response behavior by physically experiencing

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Molecular motor crossing the frontier of classical to quantum tunneling motion.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Samuel Stolz,Oliver Gröning,Jan Prinz,Harald Brune,Roland Widmer

    The reliability by which molecular motor proteins convert undirected energy input into directed motion or transport has inspired the design of innumerable artificial molecular motors. We have realized and investigated an artificial molecular motor applying scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which consists of a single acetylene (C2H2) rotor anchored to a chiral atomic cluster provided by a PdGa(111)

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Resolving the adsorption of molecular O2 on the rutile TiO2(110) surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Igor Sokolović,Michele Reticcioli,Martin Čalkovský,Margareta Wagner,Michael Schmid,Cesare Franchini,Ulrike Diebold,Martin Setvín

    Interaction of molecular oxygen with semiconducting oxide surfaces plays a key role in many technologies. The topic is difficult to approach both by experiment and in theory, mainly due to multiple stable charge states, adsorption configurations, and reaction channels of adsorbed oxygen species. Here we use a combination of noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) and density functional theory (DFT)

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Cascaded nanooptics to probe microsecond atomic-scale phenomena.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Marlous Kamp,Bart de Nijs,Nuttawut Kongsuwan,Matthias Saba,Rohit Chikkaraddy,Charlie A Readman,William M Deacon,Jack Griffiths,Steven J Barrow,Oluwafemi S Ojambati,Demelza Wright,Junyang Huang,Ortwin Hess,Oren A Scherman,Jeremy J Baumberg

    Plasmonic nanostructures can focus light far below the diffraction limit, and the nearly thousandfold field enhancements obtained routinely enable few- and single-molecule detection. However, for processes happening on the molecular scale to be tracked with any relevant time resolution, the emission strengths need to be well beyond what current plasmonic devices provide. Here, we develop hybrid nanostructures

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Power-law distribution of degree-degree distance: A better representation of the scale-free property of complex networks.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Bin Zhou,Xiangyi Meng,H Eugene Stanley

    Whether real-world complex networks are scale free or not has long been controversial. Recently, in Broido and Clauset [A. D. Broido, A. Clauset, Nat. Commun. 10, 1017 (2019)], it was claimed that the degree distributions of real-world networks are rarely power law under statistical tests. Here, we attempt to address this issue by defining a fundamental property possessed by each link, the degree–degree

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Atomic-scale electronic structure of the cuprate pair density wave state coexisting with superconductivity.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Peayush Choubey,Sang Hyun Joo,K Fujita,Zengyi Du,S D Edkins,M H Hamidian,H Eisaki,S Uchida,A P Mackenzie,Jinho Lee,J C Séamus Davis,P J Hirschfeld

    The defining characteristic of hole-doped cuprates is d-wave high temperature superconductivity. However, intense theoretical interest is now focused on whether a pair density wave state (PDW) could coexist with cuprate superconductivity [D. F. Agterberg et al., Annu. Rev. Condens. Matter Phys. 11, 231 (2020)]. Here, we use a strong-coupling mean-field theory of cuprates, to model the atomic-scale

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Endosomal signaling of delta opioid receptors is an endogenous mechanism and therapeutic target for relief from inflammatory pain.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Nestor N Jimenez-Vargas,Jing Gong,Matthew J Wisdom,Dane D Jensen,Rocco Latorre,Alan Hegron,Shavonne Teng,Jesse J DiCello,Pradeep Rajasekhar,Nicholas A Veldhuis,Simona E Carbone,Yang Yu,Cintya Lopez-Lopez,Josue Jaramillo-Polanco,Meritxell Canals,David E Reed,Alan E Lomax,Brian L Schmidt,Kam W Leong,Stephen J Vanner,Michelle L Halls,Nigel W Bunnett,Daniel P Poole

    Whether G protein-coupled receptors signal from endosomes to control important pathophysiological processes and are therapeutic targets is uncertain. We report that opioids from the inflamed colon activate δ-opioid receptors (DOPr) in endosomes of nociceptors. Biopsy samples of inflamed colonic mucosa from patients and mice with colitis released opioids that activated DOPr on nociceptors to cause a

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Functional imaging evidence for task-induced deactivation and disconnection of a major default mode network hub in the mouse brain.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Jeremy Ferrier,Elodie Tiran,Thomas Deffieux,Mickael Tanter,Zsolt Lenkei

    The default mode network (DMN) has been defined in functional brain imaging studies as a set of highly connected brain areas, which are active during wakeful rest and inactivated during task-based stimulation. DMN function is characteristically impaired in major neuropsychiatric diseases, emphasizing its interest for translational research. However, in the mouse, a major preclinical rodent model, there

    更新日期:2020-06-30
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