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  • Exploring whole-genome duplicate gene retention with complex genetic interaction analysis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Elena Kuzmin, Benjamin VanderSluis, Alex N. Nguyen Ba, Wen Wang, Elizabeth N. Koch, Matej Usaj, Anton Khmelinskii, Mojca Mattiazzi Usaj, Jolanda van Leeuwen, Oren Kraus, Amy Tresenrider, Michael Pryszlak, Ming-Che Hu, Brenda Varriano, Michael Costanzo, Michael Knop, Alan Moses, Chad L. Myers, Brenda J. Andrews, Charles Boone

    Whole-genome duplication has played a central role in the genome evolution of many organisms, including the human genome. Most duplicated genes are eliminated, and factors that influence the retention of persisting duplicates remain poorly understood. We describe a systematic complex genetic interaction analysis with yeast paralogs derived from the whole-genome duplication event. Mapping of digenic

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Flexible recruitment of memory-based choice representations by the human medial frontal cortex
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Juri Minxha, Ralph Adolphs, Stefano Fusi, Adam N. Mamelak, Ueli Rutishauser

    Decision-making in complex environments relies on flexibly using prior experience. This process depends on the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and the medial temporal lobe, but it remains unknown how these structures implement selective memory retrieval. We recorded single neurons in the MFC, amygdala, and hippocampus while human subjects switched between making recognition memory–based and categorization-based

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Muscle and neuronal guidepost-like cells facilitate planarian visual system regeneration
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    M. Lucila Scimone, Kutay D. Atabay, Christopher T. Fincher, Ashley R. Bonneau, Dayan J. Li, Peter W. Reddien

    Neuronal circuits damaged or lost after injury can be regenerated in some adult organisms, but the mechanisms enabling this process are largely unknown. We used the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea to study visual system regeneration after injury. We identify a rare population of muscle cells tightly associated with photoreceptor axons at stereotyped positions in both uninjured and regenerating animals

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Structural basis for inhibition of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from SARS-CoV-2 by remdesivir.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Wanchao Yin,Chunyou Mao,Xiaodong Luan,Dan-Dan Shen,Qingya Shen,Haixia Su,Xiaoxi Wang,Fulai Zhou,Wenfeng Zhao,Minqi Gao,Shenghai Chang,Yuan-Chao Xie,Guanghui Tian,He-Wei Jiang,Sheng-Ce Tao,Jingshan Shen,Yi Jiang,Hualiang Jiang,Yechun Xu,Shuyang Zhang,Yan Zhang,H Eric Xu

    The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global crisis. Replication of SARS-CoV-2 requires the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme, a target of the antiviral drug remdesivir. Here we report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, both in the apo form at 2.8-angstrom resolution

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Arctic-adapted dogs emerged at the Pleistocene–Holocene transition
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Mikkel-Holger S. Sinding, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Marc de Manuel, Vladimir V. Pitulko, Lukas Kuderna, Tatiana R. Feuerborn, Laurent A. F. Frantz, Filipe G. Vieira, Jonas Niemann, Jose A. Samaniego Castruita, Christian Carøe, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg, Peter D. Jordan, Elena Y. Pavlova, Pavel A. Nikolskiy, Aleksei K. Kasparov, Varvara V. Ivanova, Eske Willerslev, Pontus Skoglund

    Although sled dogs are one of the most specialized groups of dogs, their origin and evolution has received much less attention than many other dog groups. We applied a genomic approach to investigate their spatiotemporal emergence by sequencing the genomes of 10 modern Greenland sled dogs, an ~9500-year-old Siberian dog associated with archaeological evidence for sled technology, and an ~33,000-year-old

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Quieting a noisy antenna reproduces photosynthetic light-harvesting spectra
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Trevor B. Arp, Jed Kistner-Morris, Vivek Aji, Richard J. Cogdell, Rienk van Grondelle, Nathaniel M. Gabor

    Photosynthesis achieves near unity light-harvesting quantum efficiency yet it remains unknown whether there exists a fundamental organizing principle giving rise to robust light harvesting in the presence of dynamic light conditions and noisy physiological environments. Here, we present a noise-canceling network model that relates noisy physiological conditions, power conversion efficiency, and the

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Metalens-array–based high-dimensional and multiphoton quantum source
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Lin Li, Zexuan Liu, Xifeng Ren, Shuming Wang, Vin-Cent Su, Mu-Ku Chen, Cheng Hung Chu, Hsin Yu Kuo, Biheng Liu, Wenbo Zang, Guangcan Guo, Lijian Zhang, Zhenlin Wang, Shining Zhu, Din Ping Tsai

    The development of two-dimensional metasurfaces has shown great potential in quantum-optical technologies because of the excellent flexibility in light-field manipulation. By integrating a metalens array with a nonlinear crystal, we demonstrate a 100-path spontaneous parametric down-conversion photon-pair source in a 10 × 10 array, which shows promise for high-dimensional entanglement and multiphoton-state

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Changes in contact patterns shape the dynamics of the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Juanjuan Zhang,Maria Litvinova,Yuxia Liang,Yan Wang,Wei Wang,Shanlu Zhao,Qianhui Wu,Stefano Merler,Cécile Viboud,Alessandro Vespignani,Marco Ajelli,Hongjie Yu

    Intense nonpharmaceutical interventions were put in place in China to stop transmission of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As transmission intensifies in other countries, the interplay between age, contact patterns, social distancing, susceptibility to infection, and COVID-19 dynamics remains unclear. To answer these questions, we analyze contact survey data for Wuhan and Shanghai before

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • A multiplanet system of super-Earths orbiting the brightest red dwarf star GJ 887
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    S. V. Jeffers, S. Dreizler, J. R. Barnes, C. A. Haswell, R. P. Nelson, E. Rodríguez, M. J. López-González, N. Morales, R. Luque, M. Zechmeister, S. S. Vogt, J. S. Jenkins, E. Palle, Z. M. Berdi ñas, G. A. L. Coleman, M. R. Díaz, I. Ribas, H. R. A. Jones, R. P. Butler, C. G. Tinney, J. Bailey, B. D. Carter, S. O’Toole, R. A. Wittenmyer, J. D. Crane, F. Feng, S. A. Shectman, J. Teske, A. Reiners, P.

    The closet exoplanets to the Sun provide opportunities for detailed characterization of planets outside the Solar System. We report the discovery, using radial velocity measurements, of a compact multiplanet system of super-Earth exoplanets orbiting the nearby red dwarf star GJ 887. The two planets have orbital periods of 9.3 and 21.8 days. Assuming an Earth-like albedo, the equilibrium temperature

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Micelle-directed chiral seeded growth on anisotropic gold nanocrystals
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Guillermo González-Rubio, Jesús Mosquera, Vished Kumar, Adrián Pedrazo-Tardajos, Pablo Llombart, Diego M. Solís, Ivan Lobato, Eva G. Noya, Andrés Guerrero-Martínez, José M. Taboada, Fernando Obelleiro, Luis G. MacDowell, Sara Bals, Luis M. Liz-Marzán

    Surfactant-assisted seeded growth of metal nanoparticles (NPs) can be engineered to produce anisotropic gold nanocrystals with high chiroptical activity through the templating effect of chiral micelles formed in the presence of dissymmetric cosurfactants. Mixed micelles adsorb on gold nanorods, forming quasihelical patterns that direct seeded growth into NPs with pronounced morphological and optical

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Meridional flow in the Sun’s convection zone is a single cell in each hemisphere
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Laurent Gizon, Robert H. Cameron, Majid Pourabdian, Zhi-Chao Liang, Damien Fournier, Aaron C. Birch, Chris S. Hanson

    The Sun’s magnetic field is generated by subsurface motions of the convecting plasma. The latitude at which the magnetic field emerges through the solar surface (as sunspots) drifts toward the equator over the course of the 11-year solar cycle. We use helioseismology to infer the meridional flow (in the latitudinal and radial directions) over two solar cycles covering 1996–2019. Two data sources are

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Mass-resolved electronic circular dichroism ion spectroscopy
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Steven Daly, Frédéric Rosu, Valérie Gabelica

    DNA and proteins are chiral: Their three-dimensional structures cannot be superimposed with their mirror images. Circular dichroism spectroscopy is widely used to characterize chiral compounds, but data interpretation is difficult in the case of mixtures. We recorded the electronic circular dichroism spectra of DNA helices separated in a mass spectrometer. We studied guanine-rich strands having various

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Mechanisms of OCT4-SOX2 motif readout on nucleosomes.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Alicia K Michael,Ralph S Grand,Luke Isbel,Simone Cavadini,Zuzanna Kozicka,Georg Kempf,Richard D Bunker,Andreas D Schenk,Alexandra Graff-Meyer,Ganesh R Pathare,Joscha Weiss,Syota Matsumoto,Lukas Burger,Dirk Schübeler,Nicolas H Thomä

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate gene expression through chromatin where nucleosomes restrict DNA access. To study how TFs bind nucleosome-occupied motifs, we focused on the reprogramming factors OCT4 and SOX2 in mouse embryonic stem cells. We determined TF engagement throughout a nucleosome at base-pair resolution in vitro, enabling structure determination by cryo–electron microscopy at two preferred

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Cryo-EM structure of the human cohesin-NIPBL-DNA complex.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Zhubing Shi,Haishan Gao,Xiao-Chen Bai,Hongtao Yu

    As a ring-shaped adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) machine, cohesin organizes the eukaryotic genome by extruding DNA loops and mediates sister chromatid cohesion by topologically entrapping DNA. How cohesin executes these fundamental DNA transactions is not understood. Using cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we determined the structure of human cohesin bound to its loader NIPBL and DNA at medium

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Single-molecule regulatory architectures captured by chromatin fiber sequencing
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Andrew B. Stergachis, Brian M. Debo, Eric Haugen, L. Stirling Churchman, John A. Stamatoyannopoulos

    Gene regulation is chiefly determined at the level of individual linear chromatin molecules, yet our current understanding of cis-regulatory architectures derives from fragmented sampling of large numbers of disparate molecules. We developed an approach for precisely stenciling the structure of individual chromatin fibers onto their composite DNA templates using nonspecific DNA N6-adenine methyltransferases

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Rational synthesis of atomically precise graphene nanoribbons directly on metal oxide surfaces
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    M. Kolmer, A.K. Steiner, I. Izydorczyk, W. Ko, M. Engelund, M. Szymonski, A.-P. Li, K. Amsharov

    Atomically precise graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) attract great interest because of their highly tunable electronic, optical, and transport properties. However, on-surface synthesis of GNRs is typically based on metal-surface assisted chemical reactions, where metallic substrates strongly screen their designer electronic properties and limit further applications. Here, we present an on-surface synthesis

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Structural insight into precursor ribosomal RNA processing by ribonuclease MRP
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Pengfei Lan, Bin Zhou, Ming Tan, Shaobai Li, Mi Cao, Jian Wu, Ming Lei

    Ribonuclease (RNase) MRP is a conserved eukaryotic ribonucleoprotein complex that plays essential roles in pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing and cell cycle regulation. In contrast to RNase P, which selectively cleaves tRNA-like substrates, it has remained a mystery how RNase MRP recognizes its diverse substrates. To address this question, we determined cryo-EM structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Estimating the burden of SARS-CoV-2 in France.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Henrik Salje,Cécile Tran Kiem,Noémie Lefrancq,Noémie Courtejoie,Paolo Bosetti,Juliette Paireau,Alessio Andronico,Nathanaël Hozé,Jehanne Richet,Claire-Lise Dubost,Yann Le Strat,Justin Lessler,Daniel Levy-Bruhl,Arnaud Fontanet,Lulla Opatowski,Pierre-Yves Boelle,Simon Cauchemez

    France has been heavily affected by the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and went into lockdown on the 17 March 2020. Using models applied to hospital and death data, we estimate the impact of the lockdown and current population immunity. We find 3.6% of infected individuals are hospitalized and 0.7% die, ranging from 0.001% in those <20 years of age (ya) to 10.1% in those >80ya. Across all ages, men are more likely

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • A mathematical model reveals the influence of population heterogeneity on herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Tom Britton, Frank Ball, Pieter Trapman

    Despite various levels of preventive measures, in 2020 many countries have suffered severely from the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. We show that population heterogeneity can significantly impact disease-induced immunity as the proportion infected in groups with the highest contact rates is greater than in groups

    更新日期:2020-06-24
  • A neutralizing human antibody binds to the N-terminal domain of the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Xiangyang Chi,Renhong Yan,Jun Zhang,Guanying Zhang,Yuanyuan Zhang,Meng Hao,Zhe Zhang,Pengfei Fan,Yunzhu Dong,Yilong Yang,Zhengshan Chen,Yingying Guo,Jinlong Zhang,Yaning Li,Xiaohong Song,Yi Chen,Lu Xia,Ling Fu,Lihua Hou,Junjie Xu,Changming Yu,Jianmin Li,Qiang Zhou,Wei Chen

    Developing therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2 could be guided by the distribution of epitopes, not only on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) protein, but also across the full Spike (S) protein. We isolated and characterized monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from ten convalescent COVID-19 patients. Three mAbs showed neutralizing activities against authentic SARS-CoV-2. An mAb, named 4A8, exhibits

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Climate-driven risks to the climate mitigation potential of forests.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    William R L Anderegg,Anna T Trugman,Grayson Badgley,Christa M Anderson,Ann Bartuska,Philippe Ciais,Danny Cullenward,Christopher B Field,Jeremy Freeman,Scott J Goetz,Jeffrey A Hicke,Deborah Huntzinger,Robert B Jackson,John Nickerson,Stephen Pacala,James T Randerson

    Forests have considerable potential to help mitigate human-caused climate change and provide society with many cobenefits. However, climate-driven risks may fundamentally compromise forest carbon sinks in the 21st century. Here, we synthesize the current understanding of climate-driven risks to forest stability from fire, drought, biotic agents, and other disturbances. We review how efforts to use

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Meissner corpuscles and their spatially intermingled afferents underlie gentle touch perception.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Nicole L Neubarth,Alan J Emanuel,Yin Liu,Mark W Springel,Annie Handler,Qiyu Zhang,Brendan P Lehnert,Chong Guo,Lauren L Orefice,Amira Abdelaziz,Michelle M DeLisle,Michael Iskols,Julia Rhyins,Soo J Kim,Stuart J Cattel,Wade Regehr,Christopher D Harvey,Jan Drugowitsch,David D Ginty

    Meissner corpuscles are mechanosensory end organs that densely occupy mammalian glabrous skin. We generated mice that selectively lacked Meissner corpuscles and found them to be deficient in both perceiving the gentlest detectable forces acting on glabrous skin and fine sensorimotor control. We found that Meissner corpuscles are innervated by two mechanoreceptor subtypes that exhibit distinct responses

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of encapsulated stable perovskite solar cells.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Lei Shi,Martin P Bucknall,Trevor L Young,Meng Zhang,Long Hu,Jueming Bing,Da Seul Lee,Jincheol Kim,Tom Wu,Noboru Takamure,David R McKenzie,Shujuan Huang,Martin A Green,Anita W Y Ho-Baillie

    Although perovskite solar cells have produced remarkable energy conversion efficiencies, they cannot become commercially viable without improvements in durability. We used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to reveal signature volatile products of the decomposition of organic hybrid perovskites under thermal stress. In addition, we were able to use GC-MS to confirm that a low-cost polymer/glass

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Manipulating synthetic optogenetic odors reveals the coding logic of olfactory perception.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Edmund Chong,Monica Moroni,Christopher Wilson,Shy Shoham,Stefano Panzeri,Dmitry Rinberg

    How does neural activity generate perception? Finding the combinations of spatial or temporal activity features (such as neuron identity or latency) that are consequential for perception remains challenging. We trained mice to recognize synthetic odors constructed from parametrically defined patterns of optogenetic activation, then measured perceptual changes during extensive and controlled perturbations

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Partitioning of cancer therapeutics in nuclear condensates.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Isaac A Klein,Ann Boija,Lena K Afeyan,Susana Wilson Hawken,Mengyang Fan,Alessandra Dall'Agnese,Ozgur Oksuz,Jonathan E Henninger,Krishna Shrinivas,Benjamin R Sabari,Ido Sagi,Victoria E Clark,Jesse M Platt,Mrityunjoy Kar,Patrick M McCall,Alicia V Zamudio,John C Manteiga,Eliot L Coffey,Charles H Li,Nancy M Hannett,Yang Eric Guo,Tim-Michael Decker,Tong Ihn Lee,Tinghu Zhang,Jing-Ke Weng,Dylan J Taatjes

    The nucleus contains diverse phase-separated condensates that compartmentalize and concentrate biomolecules with distinct physicochemical properties. Here, we investigated whether condensates concentrate small-molecule cancer therapeutics such that their pharmacodynamic properties are altered. We found that antineoplastic drugs become concentrated in specific protein condensates in vitro and that this

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Structural evidence for a dynamic metallocofactor during N2 reduction by Mo-nitrogenase.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Wonchull Kang,Chi Chung Lee,Andrew J Jasniewski,Markus W Ribbe,Yilin Hu

    The enzyme nitrogenase uses a suite of complex metallocofactors to reduce dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia. Mechanistic details of this reaction remain sparse. We report a 1.83-angstrom crystal structure of the nitrogenase molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein captured under physiological N2 turnover conditions. This structure reveals asymmetric displacements of the cofactor belt sulfurs (S2B or S3A and S5A) with

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Information arms race explains plant-herbivore chemical communication in ecological communities.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Pengjuan Zu,Karina Boege,Ek Del-Val,Meredith C Schuman,Philip C Stevenson,Alejandro Zaldivar-Riverón,Serguei Saavedra

    Plants emit an extraordinary diversity of chemicals that provide information about their identity and mediate their interactions with insects. However, most studies of this have focused on a few model species in controlled environments, limiting our capacity to understand plant-insect chemical communication in ecological communities. Here, by integrating information theory with ecological and evolutionary

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria induce multimorbidity and premature senescence.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Gabriela Desdín-Micó,Gonzalo Soto-Heredero,Juan Francisco Aranda,Jorge Oller,Elisa Carrasco,Enrique Gabandé-Rodríguez,Eva Maria Blanco,Arantzazu Alfranca,Lorena Cussó,Manuel Desco,Borja Ibañez,Arancha R Gortazar,Pablo Fernández-Marcos,Maria N Navarro,Bruno Hernaez,Antonio Alcamí,Francesc Baixauli,María Mittelbrunn

    The effect of immunometabolism on age-associated diseases remains uncertain. In this work, we show that T cells with dysfunctional mitochondria owing to mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) deficiency act as accelerators of senescence. In mice, these cells instigate multiple aging-related features, including metabolic, cognitive, physical, and cardiovascular alterations, which together result

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Measles virus and rinderpest virus divergence dated to the sixth century BCE.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Ariane Düx,Sebastian Lequime,Livia Victoria Patrono,Bram Vrancken,Sengül Boral,Jan F Gogarten,Antonia Hilbig,David Horst,Kevin Merkel,Baptiste Prepoint,Sabine Santibanez,Jasmin Schlotterbeck,Marc A Suchard,Markus Ulrich,Navena Widulin,Annette Mankertz,Fabian H Leendertz,Kyle Harper,Thomas Schnalke,Philippe Lemey,Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer

    Many infectious diseases are thought to have emerged in humans after the Neolithic revolution. Although it is broadly accepted that this also applies to measles, the exact date of emergence for this disease is controversial. We sequenced the genome of a 1912 measles virus and used selection-aware molecular clock modeling to determine the divergence date of measles virus and rinderpest virus. This divergence

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Rapid implementation of mobile technology for real-time epidemiology of COVID-19.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    David A Drew,Long H Nguyen,Claire J Steves,Cristina Menni,Maxim Freydin,Thomas Varsavsky,Carole H Sudre,M Jorge Cardoso,Sebastien Ourselin,Jonathan Wolf,Tim D Spector,Andrew T Chan,

    The rapid pace of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents challenges to the robust collection of population-scale data to address this global health crisis. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) Consortium to unite scientists with expertise in big data research and epidemiology to develop

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • 3D fault architecture controls the dynamism of earthquake swarms.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Zachary E Ross,Elizabeth S Cochran,Daniel T Trugman,Jonathan D Smith

    The vibrant evolutionary patterns made by earthquake swarms are incompatible with standard, effectively two-dimensional (2D) models for general fault architecture. We leverage advances in earthquake monitoring with a deep-learning algorithm to image a fault zone hosting a 4-year-long swarm in southern California. We infer that fluids are naturally injected into the fault zone from below and diffuse

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Microfluidic electrochemistry for single-electron transfer redox-neutral reactions.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Yiming Mo,Zhaohong Lu,Girish Rughoobur,Prashant Patil,Neil Gershenfeld,Akintunde I Akinwande,Stephen L Buchwald,Klavs F Jensen

    Electrochemistry offers opportunities to promote single-electron transfer (SET) redox-neutral chemistries similar to those recently discovered using visible-light photocatalysis but without the use of an expensive photocatalyst. Herein, we introduce a microfluidic redox-neutral electrochemistry (μRN-eChem) platform that has broad applicability to SET chemistry, including radical-radical cross-coupling

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Making ultrastrong steel tough by grain-boundary delamination.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    L Liu,Qin Yu,Z Wang,Jon Ell,M X Huang,Robert O Ritchie

    Developing ultrahigh-strength steels that are ductile, fracture resistant, and cost effective would be attractive for a variety of structural applications. We show that improved fracture resistance in a steel with an ultrahigh yield strength of nearly 2 gigapascals can be achieved by activating delamination toughening coupled with transformation-induced plasticity. Delamination toughening associated

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Landscape-scale forest loss as a catalyst of population and biodiversity change.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Gergana N Daskalova,Isla H Myers-Smith,Anne D Bjorkman,Shane A Blowes,Sarah R Supp,Anne E Magurran,Maria Dornelas

    Global biodiversity assessments have highlighted land-use change as a key driver of biodiversity change. However, there is little empirical evidence of how habitat transformations such as forest loss and gain are reshaping biodiversity over time. We quantified how change in forest cover has influenced temporal shifts in populations and ecological assemblages from 6090 globally distributed time series

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Different genetic barriers for resistance to HA stem antibodies in influenza H3 and H1 viruses.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Nicholas C Wu,Andrew J Thompson,Juhye M Lee,Wen Su,Britni M Arlian,Jia Xie,Richard A Lerner,Hui-Ling Yen,Jesse D Bloom,Ian A Wilson

    The discovery and characterization of broadly neutralizing human antibodies (bnAbs) to the highly conserved stem region of influenza hemagglutinin (HA) have contributed to considerations of a universal influenza vaccine. However, the potential for resistance to stem bnAbs also needs to be more thoroughly evaluated. Using deep mutational scanning, with a focus on epitope residues, we found that the

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Structure-based design of antiviral drug candidates targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Wenhao Dai,Bing Zhang,Xia-Ming Jiang,Haixia Su,Jian Li,Yao Zhao,Xiong Xie,Zhenming Jin,Jingjing Peng,Fengjiang Liu,Chunpu Li,You Li,Fang Bai,Haofeng Wang,Xi Cheng,Xiaobo Cen,Shulei Hu,Xiuna Yang,Jiang Wang,Xiang Liu,Gengfu Xiao,Hualiang Jiang,Zihe Rao,Lei-Ke Zhang,Yechun Xu,Haitao Yang,Hong Liu

    SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is the etiological agent responsible for the global COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) outbreak. The main protease of SARS-CoV-2, Mpro, is a key enzyme that plays a pivotal role in mediating viral replication and transcription. We designed and synthesized two lead compounds (11a and 11b) targeting Mpro. Both exhibited excellent inhibitory

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Human-specific ARHGAP11B increases size and folding of primate neocortex in the fetal marmoset.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Michael Heide,Christiane Haffner,Ayako Murayama,Yoko Kurotaki,Haruka Shinohara,Hideyuki Okano,Erika Sasaki,Wieland B Huttner

    The neocortex has expanded during mammalian evolution. Overexpression studies in developing mouse and ferret neocortex have implicated the human-specific gene ARHGAP11B in neocortical expansion, but the relevance for primate evolution has been unclear. Here, we provide functional evidence that ARHGAP11B causes expansion of the primate neocortex. ARHGAP11B expressed in fetal neocortex of the common

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Direct reversible decarboxylation from stable organic acids in dimethylformamide solution.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Duanyang Kong,Patrick J Moon,Erica K J Lui,Odey Bsharat,Rylan J Lundgren

    Many classical and emerging methodologies in organic chemistry rely on CO2 extrusion to generate reactive intermediates for bond-forming events. Synthetic reactions that involve the microscopic reverse, the carboxylation of reactive intermediates, have conventionally been undertaken using very different conditions. We report that chemically stable C(sp3) carboxylates, such as arylacetic acids and malonate

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Cooling and entangling ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Bing Yang,Hui Sun,Chun-Jiong Huang,Han-Yi Wang,Youjin Deng,Han-Ning Dai,Zhen-Sheng Yuan,Jian-Wei Pan

    Scalable, coherent many-body systems can enable the realization of previously unexplored quantum phases and have a potential to exponentially speed up information processing. Here we report the cooling of a quantum simulator with ten thousand atoms and mass production of high-fidelity entangled pairs. In a two-dimensional plane, we cool Mott-insulator samples by immersing them into removable superfluid

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Unexpected air pollution with marked emission reductions during the COVID-19 outbreak in China.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Tianhao Le,Yuan Wang,Lang Liu,Jiani Yang,Yuk L Yung,Guohui Li,John H Seinfeld

    The absence of motor vehicle traffic and suspended manufacturing during the COVID-19 pandemic in China produced a unique experiment to assess the efficiency of air pollution mitigation. Up to 90% reduction of certain emissions during the city-lockdown period can be identified from satellite and ground-based observations. Unexpectedly, extreme particulate matter levels simultaneously occurred in northern

    更新日期:2020-06-18
  • Potent neutralizing antibodies from COVID-19 patients define multiple targets of vulnerability.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Philip J M Brouwer,Tom G Caniels,Karlijn van der Straten,Jonne L Snitselaar,Yoann Aldon,Sandhya Bangaru,Jonathan L Torres,Nisreen M A Okba,Mathieu Claireaux,Gius Kerster,Arthur E H Bentlage,Marlies M van Haaren,Denise Guerra,Judith A Burger,Edith E Schermer,Kirsten D Verheul,Niels van der Velde,Alex van der Kooi,Jelle van Schooten,Mariëlle J van Breemen,Tom P L Bijl,Kwinten Sliepen,Aafke Aartse,Ronald

    The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has a significant impact on global health, travel and economy. Therefore, preventative and therapeutic measures are urgently needed. Here, we isolated monoclonal antibodies from three convalescent COVID-19 patients using a SARS-CoV-2 stabilized prefusion spike protein. These antibodies had low levels of somatic hypermutation and showed a strong enrichment in VH1-69, VH3-30-3

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Broad neutralization of SARS-related viruses by human monoclonal antibodies.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Anna Z Wec,Daniel Wrapp,Andrew S Herbert,Daniel P Maurer,Denise Haslwanter,Mrunal Sakharkar,Rohit K Jangra,M Eugenia Dieterle,Asparouh Lilov,Deli Huang,Longping V Tse,Nicole V Johnson,Ching-Lin Hsieh,Nianshuang Wang,Juergen H Nett,Elizabeth Champney,Irina Burnina,Michael Brown,Shu Lin,Melanie Sinclair,Carl Johnson,Sarat Pudi,Robert Bortz,Ariel S Wirchnianski,Ethan Laudermilch,Catalina Florez,J Maximilian

    Broadly protective vaccines against known and pre-emergent human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are urgently needed. To gain a deeper understanding of cross-neutralizing antibody responses, we mined the memory B cell repertoire of a convalescent SARS donor and identified 200 SARS-CoV-2 binding antibodies that target multiple conserved sites on the spike (S) protein. A large proportion of the non-neutralizing

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Isolation of potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies and protection from disease in a small animal model.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Thomas F Rogers,Fangzhu Zhao,Deli Huang,Nathan Beutler,Alison Burns,Wan-Ting He,Oliver Limbo,Chloe Smith,Ge Song,Jordan Woehl,Linlin Yang,Robert K Abbott,Sean Callaghan,Elijah Garcia,Jonathan Hurtado,Mara Parren,Linghang Peng,Sydney Ramirez,James Ricketts,Michael J Ricciardi,Stephen A Rawlings,Nicholas C Wu,Meng Yuan,Davey M Smith,David Nemazee,John R Teijaro,James E Voss,Ian A Wilson,Raiees Andrabi

    Countermeasures to prevent and treat COVID-19 are a global health priority. We enrolled a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-recovered participants, developed neutralization assays to interrogate antibody responses, adapted our high-throughput antibody generation pipeline to rapidly screen over 1800 antibodies, and established an animal model to test protection. We isolated potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs)

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Studies in humanized mice and convalescent humans yield a SARS-CoV-2 antibody cocktail.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Johanna Hansen,Alina Baum,Kristen E Pascal,Vincenzo Russo,Stephanie Giordano,Elzbieta Wloga,Benjamin O Fulton,Ying Yan,Katrina Koon,Krunal Patel,Kyung Min Chung,Aynur Hermann,Erica Ullman,Jonathan Cruz,Ashique Rafique,Tammy Huang,Jeanette Fairhurst,Christen Libertiny,Marine Malbec,Wen-Yi Lee,Richard Welsh,Glen Farr,Seth Pennington,Dipali Deshpande,Jemmie Cheng,Anke Watty,Pascal Bouffard,Robert Babb

    Neutralizing antibodies have become an important tool in treating infectious diseases. Recently, two separate approaches yielded successful antibody treatments for Ebola – one from genetically-humanized mice, and the other from a human survivor. Here, we describe parallel efforts using both humanized mice and convalescent patients to generate antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, yielding

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Antibody cocktail to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein prevents rapid mutational escape seen with individual antibodies.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Alina Baum,Benjamin O Fulton,Elzbieta Wloga,Richard Copin,Kristen E Pascal,Vincenzo Russo,Stephanie Giordano,Kathryn Lanza,Nicole Negron,Min Ni,Yi Wei,Gurinder S Atwal,Andrew J Murphy,Neil Stahl,George D Yancopoulos,Christos A Kyratsous

    Antibodies targeting the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 present a promising approach to combat the COVID19 pandemic; however, concerns remain that mutations can yield antibody resistance. We investigate the development of resistance against four antibodies to the spike protein that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2, individually as well as when combined into cocktails. These antibodies remain effective against

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Linking glutamate receptor movements and synapse function.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Laurent Groc,Daniel Choquet

    Regulation of neurotransmitter receptor content at synapses is achieved through a dynamic equilibrium between biogenesis and degradation pathways, receptor stabilization at synaptic sites, and receptor trafficking in and out synapses. In the past 20 years, the movements of receptors to and from synapses have emerged as a series of highly regulated processes that mediate postsynaptic plasticity. Our

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • A genetic mechanism for sexual dichromatism in birds.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Małgorzata A Gazda,Pedro M Araújo,Ricardo J Lopes,Matthew B Toomey,Pedro Andrade,Sandra Afonso,Cristiana Marques,Luís Nunes,Paulo Pereira,Sandra Trigo,Geoffrey E Hill,Joseph C Corbo,Miguel Carneiro

    Sexual dichromatism, a difference in coloration between males and females, may be due to sexual selection for ornamentation and mate choice. Here, we show that carotenoid-based dichromatism in mosaic canaries, a hybrid phenotype that arises in offspring of the sexually dichromatic red siskin and monochromatic canaries, is controlled by the gene that encodes the carotenoid-cleaving enzyme β-carotene

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Very fast CRISPR on demand.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Yang Liu,Roger S Zou,Shuaixin He,Yuta Nihongaki,Xiaoguang Li,Shiva Razavi,Bin Wu,Taekjip Ha

    CRISPR-Cas systems provide versatile tools for programmable genome editing. Here, we developed a caged RNA strategy that allows Cas9 to bind DNA but not cleave until light-induced activation. This approach, referred to as very fast CRISPR (vfCRISPR), creates double-strand breaks (DSBs) at the submicrometer and second scales. Synchronized cleavage improved kinetic analysis of DNA repair, revealing that

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Plastic rain in protected areas of the United States.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Janice Brahney,Margaret Hallerud,Eric Heim,Maura Hahnenberger,Suja Sukumaran

    Eleven billion metric tons of plastic are projected to accumulate in the environment by 2025. Because plastics are persistent, they fragment into pieces that are susceptible to wind entrainment. Using high-resolution spatial and temporal data, we tested whether plastics deposited in wet versus dry conditions have distinct atmospheric life histories. Further, we report on the rates and sources of deposition

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Disordered proteins follow diverse transition paths as they fold and bind to a partner.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Jae-Yeol Kim,Hoi Sung Chung

    Transition paths of macromolecular conformational changes such as protein folding are predicted to be heterogeneous. However, experimental characterization of the diversity of transition paths is extremely challenging because it requires measuring more than one distance during individual transitions. In this work, we used fast three-color single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer spectroscopy

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • A precise polyrotaxane synthesizer.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Yunyan Qiu,Bo Song,Cristian Pezzato,Dengke Shen,Wenqi Liu,Long Zhang,Yuanning Feng,Qing-Hui Guo,Kang Cai,Weixingyue Li,Hongliang Chen,Minh T Nguyen,Yi Shi,Chuyang Cheng,R Dean Astumian,Xiaopeng Li,J Fraser Stoddart

    Mechanically interlocked molecules are likely candidates for the design and synthesis of artificial molecular machines. Although polyrotaxanes have already found niche applications in exotic materials with specialized mechanical properties, efficient synthetic protocols to produce them with precise numbers of rings encircling their polymer dumbbells are still lacking. We report the assembly line–like

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Cascading social-ecological costs and benefits triggered by a recovering keystone predator.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Edward J Gregr,Villy Christensen,Linda Nichol,Rebecca G Martone,Russell W Markel,Jane C Watson,Christopher D G Harley,Evgeny A Pakhomov,Jonathan B Shurin,Kai M A Chan

    Predator recovery often leads to ecosystem change that can trigger conflicts with more recently established human activities. In the eastern North Pacific, recovering sea otters are transforming coastal systems by reducing populations of benthic invertebrates and releasing kelp forests from grazing pressure. These changes threaten established shellfish fisheries and modify a variety of other ecosystem

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • h/e oscillations in interlayer transport of delafossites.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Carsten Putzke,Maja D Bachmann,Philippa McGuinness,Elina Zhakina,Veronika Sunko,Marcin Konczykowski,Takashi Oka,Roderich Moessner,Ady Stern,Markus König,Seunghyun Khim,Andrew P Mackenzie,Philip J W Moll

    Microstructures can be carefully designed to reveal the quantum phase of the wave-like nature of electrons in a metal. Here, we report phase-coherent oscillations of out-of-plane magnetoresistance in the layered delafossites PdCoO2 and PtCoO2. The oscillation period is equivalent to that determined by the magnetic flux quantum, h/e, threading an area defined by the atomic interlayer separation and

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Chloride-mediated selective electrosynthesis of ethylene and propylene oxides at high current density.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Wan Ru Leow,Yanwei Lum,Adnan Ozden,Yuhang Wang,Dae-Hyun Nam,Bin Chen,Joshua Wicks,Tao-Tao Zhuang,Fengwang Li,David Sinton,Edward H Sargent

    Chemicals manufacturing consumes large amounts of energy and is responsible for a substantial portion of global carbon emissions. Electrochemical systems that produce the desired compounds by using renewable electricity offer a route to lower carbon emissions in the chemicals sector. Ethylene oxide is among the world’s most abundantly produced commodity chemicals because of its importance in the plastics

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Sequencing seismograms: A panoptic view of scattering in the core-mantle boundary region.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    D Kim,V Lekić,B Ménard,D Baron,M Taghizadeh-Popp

    Scattering of seismic waves can reveal subsurface structures but usually in a piecemeal way focused on specific target areas. We used a manifold learning algorithm called “the Sequencer” to simultaneously analyze thousands of seismograms of waves diffracting along the core-mantle boundary and obtain a panoptic view of scattering across the Pacific region. In nearly half of the diffracting waveforms

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Far-field excitation of single graphene plasmon cavities with ultracompressed mode volumes.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Itai Epstein,David Alcaraz,Zhiqin Huang,Varun-Varma Pusapati,Jean-Paul Hugonin,Avinash Kumar,Xander M Deputy,Tymofiy Khodkov,Tatiana G Rappoport,Jin-Yong Hong,Nuno M R Peres,Jing Kong,David R Smith,Frank H L Koppens

    Acoustic graphene plasmons are highly confined electromagnetic modes carrying large momentum and low loss in the mid-infrared and terahertz spectra. However, until now they have been restricted to micrometer-scale areas, reducing their confinement potential by several orders of magnitude. Using a graphene-based magnetic resonator, we realized single, nanometer-scale acoustic graphene plasmon cavities

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Membrane-proximal F-actin restricts local membrane protrusions and directs cell migration.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Anjali Bisaria,Arnold Hayer,Damien Garbett,Daniel Cohen,Tobias Meyer

    Cell migration is driven by local membrane protrusion through directed polymerization of F-actin at the front. However, F-actin next to the plasma membrane also tethers the membrane and thus resists outgoing protrusions. Here, we developed a fluorescent reporter to monitor changes in the density of membrane-proximal F-actin (MPA) during membrane protrusion and cell migration. Unlike the total F-actin

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • The impact of COVID-19 and strategies for mitigation and suppression in low- and middle-income countries.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Patrick G T Walker,Charles Whittaker,Oliver J Watson,Marc Baguelin,Peter Winskill,Arran Hamlet,Bimandra A Djafaara,Zulma Cucunubá,Daniela Olivera Mesa,Will Green,Hayley Thompson,Shevanthi Nayagam,Kylie E C Ainslie,Sangeeta Bhatia,Samir Bhatt,Adhiratha Boonyasiri,Olivia Boyd,Nicholas F Brazeau,Lorenzo Cattarino,Gina Cuomo-Dannenburg,Amy Dighe,Christl A Donnelly,Ilaria Dorigatti,Sabine L van Elsland

    The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic poses a severe threat to public health worldwide. We combine data on demography, contact patterns, disease severity, and health care capacity and quality to understand its impact and inform strategies for its control. Younger populations in lower income countries may reduce overall risk but limited health system capacity coupled with closer inter-generational contact largely

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies block COVID-19 virus binding to its receptor ACE2.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Yan Wu,Feiran Wang,Chenguang Shen,Weiyu Peng,Delin Li,Cheng Zhao,Zhaohui Li,Shihua Li,Yuhai Bi,Yang Yang,Yuhuan Gong,Haixia Xiao,Zheng Fan,Shuguang Tan,Guizhen Wu,Wenjie Tan,Xuancheng Lu,Changfa Fan,Qihui Wang,Yingxia Liu,Chen Zhang,Jianxun Qi,George Fu Gao,Feng Gao,Lei Liu

    Neutralizing antibodies could potentially be used as antivirals against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we report isolation of four human-origin monoclonal antibodies from a convalescent patient, all of which display neutralization abilities. The antibodies B38 and H4 block binding between the spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) of the virus and the cellular receptor

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Pervasive ice sheet mass loss reflects competing ocean and atmosphere processes.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Ben Smith,Helen A Fricker,Alex S Gardner,Brooke Medley,Johan Nilsson,Fernando S Paolo,Nicholas Holschuh,Susheel Adusumilli,Kelly Brunt,Bea Csatho,Kaitlin Harbeck,Thorsten Markus,Thomas Neumann,Matthew R Siegfried,H Jay Zwally

    Quantifying changes in Earth’s ice sheets and identifying the climate drivers are central to improving sea level projections. We provide unified estimates of grounded and floating ice mass change from 2003 to 2019 using NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and ICESat-2 satellite laser altimetry. Our data reveal patterns likely linked to competing climate processes: Ice loss from

    更新日期:2020-06-12
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