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  • Transmission heterogeneities, kinetics, and controllability of SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Kaiyuan Sun, Wei Wang, Lidong Gao, Yan Wang, Kaiwei Luo, Lingshuang Ren, Zhifei Zhan, Xinghui Chen, Shanlu Zhao, Yiwei Huang, Qianlai Sun, Ziyan Liu, Maria Litvinova, Alessandro Vespignani, Marco Ajelli, Cécile Viboud, Hongjie Yu

    A long-standing question in infectious disease dynamics concerns the role of transmission heterogeneities, driven by demography, behavior and interventions. Based on detailed patient and contact tracing data in Hunan, China we find 80% of secondary infections traced back to 15% of SARS-CoV-2 primary infections, indicating substantial transmission heterogeneities. Transmission risk scales positively

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • How directed evolution reshapes the energy landscape in an enzyme to boost catalysis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Renee Otten, Ricardo A. P. Pádua, H. Adrian Bunzel, Vy Nguyen, Warintra Pitsawong, MacKenzie Patterson, Shuo Sui, Sarah L. Perry, Aina E. Cohen, Donald Hilvert, Dorothee Kern

    The advent of biocatalysts designed computationally and optimized by laboratory evolution provides an opportunity to explore molecular strategies for augmenting catalytic function. Applying a suite of NMR, crystallographic, and stopped-flow techniques to an enzyme designed for an elementary proton transfer reaction, we show how directed evolution gradually altered the conformational ensemble of the

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Fire and biodiversity in the Anthropocene
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Luke T. Kelly, Katherine M. Giljohann, Andrea Duane, Núria Aquilué, Sally Archibald, Enric Batllori, Andrew F. Bennett, Stephen T. Buckland, Quim Canelles, Michael F. Clarke, Marie-Josée Fortin, Virgilio Hermoso, Sergi Herrando, Robert E. Keane, Frank K. Lake, Michael A. McCarthy, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez, Catherine L. Parr, Juli G. Pausas, Trent D. Penman, Adrián Regos, Libby Rumpff, Julianna L. Santos

    Fire has been a source of global biodiversity for millions of years. However, interactions with anthropogenic drivers such as climate change, land use, and invasive species are changing the nature of fire activity and its impacts. We review how such changes are threatening species with extinction and transforming terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation of Earth’s biological diversity will be achieved

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • A human tissue screen identifies a regulator of ER secretion as a brain-size determinant
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Christopher Esk, Dominik Lindenhofer, Simon Haendeler, Roelof A. Wester, Florian Pflug, Benoit Schroeder, Joshua A. Bagley, Ulrich Elling, Johannes Zuber, Arndt von Haeseler, Jürgen A. Knoblich

    Loss-of-function (LOF) screens provide a powerful approach to identify regulators in biological processes. Pioneered in laboratory animals, LOF screens of human genes are currently restricted to two-dimensional cell cultures, which hinders the testing of gene functions requiring tissue context. Here, we present CRISPR–lineage tracing at cellular resolution in heterogeneous tissue (CRISPR-LICHT), which

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Fetal mast cells mediate postnatal allergic responses dependent on maternal IgE
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Rasha Msallam, Jozef Balla, Abhay P. S. Rathore, Hassen Kared, Benoit Malleret, Wilfried A. A. Saron, Zhaoyuan Liu, Jing Wen Hang, Charles Antoine Dutertre, Anis Larbi, Jerry K. Y. Chan, Ashley L. St. John, Florent Ginhoux

    Mast cells (MCs) are central effector cells in allergic reactions that are often mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergies commonly start at an early age, and both MCs and IgE are detectable in fetuses. However, the origin of fetal IgE and whether fetal MCs can degranulate in response to IgE-dependent activation are presently unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal MCs phenotypically

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Ultrapotent human antibodies protect against SARS-CoV-2 challenge via multiple mechanisms.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    M Alejandra Tortorici,Martina Beltramello,Florian A Lempp,Dora Pinto,Ha V Dang,Laura E Rosen,Matthew McCallum,John Bowen,Andrea Minola,Stefano Jaconi,Fabrizia Zatta,Anna De Marco,Barbara Guarino,Siro Bianchi,Elvin J Lauron,Heather Tucker,Jiayi Zhou,Alessia Peter,Colin Havenar-Daughton,Jason A Wojcechowskyj,James Brett Case,Rita E Chen,Hannah Kaiser,Martin Montiel-Ruiz,Marcel Meury,Nadine Czudnochowski

    Efficient therapeutic options are needed to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has caused more than 922,000 fatalities as of 13 September 2020. We report the isolation and characterization of two ultrapotent SARS-CoV-2 human neutralizing antibodies (S2E12 and S2M11) that protect hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Cryo–electron microscopy structures

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Control of long-distance motion of single molecules on a surface
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Donato Civita, Marek Kolmer, Grant J. Simpson, An-Ping Li, Stefan Hecht, Leonhard Grill

    Spatial control over molecular movement is typically limited because motion at the atomic scale follows stochastic processes. We used scanning tunneling microscopy to bring single molecules into a stable orientation of high translational mobility where they moved along precisely defined tracks. Single dibromoterfluorene molecules moved over large distances of 150 nanometers with extremely high spatial

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Artificial multimodal receptors based on ion relaxation dynamics
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Insang You, David G. Mackanic, Naoji Matsuhisa, Jiheong Kang, Jimin Kwon, Levent Beker, Jaewan Mun, Wonjeong Suh, Tae Yeong Kim, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok, Zhenan Bao, Unyong Jeong

    Human skin has different types of tactile receptors that can distinguish various mechanical stimuli from temperature. We present a deformable artificial multimodal ionic receptor that can differentiate thermal and mechanical information without signal interference. Two variables are derived from the analysis of the ion relaxation dynamics: the charge relaxation time as a strain-insensitive intrinsic

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Nanomesh pressure sensor for monitoring finger manipulation without sensory interference
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Sunghoon Lee, Sae Franklin, Faezeh Arab Hassani, Tomoyuki Yokota, Md Osman Goni Nayeem, Yan Wang, Raz Leib, Gordon Cheng, David W. Franklin, Takao Someya

    Monitoring of finger manipulation without disturbing the inherent functionalities is critical to understand the sense of natural touch. However, worn or attached sensors affect the natural feeling of the skin. We developed nanomesh pressure sensors that can monitor finger pressure without detectable effects on human sensation. The effect of the sensor on human sensation was quantitatively investigated

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • An extremely metal-deficient globular cluster in the Andromeda Galaxy
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Søren S. Larsen, Aaron J. Romanowsky, Jean P. Brodie, Asher Wasserman

    Globular clusters (GCs) are dense, gravitationally bound systems of thousands to millions of stars. They are preferentially associated with the oldest components of galaxies, so measurements of their composition can constrain the build-up of chemical elements in galaxies during the early Universe. We report a massive GC in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), RBC EXT8, that is extremely depleted in heavy elements

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • A marine microbiome antifungal targets urgent-threat drug-resistant fungi
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Fan Zhang, Miao Zhao, Doug R. Braun, Spencer S. Ericksen, Jeff S. Piotrowski, Justin Nelson, Jian Peng, Gene E. Ananiev, Shaurya Chanana, Kenneth Barns, Jen Fossen, Hiram Sanchez, Marc G. Chevrette, Ilia A. Guzei, Changgui Zhao, Le Guo, Weiping Tang, Cameron R. Currie, Scott R. Rajski, Anjon Audhya, David R. Andes, Tim S. Bugni

    New antifungal drugs are urgently needed to address the emergence and transcontinental spread of fungal infectious diseases, such as pandrug-resistant Candida auris. Leveraging the microbiomes of marine animals and cutting-edge metabolomics and genomic tools, we identified encouraging lead antifungal molecules with in vivo efficacy. The most promising lead, turbinmicin, displays potent in vitro and

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Experimental observation of the liquid-liquid transition in bulk supercooled water under pressure
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Kyung Hwan Kim, Katrin Amann-Winkel, Nicolas Giovambattista, Alexander Späh, Fivos Perakis, Harshad Pathak, Marjorie Ladd Parada, Cheolhee Yang, Daniel Mariedahl, Tobias Eklund, Thomas. J. Lane, Seonju You, Sangmin Jeong, Matthew Weston, Jae Hyuk Lee, Intae Eom, Minseok Kim, Jaeku Park, Sae Hwan Chun, Peter H. Poole, Anders Nilsson

    We prepared bulk samples of supercooled liquid water under pressure by isochoric heating of high-density amorphous ice to temperatures of 205 ± 10 kelvin, using an infrared femtosecond laser. Because the sample density is preserved during the ultrafast heating, we could estimate an initial internal pressure of 2.5 to 3.5 kilobar in the high-density liquid phase. After heating, the sample expanded rapidly

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Oceanic plateau of the Hawaiian mantle plume head subducted to the uppermost lower mantle
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Songqiao Shawn Wei, Peter M. Shearer, Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni, Lars Stixrude, Dongdong Tian

    The Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain that includes the Hawaiian volcanoes was created by the Hawaiian mantle plume. Although the mantle plume hypothesis predicts an oceanic plateau produced by massive decompression melting during the initiation stage of the Hawaiian hot spot, the fate of this plateau is unclear. We discovered a megameter-scale portion of thickened oceanic crust in the uppermost lower

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Tissue topography steers migrating Drosophila border cells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Wei Dai, Xiaoran Guo, Yuansheng Cao, James A. Mondo, Joseph P. Campanale, Brandon J. Montell, Haley Burrous, Sebastian Streichan, Nir Gov, Wouter-Jan Rappel, Denise J. Montell

    Moving cells can sense and respond to physical features of the microenvironment; however, in vivo, the significance of tissue topography is mostly unknown. Here, we used Drosophila border cells, an established model for in vivo cell migration, to study how chemical and physical information influences path selection. Although chemical cues were thought to be sufficient, live imaging, genetics, modeling

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Enhanced Zika virus susceptibility of globally invasive Aedes aegypti populations
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Fabien Aubry, Stéphanie Dabo, Caroline Manet, Igor Filipović, Noah H. Rose, Elliott F. Miot, Daria Martynow, Artem Baidaliuk, Sarah H. Merkling, Laura B. Dickson, Anna B. Crist, Victor O. Anyango, Claudia M. Romero-Vivas, Anubis Vega-Rúa, Isabelle Dusfour, Davy Jiolle, Christophe Paupy, Martin N. Mayanja, Julius J. Lutwama, Alain Kohl, Veasna Duong, Alongkot Ponlawat, Massamba Sylla, Jewelna Akorli

    The drivers and patterns of zoonotic virus emergence in the human population are poorly understood. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major arbovirus vector native to Africa that invaded most of the world’s tropical belt over the past four centuries, after the evolution of a “domestic” form that specialized in biting humans and breeding in water storage containers. Here, we show that human specialization

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Divergent impacts of warming weather on wildlife disease risk across climates
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Jeremy M. Cohen, Erin L. Sauer, Olivia Santiago, Samuel Spencer, Jason R. Rohr

    Disease outbreaks among wildlife have surged in recent decades alongside climate change, although it remains unclear how climate change alters disease dynamics across different geographic regions. We amassed a global, spatiotemporal dataset describing parasite prevalence across 7346 wildlife populations and 2021 host-parasite combinations, compiling local weather and climate records at each location

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Rotavirus induces intercellular calcium waves through ADP signaling
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham, Jacob L. Perry, Melinda A. Engevik, Kristen A. Engevik, Francesca J. Scribano, J. Thomas Gebert, Heather A. Danhof, Joel C. Nelson, Joseph S. Kellen, Alicia C. Strtak, Narayan P. Sastri, Mary K. Estes, Robert A. Britton, James Versalovic, Joseph M. Hyser

    Rotavirus causes severe diarrheal disease in children by broadly dysregulating intestinal homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of rotavirus-induced dysregulation remains unclear. We found that rotavirus-infected cells produce paracrine signals that manifested as intercellular calcium waves (ICWs), observed in cell lines and human intestinal enteroids. Rotavirus ICWs were caused by the

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Architecture of the photosynthetic complex from a green sulfur bacterium
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Jing-Hua Chen, Hangjun Wu, Caihuang Xu, Xiao-Chi Liu, Zihui Huang, Shenghai Chang, Wenda Wang, Guangye Han, Tingyun Kuang, Jian-Ren Shen, Xing Zhang

    The photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria (GSB) contains a peripheral antenna chlorosome, light-harvesting Fenna-Matthews-Olson proteins (FMO), and a reaction center (GsbRC). We used cryo–electron microscopy to determine a 2.7-angstrom structure of the FMO-GsbRC supercomplex from Chlorobaculum tepidum. The GsbRC binds considerably fewer (bacterio)chlorophylls [(B)Chls] than other known

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Gene regulatory networks controlling vertebrate retinal regeneration
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Thanh Hoang, Jie Wang, Patrick Boyd, Fang Wang, Clayton Santiago, Lizhi Jiang, Sooyeon Yoo, Manuela Lahne, Levi J. Todd, Meng Jia, Cristian Saez, Casey Keuthan, Isabella Palazzo, Natalie Squires, Warren A. Campbell, Fatemeh Rajaii, Trisha Parayil, Vickie Trinh, Dong Won Kim, Guohua Wang, Leah J. Campbell, John Ash, Andy J. Fischer, David R. Hyde, Jiang Qian, Seth Blackshaw

    Injury induces retinal Müller glia of certain cold-blooded vertebrates, but not those of mammals, to regenerate neurons. To identify gene regulatory networks that reprogram Müller glia into progenitor cells, we profiled changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility in Müller glia from zebrafish, chick, and mice in response to different stimuli. We identified evolutionarily conserved and species-specific

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Autosomal dominant VCP hypomorph mutation impairs disaggregation of PHF-tau
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Nabil F. Darwich, Jessica M. Phan, Boram Kim, EunRan Suh, John D. Papatriantafyllou, Lakshmi Changolkar, Aivi T. Nguyen, Caroline M. O’Rourke, Zhuohao He, Sílvia Porta, Garrett S. Gibbons, Kelvin C. Luk, Sokratis G. Papageorgiou, Murray Grossman, Lauren Massimo, David J. Irwin, Corey T. McMillan, Ilya M. Nasrallah, Camilo Toro, Geoffrey K. Aguirre, Vivianna M. Van Deerlin, Edward B. Lee

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is closely associated with the accumulation of pathologic tau aggregates in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. We found that a p.Asp395Gly mutation in VCP (valosin-containing protein) was associated with dementia characterized neuropathologically by neuronal vacuoles and neurofibrillary tangles. Moreover, VCP appeared to exhibit tau disaggregase activity

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Recapitulation of HIV-1 Env-antibody coevolution in macaques leading to neutralization breadth
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Ryan S. Roark, Hui Li, Wilton B. Williams, Hema Chug, Rosemarie D. Mason, Jason Gorman, Shuyi Wang, Fang-Hua Lee, Juliette Rando, Mattia Bonsignori, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Kevin O. Saunders, Kevin Wiehe, M. Anthony Moody, Peter T. Hraber, Kshitij Wagh, Elena E. Giorgi, Ronnie M. Russell, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Weimin Liu, Jesse Connell, Andrew G. Smith, Julia DeVoto, Alexander I. Murphy, Jessica Smith, Wenge

    Neutralizing antibodies elicited by HIV-1 coevolve with viral envelope proteins (Env) in distinctive patterns, in some cases acquiring substantial breadth. We report that primary HIV-1 envelope proteins—when expressed by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques—elicited patterns of Env-antibody coevolution strikingly similar to those in humans. This included conserved immunogenetic

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • De novo design of potent and resilient hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Thomas W. Linsky, Renan Vergara, Nuria Codina, Jorgen W. Nelson, Matthew J. Walker, Wen Su, Christopher O. Barnes, Tien-Ying Hsiang, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Kevin Yu, Z. Beau Reneer, Yixuan J. Hou, Tanu Priya, Masaya Mitsumoto, Avery Pong, Uland Y. Lau, Marsha L. Mason, Jerry Chen, Alex Chen, Tania Berrocal, Hong Peng, Nicole S. Clairmont, Javier Castellanos, Yu-Ru Lin, Anna Josephson-Day, Ralph S.

    We developed a de novo protein design strategy to swiftly engineer decoys for neutralizing pathogens that exploit extracellular host proteins to infect the cell. Our pipeline allowed the design, validation, and optimization of de novo hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. The best decoy, CTC-445.2, binds with low nanomolar affinity and high specificity to the RBD of the spike protein. Cryo-EM shows

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Tailored quinones support high-turnover Pd catalysts for oxidative C–H arylation with O2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Chase A. Salazar, Kaylin N. Flesch, Brandon E. Haines, Philip S. Zhou, Djamaladdin G. Musaev, Shannon S. Stahl

    Palladium(II)-catalyzed C–H oxidation reactions could streamline the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other complex organic molecules. Existing methods, however, commonly exhibit poor catalyst performance with high Pd loading (e.g., 10 mol %) and a need for (super)stoichiometric quantities of undesirable oxidants, such as benzoquinone and silver(I) salts. The present study probes the

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Coordination between microbiota and root endodermis supports plant mineral nutrient homeostasis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Isai Salas-González, Guilhem Reyt, Paulina Flis, Valéria Custódio, David Gopaulchan, Niokhor Bakhoum, Tristan P. Dew, Kiran Suresh, Rochus Benni Franke, Jeffery L. Dangl, David E. Salt, Gabriel Castrillo

    Plant roots and animal guts have evolved specialized cells layers to control mineral nutrient homeostasis that must tolerate the resident microbiota while keeping homeostatic integrity. Whether and how the root diffusion barriers in the endodermis, critical for the mineral nutrient balance of plants, coordinates with the microbiota, is unknown. We demonstrate that genes controlling endodermal function

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Terrestrial radiative cooling: Using the cold universe as a renewable and sustainable energy source
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Xiaobo Yin, Ronggui Yang, Gang Tan, Shanhui Fan

    Photonic materials designed at wavelength scales have enabled a range of emerging energy technologies, from solid-state lighting to efficient photovoltaics that have transformed global energy landscapes. Daytime passive radiative cooling materials shed heat from the ground to the cold universe by taking advantage of the terrestrial thermal radiation that is as large as the renewable solar energy. Newly

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • New refrigerants and system configurations for vapor-compression refrigeration
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Mark O. McLinden, Christopher J. Seeton, Andy Pearson

    The high global warming potential of current refrigerants in cooling equipment based on the vapor-compression cycle has triggered a major effort to find and implement more environmentally benign alternatives. Here, we review the basics of the vapor-compression cycle together with the safety, environmental, and thermodynamic constraints that have led to the current and next generation of refrigerants

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Caloric materials for cooling and heating
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    X. Moya, N. D. Mathur

    Magnetically driven thermal changes in magnetocaloric materials have, for several decades, been exploited to pump heat near room temperature. By contrast, their electrocaloric and mechanocaloric counterparts have only been intensively studied and exploited for little more than a decade. These different caloric strands have recently been unified to yield a single field of research that could help combat

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Immune life history, vaccination, and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 over the next 5 years.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Chadi M Saad-Roy,Caroline E Wagner,Rachel E Baker,Sinead E Morris,Jeremy Farrar,Andrea L Graham,Simon A Levin,Michael J Mina,C Jessica E Metcalf,Bryan T Grenfell

    The future trajectory of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic hinges on the dynamics of adaptive immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); however, salient features of the immune response elicited by natural infection or vaccination are still uncertain. We use simple epidemiological models to explore estimates for the magnitude and timing of future COVID-19

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Cell wall remodeling and vesicle trafficking mediate the root clock in Arabidopsis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Guy Wachsman, Jingyuan Zhang, Miguel A. Moreno-Risueno, Charles T. Anderson, Philip N. Benfey

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots initiate in a process preceded by periodic gene expression known as the root clock. We identified the vesicle-trafficking regulator GNOM and its suppressor, ADENOSINE PHOSPHATE RIBOSYLATION FACTOR GTPase ACTIVATION PROTEIN DOMAIN3, as root clock regulators. GNOM is required for the proper distribution of pectin, a mediator of intercellular adhesion, whereas the

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Hydrogen escape from Mars is driven by seasonal and dust storm transport of water
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Shane W. Stone, Roger V. Yelle, Mehdi Benna, Daniel Y. Lo, Meredith K. Elrod, Paul R. Mahaffy

    Mars has lost most of its once-abundant water to space, leaving the planet cold and dry. In standard models, molecular hydrogen produced from water in the lower atmosphere diffuses into the upper atmosphere where it is dissociated, producing atomic hydrogen, which is lost. Using observations from the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft, we

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Constrained minimal-interface structures in polycrystalline copper with extremely fine grains
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    X. Y. Li, Z. H. Jin, X. Zhou, K. Lu

    Metals usually exist in the form of polycrystalline solids, which are thermodynamically unstable because of the presence of disordered grain boundaries. Grain boundaries tend to be eliminated through coarsening when heated or by transforming into metastable amorphous states when the grains are small enough. Through experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we discovered a different type of metastable

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Astronomical context of Solar System formation from molybdenum isotopes in meteorite inclusions
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Gregory A. Brennecka, Christoph Burkhardt, Gerrit Budde, Thomas S. Kruijer, Francis Nimmo, Thorsten Kleine

    Calcium-aluminum–rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites are the first solids to have formed in the Solar System, defining the epoch of its birth on an absolute time scale. This provides a link between astronomical observations of star formation and cosmochemical studies of Solar System formation. We show that the distinct molybdenum isotopic compositions of CAIs cover almost the entire compositional

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Nano-acoustic resonator with ultralong phonon lifetime
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Gregory S. MacCabe, Hengjiang Ren, Jie Luo, Justin D. Cohen, Hengyun Zhou, Alp Sipahigil, Mohammad Mirhosseini, Oskar Painter

    The energy damping time in a mechanical resonator is critical to many precision metrology applications, such as timekeeping and force measurements. We present measurements of the phonon lifetime of a microwave-frequency, nanoscale silicon acoustic cavity incorporating a phononic bandgap acoustic shield. Using pulsed laser light to excite a colocalized optical mode of the cavity, we measured the internal

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • A thalamocortical top-down circuit for associative memory
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    M. Belén Pardi, Johanna Vogenstahl, Tamas Dalmay, Teresa Spanò, De-Lin Pu, Laura B. Naumann, Friedrich Kretschmer, Henning Sprekeler, Johannes J. Letzkus

    The sensory neocortex is a critical substrate for memory. Despite its strong connection with the thalamus, the role of direct thalamocortical communication in memory remains elusive. We performed chronic in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of thalamic synapses in mouse auditory cortex layer 1, a major locus of cortical associations. Combined with optogenetics, viral tracing, whole-cell recording, and

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Stretchable distributed fiber-optic sensors
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Hedan Bai, Shuo Li, Jose Barreiros, Yaqi Tu, Clifford R. Pollock, Robert F. Shepherd

    Silica-based distributed fiber-optic sensor (DFOS) systems have been a powerful tool for sensing strain, pressure, vibration, acceleration, temperature, and humidity in inextensible structures. DFOS systems, however, are incompatible with the large strains associated with soft robotics and stretchable electronics. We develop a sensor composed of parallel assemblies of elastomeric lightguides that incorporate

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • A phosphorylation-regulated eIF3d translation switch mediates cellular adaptation to metabolic stress
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Adam M. Lamper, Rebecca H. Fleming, Kayla M. Ladd, Amy S. Y. Lee

    Shutoff of global protein synthesis is a conserved response to cellular stresses. This general phenomenon is accompanied by the induction of distinct gene programs tailored to each stress. Although the mechanisms driving repression of general protein synthesis are well characterized, how cells reprogram the translation machinery for selective gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we found

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and infectivity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Ludovico Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ravi Ojha, Liliana D. Pedro, Minou Djannatian, Jonas Franz, Suvi Kuivanen, Franziska van der Meer, Katri Kallio, Tuğberk Kaya, Maria Anastasina, Teemu Smura, Lev Levanov, Leonora Szirovicza, Allan Tobi, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Pamela Österlund, Merja Joensuu, Frédéric A. Meunier, Sarah J. Butcher, Martin Sebastian Winkler, Brit Mollenhauer, Ari Helenius, Ozgun Gokce, Tambet

    The causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For many viruses, tissue tropism is determined by the availability of virus receptors and entry cofactors on the surface of host cells. In this study, we found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1), known to bind furin-cleaved substrates, significantly potentiates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Neuropilin-1 is a host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    James L. Daly, Boris Simonetti, Katja Klein, Kai-En Chen, Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Carlos Antón-Plágaro, Deborah K. Shoemark, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Michael Bauer, Reka Hollandi, Urs F. Greber, Peter Horvath, Richard B. Sessions, Ari Helenius, Julian A. Hiscox, Tambet Teesalu, David A. Matthews, Andrew D. Davidson, Brett M. Collins, Peter J. Cullen, Yohei Yamauchi

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), uses the viral spike (S) protein for host cell attachment and entry. The host protease furin cleaves the full-length precursor S glycoprotein into two associated polypeptides: S1 and S2. Cleavage of S generates a polybasic Arg-Arg-Ala-Arg carboxyl-terminal sequence on S1, which

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Prebiotic synthesis of cysteine peptides that catalyze peptide ligation in neutral water
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Callum S. Foden, Saidul Islam, Christian Fernández-García, Leonardo Maugeri, Tom D. Sheppard, Matthew W. Powner

    Peptide biosynthesis is performed by ribosomes and several other classes of enzymes, but a simple chemical synthesis may have created the first peptides at the origins of life. α-Aminonitriles—prebiotic α–amino acid precursors—are generally produced by Strecker reactions. However, cysteine’s aminothiol is incompatible with nitriles. Consequently, cysteine nitrile is not stable, and cysteine has been

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Vascular transcription factors guide plant epidermal responses to limiting phosphate conditions.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Jos R Wendrich,BaoJun Yang,Niels Vandamme,Kevin Verstaen,Wouter Smet,Celien Van de Velde,Max Minne,Brecht Wybouw,Eliana Mor,Helena E Arents,Jonah Nolf,Julie Van Duyse,Gert Van Isterdael,Steven Maere,Yvan Saeys,Bert De Rybel

    Optimal plant growth is hampered by deficiency of the essential macronutrient phosphate in most soils. Plant roots can, however, increase their root hair density to efficiently forage the soil for this immobile nutrient. By generating and exploiting a high-resolution single-cell gene expression atlas of Arabidopsis roots, we show an enrichment of TARGET OF MONOPTEROS 5/LONESOME HIGHWAY (TMO5/LHW) target

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • A human cell atlas of fetal chromatin accessibility
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Silvia Domcke, Andrew J. Hill, Riza M. Daza, Junyue Cao, Diana R. O’Day, Hannah A. Pliner, Kimberly A. Aldinger, Dmitry Pokholok, Fan Zhang, Jennifer H. Milbank, Michael A. Zager, Ian A. Glass, Frank J. Steemers, Dan Doherty, Cole Trapnell, Darren A. Cusanovich, Jay Shendure

    The chromatin landscape underlying the specification of human cell types is of fundamental interest. We generated human cell atlases of chromatin accessibility and gene expression in fetal tissues. For chromatin accessibility, we devised a three-level combinatorial indexing assay and applied it to 53 samples representing 15 organs, profiling ~800,000 single cells. We leveraged cell types defined by

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • A human cell atlas of fetal gene expression
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Junyue Cao, Diana R. O’Day, Hannah A. Pliner, Paul D. Kingsley, Mei Deng, Riza M. Daza, Michael A. Zager, Kimberly A. Aldinger, Ronnie Blecher-Gonen, Fan Zhang, Malte Spielmann, James Palis, Dan Doherty, Frank J. Steemers, Ian A. Glass, Cole Trapnell, Jay Shendure

    The gene expression program underlying the specification of human cell types is of fundamental interest. We generated human cell atlases of gene expression and chromatin accessibility in fetal tissues. For gene expression, we applied three-level combinatorial indexing to >110 samples representing 15 organs, ultimately profiling ~4 million single cells. We leveraged the literature and other atlases

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • SARS-CoV-2 D614G variant exhibits efficient replication ex vivo and transmission in vivo
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Yixuan J. Hou, Shiho Chiba, Peter Halfmann, Camille Ehre, Makoto Kuroda, Kenneth H. Dinnon, Sarah R. Leist, Alexandra Schäfer, Noriko Nakajima, Kenta Takahashi, Rhianna E. Lee, Teresa M. Mascenik, Rachel Graham, Caitlin E. Edwards, Longping V. Tse, Kenichi Okuda, Alena J. Markmann, Luther Bartelt, Aravinda de Silva, David M. Margolis, Richard C. Boucher, Scott H. Randell, Tadaki Suzuki, Lisa E. Gralinski

    The spike D614G substitution is prevalent in global SARS-CoV-2 strains, but its effects on viral pathogenesis and transmissibility remain unclear. We engineered a SARS-CoV-2 variant containing this substitution. The variant exhibits more efficient infection, replication, and competitive fitness in primary human airway epithelial cells, but maintains similar morphology and in vitro neutralization properties

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Seroprevalence of anti–SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in Kenyan blood donors
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Sophie Uyoga, Ifedayo M. O. Adetifa, Henry K. Karanja, James Nyagwange, James Tuju, Perpetual Wanjiku, Rashid Aman, Mercy Mwangangi, Patrick Amoth, Kadondi Kasera, Wangari Ng’ang’a, Charles Rombo, Christine Yegon, Khamisi Kithi, Elizabeth Odhiambo, Thomas Rotich, Irene Orgut, Sammy Kihara, Mark Otiende, Christian Bottomley, Zonia N. Mupe, Eunice W. Kagucia, Katherine E. Gallagher, Anthony Etyang, Shirine

    The spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Africa is poorly described. The first case of SARS-CoV-2 in Kenya was reported on March 12, 2020 and an overwhelming number of cases and deaths were expected but by July 31, 2020 there were only 20,636 cases and 341 deaths. However, the extent of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in the community remains unknown. We determined the prevalence of anti–SARS-CoV-2 IgG among blood donors in

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • A ubiquitin ligase mediates target-directed microRNA decay independently of tailing and trimming
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Jaeil Han, Collette A. LaVigne, Benjamin T. Jones, He Zhang, Frank Gillett, Joshua T. Mendell

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act in concert with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to repress target mRNAs. After AGO loading, miRNAs generally exhibit slow turnover. An important exception occurs when miRNAs encounter highly complementary targets, which can trigger a process termed target-directed microRNA degradation (TDMD). During TDMD, miRNAs undergo tailing and trimming, suggesting that this is an important step

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • The ZSWIM8 ubiquitin ligase mediates target-directed microRNA degradation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Charlie Y. Shi, Elena R. Kingston, Benjamin Kleaveland, Daniel H. Lin, Michael W. Stubna, David P. Bartel

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to direct widespread post-transcriptional gene repression. Although association with AGO typically protects miRNAs from nucleases, extensive pairing to some unusual target RNAs can trigger miRNA degradation. Here we found that this target-directed miRNA degradation (TDMD) required the ZSWIM8 Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase. This and other findings

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Optically addressable molecular spins for quantum information processing
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    S. L. Bayliss, D. W. Laorenza, P. J. Mintun, B. D. Kovos, D. E. Freedman, D. D. Awschalom

    Spin-bearing molecules are promising building blocks for quantum technologies as they can be chemically tuned, assembled into scalable arrays, and readily incorporated into diverse device architectures. In molecular systems, optically addressing ground-state spins would enable a wide range of applications in quantum information science, as has been demonstrated for solid-state defects. However, this

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 on mink farms between humans and mink and back to humans
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Bas B. Oude Munnink, Reina S. Sikkema, David F. Nieuwenhuijse, Robert Jan Molenaar, Emmanuelle Munger, Richard Molenkamp, Arco van der Spek, Paulien Tolsma, Ariene Rietveld, Miranda Brouwer, Noortje Bouwmeester-Vincken, Frank Harders, Renate Hakze-van der Honing, Marjolein C. A. Wegdam-Blans, Ruth J. Bouwstra, Corine GeurtsvanKessel, Annemiek A. van der Eijk, Francisca C. Velkers, Lidwien A. M. Smit

    Animal experiments have shown that non-human primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits and bats can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation using whole genome sequencing of outbreaks on 16 mink farms and the humans living or working on these farms. We conclude that the virus was initially

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Preexisting and de novo humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in humans
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Kevin W. Ng, Nikhil Faulkner, Georgina H. Cornish, Annachiara Rosa, Ruth Harvey, Saira Hussain, Rachel Ulferts, Christopher Earl, Antoni G. Wrobel, Donald J. Benton, Chloe Roustan, William Bolland, Rachael Thompson, Ana Agua-Doce, Philip Hobson, Judith Heaney, Hannah Rickman, Stavroula Paraskevopoulou, Catherine F. Houlihan, Kirsty Thomson, Emilie Sanchez, Gee Yen Shin, Moira J. Spyer, Dhira Joshi

    Zoonotic introduction of novel coronaviruses may encounter preexisting immunity in humans. Using diverse assays for antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we detect preexisting humoral immunity. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S)-reactive antibodies were detectable by a flow cytometry-based method in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals and were particularly prevalent in children and adolescents.

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Resource conservation manifests in the genetic code
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Liat Shenhav, David Zeevi

    Nutrient limitation drives competition for resources across organisms. However, much is unknown about how selective pressures resulting from nutrient limitation shape microbial coding sequences. Here, we study this “resource-driven selection” by using metagenomic and single-cell data of marine microbes, alongside environmental measurements. We show that a significant portion of the selection exerted

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Enigmatic amphibians in mid-Cretaceous amber were chameleon-like ballistic feeders
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Juan D. Daza, Edward L. Stanley, Arnau Bolet, Aaron M. Bauer, J. Salvador Arias, Andrej Čerňanský, Joseph J. Bevitt, Philipp Wagner, Susan E. Evans

    Albanerpetontids are tiny, enigmatic fossil amphibians with a distinctive suite of characteristics, including scales and specialized jaw and neck joints. Here we describe a new genus and species of albanerpetontid, represented by fully articulated and three-dimensional specimens preserved in amber. These specimens preserve skeletal and soft tissues, including an elongated median hyoid element, the

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of COVID-19 in two Indian states
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Ramanan Laxminarayan, Brian Wahl, Shankar Reddy Dudala, K. Gopal, Chandra Mohan B, S. Neelima, K. S. Jawahar Reddy, J. Radhakrishnan, Joseph A. Lewnard

    Although most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in low-resource countries, little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in such contexts. Data from the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh provide a detailed view into severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission pathways and mortality in a high-incidence setting. Reported cases

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Large-area low-noise flexible organic photodiodes for detecting faint visible light
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Canek Fuentes-Hernandez, Wen-Fang Chou, Talha M. Khan, Larissa Diniz, Julia Lukens, Felipe A. Larrain, Victor A. Rodriguez-Toro, Bernard Kippelen

    Silicon photodiodes are the foundation of light-detection technology; yet their rigid structure and limited area scaling at low cost hamper their use in several emerging applications. A detailed methodology for the characterization of organic photodiodes based on polymeric bulk heterojunctions reveals the influence that charge-collecting electrodes have on the electronic noise at low frequency. The

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Nonlinearity-induced photonic topological insulator
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Lukas J. Maczewsky, Matthias Heinrich, Mark Kremer, Sergey K. Ivanov, Max Ehrhardt, Franklin Martinez, Yaroslav V. Kartashov, Vladimir V. Konotop, Lluis Torner, Dieter Bauer, Alexander Szameit

    A hallmark feature of topological insulators is robust edge transport that is impervious to scattering at defects and lattice disorder. We demonstrate a topological system, using a photonic platform, in which the existence of the topological phase is brought about by optical nonlinearity. The lattice structure remains topologically trivial in the linear regime, but as the optical power is increased

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Global food system emissions could preclude achieving the 1.5° and 2°C climate change targets
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Michael A. Clark, Nina G. G. Domingo, Kimberly Colgan, Sumil K. Thakrar, David Tilman, John Lynch, Inês L. Azevedo, Jason D. Hill

    The Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting the increase in global temperature to 1.5° or 2°C above preindustrial levels requires rapid reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Although reducing emissions from fossil fuels is essential for meeting this goal, other sources of emissions may also preclude its attainment. We show that even if fossil fuel emissions were immediately halted, current trends in global

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Rational design of layered oxide materials for sodium-ion batteries
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Chenglong Zhao, Qidi Wang, Zhenpeng Yao, Jianlin Wang, Benjamín Sánchez-Lengeling, Feixiang Ding, Xingguo Qi, Yaxiang Lu, Xuedong Bai, Baohua Li, Hong Li, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Xuejie Huang, Claude Delmas, Marnix Wagemaker, Liquan Chen, Yong-Sheng Hu

    Sodium-ion batteries have captured widespread attention for grid-scale energy storage owing to the natural abundance of sodium. The performance of such batteries is limited by available electrode materials, especially for sodium-ion layered oxides, motivating the exploration of high compositional diversity. How the composition determines the structural chemistry is decisive for the electrochemical

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Sarah C. Davidson, Gil Bohrer, Eliezer Gurarie, Scott LaPoint, Peter J. Mahoney, Natalie T. Boelman, Jan U. H. Eitel, Laura R. Prugh, Lee A. Vierling, Jyoti Jennewein, Emma Grier, Ophélie Couriot, Allicia P. Kelly, Arjan J. H. Meddens, Ruth Y. Oliver, Roland Kays, Martin Wikelski, Tomas Aarvak, Joshua T. Ackerman, José A. Alves, Erin Bayne, Bryan Bedrosian, Jerrold L. Belant, Andrew M. Berdahl, Alicia

    The Arctic is entering a new ecological state, with alarming consequences for humanity. Animal-borne sensors offer a window into these changes. Although substantial animal tracking data from the Arctic and subarctic exist, most are difficult to discover and access. Here, we present the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection of more than 200 standardized terrestrial and marine

    更新日期:2020-11-05
  • Phasing of millennial-scale climate variability in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Maureen H. Walczak, Alan C. Mix, Ellen A. Cowan, Stewart Fallon, L. Keith Fifield, Jay R. Alder, Jianghui Du, Brian Haley, Tim Hobern, June Padman, Summer K. Praetorius, Andreas Schmittner, Joseph S. Stoner, Sarah D. Zellers

    New radiocarbon and sedimentological results from the Gulf of Alaska document recurrent millennial-scale episodes of reorganized Pacific Ocean ventilation synchronous with rapid Cordilleran Ice Sheet discharge, indicating close coupling of ice-ocean dynamics spanning the past 42,000 years. Ventilation of the intermediate-depth North Pacific tracks strength of the Asian monsoon, supporting a role for

    更新日期:2020-11-05