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  • Upping uptake of COVID contact tracing apps
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Séverine Toussaert

    To contain the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries around the world rushed to develop digital contact tracing apps. However, the low rates of app installation have undermined the efficacy of such tools. A study by Munzert et al. shines light on potential barriers to adoption, as well as levers that could be used to increase uptake.

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Changing behaviour is the key to solving the climate challenge
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Greer K. Gosnell; Morgan D. Bazilian

    Donald Trump’s presidency oversaw the relentless dismantling of many of Barack Obama’s policy legacies. For the climate-conscious, perhaps the most painful were Trump’s reneging on the United States’ commitment to the Paris Agreement, the dramatic changes at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the rollback of a number of greenhouse gas reduction policies. The new Biden administration will

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Tracking and promoting the usage of a COVID-19 contact tracing app
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Simon Munzert; Peter Selb; Anita Gohdes; Lukas F. Stoetzer; Will Lowe

    Digital contact tracing apps have been introduced globally as an instrument to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, privacy by design impedes both the evaluation of these tools and the deployment of evidence-based interventions to stimulate uptake. We combine an online panel survey with mobile tracking data to measure the actual usage of Germany’s official contact tracing app and reveal higher uptake

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • COVID-19 is a marathon, not a sprint
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-20

    The COVID-19 pandemic rendered 2020 a year like no other in recent history. Although 2021 starts hopeful—with COVID-19 vaccines already being rolled out in more than 30 countries—the fight against the pandemic is far from over.

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • A longer shortlist increases the consideration of female candidates in male-dominant domains
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Brian J. Lucas; Zachariah Berry; Laura M. Giurge; Dolly Chugh

    Making it onto the shortlist is often a crucial early step toward professional advancement. For under-represented candidates, one barrier to making the shortlist is the prevalence of informal recruitment practices (for example, colleague recommendations). The current research investigates informal shortlists generated in male-dominant domains (for example, technology executives) and tests a theory-driven

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Officer bias, over-patrolling and ethnic disparities in stop and search
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Lara Vomfell; Neil Stewart

    Black and Asian people in the United Kingdom are more likely to be stopped and searched by police than White people. Following a panel of 36,000 searches by 1,100 police officers at a major English police force, we provide officer-specific measures of over-searching relative to two baselines: the ethnic composition of crime suspects officers interact with and the ethnic composition of the areas they

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Genetic loci shared between major depression and intelligence with mixed directions of effect
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Shahram Bahrami; Alexey Shadrin; Oleksandr Frei; Kevin S. O’Connell; Francesco Bettella; Florian Krull; Chun C. Fan; Jan I. Røssberg; Guy Hindley; Torill Ueland; Anders M. Dale; Srdjan Djurovic; Nils Eiel Steen; Olav B. Smeland; Ole A. Andreassen

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several common genetic variants influencing major depression and general cognitive abilities, but little is known about whether the two share any of their genetic aetiology. Here we investigate shared genomic architectures between major depression (MD) and general intelligence (INT) with the MiXeR statistical tool and their overlapping susceptibility

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Reverse-engineering the cortical architecture for controlled semantic cognition
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Rebecca L. Jackson; Timothy T. Rogers; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

    We employ a reverse-engineering approach to illuminate the neurocomputational building blocks that combine to support controlled semantic cognition: the storage and context-appropriate use of conceptual knowledge. By systematically varying the structure of a computational model and assessing the functional consequences, we identified the architectural properties that best promote some core functions

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Increase in suicide following an initial decline during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Takanao Tanaka; Shohei Okamoto

    There is increasing concern that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could harm psychological health and exacerbate suicide risk. Here, based on month-level records of suicides covering the entire Japanese population in 1,848 administrative units, we assessed whether suicide mortality changed during the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference estimation, we found that monthly suicide

    更新日期:2021-01-16
  • The genomics of childhood eating behaviours
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Moritz Herle; Mohamed Abdulkadir; Christopher Hübel; Diana Santos Ferreira; Rachel Bryant-Waugh; Ruth Loos; Cynthia M. Bulik; Bianca De Stavola; Nadia Micali

    Eating behaviours may be expressions of genetic risk for obesity and are potential antecedents of later eating disorders. However, childhood eating behaviours are heterogeneous and transient. Here we show associations between polygenic scores for body mass index (BMI-PGS) and anorexia nervosa (AN-PGS) with eating behaviour trajectories during the first 10 years of life using data from the Avon Longitudinal

    更新日期:2021-01-11
  • Prioritize care for a more resilient future
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Robin Nelson

    The pandemic is causing prolonged stress to our social connections, with major adverse consequences to individual and societal health. As a group-living, cooperative species, we need policies of communal care for a more equitable, resilient future, argues Robin Nelson.

    更新日期:2021-01-08
  • Dissociating conscious and unconscious influences on visual detection effects
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Timo Stein; Marius V. Peelen

    The scope of unconscious processing is highly debated, with recent studies showing that even high-level functions such as perceptual integration and category-based attention occur unconsciously. For example, upright faces that are suppressed from awareness through interocular suppression break into awareness more quickly than inverted faces. Similarly, verbal object cues boost otherwise invisible objects

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Spontaneous synchronization of motion in pedestrian crowds of different densities
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Yi Ma; Eric Wai Ming Lee; Meng Shi; Richard Kwok Kit Yuen

    Interacting pedestrians in a crowd spontaneously adjust their footsteps and align their respective stepping phases. This self-organization phenomenon is known as synchronization. However, it is unclear why and how synchronization forms spontaneously under different density conditions, or what functional benefit synchronization offers for the collective motion of humans. Here, we conducted a single-file

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • To which world regions does the valence–dominance model of social perception apply?
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Benedict C. Jones; Lisa M. DeBruine; Jessica K. Flake; Marco Tullio Liuzza; Jan Antfolk; Nwadiogo C. Arinze; Izuchukwu L. G. Ndukaihe; Nicholas G. Bloxsom; Savannah C. Lewis; Francesco Foroni; Megan L. Willis; Carmelo P. Cubillas; Miguel A. Vadillo; Enrique Turiegano; Michael Gilead; Almog Simchon; S. Adil Saribay; Nicholas C. Owsley; Chaning Jang; Georgina Mburu; Dustin P. Calvillo; Anna Wlodarczyk;

    Abstract Over the past 10 years, Oosterhof and Todorov’s valence–dominance model has emerged as the most prominent account of how people evaluate faces on social dimensions. In this model, two dimensions (valence and dominance) underpin social judgements of faces. Because this model has primarily been developed and tested in Western regions, it is unclear whether these findings apply to other regions

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Religion, parochialism and intuitive cooperation
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Ozan Isler; Onurcan Yilmaz; A. John Maule

    Abstract Religions promote cooperation, but they can also be divisive. Is religious cooperation intuitively parochial against atheists? Evidence supporting the social heuristics hypothesis (SHH) suggests that cooperation is intuitive, independent of religious group identity. We tested this prediction in a one-shot prisoner’s dilemma game, where 1,280 practising Christian believers were paired with

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Gendered movement ecology and landscape use in Hadza hunter-gatherers
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Brian M. Wood; Jacob A. Harris; David A. Raichlen; Herman Pontzer; Katherine Sayre; Amelia Sancilio; Colette Berbesque; Alyssa N. Crittenden; Audax Mabulla; Richard McElreath; Elizabeth Cashdan; James Holland Jones

    Understanding how gendered economic roles structure space use is critical to evolutionary models of foraging behaviour, social organization and cognition. Here, we examine hunter-gatherer spatial behaviour on a very large scale, using GPS devices worn by Hadza foragers to record 2,078 person-days of movement. Theory in movement ecology suggests that the density and mobility of targeted foods should

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Evolutionary dynamics of higher-order interactions in social networks
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Unai Alvarez-Rodriguez; Federico Battiston; Guilherme Ferraz de Arruda; Yamir Moreno; Matjaž Perc; Vito Latora

    We live and cooperate in networks. However, links in networks only allow for pairwise interactions, thus making the framework suitable for dyadic games, but not for games that are played in larger groups. Here, we study the evolutionary dynamics of a public goods game in social systems with higher-order interactions. First, we show that the game on uniform hypergraphs corresponds to the replicator

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Arbitration supports reciprocity when there are frequent perception errors
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Robert Boyd; Sarah Mathew

    Reciprocity is undermined by perception errors, mistakes that cause disagreement between interacting individuals about past behaviour. Strategies such as win–stay–lose–shift and generous tit-for-tat can re-establish cooperation following a perception error, but only when errors arise infrequently. We introduce arbitration tit-for-tat (ATFT), a strategy that uses third-party arbitration to align players’

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Revisiting the global workspace orchestrating the hierarchical organization of the human brain
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Gustavo Deco; Diego Vidaurre; Morten L. Kringelbach

    A central challenge in neuroscience is how the brain organizes the information necessary to orchestrate behaviour. Arguably, this whole-brain orchestration is carried out by a core subset of integrative brain regions, a ‘global workspace’, but its constitutive regions remain unclear. We quantified the global workspace as the common regions across seven tasks as well as rest, in a common ‘functional

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • A pupillary index of susceptibility to decision biases
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Eran Eldar; Valkyrie Felso; Jonathan D. Cohen; Yael Niv

    Abstract The demonstration that human decision-making can systematically violate the laws of rationality has had a wide impact on behavioural sciences. In this study, we use a pupillary index to adjudicate between two existing hypotheses about how irrational biases emerge: the hypothesis that biases result from fast, effortless processing and the hypothesis that biases result from more extensive integration

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • A phylogenetic analysis of revolution and afterlife beliefs
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Kiran Basava; Hanzhi Zhang; Ruth Mace

    Beliefs about the fate of humanity and the soul after death may structure behaviours of religious groups. Here we test theories from religious studies: that belief in an imminent apocalypse co-evolved with and facilitated revolutionary violence, whereas belief in reincarnation caused people to acquiesce to existing social orders and withdraw from political activism. We test these hypotheses by building

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • Increased air pollution exposure among the Chinese population during the national quarantine in 2020
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Huizhong Shen; Guofeng Shen; Yilin Chen; Armistead G. Russell; Yongtao Hu; Xiaoli Duan; Wenjun Meng; Yang Xu; Xiao Yun; Baolei Lyu; Shunliu Zhao; Amir Hakami; Jianping Guo; Shu Tao; Kirk R. Smith

    The COVID-19 quarantine in China is thought to have reduced ambient air pollution. The overall exposure of the population also depends, however, on indoor air quality and human mobility and activities. Here, by integrating real-time mobility data and a questionnaire survey on time-activity patterns during the pandemic, we show that despite a decrease in ambient PM2.5 during the quarantine, the total

    更新日期:2021-01-04
  • We need to redefine the relationship between science and its end-users
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Lea Pare Toe

    Scientific research can have a positive impact on society, particularly in a health crisis. But to fully achieve this, scientists must engage with end-users from the very beginning of the research process, writes Lea Pare Toe.

    更新日期:2020-12-21
  • Multivariate genome-wide analysis of education, socioeconomic status and brain phenome
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Frank R. Wendt; Gita A. Pathak; Todd Lencz; John H. Krystal; Joel Gelernter; Renato Polimanti

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and education (EDU) are phenotypically associated with psychiatric disorders and behaviours. It remains unclear how these associations influence genetic risk for psychopathology, psychosocial factors and EDU and/or SES (EDU/SES) individually. Using information from >1 million individuals, we conditioned the genetic risk for psychiatric disorders, personality traits, brain

    更新日期:2020-12-21
  • Publisher Correction: Macro and micro sleep architecture and cognitive performance in older adults
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Ina Djonlagic; Sara Mariani; Annette L. Fitzpatrick; Veerle M. G. T. H. Van Der Klei; Dayna A. Johnson; Alexis C. Wood; Teresa Seeman; Ha T. Nguyen; Michael J. Prerau; José A. Luchsinger; Joseph M. Dzierzewski; Stephen R. Rapp; Gregory J. Tranah; Kristine Yaffe; Katherine E. Burdick; Katie L. Stone; Susan Redline; Shaun M. Purcell

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-01030-3.

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Publisher Correction: Learning is inhibited by heat exposure, both internationally and within the United States
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    R. Jisung Park; A. Patrick Behrer; Joshua Goodman

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-01032-1.

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Framing economic inequality and policy as group disadvantages (versus group advantages) spurs support for action
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Pia Dietze; Maureen A. Craig

    Given the near-historic levels of economic inequality in the United States, it is vital to understand when and why people are motivated to reduce it. We examine whether the manner in which economic inequality and policy are framed—in terms of either upper-socio-economic-class advantages or lower-socio-economic-class disadvantages—influences individuals’ reactions to inequality. Across five studies

    更新日期:2020-12-14
  • Neurocomputational mechanisms of prior-informed perceptual decision-making in humans
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Simon P. Kelly; Elaine A. Corbett; Redmond G. O’Connell

    To interact successfully with diverse sensory environments, we must adapt our decision processes to account for time constraints and prior probabilities. The full set of decision-process parameters that undergo such flexible adaptation has proven to be difficult to establish using simplified models that are based on behaviour alone. Here, we utilize well-characterized human neurophysiological signatures

    更新日期:2020-12-14
  • Evidence of horizontal indirect genetic effects in humans
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Charley Xia; Oriol Canela-Xandri; Konrad Rawlik; Albert Tenesa

    Indirect genetic effects, the effects of the genotype of one individual on the phenotype of other individuals, are environmental factors associated with human disease and complex trait variation that could help to expand our understanding of the environment linked to complex traits. Here, we study indirect genetic effects in 80,889 human couples of European ancestry for 105 complex traits. Using a

    更新日期:2020-12-14
  • Publisher Correction: Relating pattern deviancy aversion to stigma and prejudice
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-10
    Anton Gollwitzer; Julia Marshall; Yimeng Wang; John A. Bargh

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-01028-x.

    更新日期:2020-12-10
  • Re-evaluating police militarization
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-07
    Jonathan Mummolo

    Politicians and law enforcement officials have advocated the militarization of local law enforcement on the grounds that it promotes public and officer safety, and some early research seemingly supported those claims. Two new studies reveal limitations in the data used in this prior work. When these issues are addressed, evidence for the benefits of militarization largely vanishes.

    更新日期:2020-12-07
  • Counterevidence of crime-reduction effects from federal grants of military equipment to local police
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-07
    Anna Gunderson; Elisha Cohen; Kaylyn Jackson Schiff; Tom S. Clark; Adam N. Glynn; Michael Leo Owens

    In 2017, the Trump Administration restored local law enforcement agencies’ access to military weapons and some other types of surplus military equipment (SME) that had been prohibited by the Obama Administration. The Justice Department background paper used to justify this decision cited two papers published by the American Economic Association. These papers used SME data collected with a 2014 Freedom

    更新日期:2020-12-07
  • A hitchhiker’s guide to working with large, open-source neuroimaging datasets
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-07
    Corey Horien; Stephanie Noble; Abigail S. Greene; Kangjoo Lee; Daniel S. Barron; Siyuan Gao; David O’Connor; Mehraveh Salehi; Javid Dadashkarimi; Xilin Shen; Evelyn M. R. Lake; R. Todd Constable; Dustin Scheinost

    Large datasets that enable researchers to perform investigations with unprecedented rigor are growing increasingly common in neuroimaging. Due to the simultaneous increasing popularity of open science, these state-of-the-art datasets are more accessible than ever to researchers around the world. While analysis of these samples has pushed the field forward, they pose a new set of challenges that might

    更新日期:2020-12-07
  • Police demilitarization and violent crime
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-12-07
    Kenneth Lowande

    Policymakers and advocates make contradictory claims about the effects of providing military equipment to local law enforcement, but this intervention is not well understood because of severe data limitations and inferential challenges. I use 3.8 million archived inventory records to estimate the magnitude of sources of bias in existing studies of the 1033 Program. I show that most variation in militarization

    更新日期:2020-12-07
  • Author Correction: Overanxious and underslept
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Eti Ben Simon; Aubrey Rossi; Allison G. Harvey; Matthew P. Walker

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0754-8.

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • How to deal with researcher harassment in the social sciences
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Jan-Philipp Stein; Markus Appel

    The harassment of researchers working in the social sciences—not rarely an organized effort targeting members of marginalized groups—is most alarming. Its implications reach from severe personal consequences to the risk of scientific self-censorship. We invite readers to engage in a much-needed discourse about this worrisome phenomenon.

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Spatiotemporal dynamics of orthographic and lexical processing in the ventral visual pathway
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Oscar Woolnough; Cristian Donos; Patrick S. Rollo; Kiefer J. Forseth; Yair Lakretz; Nathan E. Crone; Simon Fischer-Baum; Stanislas Dehaene; Nitin Tandon

    Reading is a rapid, distributed process that engages multiple components of the ventral visual stream. To understand the neural constituents and their interactions that allow us to identify written words, we performed direct intra-cranial recordings in a large cohort of humans. This allowed us to isolate the spatiotemporal dynamics of visual word recognition across the entire left ventral occipitotemporal

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Learning metrics on spectrotemporal modulations reveals the perception of musical instrument timbre
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Etienne Thoret; Baptiste Caramiaux; Philippe Depalle; Stephen McAdams

    Humans excel at using sounds to make judgements about their immediate environment. In particular, timbre is an auditory attribute that conveys crucial information about the identity of a sound source, especially for music. While timbre has been primarily considered to occupy a multidimensional space, unravelling the acoustic correlates of timbre remains a challenge. Here we re-analyse 17 datasets from

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Hunters, busybodies and the knowledge network building associated with deprivation curiosity
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    David M. Lydon-Staley; Dale Zhou; Ann Sizemore Blevins; Perry Zurn; Danielle S. Bassett

    The open-ended and internally driven nature of curiosity makes characterizing the information seeking that accompanies it a daunting endeavour. We use a historico-philosophical taxonomy of information seeking coupled with a knowledge network building framework to capture styles of information-seeking in 149 participants as they explore Wikipedia for over 5 hours spanning 21 days. We create knowledge

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Improving the precision of intranasal oxytocin research
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Adriano Winterton; Lars T. Westlye; Nils Eiel Steen; Ole A. Andreassen; Daniel S. Quintana

    The neuropeptide oxytocin has been popularized for its role in social behaviour and nominated as a candidate treatment for several psychiatric illnesses due to promising preclinical results. However, these results so far have failed to reliably translate from animal models to human research. In response, there have been justified calls to improve intranasal oxytocin delivery methodology in terms of

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Publisher Correction: Estimating temperatures of heated Lower Palaeolithic flint artefacts
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Aviad Agam; Ido Azuri; Iddo Pinkas; Avi Gopher; Filipe Natalio

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-00955-z.

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Publisher Correction: The agony of stereotyping holds Black women back
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Ebony Omotola McGee

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-01001-8.

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Children punish third parties to satisfy both consequentialist and retributive motives
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Julia Marshall; Daniel A. Yudkin; Molly J. Crockett

    Adults punish moral transgressions to satisfy both retributive motives (such as wanting antisocial others to receive their ‘just deserts’) and consequentialist motives (such as teaching transgressors that their behaviour is inappropriate). Here, we investigated whether retributive and consequentialist motives for punishment are present in children approximately between the ages of five and seven. In

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Affective polarization, local contexts and public opinion in America
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    James N. Druckman; Samara Klar; Yanna Krupnikov; Matthew Levendusky; John Barry Ryan

    Affective polarization has become a defining feature of twenty-first-century US politics, but we do not know how it relates to citizens’ policy opinions. Answering this question has fundamental implications not only for understanding the political consequences of polarization, but also for understanding how citizens form preferences. Under most political circumstances, this is a difficult question

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Distinct regions of the striatum underlying effort, movement initiation and effort discounting
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Shosuke Suzuki; Victoria M. Lawlor; Jessica A. Cooper; Amanda R. Arulpragasam; Michael T. Treadway

    The ventral striatum is believed to encode the subjective value of cost–benefit options; however, this effect has notably been absent during choices that involve physical effort. Previous work in freely moving animals has revealed opposing striatal signals, with greater response to increasing effort demands and reduced responses to rewards requiring effort. Yet, the relationship between these conflicting

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • The agony of stereotyping holds Black women back
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Ebony Omotola McGee

    Doubly marginalized by race and gender, Black women expend vital energy managing stereotypes. Black women should be able to succeed in ways that affirm rather than negate their identities, argues Ebony Omotola McGee.

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Macro and micro sleep architecture and cognitive performance in older adults
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Ina Djonlagic; Sara Mariani; Annette L. Fitzpatrick; Veerle M. G. T. H. Van Der Klei; Dayna A. Johnson; Alexis C. Wood; Teresa Seeman; Ha T. Nguyen; Michael J. Prerau; José A. Luchsinger; Joseph M. Dzierzewski; Stephen R. Rapp; Gregory J. Tranah; Kristine Yaffe; Katherine E. Burdick; Katie L. Stone; Susan Redline; Shaun M. Purcell

    We sought to determine which facets of sleep neurophysiology were most strongly linked to cognitive performance in 3,819 older adults from two independent cohorts, using whole-night electroencephalography. From over 150 objective sleep metrics, we identified 23 that predicted cognitive performance, and processing speed in particular, with effects that were broadly independent of gross changes in sleep

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Calibrating the experimental measurement of psychological attributes
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Dominik R. Bach; Filip Melinščak; Stephen M. Fleming; Manuel C. Voelkle

    Behavioural researchers often seek to experimentally manipulate, measure and analyse latent psychological attributes, such as memory, confidence or attention. The best measurement strategy is often difficult to intuit. Classical psychometric theory, mostly focused on individual differences in stable attributes, offers little guidance. Hence, measurement methods in experimental research are often based

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Sleep characteristics across the lifespan in 1.1 million people from the Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Desana Kocevska; Thom S. Lysen; Aafje Dotinga; M. Elisabeth Koopman-Verhoeff; Maartje P. C. M. Luijk; Niki Antypa; Nienke R. Biermasz; Anneke Blokstra; Johannes Brug; Wiliam J. Burk; Hannie C. Comijs; Eva Corpeleijn; Hassan S. Dashti; Eduard J. de Bruin; Ron de Graaf; Ivonne P. M. Derks; Julia F. Dewald-Kaufmann; Petra J. M. Elders; Reinoldus J. B. J. Gemke; Linda Grievink; Lauren Hale; Catharina A

    We aimed to obtain reliable reference charts for sleep duration, estimate the prevalence of sleep complaints across the lifespan and identify risk indicators of poor sleep. Studies were identified through systematic literature search in Embase, Medline and Web of Science (9 August 2019) and through personal contacts. Eligible studies had to be published between 2000 and 2017 with data on sleep assessed

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Ranking the effectiveness of worldwide COVID-19 government interventions
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Nils Haug; Lukas Geyrhofer; Alessandro Londei; Elma Dervic; Amélie Desvars-Larrive; Vittorio Loreto; Beate Pinior; Stefan Thurner; Peter Klimek

    Assessing the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is critical to inform future preparedness response plans. Here we quantify the impact of 6,068 hierarchically coded NPIs implemented in 79 territories on the effective reproduction number, Rt, of COVID-19. We propose a modelling approach that combines four computational techniques merging statistical

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Imprecise learning and uncertainty
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Markus Ullsperger

    A study in Nature Human Behaviour proposes a biologically plausible algorithm producing near-optimal behaviour in uncertain and volatile environments through computational imprecision. A complementary study in the same issue shows that, depending on context, uncertainty itself guides different decisions and is differentially represented in the brain.

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Science and technology development in Africa needs women
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Francisca N. Okeke

    The involvement of girls and women in the development of science and technology is vital to achieving sustainable development goals in Africa. Identifying the barriers preventing their participation and mapping strategies to overcome these barriers could proffer the way forward, explains Francisca N. Okeke

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Genetic predictors of educational attainment and intelligence test performance predict voter turnout
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Lene Aarøe; Vivek Appadurai; Kasper M. Hansen; Andrew J. Schork; Thomas Werge; Ole Mors; Anders D. Børglum; David M. Hougaard; Merete Nordentoft; Preben B. Mortensen; Wesley Kurt Thompson; Alfonso Buil; Esben Agerbo; Michael Bang Petersen

    Although the genetic influence on voter turnout is substantial (typically 40–50%), the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Across the social sciences, research suggests that ‘resources for politics’ (as indexed notably by educational attainment and intelligence test performance) constitute a central cluster of factors that predict electoral participation. Educational attainment and intelligence test

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Imprecise neural computations as a source of adaptive behaviour in volatile environments
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Charles Findling; Nicolas Chopin; Etienne Koechlin

    In everyday life, humans face environments that feature uncertain and volatile or changing situations. Efficient adaptive behaviour must take into account uncertainty and volatility. Previous models of adaptive behaviour involve inferences about volatility that rely on complex and often intractable computations. Because such computations are presumably implausible biologically, it is unclear how humans

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Personality beyond taxonomy
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Julien Dubois; Frederick Eberhardt; Lynn K. Paul; Ralph Adolphs

    Human and animal behaviour exhibits complex but regular patterns over time, often referred to as expressions of personality. Yet it remains unclear what personality really is: is it just the behavioural patterns themselves, something in the brain, in the genes or perhaps all of these? Here we offer a set of causal hypotheses about the role of personality, integrating psychological and neuroscientific

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Real-time, interactive website for US-county-level COVID-19 event risk assessment
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Aroon Chande; Seolha Lee; Mallory Harris; Quan Nguyen; Stephen J. Beckett; Troy Hilley; Clio Andris; Joshua S. Weitz

    Large events and gatherings, particularly those taking place indoors, have been linked to multitransmission events that have accelerated the pandemic spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To provide real-time, geolocalized risk information, we developed an interactive online dashboard that estimates the risk that at least one individual with SARS-CoV-2 is present in

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Neighbourhood income and physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Jonathan Jay; Jacob Bor; Elaine O. Nsoesie; Sarah K. Lipson; David K. Jones; Sandro Galea; Julia Raifman

    Physical distancing has been the primary strategy to control COVID-19 in the United States. We used mobility data from a large, anonymized sample of smartphone users to assess the relationship between neighbourhood income and physical distancing during the pandemic. We found a strong gradient between neighbourhood income and physical distancing. Individuals in high-income neighbourhoods increased their

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • Sex continuum in the brain and body during adolescence and psychological traits
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Daniel E. Vosberg; Catriona Syme; Nadine Parker; Louis Richer; Zdenka Pausova; Tomáš Paus

    Many traits of the brain and body show marked sex differences, but the distributions of their values overlap substantially between the two sexes. To investigate variations associated with biological sex, beyond binary differences, we create continuous sex scores capturing the inter-individual variability in phenotypes. In an adolescent cohort (n = 1,029; 533 females), we have generated three sex scores

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Partisan differences in physical distancing are linked to health outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Anton Gollwitzer; Cameron Martel; William J. Brady; Philip Pärnamets; Isaac G. Freedman; Eric D. Knowles; Jay J. Van Bavel

    Numerous polls suggest that COVID-19 is a profoundly partisan issue in the United States. Using the geotracking data of 15 million smartphones per day, we found that US counties that voted for Donald Trump (Republican) over Hillary Clinton (Democrat) in the 2016 presidential election exhibited 14% less physical distancing between March and May 2020. Partisanship was more strongly associated with physical

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Assessing the risks of ‘infodemics’ in response to COVID-19 epidemics
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    Riccardo Gallotti; Francesco Valle; Nicola Castaldo; Pierluigi Sacco; Manlio De Domenico

    During COVID-19, governments and the public are fighting not only a pandemic but also a co-evolving infodemic—the rapid and far-reaching spread of information of questionable quality. We analysed more than 100 million Twitter messages posted worldwide during the early stages of epidemic spread across countries (from 22 January to 10 March 2020) and classified the reliability of the news being circulated

    更新日期:2020-10-30
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