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  • Infants relax in response to unfamiliar foreign lullabies
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Constance M. Bainbridge; Mila Bertolo; Julie Youngers; S. Atwood; Lidya Yurdum; Jan Simson; Kelsie Lopez; Feng Xing; Alia Martin; Samuel A. Mehr

    Music is characterized by acoustic forms that are predictive of its behavioural functions. For example, adult listeners accurately identify unfamiliar lullabies as infant-directed on the basis of their musical features alone. This property could reflect a function of listeners’ experiences, the basic design of the human mind, or both. Here, we show that US infants (N = 144) relax in response to eight

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Air pollution as a determinant of food delivery and related plastic waste
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Junhong Chu; Haoming Liu; Alberto Salvo

    Plastic waste is a growing environmental concern. The food delivery industry is criticized for its environmental impact, especially its current use of plastic packaging. At the same time, the environment impacts the industry. We show that air pollution is a behavioural driver of food delivery consumption in the urban developing world. Our hypothesis is that individuals are more likely to order delivery

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • How the mind sees the world
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Maximilian Riesenhuber

    From aardvark to zyzzyva, the world we live in is rich and complex. How is this diversity of objects represented in the human mind? Through an experimental and computational tour de force, Hebart et al. show that people share a mental representation of objects based on a small number of meaningful dimensions.

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Getting Numbers into Brains
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    C. R. Gallistel

    Perceptions of numerosity, duration and distance play fundamental roles in our behaviour and in our thinking, but how we perceive these abstract quantities is a mystery. Cheyette and Piantadosi provide a model that explains both new and long-standing experimental results on the accuracy and speed with which human subjects report the numerosity of a visible set.

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Speaking rhythmically can shape hearing
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    M. Florencia Assaneo; Johanna M. Rimmele; Yonatan Sanz Perl; David Poeppel

    Evidence suggests that temporal predictions arising from the motor system can enhance auditory perception. However, in speech perception, we lack evidence of perception being modulated by production. Here we show a behavioural protocol that captures the existence of such auditory–motor interactions. Participants performed a syllable discrimination task immediately after producing periodic syllable

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • An evolutionary explanation for ineffective altruism
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Bethany Burum; Martin A. Nowak; Moshe Hoffman

    We donate billions to charities each year, yet much of our giving is ineffective. Why are we motivated to give but not to give effectively? Building on evolutionary game theory, we argue that donors evolved (genetically or culturally) to be insensitive to efficacy because people tend not to reward efficacy, as social rewards tend to depend on well-defined and highly observable behaviours. We present

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Revealing the multidimensional mental representations of natural objects underlying human similarity judgements
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Martin N. Hebart; Charles Y. Zheng; Francisco Pereira; Chris I. Baker

    Objects can be characterized according to a vast number of possible criteria (such as animacy, shape, colour and function), but some dimensions are more useful than others for making sense of the objects around us. To identify these core dimensions of object representations, we developed a data-driven computational model of similarity judgements for real-world images of 1,854 objects. The model captured

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Publisher Correction: Specification curve analysis
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Uri Simonsohn; Joseph P. Simmons; Leif D. Nelson

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-11
  • Publisher Correction: Psychophysical scaling reveals a unified theory of visual memory strength
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Mark W. Schurgin; John T. Wixted; Timothy F. Brady

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-11
  • Use caution when applying behavioural science to policy
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Hans IJzerman; Neil A. Lewis; Andrew K. Przybylski; Netta Weinstein; Lisa DeBruine; Stuart J. Ritchie; Simine Vazire; Patrick S. Forscher; Richard D. Morey; James D. Ivory; Farid Anvari

    Social and behavioural scientists have attempted to speak to the COVID-19 crisis. But is behavioural research on COVID-19 suitable for making policy decisions? We offer a taxonomy that lets our science advance in ‘evidence readiness levels’ to be suitable for policy. We caution practitioners to take extreme care translating our findings to applications.

    更新日期:2020-10-11
  • State-level needs for social distancing and contact tracing to contain COVID-19 in the United States
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Weihsueh A. Chiu; Rebecca Fischer; Martial L. Ndeffo-Mbah

    Starting in mid-May 2020, many US states began relaxing social-distancing measures that were put in place to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. To evaluate the impact of relaxation of restrictions on COVID-19 dynamics and control, we developed a transmission dynamic model and calibrated it to US state-level COVID-19 cases and deaths. We used this model to evaluate the impact of social distancing, testing

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • Learning is inhibited by heat exposure, both internationally and within the United States
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    R. Jisung Park; Joshua Goodman; A. Patrick Behrer

    Human capital generally, and cognitive skills specifically, play a crucial role in determining economic mobility and macroeconomic growth. While elevated temperatures have been shown to impair short-run cognitive performance, much less is known about whether heat exposure affects the rate of skill formation. We combine standardized achievement data for 58 countries and 12,000 US school districts with

    更新日期:2020-10-05
  • Estimating temperatures of heated Lower Palaeolithic flint artefacts
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Aviad Agam; Ido Azuri; Iddo Pinkas; Avi Gopher; Filipe Natalio

    Production of stone artefacts using pyro-technology is known from the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic of Europe and the Levant, and the Middle Stone Age in Africa. However, determination of temperatures to which flint artefacts were exposed is impeded by the chemical and structural variability of flint. Here we combine Raman spectroscopy and machine learning to build temperature-estimation models to

    更新日期:2020-10-05
  • Publisher Correction: The effectiveness of plain packaging in discouraging tobacco consumption in Australia
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    David Underwood; Sizhong Sun; Riccardo A. M. H. M. Welters

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-02
  • Genome-wide association study identifies 48 common genetic variants associated with handedness
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Gabriel Cuellar-Partida; Joyce Y. Tung; Nicholas Eriksson; Eva Albrecht; Fazil Aliev; Ole A. Andreassen; Inês Barroso; Jacques S. Beckmann; Marco P. Boks; Dorret I. Boomsma; Heather A. Boyd; Monique M. B. Breteler; Harry Campbell; Daniel I. Chasman; Lynn F. Cherkas; Gail Davies; Eco J. C. de Geus; Ian J. Deary; Panos Deloukas; Danielle M. Dick; David L. Duffy; Johan G. Eriksson; Tõnu Esko; Bjarke Feenstra;

    Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10−8) with left-handedness and

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Auditing local news presence on Google News.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Sean Fischer,Kokil Jaidka,Yphtach Lelkes

    Local news outlets have struggled to stay open in the more competitive market of digital media. Some have noted that this decline may be due to the ways in which digital platforms direct attention to some news outlets and not others. To test this theory, we collected 12.29 million responses to Google News searches within all US counties for a set of keywords. We compared the number of local outlets

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • The evolution of productive organizations.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Francisco Brahm,Joaquin Poblete

    Organizations devoted to the production of goods and services, such as guilds, partnerships and modern corporations, have dominated the economic landscape in our species’ history. We develop an explanation for their evolution drawing from cultural evolution theory. A basic tenet of this theory is that social learning, under certain conditions, allows for the diffusion of innovations in society and

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • The effectiveness of plain packaging in discouraging tobacco consumption in Australia.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    David Underwood,Sizhong Sun,Riccardo A M H M Welters

    The removal of all branding and promotions from tobacco products, known as ‘plain packaging’, is intended to decrease tobacco consumption. Here we examine the effectiveness of Australia’s plain packaging law, which coincided with a change in graphic and text health warnings, by using nationally indicative data 5 years post implementation. We measured the effect of the law on smoking prevalence, tobacco

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Discrete confidence levels revealed by sequential decisions.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Matteo Lisi,Gianluigi Mongillo,Georgia Milne,Tessa Dekker,Andrei Gorea

    Humans can meaningfully express their confidence about uncertain events. Normatively, these beliefs should correspond to Bayesian probabilities. However, it is unclear whether the normative theory provides an accurate description of the human sense of confidence, partly because the self-report measures used in most studies hinder quantitative comparison with normative predictions. To measure confidence

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • A unified account of numerosity perception.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Samuel J Cheyette,Steven T Piantadosi

    People can identify the number of objects in sets of four or fewer items with near-perfect accuracy but exhibit linearly increasing error for larger sets. Some researchers have taken this discontinuity as evidence of two distinct representational systems. Here, we present a mathematical derivation showing that this behaviour is an optimal representation of cardinalities under a limited informational

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Reply to: Divisive normalization does influence decisions with multiple alternatives.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Sebastian Gluth,Nadja Kern,Cécile L Vitali

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Divisive normalization does influence decisions with multiple alternatives.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Ryan Webb,Paul W Glimcher,Kenway Louie

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Revisiting mixture models of memory.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Blaire Dube,Julie D Golomb

    Probabilistic mixture models have contributed significantly to advancements in visual working memory research in recent decades. In a new paper, Schurgin and colleagues revisit the basic assumptions of mixture models and suggest that we cannot understand memory without first considering perception.

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Understanding the removal of precise geotagging in tweets.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Yingjie Hu,Ruo-Qian Wang

    Twitter announced on 18 June 2019 that it would remove the precise geotagging feature in tweets. In addition to protecting the location privacy of users, this change also affects human behaviour studies based on geotagged tweets. We discuss the potential impact of Twitter’s decision and how researchers can respond to this change.

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Psychophysical scaling reveals a unified theory of visual memory strength.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Mark W Schurgin,John T Wixted,Timothy F Brady

    Almost all models of visual memory implicitly assume that errors in mnemonic representations are linearly related to distance in stimulus space. Here we show that neither memory nor perception are appropriately scaled in stimulus space; instead, they are based on a transformed similarity representation that is nonlinearly related to stimulus space. This result calls into question a foundational assumption

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Physical topography is associated with human personality.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Friedrich M Götz,Stefan Stieger,Samuel D Gosling,Jeff Potter,Peter J Rentfrow

    Regional differences in personality are associated with a range of consequential outcomes. But which factors are responsible for these differences? Frontier settlement theory suggests that physical topography is a crucial factor shaping the psychological landscape of regions. Hence, we investigated whether topography is associated with regional variation in personality across the United States (n = 3

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • A general dimension of genetic sharing across diverse cognitive traits inferred from molecular data.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Javier de la Fuente,Gail Davies,Andrew D Grotzinger,Elliot M Tucker-Drob,Ian J Deary

    It has been known since 1904 that, in humans, diverse cognitive traits are positively intercorrelated. This forms the basis for the general factor of intelligence (g). Here, we directly test whether there is a partial genetic basis for individual differences in g using data from seven different cognitive tests (n = 11,263–331,679) and genome-wide autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms. A genetic

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • The automatic influence of advocacy on lawyers and novices.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    David E Melnikoff,Nina Strohminger

    It has long been known that advocating for a cause can alter the advocate’s beliefs. Yet a guiding assumption of many advocates is that the biasing effect of advocacy is controllable. Lawyers, for instance, are taught that they can retain unbiased beliefs while advocating for their clients and that they must do so to secure just outcomes. Across ten experiments (six preregistered; N = 3,104) we show

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Inferring latent learning factors in large-scale cognitive training data.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Mark Steyvers,Robert J Schafer

    The flexibility to learn diverse tasks is a hallmark of human cognition. To improve our understanding of individual differences and dynamics of learning across tasks, we analyse the latent structure of learning trajectories from 36,297 individuals as they learned 51 different tasks on the Lumosity online cognitive training platform. Through a data-driven modelling approach using probabilistic dimensionality

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Polarity of uncertainty representation during exploration and exploitation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Nadescha Trudel,Jacqueline Scholl,Miriam C Klein-Flügge,Elsa Fouragnan,Lev Tankelevitch,Marco K Wittmann,Matthew F S Rushworth

    Environments furnish multiple information sources for making predictions about future events. Here we use behavioural modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe how humans select predictors that might be most relevant. First, during early encounters with potential predictors, participants’ selections were explorative and directed towards subjectively uncertain predictors (positive

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • A survivor's guide to academic bullying.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Morteza Mahmoudi

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Realistic modelling of information spread using peer-to-peer diffusion patterns.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Bin Zhou,Sen Pei,Lev Muchnik,Xiangyi Meng,Xiaoke Xu,Alon Sela,Shlomo Havlin,H Eugene Stanley

    In computational social science, epidemic-inspired spread models have been widely used to simulate information diffusion. However, recent empirical studies suggest that simple epidemic-like models typically fail to generate the structure of real-world diffusion trees. Such discrepancy calls for a better understanding of how information spreads from person to person in real-world social networks. Here

    更新日期:2020-08-29
  • Population-scale longitudinal mapping of COVID-19 symptoms, behaviour and testing.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    William E Allen,Han Altae-Tran,James Briggs,Xin Jin,Glen McGee,Andy Shi,Rumya Raghavan,Mireille Kamariza,Nicole Nova,Albert Pereta,Chris Danford,Amine Kamel,Patrik Gothe,Evrhet Milam,Jean Aurambault,Thorben Primke,Weijie Li,Josh Inkenbrandt,Tuan Huynh,Evan Chen,Christina Lee,Michael Croatto,Helen Bentley,Wendy Lu,Robert Murray,Mark Travassos,Brent A Coull,John Openshaw,Casey S Greene,Ophir Shalem,Gary

    Despite the widespread implementation of public health measures, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread in the United States. To facilitate an agile response to the pandemic, we developed How We Feel, a web and mobile application that collects longitudinal self-reported survey responses on health, behaviour and demographics. Here, we report results from over 500,000 users in the United

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Prejudice and xenophobia in COVID-19 research manuscripts.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Guangting Zeng,Linlin Wang,Zanling Zhang

    更新日期:2020-08-21
  • The parenting 'vaccine'.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Benjamin Perks,Lucie D Cluver

    The world is waiting for a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. In anticipation of successful trial results, preparations are being made for an unprecedented effort to achieve universal coverage and protection. But the interim measures to mitigate COVID-19 have brought their own severe and negative aftershocks. Global lockdowns and closures of schools and protective services have shone light on the vulnerability

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Changing occupational structures and residential segregation in New York, London and Tokyo.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Maarten van Ham,Masaya Uesugi,Tiit Tammaru,David Manley,Heleen Janssen

    Based on data from the 1980s, Sassen’s influential book ‘The Global City’ interrogated how changes in the occupational structure affect socio-economic residential segregation in global cities. Here, using data for New York City, London and Tokyo, we reframe and answer this question for recent decades. Our analysis shows an increase in the share of high-income occupations, accompanied by a fall in low-income

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Complacency, panic, and the value of gentle rule enforcement in addressing pandemics.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Ido Erev,Ori Plonsky,Yefim Roth

    The impact of pandemics is magnified by the coexistence of two contradicting reactions to rare dire risks: panic and the ‘it won’t happen to me’ effect that hastens spread of the disease. We review research that clarifies the conditions that trigger the two biases, and we highlight the potential of gentle rule enforcement policies that can address these problematic conditions.

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • Author Correction: Why loot boxes could be regulated as gambling.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Aaron Drummond,James D Sauer,Lauren C Hall,David Zendle,Malcolm R Loudon

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-11
  • Cultural influences on word meanings revealed through large-scale semantic alignment.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Bill Thompson,Seán G Roberts,Gary Lupyan

    If the structure of language vocabularies mirrors the structure of natural divisions that are universally perceived, then the meanings of words in different languages should closely align. By contrast, if shared word meanings are a product of shared culture, history and geography, they may differ between languages in substantial but predictable ways. Here, we analysed the semantic neighbourhoods of

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Knowledge diffusion in the network of international business travel.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Michele Coscia,Frank M H Neffke,Ricardo Hausmann

    We use aggregated and anonymized information based on international expenditures through corporate payment cards to map the network of global business travel. We combine this network with information on the industrial composition and export baskets of national economies. The business travel network helps to predict which economic activities will grow in a country, which new activities will develop

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Modelling the impact of testing, contact tracing and household quarantine on second waves of COVID-19.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Alberto Aleta,David Martín-Corral,Ana Pastore Y Piontti,Marco Ajelli,Maria Litvinova,Matteo Chinazzi,Natalie E Dean,M Elizabeth Halloran,Ira M Longini,Stefano Merler,Alex Pentland,Alessandro Vespignani,Esteban Moro,Yamir Moreno

    While severe social-distancing measures have proven effective in slowing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, second-wave scenarios are likely to emerge as restrictions are lifted. Here we integrate anonymized, geolocalized mobility data with census and demographic data to build a detailed agent-based model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission in

    更新日期:2020-08-06
  • Why time poverty matters for individuals, organisations and nations.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Laura M Giurge,Ashley V Whillans,Colin West

    Over the last two decades, global wealth has risen. Yet material affluence has not translated into time affluence. Most people report feeling persistently ‘time poor’—like they have too many things to do and not enough time to do them. Time poverty is linked to lower well-being, physical health and productivity. Individuals, organisations and policymakers often overlook the pernicious effects of time

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Gender stereotypes are reflected in the distributional structure of 25 languages.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Molly Lewis,Gary Lupyan

    Cultural stereotypes such as the idea that men are more suited for paid work and women are more suited for taking care of the home and family, may contribute to gender imbalances in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, among other undesirable gender disparities. Might these stereotypes be learned from language? Here we examine whether gender stereotypes are reflected in the

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Evidence of general economic principles of bargaining and trade from 2,000 classroom experiments.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Po-Hsuan Lin,Alexander L Brown,Taisuke Imai,Joseph Tao-Yi Wang,Stephanie W Wang,Colin F Camerer

    Standardized classroom experiments provide evidence about how well scientific results reproduce when nearly identical methods are used. We use a sample of around 20,000 observations to test reproducibility of behaviour in trading and ultimatum bargaining. Double-auction results are highly reproducible and are close to equilibrium predictions about prices and quantities from economic theory. Our sample

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Information about action outcomes differentially affects learning from self-determined versus imposed choices.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Valérian Chambon,Héloïse Théro,Marie Vidal,Henri Vandendriessche,Patrick Haggard,Stefano Palminteri

    The valence of new information influences learning rates in humans: good news tends to receive more weight than bad news. We investigated this learning bias in four experiments, by systematically manipulating the source of required action (free versus forced choices), outcome contingencies (low versus high reward) and motor requirements (go versus no-go choices). Analysis of model-estimated learning

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-31
    William Marciel de Souza,Lewis Fletcher Buss,Darlan da Silva Candido,Jean-Paul Carrera,Sabrina Li,Alexander E Zarebski,Rafael Henrique Moraes Pereira,Carlos A Prete,Andreza Aruska de Souza-Santos,Kris V Parag,Maria Carolina T D Belotti,Maria F Vincenti-Gonzalez,Janey Messina,Flavia Cristina da Silva Sales,Pamela Dos Santos Andrade,Vítor Heloiz Nascimento,Fabio Ghilardi,Leandro Abade,Bernardo Gutierrez

    The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on 25 February 2020. We report and contextualize epidemiological, demographic and clinical findings for COVID-19 cases during the first 3 months of the epidemic. By 31 May 2020, 514,200 COVID-19 cases, including 29,314 deaths, had been reported in 75.3% (4,196 of 5,570) of municipalities across all five administrative regions of Brazil. The R0 value

    更新日期:2020-07-31
  • On supporting early-career Black scholars.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Mya L Roberson

    Black early-career researchers suffer racism, discrimination and significant barriers to professional development. Mya Roberson makes key suggestions on how non-Black scientists can support Black early-career researchers.

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Specification curve analysis.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Uri Simonsohn,Joseph P Simmons,Leif D Nelson

    Empirical results hinge on analytical decisions that are defensible, arbitrary and motivated. These decisions probably introduce bias (towards the narrative put forward by the authors), and they certainly involve variability not reflected by standard errors. To address this source of noise and bias, we introduce specification curve analysis, which consists of three steps: (1) identifying the set of

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Hot or not.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Christof Koch

    Electrical stimulation of the human cortex, undertaken for brain surgery, triggers percepts and feelings. A new study documents an ordering principle to these effects: the farther removed from sensory input or motor output structures, the less likely it is that a region contributes to consciousness.

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Response latencies and eye gaze provide insight on how toddlers gather evidence under uncertainty.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Sarah Leckey,Diana Selmeczy,Alireza Kazemi,Elliott G Johnson,Emily Hembacher,Simona Ghetti

    Toddlers exhibit behaviours that suggest judicious responses to states of uncertainty (for example, turning to adults for help), but little is known about the informational basis of these behaviours. Across two experiments, of which experiment 2 was a preregistered replication, 160 toddlers (aged 25 to 32 months) identified a target from two partially occluded similar (for example, elephant versus

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Not all views are equal, but all views matter.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-16

    In cases of direct replications or direct critiques of earlier work, feedback from the original authors can have an important role to play in the evaluation process, but such feedback is by definition not impartial. Our signed comments policy allows such feedback to be incorporated in the consideration process, without impacting the objectivity of peer review and editorial evaluation.

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Unequal effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on scientists.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Kyle R Myers,Wei Yang Tham,Yian Yin,Nina Cohodes,Jerry G Thursby,Marie C Thursby,Peter Schiffer,Joseph T Walsh,Karim R Lakhani,Dashun Wang

    COVID-19 has not affected all scientists equally. A survey of principal investigators indicates that female scientists, those in the ‘bench sciences’ and, especially, scientists with young children experienced a substantial decline in time devoted to research. This could have important short- and longer-term effects on their careers, which institution leaders and funders need to address carefully.

    更新日期:2020-07-15
  • Addressing racism and disparities in the biomedical sciences.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-10
    Uraina S Clark,Yasmin L Hurd

    Bias and racism in the biomedical community thwart scientific advancement, reduce the pipeline of diverse clinicians and scientists, and contribute to racial and ethnic health disparities. We advocate for proactive antiracism approaches to eliminate barriers impacting people of colour, promote equity and achieve a more effective biomedical community.

    更新日期:2020-07-10
  • Climate shaped how Neolithic farmers and European hunter-gatherers interacted after a major slowdown from 6,100 BCE to 4,500 BCE.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Lia Betti,Robert M Beyer,Eppie R Jones,Anders Eriksson,Francesca Tassi,Veronika Siska,Michela Leonardi,Pierpaolo Maisano Delser,Lily K Bentley,Philip R Nigst,Jay T Stock,Ron Pinhasi,Andrea Manica

    The Neolithic transition in Europe was driven by the rapid dispersal of Near Eastern farmers who, over a period of 3,500 years, brought food production to the furthest corners of the continent. However, this wave of expansion was far from homogeneous, and climatic factors may have driven a marked slowdown observed at higher latitudes. Here, we test this hypothesis by assembling a large database of

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Humans primarily use model-based inference in the two-stage task.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Carolina Feher da Silva,Todd A Hare

    Distinct model-free and model-based learning processes are thought to drive both typical and dysfunctional behaviours. Data from two-stage decision tasks have seemingly shown that human behaviour is driven by both processes operating in parallel. However, in this study, we show that more detailed task instructions lead participants to make primarily model-based choices that have little, if any, simple

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Intrinsic network architecture predicts the effects elicited by intracranial electrical stimulation of the human brain.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Kieran C R Fox,Lin Shi,Sori Baek,Omri Raccah,Brett L Foster,Srijani Saha,Daniel S Margulies,Aaron Kucyi,Josef Parvizi

    Intracranial electrical stimulation (iES) of the human brain has long been known to elicit a remarkable variety of perceptual, motor and cognitive effects, but the functional–anatomical basis of this heterogeneity remains poorly understood. We conducted a whole-brain mapping of iES-elicited effects, collecting first-person reports following iES at 1,537 cortical sites in 67 participants implanted with

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Why loot boxes could be regulated as gambling.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Aaron Drummond,James D Sauer,Lauren C Hall,David Zendle,Malcolm R Loudon

    Do purchasable randomised reward mechanisms in video games (loot boxes) constitute gambling? Opinions often rest on whether virtual items obtained from loot boxes have real-world value. Using market data from real transactions, we show that virtual items have real-world monetary value and therefore could be regulated under existing gambling legislation.

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Exposure to peers' pro-diversity attitudes increases inclusion and reduces the achievement gap.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Sohad Murrar,Mitchell R Campbell,Markus Brauer

    There is a dearth of empirically validated pro-diversity methods that effectively create a more inclusive social climate. We developed two scalable interventions that target people’s perceptions of social norms by communicating to them that their peers hold pro-diversity attitudes and engage in inclusive behaviours. We tested the interventions in six randomized controlled trials at a large public university

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Memorability of words in arbitrary verbal associations modulates memory retrieval in the anterior temporal lobe.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Weizhen Xie,Wilma A Bainbridge,Sara K Inati,Chris I Baker,Kareem A Zaghloul

    Despite large individual differences in memory performance, people remember certain stimuli with overwhelming consistency. This phenomenon is referred to as the memorability of an individual item. However, it remains unknown whether memorability also affects our ability to retrieve associations between items. Here, using a paired-associates verbal memory task, we combine behavioural data, computational

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Author Correction: Election polling errors across time and space.
    Nat. Hum. Behav. (IF 12.282) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Will Jennings,Christopher Wlezien

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-06-26
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