当前期刊: Science Advances Go to current issue    加入关注    本刊投稿指南
显示样式:        排序: IF: - GO 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Shared decision-making allows subordinates to lead when dominants monopolize resources
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Danai Papageorgiou, Damien R. Farine

    The concepts of leadership and dominance are often conflated, with individuals high in the social hierarchy assumed to be decision-makers. Dominants can exclusively benefit from monopolizing food resources and, therefore, induce an intragroup conflict when leading their group to these resources. We demonstrate that shared decision-making reduces such conflicts by studying movement initiations of wild

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Engineered spin-orbit interactions in LaAlO3/SrTiO3-based 1D serpentine electron waveguides
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Megan Briggeman, Jianan Li, Mengchen Huang, Hyungwoo Lee, Jung-Woo Lee, Kitae Eom, Chang-Beom Eom, Patrick Irvin, Jeremy Levy

    The quest to understand, design, and synthesize new forms of quantum matter guides much of contemporary research in condensed matter physics. One-dimensional (1D) electronic systems form the basis for some of the most interesting and exotic phases of quantum matter. Here, we describe a family of quasi-1D nanostructures, based on LaAlO3/SrTiO3 electron waveguides, in which a sinusoidal transverse spatial

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The immune and circulatory systems are functionally integrated across insect evolution
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Yan Yan, Julián F. Hillyer

    The immune and circulatory systems of mammals are functionally integrated, as exemplified by the immune function of the spleen and lymph nodes. Similar functional integration exists in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, as exemplified by the infection-induced aggregation of hemocytes around the heart valves. Whether this is specific to mosquitoes or a general characteristic of insects remained

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • IGF2R-initiated proton rechanneling dictates an anti-inflammatory property in macrophages
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Xuefeng Wang, Liangyu Lin, Bin Lan, Yu Wang, Liming Du, Xiaodong Chen, Qing Li, Keli Liu, Mingyuan Hu, Yueqing Xue, Arthur I. Roberts, Changshun Shao, Gerry Melino, Yufang Shi, Ying Wang

    Metabolic traits of macrophages can be rewired by insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2); however, how IGF2 modulates macrophage cellular dynamics and functionality remains unclear. We demonstrate that IGF2 exhibits dual and opposing roles in controlling inflammatory phenotypes in macrophages by regulating glucose metabolism, relying on the dominant activation of the IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) by low-dose

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A fungal effector targets a heat shock–dynamin protein complex to modulate mitochondrial dynamics and reduce plant immunity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Guojuan Xu, Xionghui Zhong, Yanlong Shi, Zhuo Liu, Nan Jiang, Jing Liu, Bo Ding, Zhiqiang Li, Houxiang Kang, Yuese Ning, Wende Liu, Zejian Guo, Guo-Liang Wang, Xuli Wang

    Mitochondria are essential for animal and plant immunity. Here, we report that the effector MoCDIP4 of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae targets the mitochondria-associated OsDjA9-OsDRP1E protein complex to reduce rice immunity. The DnaJ protein OsDjA9 interacts with the dynamin-related protein OsDRP1E and promotes the degradation of OsDRP1E, which functions in mitochondrial fission. By contrast

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Direct observation of nanoparticle-surfactant assembly and jamming at the water-oil interface
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Yu Chai, Jaffar Hasnain, Kushaan Bahl, Matthew Wong, Dong Li, Phillip Geissler, Paul Y. Kim, Yufeng Jiang, Peiyang Gu, Siqi Li, Dangyuan Lei, Brett A. Helms, Thomas P. Russell, Paul D. Ashby

    Electrostatic interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and functionalized ligands lead to the formation of NP surfactants (NPSs) that assemble at the water-oil interface and form jammed structures. To understand the interfacial behavior of NPSs, it is necessary to understand the mechanism by which the NPSs attach to the interface and how this attachment depends on the areal coverage of the interface

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A matricellular protein fibulin-4 is essential for the activation of lysyl oxidase
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Kazuo Noda, Kaori Kitagawa, Takao Miki, Masahito Horiguchi, Tomoya O. Akama, Takako Taniguchi, Hisaaki Taniguchi, Kazuaki Takahashi, Yasumitsu Ogra, Robert P. Mecham, Masahiko Terajima, Mitsuo Yamauchi, Tomoyuki Nakamura

    Fibulin-4 is a matricellular protein required for extracellular matrix (ECM) assembly. Mice deficient in fibulin-4 (Fbln4−/−) have disrupted collagen and elastin fibers and die shortly after birth from aortic and diaphragmatic rupture. The function of fibulin-4 in ECM assembly, however, remains elusive. Here, we show that fibulin-4 is required for the activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX), a copper-containing

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • ECM-inspired micro/nanofibers for modulating cell function and tissue generation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Yun Xu, Guodong Shi, Jincheng Tang, Ruoyu Cheng, Xiaofeng Shen, Yong Gu, Liang Wu, Kun Xi, Yihong Zhao, Wenguo Cui, Liang Chen

    Current homogeneous bioscaffolds could hardly recapture the regenerative microenvironment of extracellular matrix. Inspired by the peculiar nature of dura matter, we developed an extracellular matrix–mimicking scaffold with biomimetic heterogeneous features so as to fit the multiple needs in dura mater repairing. The inner surface endowed with anisotropic topology and optimized chemical cues could

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Controlling information duration on rewritable luminescent paper based on hybrid antimony (III) chloride/small-molecule absorbates
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Zeping Wang, Dingli Xie, Feng Zhang, Jiabing Yu, Xianping Chen, Ching Ping Wong

    Controlling the duration that information lasts on paper so that it disappears as desired is crucial for information security. However, this area is rarely studied. Here, we report [TEMA]2SbCl5 (1, TEMA+ = methyltriethylammonium), [TEA]2SbCl5 (2, TEA+ = tetraethylammonium), [TEBA]2SbCl5 (3, TEBA+ = benzyltriethylammonium), and [Ph4P]2SbCl5 (4, Ph4P+ = tetraphenylphosphonium) with structure-dependent

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Regeneration of the pulmonary vascular endothelium after viral pneumonia requires COUP-TF2
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Gan Zhao, Aaron I. Weiner, Katherine M. Neupauer, Maria Fernanda de Mello Costa, Gargi Palashikar, Stephanie Adams-Tzivelekidis, Nilam S. Mangalmurti, Andrew E. Vaughan

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with a robust inflammatory response that damages the vascular endothelium, impairing gas exchange. While restoration of microcapillaries is critical to avoid mortality, therapeutic targeting of this process requires a greater understanding of endothelial repair mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelium possesses substantial regenerative

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Functionally distinct resident macrophage subsets differentially shape responses to infection in the bladder
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Livia Lacerda Mariano, Matthieu Rousseau, Hugo Varet, Rachel Legendre, Rebecca Gentek, Javier Saenz Coronilla, Marc Bajenoff, Elisa Gomez Perdiguero, Molly A. Ingersoll

    Resident macrophages are abundant in the bladder, playing key roles in immunity to uropathogens. Yet, whether they are heterogeneous, where they come from, and how they respond to infection remain largely unknown. We identified two macrophage subsets in mouse bladders, MacM in muscle and MacL in the lamina propria, each with distinct protein expression and transcriptomes. Using a urinary tract infection

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The arches of chaos in the Solar System
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Nataša Todorović, Di Wu, Aaron J. Rosengren

    Space manifolds act as the boundaries of dynamical channels enabling fast transportation into the inner- and outermost reaches of the Solar System. Besides being an important element in spacecraft navigation and mission design, these manifolds can also explain the apparent erratic nature of comets and their eventual demise. Here, we reveal a notable and hitherto undetected ornamental structure of manifolds

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Redox state of Earth’s magma ocean and its Venus-like early atmosphere
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Paolo A. Sossi, Antony D. Burnham, James Badro, Antonio Lanzirotti, Matt Newville, Hugh St.C. O’Neill

    Exchange between a magma ocean and vapor produced Earth’s earliest atmosphere. Its speciation depends on the oxygen fugacity (fO2) set by the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratio of the magma ocean at its surface. Here, we establish the relationship between fO2 and Fe3+/Fe2+ in quenched liquids of silicate Earth-like composition at 2173 K and 1 bar. Mantle-derived rocks have Fe3+/(Fe3++Fe2+) = 0.037 ± 0.005, at which the

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The stem/progenitor landscape is reshaped in a mouse model of essential thrombocythemia and causes excess megakaryocyte production
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Daniel Prins, Hyun Jung Park, Sam Watcham, Juan Li, Michele Vacca, Hugo P. Bastos, Alexander Gerbaulet, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Berthold Göttgens, Anthony R. Green

    Frameshift mutations in CALR (calreticulin) are associated with essential thrombocythemia (ET), but the stages at and mechanisms by which mutant CALR drives transformation remain incompletely defined. Here, we use single-cell approaches to examine the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell landscape in a mouse model of mutant CALR-driven ET. We identify a trajectory linking hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • First global observations of third-degree ocean tides
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Richard D. Ray

    The Moon’s tidal potential is slightly asymmetric, giving rise to so-called third-degree ocean tides, which are small and never before observed on a global scale. High-precision satellite altimeters have collected sea level records for almost three decades, providing a massive database from which tiny, time-coherent signals can be extracted. Here, four third-degree tides are mapped: one diurnal, two

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Marine electrical imaging reveals novel freshwater transport mechanism in Hawai‘i
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Eric Attias, Donald Thomas, Dallas Sherman, Khaira Ismail, Steven Constable

    Conventional hydrogeologic framework models used to compute ocean island sustainable yields and aquifer storage neglect the complexity of the nearshore and offshore submarine environment. However, the onshore aquifer at the island of Hawai‘i exhibits a notable volumetric discrepancy between high-elevation freshwater recharge and coastal discharge. In this study, we present a novel transport mechanism

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Single-cell peripheral immunoprofiling of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Thanaphong Phongpreecha, Rosemary Fernandez, Dunja Mrdjen, Anthony Culos, Chandresh R. Gajera, Adam M. Wawro, Natalie Stanley, Brice Gaudilliere, Kathleen L. Poston, Nima Aghaeepour, Thomas J. Montine

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) may provide insight into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated PBMC samples from 132 well-characterized research participants using seven canonical immune stimulants, mass cytometric identification of 35 PBMC subsets, and single-cell quantification of 15 intracellular signaling markers, followed by machine

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Controlling colloidal crystals via morphing energy landscapes and reinforcement learning
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Jianli Zhang, Junyan Yang, Yuanxing Zhang, Michael A. Bevan

    We report a feedback control method to remove grain boundaries and produce circular shaped colloidal crystals using morphing energy landscapes and reinforcement learning–based policies. We demonstrate this approach in optical microscopy and computer simulation experiments for colloidal particles in ac electric fields. First, we discover how tunable energy landscape shapes and orientations enhance grain

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Protein-avoidant ionic liquid (PAIL)–coated nanoparticles to increase bloodstream circulation and drive biodistribution
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Christine M. Hamadani, Morgan J. Goetz, Samir Mitragotri, Eden E. L. Tanner

    The rapid clearance of intravenously administered nanoparticles (NPs) from the bloodstream is a major unsolved problem in nanomedicine. Here, we describe the first use of biocompatible protein-avoidant ionic liquids (PAILs) as NP surface modifiers to reduce opsonization. An ionic liquid choline hexenoate, selected for its aversion to serum proteins, was used to stably coat the surface of poly(lactic-co-glycolic

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Evidence that investors penalize female founders for lack of industry fit
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Dana Kanze, Mark A. Conley, Tyler G. Okimoto, Damon J. Phillips, Jennifer Merluzzi

    Are female founding CEOs penalized when raising funds for their ventures based on industry served? Across an observational study conducted on ventures seeking funding (N = 392) and an experimental study conducted on investors allocating venture funding (N = 130), we find evidence for a “lack of fit” effect: Female-led ventures catering to male-dominated industries receive significantly less funding

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Control of the noncollinear interlayer exchange coupling
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Zachary R. Nunn, Claas Abert, Dieter Suess, Erol Girt

    Interlayer exchange coupling in transition metal multilayers has been intensively studied for more than three decades and is incorporated into almost all spintronic devices. With the current spacer layers, only collinear magnetic alignment can be reliably achieved; however, controlling the coupling angle has the potential to markedly expand the use of interlayer exchange coupling. Here, we show that

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Intrapore energy barriers govern ion transport and selectivity of desalination membranes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Xuechen Zhou, Zhangxin Wang, Razi Epsztein, Cheng Zhan, Wenlu Li, John D. Fortner, Tuan Anh Pham, Jae-Hong Kim, Menachem Elimelech

    State-of-the-art desalination membranes exhibit high water-salt selectivity, but their ability to discriminate between ions is limited. Elucidating the fundamental mechanisms underlying ion transport and selectivity in subnanometer pores is therefore imperative for the development of ion-selective membranes. Here, we compare the overall energy barrier for salt transport and energy barriers for individual

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Recycling of multilayer plastic packaging materials by solvent-targeted recovery and precipitation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Theodore W. Walker, Nathan Frelka, Zhizhang Shen, Alex K. Chew, Jesse Banick, Steven Grey, Min Soo Kim, James A. Dumesic, Reid C. Van Lehn, George W. Huber

    Many plastic packaging materials manufactured today are composites made of distinct polymer layers (i.e., multilayer films). Billions of pounds of these multilayer films are produced annually, but manufacturing inefficiencies result in large, corresponding postindustrial waste streams. Although relatively clean (as opposed to municipal wastes) and of near-constant composition, no commercially practiced

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Biophysical impacts of Earth greening largely controlled by aerodynamic resistance
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Chi Chen, Dan Li, Yue Li, Shilong Piao, Xuhui Wang, Maoyi Huang, Pierre Gentine, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, Ranga B. Myneni

    Satellite observations show widespread increasing trends of leaf area index (LAI), known as the Earth greening. However, the biophysical impacts of this greening on land surface temperature (LST) remain unclear. Here, we quantify the biophysical impacts of Earth greening on LST from 2000 to 2014 and disentangle the contributions of different factors using a physically based attribution model. We find

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Focal random selection closes the gender gap in competitiveness
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Joël Berger, Margit Osterloh, Katja Rost

    Gender differences in choosing to enter competitions are an important cause of the leaky pipeline for women in leadership roles and represent a considerable waste of human resources. We used an incentivized laboratory experiment to evaluate whether the introduction of random elements alters the gender gap in competitiveness. We found that focal random selection from a preselected pool removes the difference

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Strong coupling of single quantum dots with low-refractive-index/high-refractive-index materials at room temperature
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Xingsheng Xu, Siyue Jin

    Strong coupling between a cavity and transition dipole moments in emitters leads to vacuum Rabi splitting. Researchers have not reported strong coupling between a single emitter and a dielectric cavity at room temperature until now. In this study, we investigated the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of colloidal quantum dots on the surface of a SiO2/Si material at various collection angles at room temperature

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Promoting the activation of T cells with glycopolymer-modified dendritic cells by enhancing cell interactions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Liyin Yu, Ruyan Feng, Lijuan Zhu, Qing Hao, Jiacheng Chu, Yan Gu, Yan Luo, Zexin Zhang, Gaojian Chen, Hong Chen

    Dendritic cell (DC) modification to enhance antigen presentation is a valuable strategy in cancer immune therapy. Other than focusing on regulating interactions between DC and antigens, we intend to promote cell interactions between DC and T cell by cell surface engineering. T cell activation is greatly improved and generates higher tumor toxicity with the aid of the synthetic glycopolymer modified

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Dynamic polaronic screening for anomalous exciton spin relaxation in two-dimensional lead halide perovskites
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Weijian Tao, Qiaohui Zhou, Haiming Zhu

    Two-dimensional lead halide perovskites with confined excitons have shown exciting potentials in optoelectronic applications. It is intriguing but unclear how the soft and polar lattice redefines excitons in layered perovskites. Here, we reveal the intrinsic exciton properties by investigating exciton spin dynamics, which provides a sensitive probe to exciton coulomb interactions. Compared to transition

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Amazon rainforest photosynthesis increases in response to atmospheric dryness
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    J. K. Green, J. Berry, P. Ciais, Y. Zhang, P. Gentine

    Earth system models predict that increases in atmospheric and soil dryness will reduce photosynthesis in the Amazon rainforest, with large implications for the global carbon cycle. Using in situ observations, solar-induced fluorescence, and nonlinear machine learning techniques, we show that, in reality, this is not necessarily the case: In many of the wettest parts of this region, photosynthesis and

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • High-throughput single-EV liquid biopsy: Rapid, simultaneous, and multiplexed detection of nucleic acids, proteins, and their combinations
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Jian Zhou, Zuoren Wu, Jie Hu, Dawei Yang, Xiaoyan Chen, Qin Wang, Jie Liu, Maosen Dou, Wenjun Peng, Yuanyuan Wu, Wenhao Wang, Chenjian Xie, Ming Wang, Yuanlin Song, Hengshan Zeng, Chunxue Bai

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), mRNA, and proteins in/on extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent potential cancer biomarkers. Concurrent detection of multiple biomarkers at a single-EV level would greatly improve prognosis and/or diagnosis and understanding of EV phenotypes, biogenesis, and functions. Here, we introduced a High-throughput Nano-bio Chip Integrated System for Liquid Biopsy (HNCIB) system for simultaneous

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Needle-compatible miniaturized optoelectronic sensor for pancreatic cancer detection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Seung Yup Lee, Julia M. Pakela, Kyounghwan Na, Jiaqi Shi, Barbara J. McKenna, Diane M. Simeone, Euisik Yoon, James M. Scheiman, Mary-Ann Mycek

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. The current approach to confirming a tissue diagnosis, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), requires a time-consuming, qualitative cytology analysis and may be limited because of sampling error. We designed and engineered a miniaturized optoelectronic sensor to assist in situ, real-time

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Ancestry-dependent gene expression correlates with reprogramming to pluripotency and multiple dynamic biological processes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Laura S. Bisogno, Jun Yang, Brian D. Bennett, James M. Ward, Lantz C. Mackey, Lois A. Annab, Pierre R. Bushel, Sandeep Singhal, Shepherd H. Schurman, Jung S. Byun, Anna María Nápoles, Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, David C. Fargo, Kevin Gardner, Trevor K. Archer

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from differentiated cells, enabling the generation of personalized disease models by differentiating patient-derived iPSCs into disease-relevant cell lines. While genetic variability between different iPSC lines affects differentiation potential, how this variability in somatic cells affects pluripotent potential is less understood. We generated

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Spinal motoneurons of the human newborn are highly synchronized during leg movements
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    A. Del Vecchio, F. Sylos-Labini, V. Mondì, P. Paolillo, Y. Ivanenko, F. Lacquaniti, D. Farina

    Motoneurons of neonatal rodents show synchronous activity that modulates the development of the neuromuscular system. However, the characteristics of the activity of human neonatal motoneurons are largely unknown. Using a noninvasive neural interface, we identified the discharge timings of individual spinal motoneurons in human newborns. We found highly synchronized activities of motoneurons of the

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Abnormal conductivity in low-angle twisted bilayer graphene
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Shuai Zhang, Aisheng Song, Lingxiu Chen, Chengxin Jiang, Chen Chen, Lei Gao, Yuan Hou, Luqi Liu, Tianbao Ma, Haomin Wang, Xi-Qiao Feng, Qunyang Li

    Controlling the interlayer twist angle offers a powerful means for tuning the electronic properties of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals materials. Typically, the electrical conductivity would increase monotonically with decreasing twist angle owing to the enhanced coupling between adjacent layers. Here, we report a nonmonotonic angle-dependent vertical conductivity across the interface of bilayer

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • n-Alkanes to n-alcohols: Formal primary C─H bond hydroxymethylation via quadruple relay catalysis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Xinxin Tang, Lan Gan, Xin Zhang, Zheng Huang

    Nature is able to synergistically combine multiple enzymes to conduct well-ordered biosynthetic transformations. Mimicking nature’s multicatalysis in vitro may give rise to new chemical transformations via interplay of numerous molecular catalysts in one pot. The direct and selective conversion of abundant n-alkanes to valuable n-alcohols is a reaction with enormous potential applicability but has

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Potency and timing of antiviral therapy as determinants of duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding and intensity of inflammatory response
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Ashish Goyal, E. Fabian Cardozo-Ojeda, Joshua T. Schiffer

    To affect the COVID-19 pandemic, lifesaving antiviral therapies must be identified. The number of clinical trials that can be performed is limited. We developed mathematical models to project multiple therapeutic approaches. Our models recapitulate off-treatment viral dynamics and predict a three-phase immune response. Simulated treatment with remdesivir, selinexor, neutralizing antibodies, or cellular

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Ultrafast electron diffraction from nanophotonic waveforms via dynamical Aharonov-Bohm phases
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    K. J. Mohler, D. Ehberger, I. Gronwald, C. Lange, R. Huber, P. Baum

    Electron interferometry via phase-contrast microscopy, holography, or picodiffraction can provide a direct visualization of the static electric and magnetic fields inside or around a material at subatomic precision, but understanding the electromagnetic origin of light-matter interaction requires time resolution as well. Here, we demonstrate that pump-probe electron diffraction with all-optically compressed

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • PPM1G restricts innate immune signaling mediated by STING and MAVS and is hijacked by KSHV for immune evasion
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Kuai Yu, Huabin Tian, Hongyu Deng

    The adaptor proteins, STING and MAVS, are components of critical pathogen-sensing pathways that induce innate immunity. Phosphorylation of either adaptor results in activation of the type I interferon pathway. How this phosphorylation is regulated and how it is manipulated by pathogens remain largely unknown. Here, we identified host protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1G (PPM1G) as a negative

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Spatial variation in biodiversity loss across China under multiple environmental stressors
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Yonglong Lu, Yifu Yang, Bin Sun, Jingjing Yuan, Minzhao Yu, Nils Chr. Stenseth, James M. Bullock, Michael Obersteiner

    Biodiversity is essential for the maintenance of ecosystem health and delivery of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, the drivers of biodiversity loss and the spatial variation in their impacts are poorly understood. Here, we explore the spatial-temporal distributions of threatened and declining (“biodiversity-loss”) species and find that these species are affected by multiple stressors, with

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • BDNF-induced local translation of GluA1 is regulated by HNRNP A2/B1
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Youngseob Jung, Ji-Young Seo, Hye Guk Ryu, Do-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Ha Lee, Kyong-Tai Kim

    The AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is essential for induction of synaptic plasticity. While various regulatory mechanisms of AMPA receptor expression have been identified, the underlying mechanisms of GluA1 protein synthesis are not fully understood. In neurons, axonal and dendritic mRNAs have been reported to be translated in a cap-independent manner. However, molecular mechanisms of cap-independent

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Overcoming the ceiling effects of experts’ motor expertise through active haptic training
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    M. Hirano, M. Sakurada, S. Furuya

    One of the most challenging issues among experts is how to improve motor skills that have already been highly trained. Recent studies have proposed importance of both genetic predisposition and accumulated amount of practice for standing at the top of fields of sports and performing arts. In contrast to the two factors, what is unexplored is how one practices impacts on experts’ expertise. Here, we

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Walker circulation response to extratropical radiative forcing
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Sarah M. Kang, Shang-Ping Xie, Yechul Shin, Hanjun Kim, Yen-Ting Hwang, Malte F. Stuecker, Baoqiang Xiang, Matt Hawcroft

    Walker circulation variability and associated zonal shifts in the heating of the tropical atmosphere have far-reaching global impacts well into high latitudes. Yet the reversed high latitude–to–Walker circulation teleconnection is not fully understood. Here, we reveal the dynamical pathways of this teleconnection across different components of the climate system using a hierarchy of climate model simulations

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Revealing nanoscale mineralization pathways of hydroxyapatite using in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kun He, Michal Sawczyk, Cong Liu, Yifei Yuan, Boao Song, Ram Deivanayagam, Anmin Nie, Xiaobing Hu, Vinayak P. Dravid, Jun Lu, Cortino Sukotjo, Yu-peng Lu, Petr Král, Tolou Shokuhfar, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar

    To treat impairments in hard tissues or overcome pathological calcification in soft tissues, a detailed understanding of mineralization pathways of calcium phosphate materials is needed. Here, we report a detailed mechanistic study of hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization pathways in an artificial saliva solution via in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the mineralization

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Na+-dependent gate dynamics and electrostatic attraction ensure substrate coupling in glutamate transporters
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    C. Alleva, K. Kovalev, R. Astashkin, M. I. Berndt, C. Baeken, T. Balandin, V. Gordeliy, Ch. Fahlke, J.-P. Machtens

    Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) harness [Na+], [K+], and [H+] gradients for fast and efficient glutamate removal from the synaptic cleft. Since each glutamate is cotransported with three Na+ ions, [Na+] gradients are the predominant driving force for glutamate uptake. We combined all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, fluorescence spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography to study Na+:substrate

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Ion-molecule interactions enable unexpected phase transitions in organic-inorganic aerosol
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    David S. Richards, Kristin L. Trobaugh, Josefina Hajek-Herrera, Chelsea L. Price, Craig S. Sheldon, James F. Davies, Ryan D. Davis

    Atmospheric aerosol particles are commonly complex, aqueous organic-inorganic mixtures, and accurately predicting the properties of these particles is essential for air quality and climate projections. The prevailing assumption is that aqueous organic-inorganic aerosols exist predominately with liquid properties and that the hygroscopic inorganic fraction lowers aerosol viscosity relative to the organic

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Targeting actin-bundling protein L-plastin as an anabolic therapy for bone loss
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Xiaoqun Li, Lipeng Wang, Biaotong Huang, Yanqiu Gu, Ying Luo, Xin Zhi, Yan Hu, Hao Zhang, Zhengrong Gu, Jin Cui, Liehu Cao, Jiawei Guo, Yajun Wang, Qirong Zhou, Hao Jiang, Chao Fang, Weizong Weng, Xiaofei Chen, Xiao Chen, Jiacan Su

    The actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) mediates the resorption activity of osteoclasts, but its therapeutic potential in pathological bone loss remains unexplored. Here, we report that LPL knockout mice show increased bone mass and cortical thickness with more mononuclear tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive cells, osteoblasts, CD31hiEmcnhi endothelial vessels, and fewer multinuclear osteoclasts

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Trappc9 deficiency in mice impairs learning and memory by causing imbalance of dopamine D1 and D2 neurons
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Yuting Ke, Meiqian Weng, Gaurav Chhetri, Muhammad Usman, Yan Li, Qing Yu, Yingzhuo Ding, Zejian Wang, Xiaolong Wang, Pinky Sultana, Marian DiFiglia, Xueyi Li

    Genetic mutations in the gene encoding transport protein particle complex 9 (trappc9), a subunit of TRAPP that acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for rab proteins, cause intellectual disability with brain structural malformations by elusive mechanisms. Here, we report that trappc9-deficient mice exhibit a broad range of behavioral deficits and postnatal delay in growth of the brain. Contrary

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Anomalous fracture in two-dimensional rhenium disulfide
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Lingli Huang, Fangyuan Zheng, Qingming Deng, Quoc Huy Thi, Lok Wing Wong, Yuan Cai, Ning Wang, Chun-Sing Lee, Shu Ping Lau, Thuc Hue Ly, Jiong Zhao

    Low-dimensional materials usually exhibit mechanical properties from those of their bulk counterparts. Here, we show in two-dimensional (2D) rhenium disulfide (ReS2) that the fracture processes are dominated by a variety of previously unidentified phenomena, which are not present in bulk materials. Through direct transmission electron microscopy observations at the atomic scale, the structures close

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Social connections with COVID-19–affected areas increase compliance with mobility restrictions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Ben Charoenwong, Alan Kwan, Vesa Pursiainen

    We study the role of social connections in compliance of U.S. households with mobility restrictions imposed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, using aggregated and anonymized Facebook data on social connections and mobile phone data for measuring social distancing at the county level. Relative to the average restriction efficacy, a county with one-SD more social connections

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • A 3D culture platform enables development of zinc-binding prodrugs for targeted proliferation of β cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kisuk Yang, Miseon Lee, Peter Anthony Jones, Sophie S. Liu, Angela Zhou, Jun Xu, Vedagopuram Sreekanth, Jamie L. Y. Wu, Lillian Vo, Eunjee A. Lee, Ramona Pop, Yuhan Lee, Bridget K. Wagner, Douglas A. Melton, Amit Choudhary, Jeffrey M. Karp

    Advances in treating β cell loss include islet replacement therapies or increasing cell proliferation rate in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively. We propose developing multiple proliferation-inducing prodrugs that target high concentration of zinc ions in β cells. Unfortunately, typical two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures do not mimic in vivo conditions, displaying a markedly lowered zinc content

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Caspase-8–dependent gasdermin D cleavage promotes antimicrobial defense but confers susceptibility to TNF-induced lethality
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Benjamin Demarco, James P. Grayczyk, Elisabet Bjanes, Didier Le Roy, Wulf Tonnus, Charles-Antoine Assenmacher, Enrico Radaelli, Timothée Fettrelet, Vanessa Mack, Andreas Linkermann, Thierry Roger, Igor E. Brodsky, Kaiwen W. Chen, Petr Broz

    Gasdermin D (GSDMD) is a pore-forming protein that promotes pyroptosis and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Recent studies revealed that apoptotic caspase-8 directly cleaves GSDMD to trigger pyroptosis. However, the molecular requirements for caspase-8–dependent GSDMD cleavage and the physiological impact of this signaling axis are unresolved. Here, we report that caspase-8–dependent GSDMD cleavage

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Photoreduction of inorganic carbon(+IV) by elemental sulfur: Implications for prebiotic synthesis in terrestrial hot springs
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Yanzhang Li, Yan Li, Yi Liu, Yifu Wu, Junqi Wu, Bin Wang, Huan Ye, Haoning Jia, Xiao Wang, Linghui Li, Meixiang Zhu, Hongrui Ding, Yong Lai, Changqiu Wang, Jeffrey Dick, Anhuai Lu

    Terrestrial hydrothermal systems have been proposed as alternative birthplaces for early life but lacked reasonable scenarios for the supply of biomolecules. Here, we show that elemental sulfur (S0), as the dominant mineral in terrestrial hot springs, can reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) into formic acid (HCOOH) under ultraviolet (UV) light below 280 nm. The semiconducting S0 is indicated to have a direct

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Engineered mutant α-ENaC subunit mRNA delivered by lipid nanoparticles reduces amiloride currents in cystic fibrosis–based cell and mice models
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Anindit Mukherjee, Kelvin D. MacDonald, Jeonghwan Kim, Michael I. Henderson, Yulia Eygeris, Gaurav Sahay

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) results from mutations in the chloride-conducting CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Airway dehydration and impaired mucociliary clearance in CF is proposed to result in tonic epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity, which drives amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption. Decreasing sodium absorption by inhibiting ENaC can reverse airway surface liquid

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Network-based atrophy modeling in the common epilepsies: A worldwide ENIGMA study
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Sara Larivière, Raúl Rodríguez-Cruces, Jessica Royer, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Antonio Gambardella, Luis Concha, Simon S. Keller, Fernando Cendes, Clarissa Yasuda, Leonardo Bonilha, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Niels K. Focke, Martin Domin, Felix von Podewills, Soenke Langner, Christian Rummel, Roland Wiest, Pascal Martin, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Terence J. O’Brien, Benjamin Sinclair, Lucy Vivash, Patricia

    Epilepsy is increasingly conceptualized as a network disorder. In this cross-sectional mega-analysis, we integrated neuroimaging and connectome analysis to identify network associations with atrophy patterns in 1021 adults with epilepsy compared to 1564 healthy controls from 19 international sites. In temporal lobe epilepsy, areas of atrophy colocalized with highly interconnected cortical hub regions

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • 3D printed gradient index glass optics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Rebecca Dylla-Spears, Timothy D. Yee, Koroush Sasan, Du T. Nguyen, Nikola A. Dudukovic, Jason M. Ortega, Michael A. Johnson, Oscar D. Herrera, Frederick J. Ryerson, Lana L. Wong

    We demonstrate an additive manufacturing approach to produce gradient refractive index glass optics. Using direct ink writing with an active inline micromixer, we three-dimensionally print multimaterial green bodies with compositional gradients, consisting primarily of silica nanoparticles and varying concentrations of titania as the index-modifying dopant. The green bodies are then consolidated into

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Alpine glacier resilience and Neoglacial fluctuations linked to Holocene snowfall trends in the western United States
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Darren J. Larsen, Sarah E. Crump, Aria Blumm

    Geological evidence indicates that glaciers in the western United States fluctuated in response to Holocene changes in temperature and precipitation. However, because moraine chronologies are characteristically discontinuous, Holocene glacier fluctuations and their climatic drivers remain ambiguous, and future glacier changes are uncertain. Here, we construct a continuous 10-thousand-year (ka) record

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Printable, high-performance solid-state electrolyte films
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Weiwei Ping, Chengwei Wang, Ruiliu Wang, Qi Dong, Zhiwei Lin, Alexandra H. Brozena, Jiaqi Dai, Jian Luo, Liangbing Hu

    Current ceramic solid-state electrolyte (SSE) films have low ionic conductivities (10−8 to 10−5 S/cm ), attributed to the amorphous structure or volatile Li loss. Herein, we report a solution-based printing process followed by rapid (~3 s) high-temperature (~1500°C) reactive sintering for the fabrication of high-performance ceramic SSE films. The SSEs exhibit a dense, uniform structure and a superior

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing using targeted lipid nanoparticles for cancer therapy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Daniel Rosenblum, Anna Gutkin, Ranit Kedmi, Srinivas Ramishetti, Nuphar Veiga, Ashley M. Jacobi, Mollie S. Schubert, Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski, Zvi R. Cohen, Mark A. Behlke, Judy Lieberman, Dan Peer

    Harnessing CRISPR-Cas9 technology for cancer therapeutics has been hampered by low editing efficiency in tumors and potential toxicity of existing delivery systems. Here, we describe a safe and efficient lipid nanoparticle (LNP) for the delivery of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNAs that use a novel amino-ionizable lipid. A single intracerebral injection of CRISPR-LNPs against PLK1 (sgPLK1-cLNPs) into aggressive

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Dendritic and parallel processing of visual threats in the retina control defensive responses
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    T. Kim, N. Shen, J.-C. Hsiang, K.P. Johnson, D. Kerschensteiner

    Approaching predators cast expanding shadows (i.e., looming) that elicit innate defensive responses in most animals. Where looming is first detected and how critical parameters of predatory approaches are extracted are unclear. In mice, we identify a retinal interneuron (the VG3 amacrine cell) that responds robustly to looming, but not to related forms of motion. Looming-sensitive calcium transients

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Discretely assembled mechanical metamaterials
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-11-18