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  • The gene expression network regulating queen brain remodeling after insemination and its parallel use in ants with reproductive workers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Manuel Nagel, Bitao Qiu, Lisa Eigil Brandenborg, Rasmus Stenbak Larsen, Dongdong Ning, Jacobus Jan Boomsma, Guojie Zhang

    Caste differentiation happens early in development to produce gynes as future colony germlines and workers as present colony soma. However, gynes need insemination to become functional queens, a transition that initiates reproductive role differentiation relative to unmated gynes. Here, we analyze the anatomy and transcriptomes of brains during this differentiation process within the reproductive caste

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Extinction and dawn of the modern world in the Carnian (Late Triassic)
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Jacopo Dal Corso, Massimo Bernardi, Yadong Sun, Haijun Song, Leyla J. Seyfullah, Nereo Preto, Piero Gianolla, Alastair Ruffell, Evelyn Kustatscher, Guido Roghi, Agostino Merico, Sönke Hohn, Alexander R. Schmidt, Andrea Marzoli, Robert J. Newton, Paul B. Wignall, Michael J. Benton

    The Carnian Pluvial Episode (Late Triassic) was a time of global environmental changes and possibly substantial coeval volcanism. The extent of the biological turnover in marine and terrestrial ecosystems is not well understood. Here, we present a meta-analysis of fossil data that suggests a substantial reduction in generic and species richness and the disappearance of 33% of marine genera. This crisis

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Cavefish brain atlases reveal functional and anatomical convergence across independently evolved populations
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    James B. Jaggard, Evan Lloyd, Anders Yuiska, Adam Patch, Yaouen Fily, Johanna E. Kowalko, Lior Appelbaum, Erik R. Duboue, Alex C. Keene

    Environmental perturbation can drive behavioral evolution and associated changes in brain structure and function. The Mexican fish species, Astyanax mexicanus, includes eyed river-dwelling surface populations and multiple independently evolved populations of blind cavefish. We used whole-brain imaging and neuronal mapping of 684 larval fish to generate neuroanatomical atlases of surface fish and three

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Seismic observations, numerical modeling, and geomorphic analysis of a glacier lake outburst flood in the Himalayas
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    J. M. Maurer, J. M. Schaefer, J. B. Russell, S. Rupper, N. Wangdi, A. E. Putnam, N. Young

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are a substantial hazard for downstream communities in vulnerable regions, yet unpredictable triggers and remote source locations make GLOF dynamics difficult to measure and quantify. Here, we revisit a destructive GLOF that occurred in Bhutan in 1994 and apply cross-correlation–based seismic analyses to track the evolution of the GLOF remotely (~100 kilometers

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Polysaccharide length affects mycobacterial cell shape and antibiotic susceptibility
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Alexander M. Justen, Heather L. Hodges, Lili M. Kim, Patric W. Sadecki, Sara Porfirio, Eveline Ultee, Ian Black, Grace S. Chung, Ariane Briegel, Parastoo Azadi, Laura L. Kiessling

    Bacteria control the length of their polysaccharides, which can control cell viability, physiology, virulence, and immune evasion. Polysaccharide chain length affects immunomodulation, but its impact on bacterial physiology and antibiotic susceptibility was unclear. We probed the consequences of truncating the mycobacterial galactan, an essential linear polysaccharide of about 30 residues. Galactan

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Evidence for extreme export of Arctic sea ice leading the abrupt onset of the Little Ice Age
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Martin W. Miles, Camilla S. Andresen, Christian V. Dylmer

    Arctic sea ice affects climate on seasonal to decadal time scales, and models suggest that sea ice is essential for longer anomalies such as the Little Ice Age. However, empirical evidence is fragmentary. Here, we reconstruct sea ice exported from the Arctic Ocean over the past 1400 years, using a spatial network of proxy records. We find robust evidence for extreme export of sea ice commencing abruptly

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Medial forebrain bundle structure is linked to human impulsivity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Kelly H. MacNiven, Josiah K. Leong, Brian Knutson

    Comparative research indicates that projections from midbrain dopamine nuclei [including the ventral tegmental area (VTA)] to the ventral striatum [including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc)] critically support motivated behavior. Using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography in humans, we characterized the trajectory and structure of two tracts connecting the VTA and NAcc, as well as

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Rainfall triggers more deep-seated landslides than Cascadia earthquakes in the Oregon Coast Range, USA
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    S. R. LaHusen, A. R. Duvall, A. M. Booth, A. Grant, B. A. Mishkin, D. R. Montgomery, W. Struble, J. J. Roering, J. Wartman

    The coastal Pacific Northwest USA hosts thousands of deep-seated landslides. Historic landslides have primarily been triggered by rainfall, but the region is also prone to large earthquakes on the 1100-km-long Cascadia Subduction Zone megathrust. Little is known about the number of landslides triggered by these earthquakes because the last magnitude 9 rupture occurred in 1700 CE. Here, we map 9938

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • A Shh/Gli-driven three-node timer motif controls temporal identity and fate of neural stem cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    José M. Dias, Zhanna Alekseenko, Ashwini Jeggari, Marcelo Boareto, Jannik Vollmer, Mariya Kozhevnikova, Hui Wang, Michael P. Matise, Andrey Alexeyenko, Dagmar Iber, Johan Ericson

    How time is measured by neural stem cells during temporal neurogenesis has remained unresolved. By combining experiments and computational modeling, we define a Shh/Gli-driven three-node timer underlying the sequential generation of motor neurons (MNs) and serotonergic neurons in the brainstem. The timer is founded on temporal decline of Gli-activator and Gli-repressor activities established through

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Water-ion permselectivity of narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Yuhao Li, Zhongwu Li, Fikret Aydin, Jana Quan, Xi Chen, Yun-Chiao Yao, Cheng Zhan, Yunfei Chen, Tuan Anh Pham, Aleksandr Noy

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) pores, which mimic the structure of the aquaporin channels, support extremely high water transport rates that make them strong candidates for building artificial water channels and high-performance membranes. Here, we measure water and ion permeation through 0.8-nm-diameter CNT porins (CNTPs)—short CNT segments embedded in lipid membranes—under optimized experimental conditions

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Ancient DNA shows domestic horses were introduced in the southern Caucasus and Anatolia during the Bronze Age
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Silvia Guimaraes, Benjamin S. Arbuckle, Joris Peters, Sarah E. Adcock, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Hannah Chazin, Ninna Manaseryan, Hans-Peter Uerpmann, Thierry Grange, Eva-Maria Geigl

    Despite the important roles that horses have played in human history, particularly in the spread of languages and cultures, and correspondingly intensive research on this topic, the origin of domestic horses remains elusive. Several domestication centers have been hypothesized, but most of these have been invalidated through recent paleogenetic studies. Anatolia is a region with an extended history

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Annexin A1–dependent tethering promotes extracellular vesicle aggregation revealed with single–extracellular vesicle analysis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Maximillian A. Rogers, Fabrizio Buffolo, Florian Schlotter, Samantha K. Atkins, Lang H. Lee, Arda Halu, Mark C. Blaser, Elena Tsolaki, Hideyuki Higashi, Kristin Luther, George Daaboul, Carlijn V.C. Bouten, Simon C. Body, Sasha A. Singh, Sergio Bertazzo, Peter Libby, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) including plasma membrane–derived microvesicles and endosomal-derived exosomes aggregate by unknown mechanisms, forming microcalcifications that promote cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. Here, we show a framework for assessing cell-independent EV mechanisms in disease by suggesting that annexin A1 (ANXA1)–dependent tethering induces EV aggregation

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • A VH1-69 antibody lineage from an infected Chinese donor potently neutralizes HIV-1 by targeting the V3 glycan supersite
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sonu Kumar, Bin Ju, Benjamin Shapero, Xiaohe Lin, Li Ren, Lei Zhang, Dan Li, Zehua Zhou, Yi Feng, Cindy Sou, Colin J. Mann, Yanling Hao, Anita Sarkar, Jiali Hou, Christian Nunnally, Kunxue Hong, Shuo Wang, Xiangyang Ge, Bin Su, Elise Landais, Devin Sok, Michael B. Zwick, Linling He, Jiang Zhu, Ian A. Wilson, Yiming Shao

    An oligomannose patch around the V3 base of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is recognized by multiple classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Here, we investigated the bNAb response to the V3 glycan supersite in an HIV-1–infected Chinese donor by Env-specific single B cell sorting, structural and functional studies, and longitudinal analysis of antibody and virus repertoires. Monoclonal

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • 3D curvature-instructed endothelial flow response and tissue vascularization
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Christian Mandrycky, Brandon Hadland, Ying Zheng

    Vascularization remains a long-standing challenge in engineering complex tissues. Particularly needed is recapitulating 3D vascular features, including continuous geometries with defined diameter, curvature, and torsion. Here, we developed a spiral microvessel model that allows precise control of curvature and torsion and supports homogeneous tissue perfusion at the centimeter scale. Using this system

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Air/water interfacial assembled rubbery semiconducting nanofilm for fully rubbery integrated electronics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ying-Shi Guan, Anish Thukral, Shun Zhang, Kyoseung Sim, Xu Wang, Yongcao Zhang, Faheem Ershad, Zhoulyu Rao, Fengjiao Pan, Peng Wang, Jianliang Xiao, Cunjiang Yu

    A rubber-like stretchable semiconductor with high carrier mobility is the most important yet challenging material for constructing rubbery electronics and circuits with mechanical softness and stretchability at both microscopic (material) and macroscopic (structural) levels for many emerging applications. However, the development of such a rubbery semiconductor is still nascent. Here, we report the

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Electrically driven photon emission from individual atomic defects in monolayer WS2
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Bruno Schuler, Katherine A. Cochrane, Christoph Kastl, Edward S. Barnard, Edward Wong, Nicholas J. Borys, Adam M. Schwartzberg, D. Frank Ogletree, F. Javier García de Abajo, Alexander Weber-Bargioni

    Quantum dot–like single-photon sources in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit appealing quantum optical properties but lack a well-defined atomic structure and are subject to large spectral variability. Here, we demonstrate electrically stimulated photon emission from individual atomic defects in monolayer WS2 and directly correlate the emission with the local atomic and electronic structure

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • An elaborate sweep-stick code in rat barrel cortex
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Evan R. Harrell, Matías A. Goldin, Brice Bathellier, Daniel E. Shulz

    In rat barrel cortex, feature encoding schemes uncovered during broadband whisker stimulation are hard to reconcile with the simple stick-slip code observed during natural tactile behaviors, and this has hindered the development of a generalized computational framework. By designing broadband artificial stimuli to sample the inputs encoded under natural conditions, we resolve this disparity while markedly

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Neurotoxic peptides from the venom of the giant Australian stinging tree
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Edward K. Gilding, Sina Jami, Jennifer R. Deuis, Mathilde R. Israel, Peta J. Harvey, Aaron G. Poth, Fabian B. H. Rehm, Jennifer L. Stow, Samuel D. Robinson, Kuok Yap, Darren L. Brown, Brett R. Hamilton, David Andersson, David J. Craik, Irina Vetter, Thomas Durek

    Stinging trees from Australasia produce remarkably persistent and painful stings upon contact of their stiff epidermal hairs, called trichomes, with mammalian skin. Dendrocnide-induced acute pain typically lasts for several hours, and intermittent painful flares can persist for days and weeks. Pharmacological activity has been attributed to small-molecule neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Photopyroelectric microfluidics
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Wei Li, Xin Tang, Liqiu Wang

    Precision manipulation of various liquids is essential in many fields. Unlike solid objects, fluids are intrinsically divisible, enriching their fundamental operations with merging, dispensing, and splitting on top of moving. Fluids are sticky as well, calling for their lossless manipulation to prevent mass loss and contamination. We present photopyroelectric microfluidics that meet all the requirements

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Atomic-scale characterization of mature HIV-1 capsid stabilization by inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6)
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Alvin Yu, Elizabeth M. Y. Lee, Jaehyeok Jin, Gregory A. Voth

    Inositol hexakisphosphates (IP6) are cellular cofactors that promote the assembly of mature capsids of HIV. These negatively charged molecules coordinate an electropositive ring of arginines at the center of pores distributed throughout the capsid surface. Kinetic studies indicate that the binding of IP6 increases the stable lifetimes of the capsid by several orders of magnitude from minutes to hours

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • FUNDC1 interacts with FBXL2 to govern mitochondrial integrity and cardiac function through an IP3R3-dependent manner in obesity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Jun Ren, Mingming Sun, Hao Zhou, Amir Ajoolabady, Yuan Zhou, Jun Tao, James R. Sowers, Yingmei Zhang

    Defective mitophagy is causally linked to obesity complications. Here, we identified an interaction between mitophagy protein FUNDC1 (FUN14 domain containing 1) and receptor subunit of human SCF (SKP1/cullin/F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex FBXL2 as a gatekeeper for mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis through degradation of IP3R3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 3). Loss of FUNDC1 in FUNDC1−/−

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Diversification of reprogramming trajectories revealed by parallel single-cell transcriptome and chromatin accessibility sequencing
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Q. R. Xing, C. A. El Farran, P. Gautam, Y. S. Chuah, T. Warrier, C. X. D. Toh, N. Y. Kang, S. Sugii, Y. T. Chang, J. Xu, J. J. Collins, G. Q. Daley, H. Li, L. F. Zhang, Y. H. Loh

    Cellular reprogramming suffers from low efficiency especially for the human cells. To deconstruct the heterogeneity and unravel the mechanisms for successful reprogramming, we adopted single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) and single-cell assay for transposase-accessible chromatin (scATAC-Seq) to profile reprogramming cells across various time points. Our analysis revealed that reprogramming cells

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Self-luminescent photodynamic therapy using breast cancer targeted proteins
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Eun Hye Kim, Sangwoo Park, Yun Kyu Kim, Minwoo Moon, Jeongwon Park, Kyung Jin Lee, Seongsoo Lee, Young-Pil Kim

    Despite the potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT), its comprehensive use in cancer treatment has not been achieved because of the nondegradable risks of photosensitizing drugs and limits of light penetration and instrumentation. Here, we present bioluminescence (BL)–induced proteinaceous PDT (BLiP-PDT), through the combination of luciferase and a reactive oxygen species (ROS)–generating protein (Luc-RGP)

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Propagation and attenuation of mechanical signals in ultrasoft 2D solids
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Jan Maarten van Doorn, Ruben Higler, Ronald Wegh, Remco Fokkink, Alessio Zaccone, Joris Sprakel, Jasper van der Gucht

    The propagation of elastic waves in soft materials plays a crucial role in the spatiotemporal transmission of mechanical signals, e.g., in biological mechanotransduction or in the failure of marginal solids. At high Reynolds numbers Re ≫ 1, inertia dominates and wave propagation is readily observed. However, mechanical cues in soft and biological materials often occur at low Re, where waves are overdamped

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Highly energy-tunable quantum light from moiré-trapped excitons
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    H. Baek, M. Brotons-Gisbert, Z. X. Koong, A. Campbell, M. Rambach, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, B. D. Gerardot

    Photon antibunching, a hallmark of quantum light, has been observed in the correlations of light from isolated atomic and atomic-like solid-state systems. Two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures offer a unique method to create a quantum light source: Moiré trapping potentials for excitons are predicted to create arrays of quantum emitters. While signatures of moiré-trapped excitons have been

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Real-time nanodiamond thermometry probing in vivo thermogenic responses
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Masazumi Fujiwara, Simo Sun, Alexander Dohms, Yushi Nishimura, Ken Suto, Yuka Takezawa, Keisuke Oshimi, Li Zhao, Nikola Sadzak, Yumi Umehara, Yoshio Teki, Naoki Komatsu, Oliver Benson, Yutaka Shikano, Eriko Kage-Nakadai

    Real-time temperature monitoring inside living organisms provides a direct measure of their biological activities. However, it is challenging to reduce the size of biocompatible thermometers down to submicrometers, despite their potential applications for the thermal imaging of subtissue structures with single-cell resolution. Here, using quantum nanothermometers based on optically accessible electron

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Dimorphism in cryptophytes—The case of Teleaulax amphioxeia/Plagioselmis prolonga and its ecological implications
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    A. Altenburger, H. E. Blossom, L. Garcia-Cuetos, H. H. Jakobsen, J. Carstensen, N. Lundholm, P. J. Hansen, Ø. Moestrup, L. Haraguchi

    Growing evidence suggests that sexual reproduction might be common in unicellular organisms, but observations are sparse. Limited knowledge of sexual reproduction constrains understanding of protist ecology. Although Teleaulax amphioxeia and Plagioselmis prolonga are common marine cryptophytes worldwide, and are also important plastid donors for some kleptoplastic ciliates and dinoflagellates, the

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Extracellular matrix stiffness determines DNA repair efficiency and cellular sensitivity to genotoxic agents
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Min Deng, Jing Lin, Somaira Nowsheen, Tongzheng Liu, Yingchun Zhao, Peter W. Villalta, Delphine Sicard, Daniel J. Tschumperlin, SeungBaek Lee, JungJin Kim, Zhenkun Lou

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly toxic lesions that can drive genetic instability. These lesions also contribute to the efficacy of radiotherapy and many cancer chemotherapeutics. DNA repair efficiency is regulated by both intracellular and extracellular chemical signals. However, it is largely unknown whether this process is regulated by physical stimuli such as extracellular mechanical

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Deconstructing laws of accessibility and facility distribution in cities
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Yanyan Xu, Luis E. Olmos, Sofiane Abbar, Marta C. González

    The era of the automobile has seriously degraded the quality of urban life through costly travel and visible environmental effects. A new urban planning paradigm must be at the heart of our road map for the years to come, the one where, within minutes, inhabitants can access their basic living needs by bike or by foot. In this work, we present novel insights of the interplay between the distributions

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Deciphering the effect of traps on electronic charge transport properties of methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Artem Musiienko, Jindřich Pipek, Petr Praus, Mykola Brynza, Eduard Belas, Bogdan Dryzhakov, Mao-Hua Du, Mahshid Ahmadi, Roman Grill

    Halide perovskites have undergone remarkable developments as highly efficient optoelectronic materials for a variety of applications. Several studies indicated the critical role of defects on the performance of perovskite devices. However, the parameters of defects and their interplay with free charge carriers remain unclear. In this study, we explored the dynamics of free holes in methylammonium lead

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Tailoring of the axon initial segment shapes the conversion of synaptic inputs into spiking output in OFF-α T retinal ganglion cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Paul Werginz, Vineeth Raghuram, Shelley I. Fried

    Recently, mouse OFF-α transient (OFF-α T) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were shown to display a gradient of light responses as a function of position along the dorsal-ventral axis; response differences were correlated to differences in the level of excitatory presynaptic input. Here, we show that postsynaptic differences between cells also make a strong contribution to response differences. Cells in

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Political storms: Emergent partisan skepticism of hurricane risks
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Elisa F. Long, M. Keith Chen, Ryne Rohla

    Mistrust of scientific evidence and government-issued guidelines is increasingly correlated with political affiliation. Survey evidence has documented skepticism in a diverse set of issues including climate change, vaccine hesitancy, and, most recently, COVID-19 risks. Less well understood is whether these beliefs alter high-stakes behavior. Combining GPS data for 2.7 million smartphone users in Florida

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Intrinsic reconstruction of ice-I surfaces
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    N. Kawakami, K. Iwata, A. Shiotari, Y. Sugimoto

    Understanding the precise atomic structure of ice surfaces is critical for revealing the mechanisms of physical and chemical phenomena at the surfaces, such as ice growth, melting, and chemical reactions. Nevertheless, no conclusive structure has been established. In this study, noncontact atomic force microscopy was used to address the characterization of the atomic structures of ice Ih(0001) and

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Distinct phosphorylation sites in a prototypical GPCR differently orchestrate β-arrestin interaction, trafficking, and signaling
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Hemlata Dwivedi-Agnihotri, Madhu Chaturvedi, Mithu Baidya, Tomasz Maciej Stepniewski, Shubhi Pandey, Jagannath Maharana, Ashish Srivastava, Natarin Caengprasath, Aylin C. Hanyaloglu, Jana Selent, Arun K. Shukla

    Agonist-induced phosphorylation of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a key determinant for their interaction with β-arrestins (βarrs) and subsequent functional responses. Therefore, it is important to decipher the contribution and interplay of different receptor phosphorylation sites in governing βarr interaction and functional outcomes. Here, we find that several phosphorylation sites in the

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Immobilized 13C-labeled polyether chain ends confined to the crystallite surface detected by advanced NMR
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Shichen Yuan, Klaus Schmidt-Rohr

    A comprehensive 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach for characterizing the location of chain ends of polyethers and polyesters, at the crystallite surface or in the amorphous layers, is presented. The OH chain ends of polyoxymethylene are labeled with 13COO-acetyl groups and their dynamics probed by 13C NMR with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) recoupling. At least three-quarters of the chain

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • LSD1 represses a neonatal/reparative gene program in adult intestinal epithelium
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Rosalie T. Zwiggelaar, Håvard T. Lindholm, Madeleine Fosslie, Marianne Terndrup Pedersen, Yuki Ohta, Alberto Díez-Sánchez, Mara Martín-Alonso, Jenny Ostrop, Mami Matano, Naveen Parmar, Emilie Kvaløy, Roos R. Spanjers, Kamran Nazmi, Morten Rye, Finn Drabløs, Cheryl Arrowsmith, John Arne Dahl, Kim B. Jensen, Toshiro Sato, Menno J. Oudhoff

    Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by adult intestinal stem cells, which, alongside Paneth cells, appear after birth in the neonatal period. We aimed to identify regulators of neonatal intestinal epithelial development by testing a small library of epigenetic modifier inhibitors in Paneth cell–skewed organoid cultures. We found that lysine-specific demethylase 1A (Kdm1a/Lsd1) is absolutely

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Mid-infrared polarization-controlled broadband achromatic metadevice
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Kai Ou, Feilong Yu, Guanhai Li, Wenjuan Wang, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, Lujun Huang, Peng Wang, Tianxin Li, Zhifeng Li, Xiaoshuang Chen, Wei Lu

    Metasurfaces provide a compact, flexible, and efficient platform to manipulate the electromagnetic waves. However, chromatic aberration imposes severe restrictions on their applications in broadband polarization control. Here, we propose a broadband achromatic methodology to implement polarization-controlled multifunctional metadevices in mid-wavelength infrared with birefringent meta-atoms. We demonstrate

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Gadofullerene inhibits the degradation of apolipoprotein B100 and boosts triglyceride transport for reversing hepatic steatosis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Chen Zhou, Mingming Zhen, Meilan Yu, Xue Li, Tong Yu, Jingchao Liu, Wang Jia, Shuai Liu, Lei Li, Jie Li, Zihao Sun, Zhongpu Zhao, Xinyao Wang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Chunru Wang, Chunli Bai

    Hepatic steatosis is a widespread metabolic disease characterized by excessive accumulation of triglyceride (TG) in liver. So far, effective approved drugs for hepatic steatosis are still in development, and removing the unnecessary TG from the hepatocytes is an enormous challenge. Here, we explore a promising anti-hepatic steatosis strategy by boosting hepatocellular TG transport using β-alanine–modified

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Efficient high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 testing to detect asymptomatic carriers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Noam Shental, Shlomia Levy, Vered Wuvshet, Shosh Skorniakov, Bar Shalem, Aner Ottolenghi, Yariv Greenshpan, Rachel Steinberg, Avishay Edri, Roni Gillis, Michal Goldhirsh, Khen Moscovici, Sinai Sachren, Lilach M. Friedman, Lior Nesher, Yonat Shemer-Avni, Angel Porgador, Tomer Hertz

    Recent reports suggest that 10 to 30% of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) infected patients are asymptomatic and that viral shedding may occur before symptom onset. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase diagnostic testing capabilities to prevent disease spread. We developed P-BEST, a method for Pooling-Based Efficient SARS-CoV-2 Testing, which identifies all positive

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Molecular characterization of ebselen binding activity to SARS-CoV-2 main protease
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Cintia A. Menéndez, Fabian Byléhn, Gustavo R. Perez-Lemus, Walter Alvarado, Juan J. de Pablo

    There is an urgent need to repurpose drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent computational-experimental screenings have identified several existing drugs that could serve as effective inhibitors of the virus’ main protease, Mpro, which is involved in gene expression and replication. Among these, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzoselenazol-3-one) appears to be particularly

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • PhenomeXcan: Mapping the genome to the phenome through the transcriptome
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Milton Pividori, Padma S. Rajagopal, Alvaro Barbeira, Yanyu Liang, Owen Melia, Lisa Bastarache, YoSon Park, GTEx Consortium, Xiaoquan Wen, Hae K. Im

    Large-scale genomic and transcriptomic initiatives offer unprecedented insight into complex traits, but clinical translation remains limited by variant-level associations without biological context and lack of analytic resources. Our resource, PhenomeXcan, synthesizes 8.87 million variants from genome-wide association study summary statistics on 4091 traits with transcriptomic data from 49 tissues

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • Tissue-specific genetic features inform prediction of drug side effects in clinical trials
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Áine Duffy, Marie Verbanck, Amanda Dobbyn, Hong-Hee Won, Joshua L. Rein, Iain S. Forrest, Girish Nadkarni, Ghislain Rocheleau, Ron Do

    Adverse side effects often account for the failure of drug clinical trials. We evaluated whether a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of 1167 phenotypes in >360,000 U.K. Biobank individuals, in combination with gene expression and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in 48 tissues, can inform prediction of drug side effects in clinical trials. We determined that drug target genes with five

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • 3D bioprinting dual-factor releasing and gradient-structured constructs ready to implant for anisotropic cartilage regeneration
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Ye Sun, Yongqing You, Wenbo Jiang, Bo Wang, Qiang Wu, Kerong Dai

    Cartilage injury is extremely common and leads to joint dysfunction. Existing joint prostheses do not remodel with host joint tissue. However, developing large-scale biomimetic anisotropic constructs mimicking native cartilage with structural integrity is challenging. In the present study, we describe anisotropic cartilage regeneration by three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting dual-factor releasing and

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Quantum key distribution with correlated sources
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Margarida Pereira, Go Kato, Akihiro Mizutani, Marcos Curty, Kiyoshi Tamaki

    In theory, quantum key distribution (QKD) offers information-theoretic security. In practice, however, it does not due to the discrepancies between the assumptions used in the security proofs and the behavior of the real apparatuses. Recent years have witnessed a tremendous effort to fill the gap, but the treatment of correlations among pulses has remained a major elusive problem. Here, we close this

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Temperature dependence of elastic and plastic deformation behavior of a refractory high-entropy alloy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Chanho Lee, George Kim, Yi Chou, Brianna L. Musicó, Michael C. Gao, Ke An, Gian Song, Yi-Chia Chou, Veerle Keppens, Wei Chen, Peter K. Liaw

    Single-phase solid-solution refractory high-entropy alloys (HEAs) show remarkable mechanical properties, such as their high yield strength and substantial softening resistance at elevated temperatures. Hence, the in-depth study of the deformation behavior for body-centered cubic (BCC) refractory HEAs is a critical issue to explore the uncovered/unique deformation mechanisms. We have investigated the

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Let-7 derived from endometrial extracellular vesicles is an important inducer of embryonic diapause in mice
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    W. M. Liu, R. R. Cheng, Z. R. Niu, A. C. Chen, M. Y. Ma, T. Li, P. C. Chiu, R. T. Pang, Y. L. Lee, J. P. Ou, Y. Q. Yao, W. S. B. Yeung

    Embryonic diapause is a maternally controlled phenomenon. The molecule controlling the onset of the phenomenon is unknown. We demonstrated that overexpression of microRNA let-7a or incubation with let-7g–enriched extracellular vesicles from endometrial epithelial cells prolonged the in vitro survival of mouse blastocysts, which developed into live pups after having been transferred to foster mothers

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Increased vaccine tolerability and protection via NF-κB modulation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    B. A. Moser, R. C. Steinhardt, Y. Escalante-Buendia, D. A. Boltz, K. M. Barker, B. J. Cassaidy, M.G. Rosenberger, S. Yoo, B. G. McGonnigal, A. P. Esser-Kahn

    Improving adjuvant responses is a promising pathway to develop vaccines against some pathogens (e.g., HIV or dengue). One challenge in adjuvant development is modulating the inflammatory response, which can cause excess side effects, while maintaining immune activation and protection. No approved adjuvants yet have the capability to independently modulate inflammation and protection. Here, we demonstrate

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Hedgehog signaling controls segmentation dynamics and diversity via msx1 in a spider embryo
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Yasuko Akiyama-Oda, Hiroki Oda

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays fundamental roles in animal body patterning. Understanding its mechanistic complexity requires simple tractable systems that can be used for these studies. In the early spider embryo, Hh signaling mediates the formation of overall anterior-posterior polarity, yet it remains unclear what mechanisms link the initial Hh signaling activity with body axis segmentation, in which

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Generating multifunctional acoustic tweezers in Petri dishes for contactless, precise manipulation of bioparticles
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Zhenhua Tian, Zeyu Wang, Peiran Zhang, Ty Downing Naquin, John Mai, Yuqi Wu, Shujie Yang, Yuyang Gu, Hunter Bachman, Yaosi Liang, Zhiming Yu, Tony Jun Huang

    Acoustic tweezers are a promising technology for the biocompatible, precise manipulation of delicate bioparticles ranging from nanometer-sized exosomes to millimeter-sized zebrafish larva. However, their widespread usage is hindered by their low compatibility with the workflows in biological laboratories. Here, we present multifunctional acoustic tweezers that can manipulate bioparticles in a disposable

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • High-sensitivity nanoscale chemical imaging with hard x-ray nano-XANES
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    A. Pattammattel, R. Tappero, M. Ge, Y. S. Chu, X. Huang, Y. Gao, H. Yan

    Resolving chemical species at the nanoscale is of paramount importance to many scientific and technological developments across a broad spectrum of disciplines. Hard x-rays with excellent penetration power and high chemical sensitivity are suitable for speciation of heterogeneous (thick) materials. Here, we report nanoscale chemical speciation by combining scanning nanoprobe and fluorescence-yield

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Microengineered 3D pulmonary interstitial mimetics highlight a critical role for matrix degradation in myofibroblast differentiation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Daniel L. Matera, Katarina M. DiLillo, Makenzee R. Smith, Christopher D. Davidson, Ritika Parikh, Mohammed Said, Carole A. Wilke, Isabelle M. Lombaert, Kelly B. Arnold, Bethany B. Moore, Brendon M. Baker

    Fibrosis, characterized by aberrant tissue scarring from activated myofibroblasts, is often untreatable. Although the extracellular matrix becomes increasingly stiff and fibrous during disease progression, how these physical cues affect myofibroblast differentiation in 3D is poorly understood. Here, we describe a multicomponent hydrogel that recapitulates the 3D fibrous structure of interstitial tissue

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Directional liquid dynamics of interfaces with superwettability
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Haoyu Dai, Zhichao Dong, Lei Jiang

    Natural creatures use their surface structures to control directional liquid dynamics for survival. Learning from nature, artificial superwetting materials have triggered technological revolutions in many disciplines. To improve controllability, researchers have attempted to use external fields, such as thermal, light, magnetic, and electric fields, to assist or achieve controllable liquid dynamics

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • B cells polarize pathogenic inflammatory T helper subsets through ICOSL-dependent glycolysis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Qiu-Hui Zeng, Yuan Wei, Xiang-Ming Lao, Dong-Ping Chen, Chun-Xiang Huang, Qian-Yi Lin, Min He, Yuan Liao, Limin Zheng, Bo Li, Guang-Bo Zhang, Yun Chen, Dong-Ming Kuang

    B cells constitute abundant cellular components in inflamed human tissues, but their role in pathogenesis of inflammatory T helper (TH) subsets is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that B cells, particularly resting naïve B cells, have a previously unrecognized helper function that is involved in shaping the metabolic process and subsequent inflammatory differentiation of T-cell receptor–primed TH

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Real-time shaping of entangled photons by classical control and feedback
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Ohad Lib, Giora Hasson, Yaron Bromberg

    Quantum technologies hold great promise for revolutionizing photonic applications such as cryptography. Yet, their implementation in real-world scenarios is challenging, mostly because of sensitivity of quantum correlations to scattering. Recent developments in optimizing the shape of single photons introduce new ways to control entangled photons. Nevertheless, shaping single photons in real time remains

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • An enormous sulfur isotope excursion indicates marine anoxia during the end-Triassic mass extinction
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Tianchen He, Jacopo Dal Corso, Robert J. Newton, Paul B. Wignall, Benjamin J. W. Mills, Simona Todaro, Pietro Di Stefano, Emily C. Turner, Robert A. Jamieson, Vincenzo Randazzo, Manuel Rigo, Rosemary E. Jones, Alexander M. Dunhill

    The role of ocean anoxia as a cause of the end-Triassic marine mass extinction is widely debated. Here, we present carbonate-associated sulfate δ34S data from sections spanning the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic transition, which document synchronous large positive excursions on a global scale occurring in ~50 thousand years. Biogeochemical modeling demonstrates that this S isotope perturbation is best

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Aberration-corrected STEM imaging of 2D materials: Artifacts and practical applications of threefold astigmatism
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Sergei Lopatin, Areej Aljarb, Vladimir Roddatis, Tobias Meyer, Yi Wan, Jui-Han Fu, Mohamed Hedhili, Yimo Han, Lain-Jong Li, Vincent Tung

    High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) with spherical aberration correction enables researchers to peer into two-dimensional (2D) materials and correlate the material properties with those of single atoms. The maximum intensity of corrected electron beam is confined in the area having sub-angstrom size. Meanwhile, the residual threefold astigmatism of the electron probe

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The optoretinogram reveals the primary steps of phototransduction in the living human eye
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Vimal Prabhu Pandiyan, Aiden Maloney-Bertelli, James A. Kuchenbecker, Kevin C. Boyle, Tong Ling, Zhijie Charles Chen, B. Hyle Park, Austin Roorda, Daniel Palanker, Ramkumar Sabesan

    Photoreceptors initiate vision by converting photons to electrical activity. The onset of the phototransduction cascade is marked by the isomerization of photopigments upon light capture. We revealed that the onset of phototransduction is accompanied by a rapid (<5 ms), nanometer-scale electromechanical deformation in individual human cone photoreceptors. Characterizing this biophysical phenomenon

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Revealing hidden medium-range order in amorphous materials using topological data analysis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Søren S. Sørensen, Christophe A. N. Biscio, Mathieu Bauchy, Lisbeth Fajstrup, Morten M. Smedskjaer

    Despite the numerous technological applications of amorphous materials, such as glasses, the understanding of their medium-range order (MRO) structure—and particularly the origin of the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the structure factor—remains elusive. Here, we use persistent homology, an emergent type of topological data analysis, to understand MRO structure in sodium silicate glasses. To

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Paleozoic ammonoid ecomorphometrics test ecospace availability as a driver of morphological diversification
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Christopher D. Whalen, Pincelli M. Hull, Derek E. G. Briggs

    The early burst model suggests that disparity rises rapidly to fill empty ecospace following clade origination or in the aftermath of a mass extinction. Early bursts are considered common features of fossil data, but neontological studies have struggled to identify them. Furthermore, tests have proven difficult because factors besides ecology can drive changes in morphology. Here, we document the ecomorphometric

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Hypothalamic circuitry underlying stress-induced insomnia and peripheral immunosuppression
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Shi-Bin Li, Jeremy C. Borniger, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Julien Hédou, Brice Gaudilliere, Luis de Lecea

    The neural substrates of insomnia/hyperarousal induced by stress remain unknown. Here, we show that restraint stress leads to hyperarousal associated with strong activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (CRHPVN) and hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (HcrtLH). CRHPVN neurons directly innervate HcrtLH neurons, and optogenetic stimulation

    更新日期:2020-09-10
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