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  • Natural killers of cognition
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Nurit Papismadov; Valery Krizhanovsky

    One of the mechanisms driving aging and neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of senescent cells, while their elimination mitigates age-related decline. A new report details how, with aging, changes in the dentate gyrus microenvironment lead to natural-killer-cell-mediated clearance of neurogenic senescent cells, resulting in cognitive decline.

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Neuroblast senescence in the aged brain augments natural kill cell cytotoxicity leading to impaired neurogenesis and cognition
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Wei-Na Jin; Kaibin Shi; Wenyan He; Jun-Hong Sun; Luc Van Kaer; Fu-Dong Shi; Qiang Liu

    Normal aging is accompanied by escalating systemic inflammation. Yet the potential impact of immune homeostasis on neurogenesis and cognitive decline during brain aging have not been previously addressed. Here we report that natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system reside in the dentate gyrus neurogenic niche of aged brains in humans and mice. In situ expansion of these cells contributes

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as a port of central nervous system entry in individuals with COVID-19
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Jenny Meinhardt; Josefine Radke; Carsten Dittmayer; Jonas Franz; Carolina Thomas; Ronja Mothes; Michael Laue; Julia Schneider; Sebastian Brünink; Selina Greuel; Malte Lehmann; Olga Hassan; Tom Aschman; Elisa Schumann; Robert Lorenz Chua; Christian Conrad; Roland Eils; Werner Stenzel; Marc Windgassen; Larissa Rößler; Hans-Hilmar Goebel; Hans R. Gelderblom; Hubert Martin; Andreas Nitsche; Walter J. Schulz-Schaeffer;

    The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a pandemic respiratory disease. Moreover, thromboembolic events throughout the body, including in the CNS, have been described. Given the neurological symptoms observed in a large majority of individuals with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 penetrance of the CNS is likely. By various means, we demonstrate the presence

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Focus on neuroscience methods
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-23

    In this special issue, we present a series of reviews, perspectives and commentaries that highlight advances in methods and analytical approaches and provide guidelines and best practices in various areas of neuroscience.

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Acute social isolation evokes midbrain craving responses similar to hunger
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Livia Tomova; Kimberly L. Wang; Todd Thompson; Gillian A. Matthews; Atsushi Takahashi; Kay M. Tye; Rebecca Saxe

    When people are forced to be isolated from each other, do they crave social interactions? To address this question, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural responses evoked by food and social cues after participants (n = 40) experienced 10 h of mandated fasting or total social isolation. After isolation, people felt lonely and craved social interaction. Midbrain regions showed

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • An offset ON–OFF receptive field is created by gap junctions between distinct types of retinal ganglion cells
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Sam Cooler; Gregory W. Schwartz

    In the vertebrate retina, the location of a neuron’s receptive field in visual space closely corresponds to the physical location of synaptic input onto its dendrites, a relationship called the retinotopic map. We report the discovery of a systematic spatial offset between the ON and OFF receptive subfields in F-mini-ON retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Surprisingly, this property does not come from spatially

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Auditory activity is diverse and widespread throughout the central brain of Drosophila
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Diego A. Pacheco; Stephan Y. Thiberge; Eftychios Pnevmatikakis; Mala Murthy

    Sensory pathways are typically studied by starting at receptor neurons and following postsynaptic neurons into the brain. However, this leads to a bias in analyses of activity toward the earliest layers of processing. Here, we present new methods for volumetric neural imaging with precise across-brain registration to characterize auditory activity throughout the entire central brain of Drosophila and

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Neuronal correlates of strategic cooperation in monkeys
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Wei Song Ong; Seth Madlon-Kay; Michael L. Platt

    We recorded neural activity in male monkeys playing a variant of the game ‘chicken’ in which they made decisions to cooperate or not cooperate to obtain rewards of different sizes. Neurons in the middle superior temporal sulcus (mSTS)—previously implicated in social perception—signaled strategic information, including payoffs, intentions of the other player, reward outcomes and predictions about the

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Parameterizing neural power spectra into periodic and aperiodic components
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Thomas Donoghue; Matar Haller; Erik J. Peterson; Paroma Varma; Priyadarshini Sebastian; Richard Gao; Torben Noto; Antonio H. Lara; Joni D. Wallis; Robert T. Knight; Avgusta Shestyuk; Bradley Voytek

    Electrophysiological signals exhibit both periodic and aperiodic properties. Periodic oscillations have been linked to numerous physiological, cognitive, behavioral and disease states. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the aperiodic component has putative physiological interpretations and that it dynamically changes with age, task demands and cognitive states. Electrophysiological neural activity

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Author Correction: Repopulated microglia are solely derived from the proliferation of residual microglia after acute depletion
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Yubin Huang; Zhen Xu; Shanshan Xiong; Fangfang Sun; Guangrong Qin; Guanglei Hu; Jingjing Wang; Lei Zhao; Yu-Xiang Liang; Tianzhun Wu; Zhonghua Lu; Mark S. Humayun; Kwok-Fai So; Yihang Pan; Ningning Li; Ti-Fei Yuan; Yanxia Rao; Bo Peng

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-018-0090-8.

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Severe reactive astrocytes precipitate pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease via H 2 O 2 − production
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Heejung Chun; Hyeonjoo Im; You Jung Kang; Yunha Kim; Jin Hee Shin; Woojin Won; Jiwoon Lim; Yeonha Ju; Yongmin Mason Park; Sunpil Kim; Seung Eun Lee; Jaekwang Lee; Junsung Woo; Yujin Hwang; Hyesun Cho; Seonmi Jo; Jong-Hyun Park; Daesoo Kim; Doo Yeon Kim; Jeong-Sun Seo; Byoung Joo Gwag; Young Soo Kim; Ki Duk Park; Bong-Kiun Kaang; Hansang Cho; Hoon Ryu; C. Justin Lee

    Although the pathological contributions of reactive astrocytes have been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), their in vivo functions remain elusive due to the lack of appropriate experimental models and precise molecular mechanisms. Here, we show the importance of astrocytic reactivity on the pathogenesis of AD using GiD, a newly developed animal model of reactive astrocytes, where the reactivity

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Massively parallel techniques for cataloguing the regulome of the human brain
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Kayla G. Townsley; Kristen J. Brennand; Laura M. Huckins

    Complex brain disorders are highly heritable and arise from a complex polygenic risk architecture. Many disease-associated loci are found in non-coding regions that house regulatory elements. These elements influence the transcription of target genes—many of which demonstrate cell-type-specific expression patterns—and thereby affect phenotypically relevant molecular pathways. Thus, cell-type-specificity

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Recent advances in neurotechnologies with broad potential for neuroscience research
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Abraham Vázquez-Guardado; Yiyuan Yang; Amay J. Bandodkar; John A. Rogers

    Interest in deciphering the fundamental mechanisms and processes of the human mind represents a central driving force in modern neuroscience research. Activities in support of this goal rely on advanced methodologies and engineering systems that are capable of interrogating and stimulating neural pathways, from single cells in small networks to interconnections that span the entire brain. Recent research

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Acute targeting of pre-amyloid seeds in transgenic mice reduces Alzheimer-like pathology later in life
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Ruth E. Uhlmann; Christine Rother; Jay Rasmussen; Juliane Schelle; Carina Bergmann; Emily M. Ullrich Gavilanes; Sarah K. Fritschi; Anika Buehler; Frank Baumann; Angelos Skodras; Rawaa Al-Shaana; Natalie Beschorner; Lan Ye; Stephan A. Kaeser; Ulrike Obermüller; Søren Christensen; Fredrik Kartberg; Jeffrey B. Stavenhagen; Jens-Ulrich Rahfeld; Holger Cynis; Fang Qian; Paul H. Weinreb; Thierry Bussiere;

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are a relatively late consequence of Aβ aggregation in Alzheimer‘s disease. When pathogenic Aβ seeds begin to form, propagate and spread is not known, nor are they biochemically defined. We tested various antibodies for their ability to neutralize Aβ seeds before Aβ deposition becomes detectable in Aβ precursor protein-transgenic mice. We also characterized the different antibody

    更新日期:2020-11-16
  • Publisher Correction: Schwann cell energy to die for
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Amelia Trimarco; Carla Taveggia

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Tau accumulation in astrocytes of the dentate gyrus induces neuronal dysfunction and memory deficits in Alzheimer’s disease
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Kevin Richetin; Pascal Steullet; Mathieu Pachoud; Romain Perbet; Enea Parietti; Mathischan Maheswaran; Sabiha Eddarkaoui; Séverine Bégard; Catherine Pythoud; Maria Rey; Raphaëlle Caillierez; Kim Q Do; Sophie Halliez; Paola Bezzi; Luc Buée; Geneviève Leuba; Morvane Colin; Nicolas Toni; Nicole Déglon

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of the tau protein in neurons, neurodegeneration and memory loss. However, the role of non-neuronal cells in this chain of events remains unclear. In the present study, we found accumulation of tau in hilar astrocytes of the dentate gyrus of individuals with AD. In mice, the overexpression of 3R tau specifically in hilar astrocytes of the

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Modeling behaviorally relevant neural dynamics enabled by preferential subspace identification
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Omid G. Sani; Hamidreza Abbaspourazad; Yan T. Wong; Bijan Pesaran; Maryam M. Shanechi

    Neural activity exhibits complex dynamics related to various brain functions, internal states and behaviors. Understanding how neural dynamics explain specific measured behaviors requires dissociating behaviorally relevant and irrelevant dynamics, which is not achieved with current neural dynamic models as they are learned without considering behavior. We develop preferential subspace identification

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Prefrontal–amygdala circuits in social decision-making
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Prabaha Gangopadhyay; Megha Chawla; Olga Dal Monte; Steve W. C. Chang

    An increasing amount of research effort is being directed toward investigating the neural bases of social cognition from a systems neuroscience perspective. Evidence from multiple animal species is beginning to provide a mechanistic understanding of the substrates of social behaviors at multiple levels of neurobiology, ranging from those underlying high-level social constructs in humans and their more

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • Quantifying behavior to understand the brain
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Talmo D. Pereira; Joshua W. Shaevitz; Mala Murthy

    Over the past years, numerous methods have emerged to automate the quantification of animal behavior at a resolution not previously imaginable. This has opened up a new field of computational ethology and will, in the near future, make it possible to quantify in near completeness what an animal is doing as it navigates its environment. The importance of improving the techniques with which we characterize

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • A cerebello-olivary signal for negative prediction error is sufficient to cause extinction of associative motor learning
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Olivia A. Kim; Shogo Ohmae; Javier F. Medina

    The brain generates negative prediction error (NPE) signals to trigger extinction, a type of inhibitory learning that is responsible for suppressing learned behaviors when they are no longer useful. Neurons encoding NPE have been reported in multiple brain regions. Here, we use an optogenetic approach to demonstrate that GABAergic cerebello-olivary neurons can generate a powerful NPE signal, capable

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • An ‘edgy’ new look
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Lucina Q. Uddin

    Network neuroscientists envision the brain as a network of nodes (regions) linked via edges (connections). A long-held assumption is that node-centric interactions are the primary phenomena of interest. Faskowitz et al. introduce a novel edge-centric framework with the potential to usher in a new era of discovery in connectomics research.

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Brain organoids for the study of human neurobiology at the interface of in vitro and in vivo
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Ilaria Chiaradia; Madeline A. Lancaster

    Brain development is an extraordinarily complex process achieved through the spatially and temporally regulated release of key patterning factors. In vitro neurodevelopmental models seek to mimic these processes to recapitulate the steps of tissue fate acquisition and morphogenesis. Classic two-dimensional neural cultures present higher homogeneity but lower complexity compared to the brain. Brain

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Mesophasic organization of GABA A receptors in hippocampal inhibitory synapses
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Yun-Tao Liu; Chang-Lu Tao; Xiaokang Zhang; Wenjun Xia; Dong-Qing Shi; Lei Qi; Cheng Xu; Rong Sun; Xiao-Wei Li; Pak-Ming Lau; Z. Hong Zhou; Guo-Qiang Bi

    Information processing in the brain depends on specialized organization of neurotransmitter receptors and scaffolding proteins within the postsynaptic density. However, how these molecules are organized in situ remains largely unknown. In this study, template-free classification of oversampled sub-tomograms was used to analyze cryo-electron tomograms of hippocampal synapses. We identified type-A GABA

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Challenges and future directions for representations of functional brain organization
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Janine Bijsterbosch; Samuel J. Harrison; Saad Jbabdi; Mark Woolrich; Christian Beckmann; Stephen Smith; Eugene P. Duff

    A key principle of brain organization is the functional integration of brain regions into interconnected networks. Functional MRI scans acquired at rest offer insights into functional integration via patterns of coherent fluctuations in spontaneous activity, known as functional connectivity. These patterns have been studied intensively and have been linked to cognition and disease. However, the field

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Activated microglia cause metabolic disruptions in developmental cortical interneurons that persist in interneurons from individuals with schizophrenia
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Gun-Hoo Park; Haneul Noh; Zhicheng Shao; Peiyan Ni; Yiren Qin; Dongxin Liu; Cameron P. Beaudreault; Joy S. Park; Chiderah P. Abani; James M. Park; Derek T. Le; Sasha Z. Gonzalez; Youxin Guan; Bruce M. Cohen; Donna L. McPhie; Joseph T. Coyle; Thomas A. Lanz; Hualin S. Xi; Changhong Yin; Weihua Huang; Hae-Young Kim; Sangmi Chung

    The mechanisms by which prenatal immune activation increase the risk for neuropsychiatric disorders are unclear. Here, we generated developmental cortical interneurons (cINs)—which are known to be affected in schizophrenia (SCZ) when matured—from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from healthy controls (HCs) and individuals with SCZ and co-cultured them with or without activated microglia

    更新日期:2020-10-28
  • Help from peripheral macrophages in ALS?
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    P. Hande Özdinler

    Chiot and colleagues investigated whether peripheral macrophages play a role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology, finding that macrophages along peripheral motor neuron axons react to neurodegeneration. Modifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in peripheral macrophages, using bone marrow cell replacement, reduces both macrophage and microglia inflammatory response, delays pathology

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Edge-centric functional network representations of human cerebral cortex reveal overlapping system-level architecture
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Joshua Faskowitz; Farnaz Zamani Esfahlani; Youngheun Jo; Olaf Sporns; Richard F. Betzel

    Network neuroscience has relied on a node-centric network model in which cells, populations and regions are linked to one another via anatomical or functional connections. This model cannot account for interactions of edges with one another. In this study, we developed an edge-centric network model that generates constructs ‘edge time series’ and ‘edge functional connectivity’ (eFC). Using network

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Modifying macrophages at the periphery has the capacity to change microglial reactivity and to extend ALS survival
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Aude Chiot; Sakina Zaïdi; Charlène Iltis; Matthieu Ribon; Félix Berriat; Lorenzo Schiaffino; Ariane Jolly; Pierre de la Grange; Michel Mallat; Delphine Bohl; Stéphanie Millecamps; Danielle Seilhean; Christian S. Lobsiger; Séverine Boillée

    Microglia and peripheral macrophages have both been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), although their respective roles have yet to be determined. We now show that macrophages along peripheral motor neuron axons in mouse models and patients with ALS react to neurodegeneration. In ALS mice, peripheral myeloid cell infiltration into the spinal cord was limited and depended on disease duration

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Coding of social novelty in the hippocampal CA2 region and its disruption and rescue in a 22q11.2 microdeletion mouse model
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Macayla L. Donegan; Fabio Stefanini; Torcato Meira; Joshua A. Gordon; Stefano Fusi; Steven A. Siegelbaum

    The hippocampal CA2 region is essential for social memory. To determine whether CA2 activity encodes social interactions, we recorded extracellularly from CA2 pyramidal neurons (PNs) in male mice during social behavior. Although CA2 neuronal firing showed only weak spatial selectivity, it accurately encoded contextual changes and distinguished between a novel and a familiar mouse. In the Df(16)A+/−

    更新日期:2020-10-19
  • Publisher Correction: A glycolytic shift in Schwann cells supports injured axons
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Elisabetta Babetto; Keit Men Wong; Bogdan Beirowski

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Neural mechanisms of aggression across species
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Julieta E. Lischinsky; Dayu Lin

    Aggression is a social behavior essential for securing resources and defending oneself and family. Thanks to its indispensable function in competition and thus survival, aggression exists widely across animal species, including humans. Classical works from Tinbergen and Lorenz concluded that instinctive behaviors including aggression are mediated by hardwired brain circuitries that specialize in processing

    更新日期:2020-10-12
  • Author Correction: Using Bayes factor hypothesis testing in neuroscience to establish evidence of absence
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Christian Keysers; Valeria Gazzola; Eric-Jan Wagenmakers

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Mapping the epigenomic and transcriptomic interplay during memory formation and recall in the hippocampal engram ensemble
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Asaf Marco; Hiruy S. Meharena; Vishnu Dileep; Ravikiran M. Raju; Jose Davila-Velderrain; Amy Letao Zhang; Chinnakkaruppan Adaikkan; Jennie Z. Young; Fan Gao; Manolis Kellis; Li-Huei Tsai

    The epigenome and three-dimensional (3D) genomic architecture are emerging as key factors in the dynamic regulation of different transcriptional programs required for neuronal functions. In this study, we used an activity-dependent tagging system in mice to determine the epigenetic state, 3D genome architecture and transcriptional landscape of engram cells over the lifespan of memory formation and

    更新日期:2020-10-05
  • Spinal astrocytes in superficial laminae gate brainstem descending control of mechanosensory hypersensitivity
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Yuta Kohro; Tsuyoshi Matsuda; Kohei Yoshihara; Keita Kohno; Keisuke Koga; Ryuichi Katsuragi; Takaaki Oka; Ryoichi Tashima; Sho Muneta; Takuya Yamane; Shota Okada; Kazuya Momokino; Aogu Furusho; Kenji Hamase; Takumi Oti; Hirotaka Sakamoto; Kenichiro Hayashida; Ryosuke Kobayashi; Takuro Horii; Izuho Hatada; Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh; Katsuhiko Mikoshiba; Verdon Taylor; Kazuhide Inoue; Makoto Tsuda

    Astrocytes are critical regulators of CNS function and are proposed to be heterogeneous in the developing brain and spinal cord. Here we identify a population of astrocytes located in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) in adults that is genetically defined by Hes5. In vivo imaging revealed that noxious stimulation by intraplantar capsaicin injection activated Hes5+ SDH astrocytes

    更新日期:2020-10-05
  • Prefrontal cortex exhibits multidimensional dynamic encoding during decision-making
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Mikio C. Aoi; Valerio Mante; Jonathan W. Pillow

    Recent work has suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in context-dependent perceptual decision-making. In this study, we addressed that role using a new method for identifying task-relevant dimensions of neural population activity. Specifically, we show that the PFC has a multidimensional code for context, decisions and both relevant and irrelevant sensory information. Moreover

    更新日期:2020-10-05
  • Computational behavior analysis takes on drug development
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Ann Kennedy

    By building a richer behavioral vocabulary, Wiltschko et al. tease apart subtle differences in how pharmacological agents affect animal behavior, mapping on- and off-target effects of drugs with improved precision.

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Functional boundaries within human subcortex
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Evan M. Gordon

    Abrupt spatial changes in anatomic and functional properties of the brain demarcate boundaries between discrete functional areas. While previous work has identified these boundaries in cortex, a new study by Tian et al. applies this approach for the first time to subcortical structures within the in vivo human brain.

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Topographic organization of the human subcortex unveiled with functional connectivity gradients
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Ye Tian; Daniel S. Margulies; Michael Breakspear; Andrew Zalesky

    Brain atlases are fundamental to understanding the topographic organization of the human brain, yet many contemporary human atlases cover only the cerebral cortex, leaving the subcortex a terra incognita. We use functional MRI (fMRI) to map the complex topographic organization of the human subcortex, revealing large-scale connectivity gradients and new areal boundaries. We unveil four scales of subcortical

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Anatomically segregated basal ganglia pathways allow parallel behavioral modulation
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Jaeeon Lee; Wengang Wang; Bernardo L. Sabatini

    In the basal ganglia (BG), anatomically segregated and topographically organized feedforward circuits are thought to modulate multiple behaviors in parallel. Although topographically arranged BG circuits have been described, the extent to which these relationships are maintained across the BG output nuclei and in downstream targets is unclear. Here, using focal trans-synaptic anterograde tracing, we

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Synaptic vesicles transiently dock to refill release sites
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Grant F. Kusick; Morven Chin; Sumana Raychaudhuri; Kristina Lippmann; Kadidia P. Adula; Edward J. Hujber; Thien Vu; M. Wayne Davis; Erik M. Jorgensen; Shigeki Watanabe

    Synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane to release neurotransmitter following an action potential, after which new vesicles must ‘dock’ to refill vacated release sites. To capture synaptic vesicle exocytosis at cultured mouse hippocampal synapses, we induced single action potentials by electrical field stimulation, then subjected neurons to high-pressure freezing to examine their morphology

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • Author Correction: Functional organization and population dynamics in the mouse primary auditory cortex
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Gideon Rothschild; Israel Nelken; Adi Mizrahi

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Revealing the structure of pharmacobehavioral space through motion sequencing.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Alexander B Wiltschko,Tatsuya Tsukahara,Ayman Zeine,Rockwell Anyoha,Winthrop F Gillis,Jeffrey E Markowitz,Ralph E Peterson,Jesse Katon,Matthew J Johnson,Sandeep Robert Datta

    Understanding how genes, drugs and neural circuits influence behavior requires the ability to effectively organize information about similarities and differences within complex behavioral datasets. Motion Sequencing (MoSeq) is an ethologically inspired behavioral analysis method that identifies modular components of three-dimensional mouse body language called ‘syllables’. Here, we show that MoSeq

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Issues and recommendations from the OHBM COBIDAS MEEG committee for reproducible EEG and MEG research.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Cyril Pernet,Marta I Garrido,Alexandre Gramfort,Natasha Maurits,Christoph M Michel,Elizabeth Pang,Riitta Salmelin,Jan Mathijs Schoffelen,Pedro A Valdes-Sosa,Aina Puce

    The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) has been active in advocating for the instantiation of best practices in neuroimaging data acquisition, analysis, reporting and sharing of both data and analysis code to deal with issues in science related to reproducibility and replicability. Here we summarize recommendations for such practices in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and electroencephalographic

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Dense neuronal reconstruction through X-ray holographic nano-tomography.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Aaron T Kuan,Jasper S Phelps,Logan A Thomas,Tri M Nguyen,Julie Han,Chiao-Lin Chen,Anthony W Azevedo,John C Tuthill,Jan Funke,Peter Cloetens,Alexandra Pacureanu,Wei-Chung Allen Lee

    Imaging neuronal networks provides a foundation for understanding the nervous system, but resolving dense nanometer-scale structures over large volumes remains challenging for light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). Here we show that X-ray holographic nano-tomography (XNH) can image millimeter-scale volumes with sub-100-nm resolution, enabling reconstruction of dense wiring in Drosophila

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Circuit and molecular architecture of a ventral hippocampal network.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Mark M Gergues,Kasey J Han,Hye Sun Choi,Brandon Brown,Kelsey J Clausing,Victoria S Turner,Ilia D Vainchtein,Anna V Molofsky,Mazen A Kheirbek

    The ventral hippocampus (vHPC) is a critical hub in networks that process emotional information. While recent studies have indicated that ventral CA1 (vCA1) projection neurons are functionally dissociable, the basic principles of how the inputs and outputs of vCA1 are organized remain unclear. Here, we used viral and sequencing approaches to define the logic of the extended vCA1 circuit. Using high-throughput

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Schwann cell energy to die for.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Amelia Trimarco,Carla Taveggia

    A new study shows that, immediately after axon injury, glycolysis is increased in Schwann cells to provide axons with energy and prevent them from degenerating. The authors also identify possible therapeutic targets that could be modulated to promote axonal protection.

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Horace Barlow. Scientist of vision.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Colin Blakemore

    Horace Basil Barlow, Fellow of the Royal Society, winner of the Australia Prize, the Royal Medal of the Royal Society and the Schwartz Prize of the Society for Neuroscience, died on 5 July 2020 at the age of 98, 10 days after suffering a stroke. As news spread among his former students and collaborators, one phrase recurred again and again in the messages of nostalgic reflection: ‘the end of an era’

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Live-imaging of astrocyte morphogenesis and function in zebrafish neural circuits.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Jiakun Chen,Kira E Poskanzer,Marc R Freeman,Kelly R Monk

    How astrocytes grow and integrate into neural circuits remains poorly defined. Zebrafish are well suited for such investigations, but bona fide astrocytes have not been described in this system. Here we characterize a zebrafish cell type that is remarkably similar to mammalian astrocytes that derive from radial glial cells and elaborate processes to establish their territories at early larval stages

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Systematic errors in connectivity inferred from activity in strongly recurrent networks.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Abhranil Das,Ila R Fiete

    Understanding the mechanisms of neural computation and learning will require knowledge of the underlying circuitry. Because it is difficult to directly measure the wiring diagrams of neural circuits, there has long been an interest in estimating them algorithmically from multicell activity recordings. We show that even sophisticated methods, applied to unlimited data from every cell in the circuit

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Climbing fiber synapses rapidly and transiently inhibit neighboring Purkinje cells via ephaptic coupling.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Kyung-Seok Han,Christopher H Chen,Mehak M Khan,Chong Guo,Wade G Regehr

    Climbing fibers from the inferior olive make strong excitatory synapses onto cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites and trigger distinctive responses known as complex spikes. We found that, in awake mice, a complex spike in one PC suppressed conventional simple spikes in neighboring PCs for several milliseconds. This involved a new ephaptic coupling, in which an excitatory synapse generated large

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Author Correction: Striatal neurons directly converted from Huntington's disease patient fibroblasts recapitulate age-associated disease phenotypes.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Matheus B Victor,Michelle Richner,Hannah E Olsen,Seong Won Lee,Alejandro M Monteys,Chunyu Ma,Christine J Huh,Bo Zhang,Beverly L Davidson,X William Yang,Andrew S Yoo

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • A prefrontal-paraventricular thalamus circuit requires juvenile social experience to regulate adult sociability in mice.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Kazuhiko Yamamuro,Lucy K Bicks,Michael B Leventhal,Daisuke Kato,Susanna Im,Meghan E Flanigan,Yury Garkun,Kevin J Norman,Keaven Caro,Masato Sadahiro,Klas Kullander,Schahram Akbarian,Scott J Russo,Hirofumi Morishita

    Juvenile social isolation reduces sociability in adulthood, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that, in male mice, 2 weeks of social isolation immediately following weaning leads to a failure to activate medial prefrontal cortex neurons projecting to the posterior paraventricular thalamus (mPFC→pPVT) during social exposure in adulthood. Chemogenetic or optogenetic

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Sleeping through brain excitation and inhibition.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Sofia I R Pereira,Penelope A Lewis

    Sleep is controlled by a cocktail of neurotransmitters, but it is difficult to measure these in the brain. A new study by Tamaki et al. reveals how the balance between excitation and inhibition oscillates as the brain moves through sleep stages and how this impacts upon memory consolidation and stabilization.

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • A community-based transcriptomics classification and nomenclature of neocortical cell types.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Rafael Yuste,Michael Hawrylycz,Nadia Aalling,Argel Aguilar-Valles,Detlev Arendt,Ruben Armananzas Arnedillo,Giorgio A Ascoli,Concha Bielza,Vahid Bokharaie,Tobias Borgtoft Bergmann,Irina Bystron,Marco Capogna,Yoonjeung Chang,Ann Clemens,Christiaan P J de Kock,Javier DeFelipe,Sandra Esmeralda Dos Santos,Keagan Dunville,Dirk Feldmeyer,Richárd Fiáth,Gordon James Fishell,Angelica Foggetti,Xuefan Gao,Parviz

    To understand the function of cortical circuits, it is necessary to catalog their cellular diversity. Past attempts to do so using anatomical, physiological or molecular features of cortical cells have not resulted in a unified taxonomy of neuronal or glial cell types, partly due to limited data. Single-cell transcriptomics is enabling, for the first time, systematic high-throughput measurements of

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Prediction errors bidirectionally bias time perception.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Ido Toren,Kristoffer C Aberg,Rony Paz

    Time perception and prediction errors are essential for everyday life. We hypothesized that their putative shared circuitry in the striatum might enable these two functions to interact. We show that positive and negative prediction errors bias time perception by increasing and decreasing perceived time, respectively. Imaging and behavioral modeling identify this interaction to occur in the putamen

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • A glycolytic shift in Schwann cells supports injured axons.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Elisabetta Babetto,Keit Men Wong,Bogdan Beirowski

    Axon degeneration is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The current assumption is that the decision of injured axons to degenerate is cell-autonomously regulated. Here we show that Schwann cells (SCs), the glia of the peripheral nervous system, protect injured axons by virtue of a dramatic glycolytic upregulation that arises in SCs as an inherent adaptation to axon injury. This glycolytic

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Epigenomic analysis of Parkinson's disease neurons identifies Tet2 loss as neuroprotective.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Lee L Marshall,Bryan A Killinger,Elizabeth Ensink,Peipei Li,Katie X Li,Wei Cui,Noah Lubben,Matthew Weiland,Xinhe Wang,Juozas Gordevicius,Gerhard A Coetzee,Jiyan Ma,Stefan Jovinge,Viviane Labrie

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis may involve the epigenetic control of enhancers that modify neuronal functions. Here, we comprehensively examine DNA methylation at enhancers, genome-wide, in neurons of patients with PD and of control individuals. We find a widespread increase in cytosine modifications at enhancers in PD neurons, which is partly explained by elevated hydroxymethylation levels

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Viral manipulation of functionally distinct interneurons in mice, non-human primates and humans.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Douglas Vormstein-Schneider,Jessica D Lin,Kenneth A Pelkey,Ramesh Chittajallu,Baolin Guo,Mario A Arias-Garcia,Kathryn Allaway,Sofia Sakopoulos,Gates Schneider,Olivia Stevenson,Josselyn Vergara,Jitendra Sharma,Qiangge Zhang,Tom P Franken,Jared Smith,Leena A Ibrahim,Kevin J M Astro,Ehsan Sabri,Shuhan Huang,Emilia Favuzzi,Timothy Burbridge,Qing Xu,Lihua Guo,Ian Vogel,Vanessa Sanchez,Giuseppe A Saldi,Bram

    Recent success in identifying gene-regulatory elements in the context of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors has enabled cell-type-restricted gene expression. However, within the cerebral cortex these tools are largely limited to broad classes of neurons. To overcome this limitation, we developed a strategy that led to the identification of multiple new enhancers to target functionally distinct

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Publisher Correction: Distinct synchronization, cortical coupling and behavioral function of two basal forebrain cholinergic neuron types.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Tamás Laszlovszky,Dániel Schlingloff,Panna Hegedüs,Tamás F Freund,Attila Gulyás,Adam Kepecs,Balázs Hangya

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • Author Correction: AHR is a Zika virus host factor and a candidate target for antiviral therapy.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Federico Giovannoni,Irene Bosch,Carolina Manganeli Polonio,María F Torti,Michael A Wheeler,Zhaorong Li,Leonardo Romorini,María S Rodriguez Varela,Veit Rothhammer,Andreia Barroso,Emily C Tjon,Liliana M Sanmarco,Maisa C Takenaka,Seyed Mohamad Sadegh Modaresi,Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez,Nágela Ghabdan Zanluqui,Nilton Barreto Dos Santos,Carolina Demarchi Munhoz,Zhongyan Wang,Elsa B Damonte,David Sherr,Lee

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-10