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  • Dense neuronal reconstruction through X-ray holographic nano-tomography
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Aaron T. Kuan; Jasper S. Phelps; Logan A. Thomas; Tri M. Nguyen; Julie Han; Chiao-Lin Chen; Anthony W. Azevedo; John C. Tuthill; Jan Funke; Peter Cloetens; Alexandra Pacureanu; Wei-Chung Allen Lee

    Imaging neuronal networks provides a foundation for understanding the nervous system, but resolving dense nanometer-scale structures over large volumes remains challenging for light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). Here we show that X-ray holographic nano-tomography (XNH) can image millimeter-scale volumes with sub-100-nm resolution, enabling reconstruction of dense wiring in Drosophila

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Circuit and molecular architecture of a ventral hippocampal network
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Mark M. Gergues; Kasey J. Han; Hye Sun Choi; Brandon Brown; Kelsey J. Clausing; Victoria S. Turner; Ilia D. Vainchtein; Anna V. Molofsky; Mazen A. Kheirbek

    The ventral hippocampus (vHPC) is a critical hub in networks that process emotional information. While recent studies have indicated that ventral CA1 (vCA1) projection neurons are functionally dissociable, the basic principles of how the inputs and outputs of vCA1 are organized remain unclear. Here, we used viral and sequencing approaches to define the logic of the extended vCA1 circuit. Using high-throughput

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Schwann cell energy to die for
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Amelia Trimarco; Carla Taveggia

    A new study shows that, immediately after axon injury, glycolysis is increased in Schwann cells to provide axons with energy and prevent them from degenerating. The authors also identify possible therapeutic targets that could be modulated to promote axonal protection.

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Horace Barlow. Scientist of vision
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Colin Blakemore

    Horace Basil Barlow, Fellow of the Royal Society, winner of the Australia Prize, the Royal Medal of the Royal Society and the Schwartz Prize of the Society for Neuroscience, died on 5 July 2020 at the age of 98, 10 days after suffering a stroke. As news spread among his former students and collaborators, one phrase recurred again and again in the messages of nostalgic reflection: ‘the end of an era’

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Live-imaging of astrocyte morphogenesis and function in zebrafish neural circuits
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Jiakun Chen; Kira E. Poskanzer; Marc R. Freeman; Kelly R. Monk

    How astrocytes grow and integrate into neural circuits remains poorly defined. Zebrafish are well suited for such investigations, but bona fide astrocytes have not been described in this system. Here we characterize a zebrafish cell type that is remarkably similar to mammalian astrocytes that derive from radial glial cells and elaborate processes to establish their territories at early larval stages

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Systematic errors in connectivity inferred from activity in strongly recurrent networks
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Abhranil Das; Ila R. Fiete

    Understanding the mechanisms of neural computation and learning will require knowledge of the underlying circuitry. Because it is difficult to directly measure the wiring diagrams of neural circuits, there has long been an interest in estimating them algorithmically from multicell activity recordings. We show that even sophisticated methods, applied to unlimited data from every cell in the circuit

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Climbing fiber synapses rapidly and transiently inhibit neighboring Purkinje cells via ephaptic coupling
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Kyung-Seok Han; Christopher H. Chen; Mehak M. Khan; Chong Guo; Wade G. Regehr

    Climbing fibers from the inferior olive make strong excitatory synapses onto cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) dendrites and trigger distinctive responses known as complex spikes. We found that, in awake mice, a complex spike in one PC suppressed conventional simple spikes in neighboring PCs for several milliseconds. This involved a new ephaptic coupling, in which an excitatory synapse generated large

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Author Correction: Striatal neurons directly converted from Huntington's disease patient fibroblasts recapitulate age-associated disease phenotypes.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Matheus B Victor,Michelle Richner,Hannah E Olsen,Seong Won Lee,Alejandro M Monteys,Chunyu Ma,Christine J Huh,Bo Zhang,Beverly L Davidson,X William Yang,Andrew S Yoo

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • A prefrontal-paraventricular thalamus circuit requires juvenile social experience to regulate adult sociability in mice.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Kazuhiko Yamamuro,Lucy K Bicks,Michael B Leventhal,Daisuke Kato,Susanna Im,Meghan E Flanigan,Yury Garkun,Kevin J Norman,Keaven Caro,Masato Sadahiro,Klas Kullander,Schahram Akbarian,Scott J Russo,Hirofumi Morishita

    Juvenile social isolation reduces sociability in adulthood, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that, in male mice, 2 weeks of social isolation immediately following weaning leads to a failure to activate medial prefrontal cortex neurons projecting to the posterior paraventricular thalamus (mPFC→pPVT) during social exposure in adulthood. Chemogenetic or optogenetic

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Sleeping through brain excitation and inhibition.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Sofia I R Pereira,Penelope A Lewis

    Sleep is controlled by a cocktail of neurotransmitters, but it is difficult to measure these in the brain. A new study by Tamaki et al. reveals how the balance between excitation and inhibition oscillates as the brain moves through sleep stages and how this impacts upon memory consolidation and stabilization.

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • A community-based transcriptomics classification and nomenclature of neocortical cell types.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Rafael Yuste,Michael Hawrylycz,Nadia Aalling,Argel Aguilar-Valles,Detlev Arendt,Ruben Armananzas Arnedillo,Giorgio A Ascoli,Concha Bielza,Vahid Bokharaie,Tobias Borgtoft Bergmann,Irina Bystron,Marco Capogna,Yoonjeung Chang,Ann Clemens,Christiaan P J de Kock,Javier DeFelipe,Sandra Esmeralda Dos Santos,Keagan Dunville,Dirk Feldmeyer,Richárd Fiáth,Gordon James Fishell,Angelica Foggetti,Xuefan Gao,Parviz

    To understand the function of cortical circuits, it is necessary to catalog their cellular diversity. Past attempts to do so using anatomical, physiological or molecular features of cortical cells have not resulted in a unified taxonomy of neuronal or glial cell types, partly due to limited data. Single-cell transcriptomics is enabling, for the first time, systematic high-throughput measurements of

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • Prediction errors bidirectionally bias time perception.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Ido Toren,Kristoffer C Aberg,Rony Paz

    Time perception and prediction errors are essential for everyday life. We hypothesized that their putative shared circuitry in the striatum might enable these two functions to interact. We show that positive and negative prediction errors bias time perception by increasing and decreasing perceived time, respectively. Imaging and behavioral modeling identify this interaction to occur in the putamen

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • A glycolytic shift in Schwann cells supports injured axons.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Elisabetta Babetto,Keit Men Wong,Bogdan Beirowski

    Axon degeneration is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The current assumption is that the decision of injured axons to degenerate is cell-autonomously regulated. Here we show that Schwann cells (SCs), the glia of the peripheral nervous system, protect injured axons by virtue of a dramatic glycolytic upregulation that arises in SCs as an inherent adaptation to axon injury. This glycolytic

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Epigenomic analysis of Parkinson's disease neurons identifies Tet2 loss as neuroprotective.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Lee L Marshall,Bryan A Killinger,Elizabeth Ensink,Peipei Li,Katie X Li,Wei Cui,Noah Lubben,Matthew Weiland,Xinhe Wang,Juozas Gordevicius,Gerhard A Coetzee,Jiyan Ma,Stefan Jovinge,Viviane Labrie

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis may involve the epigenetic control of enhancers that modify neuronal functions. Here, we comprehensively examine DNA methylation at enhancers, genome-wide, in neurons of patients with PD and of control individuals. We find a widespread increase in cytosine modifications at enhancers in PD neurons, which is partly explained by elevated hydroxymethylation levels

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Viral manipulation of functionally distinct interneurons in mice, non-human primates and humans.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Douglas Vormstein-Schneider,Jessica D Lin,Kenneth A Pelkey,Ramesh Chittajallu,Baolin Guo,Mario A Arias-Garcia,Kathryn Allaway,Sofia Sakopoulos,Gates Schneider,Olivia Stevenson,Josselyn Vergara,Jitendra Sharma,Qiangge Zhang,Tom P Franken,Jared Smith,Leena A Ibrahim,Kevin J M Astro,Ehsan Sabri,Shuhan Huang,Emilia Favuzzi,Timothy Burbridge,Qing Xu,Lihua Guo,Ian Vogel,Vanessa Sanchez,Giuseppe A Saldi,Bram

    Recent success in identifying gene-regulatory elements in the context of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors has enabled cell-type-restricted gene expression. However, within the cerebral cortex these tools are largely limited to broad classes of neurons. To overcome this limitation, we developed a strategy that led to the identification of multiple new enhancers to target functionally distinct

    更新日期:2020-08-17
  • Publisher Correction: Distinct synchronization, cortical coupling and behavioral function of two basal forebrain cholinergic neuron types.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Tamás Laszlovszky,Dániel Schlingloff,Panna Hegedüs,Tamás F Freund,Attila Gulyás,Adam Kepecs,Balázs Hangya

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • Author Correction: AHR is a Zika virus host factor and a candidate target for antiviral therapy.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Federico Giovannoni,Irene Bosch,Carolina Manganeli Polonio,María F Torti,Michael A Wheeler,Zhaorong Li,Leonardo Romorini,María S Rodriguez Varela,Veit Rothhammer,Andreia Barroso,Emily C Tjon,Liliana M Sanmarco,Maisa C Takenaka,Seyed Mohamad Sadegh Modaresi,Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez,Nágela Ghabdan Zanluqui,Nilton Barreto Dos Santos,Carolina Demarchi Munhoz,Zhongyan Wang,Elsa B Damonte,David Sherr,Lee

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • First, tau causes NO problem.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Orla Bonnar,Catherine N Hall

    Pathological tau disrupts the association between nitric oxide (NO) synthase and PSD95, impairing NO signaling and neurovascular coupling before causing neurodegeneration. Stopping production of pathological tau rescues NO signaling, neurovascular coupling and neuronal function, but doesn’t remove tangles, suggesting that (like amyloid-β) soluble tau is an important driver of early neurovascular dysfunction

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Tau induces PSD95-neuronal NOS uncoupling and neurovascular dysfunction independent of neurodegeneration.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Laibaik Park,Karin Hochrainer,Yorito Hattori,Sung Ji Ahn,Antoine Anfray,Gang Wang,Ken Uekawa,James Seo,Victoria Palfini,Ismary Blanco,Diana Acosta,David Eliezer,Ping Zhou,Josef Anrather,Costantino Iadecola

    Cerebrovascular abnormalities have emerged as a preclinical manifestation of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia, diseases characterized by the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. However, it is unclear whether tau contributes to these neurovascular alterations independent of neurodegeneration. We report that mice expressing mutated tau exhibit

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Goal-directed actions transiently depend on dorsal hippocampus.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Laura A Bradfield,Beatrice K Leung,Susan Boldt,Sophia Liang,Bernard W Balleine

    The role of the hippocampus in goal-directed action is currently unclear; studies investigating this issue have produced contradictory results. Here we reconcile these contradictions by demonstrating that, in rats, goal-directed action relies on the dorsal hippocampus, but only transiently, immediately after initial acquisition. Furthermore, we found that goal-directed action also depends transiently

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Cortical-like dynamics in recurrent circuits optimized for sampling-based probabilistic inference.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Rodrigo Echeveste,Laurence Aitchison,Guillaume Hennequin,Máté Lengyel

    Sensory cortices display a suite of ubiquitous dynamical features, such as ongoing noise variability, transient overshoots and oscillations, that have so far escaped a common, principled theoretical account. We developed a unifying model for these phenomena by training a recurrent excitatory–inhibitory neural circuit model of a visual cortical hypercolumn to perform sampling-based probabilistic inference

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Synergy between amyloid-β and tau in Alzheimer's disease.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Marc Aurel Busche,Bradley T Hyman

    Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) present with both extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. For many years, the prevailing view of AD pathogenesis has been that changes in Aβ precipitate the disease process and initiate a deleterious cascade involving tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Beyond this ‘triggering’ function, it has

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • A quantitative reward prediction error signal in the ventral pallidum.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    David J Ottenheimer,Bilal A Bari,Elissa Sutlief,Kurt M Fraser,Tabitha H Kim,Jocelyn M Richard,Jeremiah Y Cohen,Patricia H Janak

    The nervous system is hypothesized to compute reward prediction errors (RPEs) to promote adaptive behavior. Correlates of RPEs have been observed in the midbrain dopamine system, but the extent to which RPE signals exist in other reward-processing regions is less well understood. In the present study, we quantified outcome history-based RPE signals in the ventral pallidum (VP), a basal ganglia region

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • CRISPR Rube Goldberg machines for visualizing cell lineage.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Clayton M Carey,James A Gagnon

    A new technique developed by Garcia-Marques and colleagues uses CRISPR–Cas9 editing to activate an ordered sequence of fluorescent markers in stem cells and their progeny. These tools represent a new way to probe the spatial and temporal patterns of cell lineage progression.

    更新日期:2020-08-08
  • Starring role for astrocytes in memory.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Paul W Frankland,Sheena A Josselyn

    Following learning, memories for events are reorganized in a time-dependent manner in distributed hippocampal–cortical networks. While previous studies have focused on neural contributions to this process of systems consolidation, a new study by Kol et al. reveals that astrocytes play crucial modulatory roles in the formation of remote memories.

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Astrocytes contribute to remote memory formation by modulating hippocampal-cortical communication during learning.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Adi Kol,Adar Adamsky,Maya Groysman,Tirzah Kreisel,Michael London,Inbal Goshen

    Remote memories depend on coordinated activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortices, but the timeline of these interactions is debated. Astrocytes sense and modify neuronal activity, but their role in remote memory is scarcely explored. We expressed the Gi-coupled designer receptor hM4Di in CA1 astrocytes and discovered that astrocytic manipulation during learning specifically impaired remote, but

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Active dendritic currents gate descending cortical outputs in perception.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Naoya Takahashi,Christian Ebner,Johanna Sigl-Glöckner,Sara Moberg,Svenja Nierwetberg,Matthew E Larkum

    The output of cortical columns is routed to different downstream targets via distinct pathways: cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical. It is as yet unclear what roles these pathways play in perception, and which cellular and circuit mechanisms regulate their gating. We recently showed that activation of the apical dendrites of layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons correlates with the threshold for perception

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • High-fat food biases hypothalamic and mesolimbic expression of consummatory drives.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Christopher M Mazzone,Jing Liang-Guallpa,Chia Li,Nora S Wolcott,Montana H Boone,Morgan Southern,Nicholas P Kobzar,Isabel de Araujo Salgado,Deepa M Reddy,Fangmiao Sun,Yajun Zhang,Yulong Li,Guohong Cui,Michael J Krashes

    Maintaining healthy body weight is increasingly difficult in our obesogenic environment. Dieting efforts are often overpowered by the internal drive to consume energy-dense foods. Although the selection of calorically rich substrates over healthier options is identifiable across species, the mechanisms behind this choice remain poorly understood. Using a passive devaluation paradigm, we found that

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • Author Correction: Lipid-droplet-accumulating microglia represent a dysfunctional and proinflammatory state in the aging brain.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Julia Marschallinger,Tal Iram,Macy Zardeneta,Song E Lee,Benoit Lehallier,Michael S Haney,John V Pluvinage,Vidhu Mathur,Oliver Hahn,David W Morgens,Justin Kim,Julia Tevini,Thomas K Felder,Heimo Wolinski,Carolyn R Bertozzi,Michael C Bassik,Ludwig Aigner,Tony Wyss-Coray

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Social touch promotes interfemale communication via activation of parvocellular oxytocin neurons.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Yan Tang,Diego Benusiglio,Arthur Lefevre,Louis Hilfiger,Ferdinand Althammer,Anna Bludau,Daisuke Hagiwara,Angel Baudon,Pascal Darbon,Jonas Schimmer,Matthew K Kirchner,Ranjan K Roy,Shiyi Wang,Marina Eliava,Shlomo Wagner,Martina Oberhuber,Karl K Conzelmann,Martin Schwarz,Javier E Stern,Gareth Leng,Inga D Neumann,Alexandre Charlet,Valery Grinevich

    Oxytocin (OT) is a great facilitator of social life but, although its effects on socially relevant brain regions have been extensively studied, OT neuron activity during actual social interactions remains unexplored. Most OT neurons are magnocellular neurons, which simultaneously project to the pituitary and forebrain regions involved in social behaviors. In the present study, we show that a much smaller

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • A programmable sequence of reporters for lineage analysis.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Jorge Garcia-Marques,Isabel Espinosa-Medina,Kai-Yuan Ku,Ching-Po Yang,Minoru Koyama,Hung-Hsiang Yu,Tzumin Lee

    We present CLADES (cell lineage access driven by an edition sequence), a technology for cell lineage studies based on CRISPR–Cas9 techniques. CLADES relies on a system of genetic switches to activate and inactivate reporter genes in a predetermined order. Targeting CLADES to progenitor cells allows the progeny to inherit a sequential cascade of reporters, thereby coupling birth order to reporter expression

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Posterior amygdala regulates sexual and aggressive behaviors in male mice.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Takashi Yamaguchi,Dongyu Wei,Soomin C Song,Byungkook Lim,Nicolas X Tritsch,Dayu Lin

    Sexual and aggressive behaviors are fundamental to animal survival and reproduction. The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) are essential regions for male sexual and aggressive behaviors, respectively. While key inhibitory inputs to the VMHvl and MPN have been identified, the extrahypothalamic excitatory inputs essential for social behaviors

    更新日期:2020-07-27
  • Publisher Correction: Three-dimensional genome restructuring across timescales of activity-induced neuronal gene expression.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Jonathan A Beagan,Elissa D Pastuzyn,Lindsey R Fernandez,Michael H Guo,Kelly Feng,Katelyn R Titus,Harshini Chandrashekar,Jason D Shepherd,Jennifer E Phillips-Cremins

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-23
  • AHR is a Zika virus host factor and a candidate target for antiviral therapy.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Federico Giovannoni,Irene Bosch,Carolina Manganeli Polonio,María F Torti,Michael A Wheeler,Zhaorong Li,Leonardo Romorini,María S Rodriguez Varela,Veit Rothhammer,Andreia Barroso,Emily C Tjon,Liliana M Sanmarco,Maisa C Takenaka,Seyed Mohamad Sadegh Modaresi,Cristina Gutiérrez-Vázquez,Nágela Ghabdan Zanluqui,Nilton Barreto Dos Santos,Carolina Demarchi Munhoz,Zhongyan Wang,Elsa B Damonte,David Sherr,Lee

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus linked to multiple birth defects including microcephaly, known as congenital ZIKV syndrome. The identification of host factors involved in ZIKV replication may guide efficacious therapeutic interventions. In genome-wide transcriptional studies, we found that ZIKV infection triggers aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation. Specifically, ZIKV infection induces kynurenine

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • SPARC enables genetic manipulation of precise proportions of cells.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Jesse Isaacman-Beck,Kristine C Paik,Carl F R Wienecke,Helen H Yang,Yvette E Fisher,Irving E Wang,Itzel G Ishida,Gaby Maimon,Rachel I Wilson,Thomas R Clandinin

    Many experimental approaches rely on controlling gene expression in select subsets of cells within an individual animal. However, reproducibly targeting transgene expression to specific fractions of a genetically defined cell type is challenging. We developed Sparse Predictive Activity through Recombinase Competition (SPARC), a generalizable toolkit that can express any effector in precise proportions

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Complementary contributions of non-REM and REM sleep to visual learning.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Masako Tamaki,Zhiyan Wang,Tyler Barnes-Diana,DeeAnn Guo,Aaron V Berard,Edward Walsh,Takeo Watanabe,Yuka Sasaki

    Sleep is beneficial for learning. However, it remains unclear whether learning is facilitated by non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep or by REM sleep, whether it results from plasticity increases or stabilization, and whether facilitation results from learning-specific processing. Here, we trained volunteers on a visual task and measured the excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) balance in early visual areas

    更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Publisher Correction: Rates, distribution and implications of postzygotic mosaic mutations in autism spectrum disorder.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Elaine T Lim,Mohammed Uddin,Silvia De Rubeis,Yingleong Chan,Anne S Kamumbu,Xiaochang Zhang,Alissa M D'Gama,Sonia N Kim,Robert Sean Hill,Arthur P Goldberg,Christopher Poultney,Nancy J Minshew,Itaru Kushima,Branko Aleksic,Norio Ozaki,Mara Parellada,Celso Arango,Maria J Penzol,Angel Carracedo,Alexander Kolevzon,Christina M Hultman,Lauren A Weiss,Menachem Fromer,Andreas G Chiocchetti,Christine M Freitag

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-14
  • Publisher Correction: Astrocytes mediate neurovascular signaling to capillary pericytes but not to arterioles.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Anusha Mishra,James P Reynolds,Yang Chen,Alexander V Gourine,Dmitri A Rusakov,David Attwell

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-07-13
  • The endogenous neuronal complement inhibitor SRPX2 protects against complement-mediated synapse elimination during development.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Qifei Cong,Breeanne M Soteros,Mackenna Wollet,Jun Hee Kim,Gek-Ming Sia

    Complement-mediated synapse elimination has emerged as an important process in both brain development and neurological diseases, but whether neurons express complement inhibitors that protect synapses against complement-mediated synapse elimination remains unknown. Here, we show that the sushi domain protein SRPX2 is a neuronally expressed complement inhibitor that regulates complement-dependent synapse

    更新日期:2020-07-13
  • Regulation of autism-relevant behaviors by cerebellar-prefrontal cortical circuits.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Elyza Kelly,Fantao Meng,Hirofumi Fujita,Felipe Morgado,Yasaman Kazemi,Laura C Rice,Chongyu Ren,Christine Ochoa Escamilla,Jennifer M Gibson,Sanaz Sajadi,Robert J Pendry,Tommy Tan,Jacob Ellegood,M Albert Basson,Randy D Blakely,Scott V Dindot,Christelle Golzio,Maureen K Hahn,Nicholas Katsanis,Diane M Robins,Jill L Silverman,Karun K Singh,Rachel Wevrick,Margot J Taylor,Christopher Hammill,Evdokia Anagnostou

    Cerebellar dysfunction has been demonstrated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the circuits underlying cerebellar contributions to ASD-relevant behaviors remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mice; showed that the mPFC mediates cerebellum-regulated social and repetitive/inflexible behaviors;

    更新日期:2020-07-13
  • Vascular contributions to 16p11.2 deletion autism syndrome modeled in mice.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Julie Ouellette,Xavier Toussay,Cesar H Comin,Luciano da F Costa,Mirabelle Ho,María Lacalle-Aurioles,Moises Freitas-Andrade,Qing Yan Liu,Sonia Leclerc,Youlian Pan,Ziying Liu,Jean-François Thibodeau,Melissa Yin,Micael Carrier,Cameron J Morse,Peter Van Dyken,Christopher J Bergin,Sylvain Baillet,Christopher R Kennedy,Marie-Ève Tremblay,Yannick D Benoit,William L Stanford,Dylan Burger,Duncan J Stewart,Baptiste

    While the neuronal underpinnings of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are being unraveled, vascular contributions to ASD remain elusive. Here, we investigated postnatal cerebrovascular development in the 16p11.2df/+ mouse model of 16p11.2 deletion ASD syndrome. We discover that 16p11.2 hemizygosity leads to male-specific, endothelium-dependent structural and functional neurovascular abnormalities. In

    更新日期:2020-07-13
  • Microglia phagocytose myelin sheaths to modify developmental myelination.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Alexandria N Hughes,Bruce Appel

    During development, oligodendrocytes contact and wrap neuronal axons with myelin. Similarly to neurons and synapses, excess myelin sheaths are produced and selectively eliminated, but how elimination occurs is unknown. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, engulf surplus neurons and synapses. To determine whether microglia also prune myelin sheaths, we used zebrafish to

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Deschloroclozapine, a potent and selective chemogenetic actuator enables rapid neuronal and behavioral modulations in mice and monkeys.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Yuji Nagai,Naohisa Miyakawa,Hiroyuki Takuwa,Yukiko Hori,Kei Oyama,Bin Ji,Manami Takahashi,Xi-Ping Huang,Samuel T Slocum,Jeffrey F DiBerto,Yan Xiong,Takuya Urushihata,Toshiyuki Hirabayashi,Atsushi Fujimoto,Koki Mimura,Justin G English,Jing Liu,Ken-Ichi Inoue,Katsushi Kumata,Chie Seki,Maiko Ono,Masafumi Shimojo,Ming-Rong Zhang,Yutaka Tomita,Jin Nakahara,Tetsuya Suhara,Masahiko Takada,Makoto Higuchi,Jian

    The chemogenetic technology designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) afford remotely reversible control of cellular signaling, neuronal activity and behavior. Although the combination of muscarinic-based DREADDs with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) has been widely used, sluggish kinetics, metabolic liabilities and potential off-target effects of CNO represent areas for improvement

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Extra neural ensemble disrupts memory recall.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Ryang Kim,Naoki Yamamoto,Takashi Kitamura

    Poll and colleagues examined the historical activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons during learning and memory recall using longitudinal two-photon in vivo imaging, providing evidence that extra neural ensemble activity disrupts memory recall in a mouse model of early Alzheimer’s disease.

    更新日期:2020-06-30
  • Using Bayes factor hypothesis testing in neuroscience to establish evidence of absence.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Christian Keysers,Valeria Gazzola,Eric-Jan Wagenmakers

    Most neuroscientists would agree that for brain research to progress, we have to know which experimental manipulations have no effect as much as we must identify those that do have an effect. The dominant statistical approaches used in neuroscience rely on P values and can establish the latter but not the former. This makes non-significant findings difficult to interpret: do they support the null hypothesis

    更新日期:2020-06-29
  • Publisher Correction: Dynamic regulation of Z-DNA in the mouse prefrontal cortex by the RNA-editing enzyme Adar1 is required for fear extinction.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Paul R Marshall,Qiongyi Zhao,Xiang Li,Wei Wei,Ambika Periyakaruppiah,Esmi L Zajaczkowski,Laura J Leighton,Sachithrani U Madugalle,Dean Basic,Ziqi Wang,Jiayu Yin,Wei-Siang Liau,Ankita Gupte,Carl R Walkley,Timothy W Bredy

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Acknowledging female voices.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Adrienne L Fairhall,Eve Marder

    Citation count has become one of the most important methods to evaluate a scientist’s contributions. In an extensive analysis of citations from a number of leading neuroscience journals, Dworkin and colleagues find evidence of gender bias in citation practices that can have an adverse impact on women’s careers.

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Widening the scope of diversity.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-26

    An overlooked bias in research practices and current global events call for a broader approach to addressing issues of diversity.

    更新日期:2020-06-26
  • Publisher Correction: Shared proteomic effects of cerebral atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease on the human brain.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Aliza P Wingo,Wen Fan,Duc M Duong,Ekaterina S Gerasimov,Eric B Dammer,Yue Liu,Nadia V Harerimana,Bartholomew White,Madhav Thambisetty,Juan C Troncoso,Namhee Kim,Julie A Schneider,Ihab M Hajjar,James J Lah,David A Bennett,Nicholas T Seyfried,Allan I Levey,Thomas S Wingo

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Distinct synchronization, cortical coupling and behavioral function of two basal forebrain cholinergic neuron types.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Tamás Laszlovszky,Dániel Schlingloff,Panna Hegedüs,Tamás F Freund,Attila Gulyás,Adam Kepecs,Balázs Hangya

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) modulate synaptic plasticity, cortical processing, brain states and oscillations. However, whether distinct types of BFCNs support different functions remains unclear. Therefore, we recorded BFCNs in vivo, to examine their behavioral functions, and in vitro, to study their intrinsic properties. We identified two distinct types of BFCNs that differ in their

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Multiple convergent hypothalamus-brainstem circuits drive defensive behavior.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Matthew Lovett-Barron,Ritchie Chen,Susanna Bradbury,Aaron S Andalman,Mahendra Wagle,Su Guo,Karl Deisseroth

    The hypothalamus is composed of many neuropeptidergic cell populations and directs multiple survival behaviors, including defensive responses to threats. However, the relationship between the peptidergic identity of neurons and their roles in behavior remains unclear. Here, we address this issue by studying the function of multiple neuronal populations in the zebrafish hypothalamus during defensive

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • Interplay between persistent activity and activity-silent dynamics in the prefrontal cortex underlies serial biases in working memory.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Joao Barbosa,Heike Stein,Rebecca L Martinez,Adrià Galan-Gadea,Sihai Li,Josep Dalmau,Kirsten C S Adam,Josep Valls-Solé,Christos Constantinidis,Albert Compte

    Persistent neuronal spiking has long been considered the mechanism underlying working memory, but recent proposals argue for alternative ‘activity-silent’ substrates. Using monkey and human electrophysiology data, we show here that attractor dynamics that control neural spiking during mnemonic periods interact with activity-silent mechanisms in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This interaction allows memory

    更新日期:2020-06-23
  • The extent and drivers of gender imbalance in neuroscience reference lists.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Jordan D Dworkin,Kristin A Linn,Erin G Teich,Perry Zurn,Russell T Shinohara,Danielle S Bassett

    Similarly to many scientific disciplines, neuroscience has increasingly attempted to confront pervasive gender imbalances. Although publishing and conference participation are often highlighted, recent research has called attention to the prevalence of gender imbalance in citations. Because of the downstream effects of citations on visibility and career advancement, understanding the role of gender

    更新日期:2020-06-19
  • Illuminating a path from light to depression.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Tara A LeGates,Mark D Kvarta

    Our light environment can strongly influence our mental health. Kai An and colleagues dissect the neuronal circuit mediating depression-related behaviors induced by mistimed light input in mice, implicating the nucleus accumbens as the downstream target of the neural pathway between intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells and the perihabenular nucleus.

    更新日期:2020-06-17
  • Anatomic resolution of neurotransmitter-specific projections to the VTA reveals diversity of GABAergic inputs.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Marta E Soden,Amanda S Chung,Beatriz Cuevas,Jesse M Resnick,Rajeshwar Awatramani,Larry S Zweifel

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is important for reward processing and motivation. The anatomic organization of neurotransmitter-specific inputs to the VTA remains poorly resolved. In the present study, we mapped the major neurotransmitter projections to the VTA through cell-type-specific retrograde and anterograde tracing. We found that glutamatergic inputs arose from a variety of sources and displayed

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Dynamic representations in networked neural systems.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Harang Ju,Danielle S Bassett

    A group of neurons can generate patterns of activity that represent information about stimuli; subsequently, the group can transform and transmit activity patterns across synapses to spatially distributed areas. Recent studies in neuroscience have begun to independently address the two components of information processing: the representation of stimuli in neural activity and the transmission of information

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Flexible coding of object motion in multiple reference frames by parietal cortex neurons.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Ryo Sasaki,Akiyuki Anzai,Dora E Angelaki,Gregory C DeAngelis

    Neurons represent spatial information in diverse reference frames, but it remains unclear whether neural reference frames change with task demands and whether these changes can account for behavior. In this study, we examined how neurons represent the direction of a moving object during self-motion, while monkeys switched, from trial to trial, between reporting object direction in head- and world-centered

    更新日期:2020-06-15
  • Memory trace interference impairs recall in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Stefanie Poll,Manuel Mittag,Fabrizio Musacchio,Lena C Justus,Eleonora Ambrad Giovannetti,Julia Steffen,Jens Wagner,Lioba Zohren,Susanne Schoch,Boris Schmidt,Walker S Jackson,Dan Ehninger,Martin Fuhrmann

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), hippocampus-dependent memories underlie an extensive decline. The neuronal ensemble encoding a memory, termed engram, is partially recapitulated during memory recall. Artificial activation of an engram can restore memory in a mouse model of early AD, but its fate and the factors that render the engram nonfunctional are yet to be revealed. Here, we used repeated two-photon

    更新日期:2020-06-08
  • Alzheimer's-associated PLCγ2 is a signaling node required for both TREM2 function and the inflammatory response in human microglia.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Benjamin J Andreone,Laralynne Przybyla,Ceyda Llapashtica,Anil Rana,Sonnet S Davis,Bettina van Lengerich,Karin Lin,Ju Shi,Yuan Mei,Giuseppe Astarita,Gilbert Di Paolo,Thomas Sandmann,Kathryn M Monroe,Joseph W Lewcock

    Human genetic data indicate that microglial dysfunction contributes to the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), exemplified by the identification of coding variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and, more recently, in PLCG2, a phospholipase-encoding gene expressed in microglia. Although studies in mouse models have implicated specific Trem2-dependent microglial functions

    更新日期:2020-06-08
  • Conservation of brain connectivity and wiring across the mammalian class.
    Nat. Neurosci. (IF 20.071) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Yaniv Assaf,Arieli Bouznach,Omri Zomet,Assaf Marom,Yossi Yovel

    Over 100 years ago, Ramon y Cajal hypothesized that two forces played a role in the evolution of mammalian brain connectivity: minimizing wiring costs and maximizing conductivity speed. Using diffusion MRI, we reconstructed the brain connectomes of 123 mammalian species. Network analysis revealed that both connectivity and the wiring cost are conserved across mammals. We describe a conservation principle

    更新日期:2020-06-08
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