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  • Heterologous production of the epoxycarotenoid violaxanthin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Vicente F. Cataldo; Natalia Arenas; Valeria Salgado; Conrado Camilo; Francisco Ibáñez; Eduardo Agosin

    Microbial production of carotenoids has mainly focused towards a few products, such as β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. However, other less explored carotenoids, like violaxanthin, have also shown unique properties and promissory applications. Violaxanthin is a plant-derived epoxidated carotenoid with strong antioxidant activity and a key precursor of valuable compounds, such as fucoxanthin and β-damascenone. In this study, we report for the first time the heterologous production of epoxycarotenoids in yeast. We engineered the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae following multi-level strategies for the efficient accumulation of violaxanthin. Starting from a β-carotenogenic yeast strain, we first evaluated the performance of several β-carotene hydroxylases (CrtZ), and zeaxanthin epoxidases (ZEP) from different species, together with their respective N-terminal truncated variants. The combined expression of CrtZ from Pantoea ananatis and truncated ZEP of Haematococcus lacustris showed the best performance and led to a yield of 1.6 mg/gDCW of violaxanthin. Further improvement of the epoxidase activity was achieved by promoting the transfer of reducing equivalents to ZEP by expressing several redox partner systems. The co-expression of the plant truncated ferredoxin-3, and truncated root ferredoxin oxidoreductase-1 resulted in a 2.2-fold increase in violaxanthin yield (3.2 mg/gDCW). Finally, increasing gene copy number of carotenogenic genes enabled reaching a final production of 7.3 mg/gDCW in shake flask cultures and batch bioreactors, which is the highest yield of microbially produced violaxanthin reported to date.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • In vivo evolutionary engineering of riboswitch with high-threshold for N-acetylneuraminic acid production
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Qingxiao Pang; Hao Han; Xiaoqin Liu; Zhiguo Wang; Quanfeng Liang; Jin Hou; Qingsheng Qi; Qian Wang

    Riboswitches with desired properties, such as sensitivity, threshold, dynamic range, is important for its application. However, the property change of a natural riboswitch is difficult due to the lack of the understanding of aptamer ligand binding properties and a proper screening method for both rational and irrational design. In this study, an effective method to change the threshold of riboswitch was established in vivo based on growth coupled screening by combining both positive and negative selections. The feasibility of the method was verified by the model library. Using this method, an N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) riboswitch was evolved and modified riboswitches with high threshold and large dynamic range were obtained. Then, using a new NeuAc riboswitch, both ribosome binding sites and key gene in NeuAc biosynthesis pathway were optimized. The highest NeuAc production of 14.32 g/l that has been reported using glucose as sole carbon source was obtained.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Engineering glucose metabolism for enhanced muconic acid production in Pseudomonas putida KT2440
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Gayle J. Bentley; Niju Narayanan; Ramesh K. Jha; Davinia Salvachúa; Joshua R. Elmore; George L. Peabody; Brenna A. Black; Kelsey Ramirez; Annette De Capite; William E. Michener; Allison Z. Werner; Dawn M. Klingeman; Heidi S. Schindel; Robert Nelson; Lindsey Foust; Adam M. Guss; Taraka Dale; Christopher W. Johnson; Gregg T. Beckham

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 has received increasing attention as an important biocatalyst for the conversion of diverse carbon sources to multiple products, including the olefinic diacid, cis,cis-muconic acid (muconate). P. putida has been previously engineered to produce muconate from glucose; however, periplasmic oxidation of glucose causes substantial 2-ketogluconate accumulation, reducing product yield and selectivity. Deletion of the glucose dehydrogenase gene (gcd) prevents 2-ketogluconate accumulation, but dramatically slows strain growth and muconate production. In this work, we employed adaptive evolution to improve muconate production in strains incapable of producing 2-ketogluconate. Growth-based selection improved growth, but reduced muconate titer. A new muconate-responsive biosensor was therefore developed to enable muconate-based screening using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Sorted clones demonstrated both improved growth and muconate production. Mutations identified by whole genome resequencing of these isolates indicated that glucose metabolism may be dysregulated in strains lacking gcd. Using this information, we used targeted engineering to recapitulate improvements achieved by evolution. Deletion of the transcriptional repressor gene hexR improved strain growth and increased the muconate production rate, and the impact of this deletion was investigated using transcriptomics. The genes gntZ and gacS were also disrupted in several evolved clones, and deletion of these genes further improved strain growth and muconate production. Together, these targets provide a suite of modifications that improve glucose conversion to muconate by P. putida in the context of gcd deletion. Prior to this work, our engineered strain lacking gcd generated 7 g/L muconate at a productivity of 0.07 g/L/h and a 38% yield (mol/mol) in a fed-batch bioreactor. Here, deletion of hexR, gntZ, and gacS improved performance at similar conditions, with the resulting strain achieving 22.0 g/L at 0.21 g/L/h and a 35.6% yield (mol/mol) from glucose. These strategies enabled enhanced muconic acid production and may also improve production of other target molecules from glucose in P. putida.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • In vivo directed enzyme evolution in nanoliter reactors with antimetabolite selection
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Christian Femmer; Matthias Bechtold; Martin Held; Sven Panke
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Isobutanol production in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Suppressed succinate by-production by pckA inactivation and enhanced productivity via the Entner–Doudoroff pathway
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Satoshi Hasegawa; Toru Jojima; Masako Suda; Masayuki Inui

    On the basis of our previous studies of microbial L-valine production under oxygen deprivation, we developed isobutanol-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains. The artificial isobutanol synthesis pathway was composed of the first three steps of the L-valine synthesis pathway; and the subsequent Ehrlich Pathway: pyruvate was converted to 2-ketoisovalerate in the former reactions; and the 2-keto acid was decarboxylated into isobutyraldehyde, and subsequently reduced into isobutanol in the latter reactions. Although there exists redox cofactor imbalance in the overall reactions, i.e., NADH is generated via glycolysis whereas NADPH is required to synthesize isobutanol, it was resolved by taking advantage of the NAD-preferring mutant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase encoded by ilvCTM and the NAD-specific alcohol dehydrogenase encoded by adhA. Each enzyme activity to synthesize isobutanol was finely tuned by using two kinds of lac promoter derivatives. Efficient suppression of succinate by-production and improvement of isobutanol yield resulted from inactivation of pckA, which encodes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, whereas glucose consumption and isobutanol production rates decreased because of the elevated intracellular NADH/NAD + ratio. On the other hand, introduction of the exogenous Entner–Doudoroff pathway effectively enhanced glucose consumption and productivity. Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system specific to glucose and deletion of ilvE, which encodes branched-chain amino acid transaminase, further suppressed by-products and improved isobutanol productivity. Finally, the produced isobutanol concentration reached 280 mM at a yield of 84% (mol/mol glucose) in 24 h.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Simultaneous tracers and a unified model of positional and mass isotopomers for quantification of metabolic flux in liver
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Stanislaw Deja; Xiaorong Fu; Justin A. Fletcher; Blanka Kucejova; Jeffrey D. Browning; Jamey D. Young; Shawn C. Burgess

    Computational models based on the metabolism of stable isotope tracers can yield valuable insight into the metabolic basis of disease. The complexity of these models is limited by the number of tracers and the ability to characterize tracer labeling in downstream metabolites. NMR spectroscopy is ideal for multiple tracer experiments since it precisely detects the position of tracer nuclei in molecules, but it lacks sensitivity for detecting low-concentration metabolites. GC-MS detects stable isotope mass enrichment in low-concentration metabolites, but lacks nuclei and positional specificity. We performed liver perfusions and in vivo infusions of 2H and 13C tracers, yielding complex glucose isotopomers that were assigned by NMR and fit to a newly developed metabolic model. Fluxes regressed from 2H and 13C NMR positional isotopomer enrichments served to validate GC-MS-based flux estimates obtained from the same experimental samples. NMR-derived fluxes were largely recapitulated by modeling the mass isotopomer distributions of six glucose fragment ions measured by GC-MS. Modest differences related to limited fragmentation coverage of glucose C1–C3 were identified, but fluxes such as gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, cataplerosis and TCA cycle flux were tightly correlated between the methods. Most importantly, modeling of GC-MS data could assign fluxes in primary mouse hepatocytes, an experiment that is impractical with 2H or 13C NMR.

    更新日期:2019-12-29
  • Improving synthetic methylotrophy via dynamic formaldehyde regulation of pentose phosphate pathway genes and redox perturbation
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Julia Rohlhill; Jie Ren Gerald Har; Maciek R. Antoniewicz; Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

    Escherichia coli is an ideal choice for constructing synthetic methylotrophs capable of utilizing the non-native substrate methanol as a carbon and energy source. All current E. coli-based synthetic methylotrophs require co-substrates. They display variable levels of methanol-carbon incorporation due to a lack of native regulatory control of biosynthetic pathways, as E. coli does not recognize methanol as a proper substrate despite its ability to catabolize it. Here, using the E. coli formaldehyde-inducible promoter Pfrm, we implement dynamic expression control of select pentose-phosphate genes in response to the formaldehyde produced upon methanol oxidation. Genes under Pfrm control exhibited 8- to 30-fold transcriptional upregulation during growth on methanol. Formaldehyde-induced episomal expression of the B. methanolicus rpe and tkt genes involved in the regeneration of ribulose 5-phosphate required for formaldehyde fixation led to significantly improved methanol assimilation into intracellular metabolites, including a nearly 2-fold increase of 13C-methanol into glutamate. Using a simple strategy for redox perturbation by deleting the E. coli NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase gene maldh, we demonstrate 3-fold improved biomass formation of cells growing on methanol in the presence of a small concentration of yeast extract. Further improvements in methanol utilization are achieved via adaptive laboratory evolution and heterologous rpe and tkt expression. A short-term in vivo 13C-methanol labeling assay was used to determine methanol assimilation activity for Δmaldh strains, and demonstrated dramatically higher labeling in intracellular metabolites, including a 6-fold and 1.8-fold increase in glycine labeling for the rpe/tkt and evolved strains, respectively. The combination of formaldehyde-controlled pentose phosphate pathway expression and redox perturbation with the maldh knock-out greatly improved both growth benefit with methanol and methanol carbon incorporation into intracellular metabolites.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Dynamic control of toxic natural product biosynthesis by an artificial regulatory circuit
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Chaoning Liang; Xuanxuan Zhang; Jieyuan Wu; Shanshan Mu; Zhe Wu; Jian-Ming Jin; Shuang-Yan Tang

    To mimic the delicately regulated metabolism in nature for improved efficiency, artificial and customized regulatory components for dynamically controlling metabolic networks in multiple layers are essential in laboratory engineering. For this purpose, a novel regulatory component for controlling vanillin biosynthetic pathway was developed through directed evolution, which was responsive to both the product vanillin and substrate ferulic acid, with different capacities. This regulatory component facilitated pathway expression via dynamic control of the intracellular substrate and product concentrations. As vanillin is an antimicrobial compound, low pathway expression and vanillin formation levels enabled better cell growth at an early stage, and the product feedback-activated pathway expression at later stages significantly improved biosynthesis efficiency. This novel multiple-layer dynamic control was demonstrated effective in managing the trade-off between cell growth and production, leading to improved cell growth and vanillin production compared to the conventional or quorum-sensing promoter-controlled pathway. The multiple-layer dynamic control enabled by designed regulatory components responsive to multiple signals shows potential for wide applications in addition to the dynamic controls based on biosynthetic intermediate sensing and quorum sensing reported to date.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Metabolic flux ratio analysis by parallel 13C labeling of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Enrico Orsi; Jules Beekwilder; Siebe Peek; Gerrit Eggink; Servé W.M. Kengen; Ruud A. Weusthuis

    Metabolic engineering for increased isoprenoid production often benefits from the simultaneous expression of the two naturally available isoprenoid metabolic routes, namely the 2-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway and the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. Quantification of the contribution of these pathways to the overall isoprenoid production can help to obtain a better understanding of the metabolism within a microbial cell factory. Such type of investigation can benefit from 13C metabolic flux ratio studies. Here, we designed a method based on parallel labeling experiments (PLEs), using [1-13C]- and [4-13C]glucose as tracers to quantify the metabolic flux ratios in the glycolytic and isoprenoid pathways. By just analyzing a reporter isoprenoid molecule and employing only four equations, we could describe the metabolism involved from substrate catabolism to product formation. These equations infer 13C atom incorporation into the universal isoprenoid building blocks, isopentenyl-pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl-pyrophosphate (DMAPP). Therefore, this renders the method applicable to the study of any of isoprenoid of interest. As proof of principle, we applied it to study amorpha-4,11-diene biosynthesis in the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. We confirmed that in this species the Entner-Doudoroff pathway is the major pathway for glucose catabolism, while the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway contributes to a lesser extent. Additionally, we demonstrated that co-expression of the MEP and MVA pathways caused a mutual enhancement of their metabolic flux capacity. Surprisingly, we also observed that the isoprenoid flux ratio remains constant under exponential growth conditions, independently from the expression level of the MVA pathway. Apart from proposing and applying a tool for studying isoprenoid biosynthesis within a microbial cell factory, our work reveals important insights from the co-expression of MEP and MVA pathways, including the existence of a yet unclear interaction between them.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Methanol-free biosynthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Ian Sofian Yunus, Arianna Palma, Devin L. Trudeau, Dan S. Tawfik, Patrik R. Jones

    To meet the increasing global demand of biodiesel over the next decades, alternative methods for producing one of the key constituents of biodiesel (e.g. fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)) are needed. Algal biodiesel has been a long-term target compromised by excessive costs for harvesting and processing. In this work, we engineered cyanobacteria to convert carbon dioxide into excreted FAME, without requiring methanol as a methyl donor. To produce FAME, acyl-ACP, a product of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, was first converted into free fatty acid (FFA) by a thioesterase, namely ’UcFatB1 from Umbellularia californica. Next, by employing a juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase (DmJHAMT) from Drosophila melanogaster and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl donor, FFAs were converted into corresponding FAMEs. The esters were naturally secreted extracellularly, allowing simple product separation by solvent overlay as opposed to conventional algae biodiesel production where the algae biomass must first be harvested and processed for transesterification of extracted triacylglycerols (TAGs). By optimizing both the promoter and RBS elements, up to 120 mg/L of FAMEs were produced in 10 days. Quantification of key proteins and metabolites, together with constructs over-expressing SAM synthetase (MetK), indicated that ’UcFatB1, MetK, and DmJHAMT were the main factors limiting pathway flux. In order to solve the latter limitation, two reconstructed ancestral sequences of DmJHAMT were also tried, resulting in strains showing a broader methyl ester chain-length profile in comparison to the native DmJHAMT. Altogether, this work demonstrates a promising pathway for direct sunlight-driven conversion of CO2 into excreted FAME.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Engineering of Chinese hamster ovary cell lipid metabolism results in an expanded ER and enhanced recombinant biotherapeutic protein production
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    James D. Budge, Tanya J. Knight, Jane Povey, Joanne Roobol, Ian R. Brown, Gurdeep Singh, Andrew Dean, Sarah Turner, Colin M. Jaques, Robert J. Young, Andrew J. Racher, C. Mark Smales

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell expression systems have been exquisitely developed for the production of recombinant biotherapeutics (e.g. standard monoclonal antibodies, mAbs) and are able to generate efficacious, multi-domain proteins with human-like post translational modifications at high concentration with appropriate product quality attributes. However, there remains a need for development of new CHO cell expression systems able to produce more challenging secretory recombinant biotherapeutics at higher yield with improved product quality attributes. Amazingly, the engineering of lipid metabolism to enhance such properties has not been investigated, even though the biosynthesis of recombinant proteins is at least partially controlled by cellular processes that are highly dependent on lipid metabolism. Here we show that the global transcriptional activator of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBF1), and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids, can be overexpressed in CHO cells to different degrees. The amount of overexpression obtained of each of these lipid metabolism modifying (LMM) genes was related to the subsequent phenotypes observed. Expression of a number of model secretory biopharmaceuticals was enhanced between 1.5-9 fold in either SREBF1 or SCD1 engineered CHO host cells as assessed under batch and fed-batch culture. The SCD1 overexpressing polyclonal pool consistently showed increased concentration of a range of products. For the SREBF1 engineered cells, the level of SREBF1 expression that gave the greatest enhancement in yield was dependent upon the model protein tested. Overexpression of both SCD1 and SREBF1 modified the lipid profile of CHO cells and the cellular structure. Mechanistically, overexpression of SCD1 and SREBF1 resulted in an expanded endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that was dependent upon the level of LMM overexpression. We conclude that manipulation of lipid metabolism in CHO cells via engineering is an exciting new approach to enhance the ability of CHO cells to produce a range of different types of secretory recombinant protein products via modulation of the cellular lipid profile and expansion of the ER.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli to produce a monophosphoryl lipid A adjuvant
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Yu Hyun Ji, Jinsu An, Dohyeon Hwang, Da Hui Ha, Sang Min Lim, Chankyu Lee, Jinshi Zhao, Hyun Kyu Song, Eun Gyeong Yang, Pei Zhou, Hak Suk Chung

    Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) species, including MPL (a trade name of GlaxoSmithKline) and GLA (a trade name of Immune Design, a subsidiary of Merck), are widely used as an adjuvant in vaccines, allergy drugs, and immunotherapy to boost the immune response. Even though MPLA is a derivative of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, bacterial strains producing MPLA have not been found in nature nor engineered. In fact, MPLA generation involves expensive and laborious procedures based on synthetic routes or chemical transformation of precursors isolated from Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the engineering of an Escherichia coli strain for in situ production and accumulation of MPLA. Furthermore, we establish a succinct method for purifying MPLA from the engineered E. coli strain. We show that the purified MPLA (named EcML) stimulates the mouse immune system to generate antigen-specific IgG antibodies similarly to commercially available MPLA, but with a dramatically reduced manufacturing time and cost. Our system, employing the first engineered E. coli strain that directly produces the adjuvant EcML, could transform the current standard of industrial MPLA production.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Knockout of sialidase and pro-apoptotic genes in Chinese hamster ovary cells enables the production of recombinant human erythropoietin in fed-batch cultures
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Tae Kwang Ha, Anders Holmgaard Hansen, Helene Faustrup Kildegaard, Gyun Min Lee

    Sialic acid, a terminal monosaccharide present in N-glycans, plays an important role in determining both the in vivo half-life and the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant glycoproteins. Low sialylation levels of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell cultures are considered a major obstacle to the production of rhEPO in fed-batch mode. This is mainly due to the accumulation of extracellular sialidases released from the cells. To overcome this hurdle, three sialidase genes (Neu1, 2, and 3) were initially knocked-out using the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated large deletion method in the rhEPO-producing rCHO cell line. Unlike wild type cells, sialidase knockout (KO) clones maintained the sialic acid content and proportion of tetra-sialylated rhEPO throughout fed-batch cultures without exhibiting a detrimental effect with respect to cell growth and rhEPO production. Additional KO of two pro-apoptotic genes, BAK and BAX, in sialidase KO clones (5X KO clones) further improved rhEPO production without any detrimental effect on sialylation. On day 10 in fed-batch cultures, the 5X KO clones had 1.4-times higher rhEPO concentration and 3.0-times higher sialic acid content than wild type cells. Furthermore, the proportion of tetra-sialylated rhEPO on day 10 in fed-batch cultures was 42.2–44.3% for 5X KO clones while it was only 2.2% for wild type cells. Taken together, KO of sialidase and pro-apoptotic genes in rCHO cells is a useful tool for producing heavily sialylated glycoproteins such as rhEPO in fed-batch mode.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Engineering 4-coumaroyl-CoA derived polyketide production in Yarrowia lipolytica through a β-oxidation mediated strategy
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Claire M. Palmer, Kelly K. Miller, Ankim Nguyen, Hal S. Alper

    Polyketides are a diverse class of molecules sought after for their valuable properties, including as potential pharmaceuticals. Previously, we demonstrated that the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an optimal host for production of the simple polyketide, triacetic acid lactone (TAL). We here expand the capacities of this host by overcoming previous media challenges and enabling production of more complex polyketides. Specifically, we employ a β-oxidation related strategy to improve polyketide production directly from defined media. Beyond TAL production, we establish biosynthesis of the 4-coumaroyl-CoA derived polyketides: naringenin, resveratrol, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as the diketide intermediate, (E)-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3-oxopent-4-enoic acid. In this background, we enable high-level de novo production of naringenin through import of both a heterologous pathway and a mutant Y. lipolytica allele. In doing so, we generated an averaged maximum titer of 898 mg/L naringenin, the highest titer reported to date in any host. These results demonstrate that Y. lipolytica is an ideal polyketide production host for more complex 4-coumaroyl-CoA derived products.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Engineering biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) for diversity and cost reduction
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-07-11
    Yang Zheng, Jin-Chun Chen, Yi-Ming Ma, Guo-Qiang Chen

    PHA, a family of natural biopolymers aiming to replace non-degradable plastics for short-term usages, has been developed to include various structures such as short-chain-length (scl) and medium-chain-length (mcl) monomers as well as their copolymers. However, PHA market has been grown slowly since 1980s due to limited variety with good mechanical properties and the high production cost. Here, we review most updated strategies or approaches including metabolic engineering, synthetic biology and morphology engineering on expanding PHA diversity, reducing production cost and enhancing PHA production. The extremophilic Halomonas spp. are taken as examples to show the feasibility and challenges to develop next generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB) for producing PHA more competitively.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Metabolic engineering for the synthesis of polyesters: A 100-year journey from polyhydroxyalkanoates to non-natural microbial polyesters
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    So Young Choi, Mi Na Rhie, Hee Taek Kim, Jeong Chan Joo, In Jin Cho, Jina Son, Seo Young Jo, Yu Jung Sohn, Kei-Anne Baritugo, Jiwon Pyo, Youngjoon Lee, Sang Yup Lee, Si Jae Park

    As concerns increase regarding sustainable industries and environmental pollutions caused by the accumulation of non-degradable plastic wastes, bio-based polymers, particularly biodegradable plastics, have attracted considerable attention as potential candidates for solving these problems by substituting petroleum-based plastics. Among these candidates, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), natural polyesters that are synthesized and accumulated in a range of microorganisms, are considered as promising biopolymers since they have biocompatibility, biodegradability, and material properties similar to those of commodity plastics. Accordingly, substantial efforts have been made to gain a better understanding of mechanisms related to the biosynthesis and properties of PHAs and to develop natural and recombinant microorganisms that can efficiently produce PHAs comprising desired monomers with high titer and productivity for industrial applications. Recent advances in biotechnology, including those related to evolutionary engineering, synthetic biology, and systems biology, can provide efficient and effective tools and strategies that reduce time, labor, and costs to develop microbial platform strains that produce desired chemicals and materials. Adopting these technologies in a systematic manner has enabled microbial fermentative production of non-natural polyesters such as poly(lactate) [PLA], poly(lactate-co-glycolate) [PLGA], and even polyesters consisting of aromatic monomers from renewable biomass-derived carbohydrates, which can be widely used in current chemical industries. In this review, we present an overview of strain development for the production of various important natural PHAs, which will give the reader an insight into the recent advances and provide indicators for the future direction of engineering microorganisms as plastic cell factories. On the basis of our current understanding of PHA biosynthesis systems, we discuss recent advances in the approaches adopted for strain development in the production of non-natural polyesters, notably 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid-containing polymers, with particular reference to systems metabolic engineering strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Multi-level metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas mutabilis ATCC31014 for efficient production of biotin
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-05-11
    Feng Xiao, Haijiao Wang, Zhuwei Shi, Qianyue Huang, Lei Huang, Jiazhang Lian, Jin Cai, Zhinan Xu

    Biotin (Vitamin H or B7) is one of the most important cofactors involved in central metabolism of pro- and eukaryotic cells. Currently, chemical synthesis is the only route for commercial production. This study reports efficient microbial production of biotin in Pseudomonas mutabilis via multi-level metabolic engineering strategies: Level 1, overexpressing rate-limiting enzyme encoding genes involved in biotin synthesis (i.e. promoter and ribosome binding site engineering); Level 2, deregulating biotin biosynthesis (i.e. deletion of the negative regulator and the biotin importer genes); Level 3, enhancing the supply of co-factors (i.e. S-adenosyl-L-methionine and [Fe-S] cluster) for biotin biosynthesis; Level 4, increasing the availability of the precursor pimelate thioester (i.e. introduction of the BioW-BioI pathway from Bacillus subtilis). The combination of these interventions resulted in the establishment of a biotin overproducing strain, with the secretion of biotin increased for more than 460-fold. In combination with bioprocess engineering efforts, biotin was produced at a final titer of 87.17 mg/L in a shake flask and 271.88 mg/L in a fed-batch fermenter with glycerol as the carbon source. This is the highest biotin titer ever reported so far using rationally engineered microbial cell factories.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Direct production of commodity chemicals from lignocellulose using Myceliophthora thermophila
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Jingen Li, Liangcai Lin, Tao Sun, Jing Xu, Jingxiao Ji, Qian Liu, Chaoguang Tian

    The production of fuels and chemicals from renewable plant biomass has been proposed as a feasible strategy for global sustainable development. However, the economic efficiency of biorefineries is low. Here, through metabolic engineering, Myceliophthora thermophila, a cellulolytic thermophilic fungus, was constructed into a platform that can efficiently convert lignocellulose into important bulk chemicals—four carbon 1, 4-diacids (malic and succinic acid), building blocks for biopolymers—without the need for extra hydrolytic enzymes. Titers of >200 g/L from crystalline cellulose and 110 g/L from plant biomass (corncob) were achieved during fed-batch fermentation. Our study represents a milestone in consolidated bioprocessing technology and offers a new and promising system for the cost-effective production of chemicals and fuels from biomass.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Revisiting metabolic engineering strategies for microbial synthesis of oleochemicals
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-04-22
    Qiang Yan, Brian F. Pfleger

    Microbial production of oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks remains an attractive route to produce high-energy density, liquid transportation fuels and high-value chemical products. Metabolic engineering strategies have been applied to demonstrate production of a wide range of oleochemicals, including free fatty acids, fatty alcohols, esters, olefins, alkanes, ketones, and polyesters in both bacteria and yeast. The majority of these demonstrations synthesized products containing long-chain fatty acids. These successes motivated additional effort to produce analogous molecules comprised of medium-chain fatty acids, molecules that are less common in natural oils and therefore of higher commercial value. Substantial progress has been made towards producing a subset of these chemicals, but significant work remains for most. The other primary challenge to producing oleochemicals in microbes is improving the performance, in terms of yield, rate, and titer, of biocatalysts such that economic large-scale processes are feasible. Common metabolic engineering strategies include blocking pathways that compete with synthesis of oleochemical building blocks and/or consume products, pulling flux through pathways by removing regulatory signals, pushing flux into biosynthesis by overexpressing rate-limiting enzymes, and engineering cells to tolerate the presence of oleochemical products. In this review, we describe the basic fundamentals of oleochemical synthesis and summarize advances since 2013 towards improving performance of heterotrophic microbial cell factories.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Metabolic engineering advances and prospects for amino acid production
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-03-30
    Volker F. Wendisch

    Amino acid fermentation is one of the major pillars of industrial biotechnology. The multi-billion USD amino acid market is rising steadily and is diversifying. Metabolic engineering is no longer focused solely on strain development for the bulk amino acids L-glutamate and L-lysine that are produced at the million-ton scale, but targets specialty amino acids. These demands are met by the development and application of new metabolic engineering tools including CRISPR and biosensor technologies as well as production processes by enabling a flexible feedstock concept, co-production and co-cultivation schemes. Metabolic engineering advances are exemplified for specialty proteinogenic amino acids, cyclic amino acids, omega-amino acids, and amino acids functionalized by hydroxylation, halogenation and N-methylation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Metabolic engineering for the production of dicarboxylic acids and diamines
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-03-21
    Tong Un Chae, Jung Ho Ahn, Yoo-Sung Ko, Je Woong Kim, Jong An Lee, Eon Hui Lee, Sang Yup Lee
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Heterologous production of 3-hydroxyvalerate in engineered Escherichia coli
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Dragan Miscevic, Kajan Srirangan, Teshager Kefale, Shane Kilpatrick, Duane A. Chung, Murray Moo-Young, C. Perry Chou

    3-Hydroxyacids are a group of valuable fine chemicals with numerous applications, and 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB) represents the most common species with acetyl-CoA as a precursor. Due to the lack of propionyl-CoA in most, if not all, microorganisms, bio-based production of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3-HV), a longer-chain 3-hydroxyacid member with both acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA as two precursors, is often hindered by high costs associated with the supplementation of related carbon sources, such as propionate or valerate. Here, we report the derivation of engineered Escherichia coli strains for the production of 3-HV from unrelated cheap carbon sources, in particular glucose and glycerol. Activation of the sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) pathway in E. coli enabled the intracellular formation of non-native propionyl-CoA. A selection of enzymes involved in 3-HV biosynthetic pathway from various microorganisms were explored for investigating their effects on 3-HV biosynthesis in E. coli. Glycerol outperformed glucose as the carbon source, and glycerol dissimilation for 3-HV biosynthesis was primarily mediated through the aerobic GlpK-GlpD route. To further enhance 3-HV production, we developed metabolic engineering strategies to redirect more dissimilated carbon flux from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle to the Sbm pathway, resulting in an enlarged intracellular pool of propionyl-CoA. Both the presence of succinate/succinyl-CoA and their interconversion step in the TCA cycle were identified to critically limit the carbon flux redirection into the Sbm pathway and, therefore, 3-HV biosynthesis. A selection of E. coli host TCA genes encoding enzymes near the succinate node were targeted for manipulation to evaluate the contribution of the three TCA routes (i.e. oxidative TCA cycle, reductive TCA branch, and glyoxylate shunt) to the redirected carbon flux into the Sbm pathway. Finally, the carbon flux redirection into the Sbm pathway was enhanced by simultaneously deregulating glyoxylate shunt and blocking the oxidative TCA cycle, significantly improving 3-HV biosynthesis. With the implementation of these biotechnological and bioprocessing strategies, our engineered E. coli strains can effectively produce 3-HV up to 3.71 g l−1 with a yield of 24.1% based on the consumed glycerol in shake-flask cultures.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • A novel framework for the cell-free enzymatic production of glucaric acid
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Kerstin Petroll, Andrew Care, Peter L. Bergquist, Anwar Sunna
    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Metabolic engineering of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 for the production of aromatic amino acids and derived phenylpropanoids
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    Laura Furelos Brey, Artur J. Wlodarczyk, Jens F. Bang Thøfner, Meike Burow, Christoph Crocoll, Isabella Nielsen, Agnieszka J. Zygadlo Nielsen, Poul Erik Jensen

    In light of the climate change challenge, the advantageous trait of using solar energy and carbon dioxide to produce organic molecules has granted cyanobacteria deserved interest as hosts for metabolic engineering. Importantly, these organisms do not directly compete with agricultural resources. Aromatic amino acids and derived phenylpropanoids are of high importance because they are used by the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and agricultural industries as precursors of active ingredients. Amino acids are traditionally produced by extraction from protein hydrolysates, chemical synthesis or fermentation pathways using heterotrophic microorganisms. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the efficient overproduction of phenylalanine and tyrosine from CO2 in a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 strain heterologously expressing the feedback-inhibition-resistant AroG and TyrA enzymes from E. coli. Production titers reached 904 ± 53 mg/gDW (580 ± 34 mg/L) of phenylalanine and 64 ± 3.7 mg/gDW (41 ± 2.3 mg/L) of tyrosine after 10 days of photoautotrophic growth. We estimate that the production of the two amino acids corresponds to 56% of the total fixed carbon. Phenylalanine and tyrosine are the precursors for phenylpropanoids, thus, we tested the functionality of several phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes in the generated cyanobacterium strains and successfully achieved the production of 470 ± 70 mg/gDW (207 mg/L) of p-coumaric acid, 267 ± 31 mg/gDW (114 mg/L) of cinnamic acid and 47.4 ± 13.9 mg/gDW (12.6 mg/L) of caffeic acid after 6 days of photoautotrophic growth. All compounds were secreted to the growth medium. Our work enlarges the repertoire and yield of heterologous chemicals produced by Synechocystis and contributes to extend the molecular knowledge about this cyanobacterium.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • The yeast peroxisome: A dynamic storage depot and subcellular factory for squalene overproduction
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Guo-Song Liu, Tian Li, Wei Zhou, Min Jiang, Xin-Yi Tao, Min Liu, Ming Zhao, Yu-Hong Ren, Bei Gao, Feng-Qing Wang, Dong-Zhi Wei

    Engineering microbes to produce terpenes from renewable feedstock is a promising alternative to traditional production approaches. Generally, terpenes are not readily secreted by microbial cells, and their distribution within cells is usually obscure and often a restricting factor for the overproduction of terpenes due to the storage limitation. Here, we determined that squalene overproduced in the cytoplasm of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was distributed in a form similar to oil droplets. Interestingly, these suspected oil droplets were confirmed to be inflated peroxisomes that were swollen along with the production of squalene, indicating that peroxisomes in S. cerevisiae are dynamic depots for the storage of squalene. In view of this, harnessing peroxisomes as subcellular compartments for squalene synthesis was performed, achieving a 138-fold improvement in squalene titer (1312.82 mg/L) relative to the parent strain, suggesting that the peroxisome of S. cerevisiae is an efficient subcellular factory for the synthesis of terpenes. By dual modulation of cytoplasmic and peroxisomal engineering, the squalene titer was further improved to 1698.02 mg/L. After optimizing a two-stage fed-batch fermentation method, the squalene titer reached 11.00 g/L, the highest ever reported. This provides new insight into the synthesis and storage of squalene in peroxisomes and reveals the potential of harnessing peroxisomes to overproduce terpenes in S. cerevisiae through dual cytoplasmic-peroxisomal engineering.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Novel strategy for anchorage position control of GPI-attached proteins in the yeast cell wall using different GPI-anchoring domains
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-11-09
    Kentaro Inokuma, Hiroki Kurono, Riaan den Haan, Willem Heber van Zyl, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Stimulus response-based fine-tuning of polyhydroxyalkanoate pathway in Halomonas
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Jianwen Ye, Dingkai Hu, Jin Yin, Wuzhe Huang, Ruijuan Xiang, Lizhan Zhang, Xuan Wang, Jianing Han, Guo-Qiang Chen

    Optimization of intracellular biosynthesis process involving regulation of multiple gene expressions is dependent on the efficient and accurate expression of each expression unit independently. However, challenges of analyzing intermediate products seriously hinder the application of high throughput assays. This study aimed to develop an engineering approach for unsterile production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) or (P3HB4HB) by recombinant Halomonas bluephagenesis (H. bluephagenesis) constructed via coupling the design of GFP-mediated transcriptional mapping and high-resolution control of gene expressions (HRCGE), which consists of two inducible systems with high- and low-dynamic ranges employed to search the exquisite transcription level of each expression module in the presence of γ-butyrolactone, the intermediate for 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) synthesis. It has been successful to generate a recombinant H. bluephagenesis, namely TD68-194, able to produce over 36 g/L P3HB4HB consisting of 16 mol% 4HB during a 7-L lab-scale fed-batch growth process, of which cell dry weight and PHA content reached up to 48.22 g/L and 74.67%, respectively, in 36 h cultivation. HRCGE has been found useful for metabolic pathway construction.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica for the utilization of acid whey.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Junichi Mano,Nian Liu,John H Hammond,Devin H Currie,Gregory Stephanopoulos

    Acid whey, a byproduct in cheese and yogurt production, demands high costs in disposal at large quantities. Nonetheless, it contains abundant sugars and nutrients that can potentially be utilized by microorganisms. Here we report a novel platform technology that converts acid whey into value-added products using Yarrowia lipolytica. Since wild type strains do not assimilate lactose, a major carbon source in whey, a secreted β-galactosidase was introduced. Additionally, to accelerate galactose metabolism, we overexpressed the relevant native four genes of the Leloir pathway. The engineered strain could achieve rapid total conversion of all carbon sources in acid whey, producing 6.61 g/L of fatty acids (FAs) with a yield of 0.146 g-FAs/g-substrates. Further engineering to introduce an omega-3 desaturase enabled the synthesis of α-linolenic acid from acid whey, producing 10.5 mg/gDCW within a short fermentation time. Finally, PEX10 knockout in our platform strain was shown to minimize hyphal formation in concentrated acid whey cultures, greatly improving fatty acid content. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using acid whey as a previously untapped resource for biotechnology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Computational tools for metabolic engineering.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2012-05-26
    Wilbert B Copeland,Bryan A Bartley,Deepak Chandran,Michal Galdzicki,Kyung H Kim,Sean C Sleight,Costas D Maranas,Herbert M Sauro

    A great variety of software applications are now employed in the metabolic engineering field. These applications have been created to support a wide range of experimental and analysis techniques. Computational tools are utilized throughout the metabolic engineering workflow to extract and interpret relevant information from large data sets, to present complex models in a more manageable form, and to propose efficient network design strategies. In this review, we present a number of tools that can assist in modifying and understanding cellular metabolic networks. The review covers seven areas of relevance to metabolic engineers. These include metabolic reconstruction efforts, network visualization, nucleic acid and protein engineering, metabolic flux analysis, pathway prospecting, post-structural network analysis and culture optimization. The list of available tools is extensive and we can only highlight a small, representative portion of the tools from each area.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The future of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology: towards a systematic practice.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2012-05-26
    Vikramaditya G Yadav,Marjan De Mey,Chin Giaw Lim,Parayil Kumaran Ajikumar,Gregory Stephanopoulos

    Industrial biotechnology promises to revolutionize conventional chemical manufacturing in the years ahead, largely owing to the excellent progress in our ability to re-engineer cellular metabolism. However, most successes of metabolic engineering have been confined to over-producing natively synthesized metabolites in E. coli and S. cerevisiae. A major reason for this development has been the descent of metabolic engineering, particularly secondary metabolic engineering, to a collection of demonstrations rather than a systematic practice with generalizable tools. Synthetic biology, a more recent development, faces similar criticisms. Herein, we attempt to lay down a framework around which bioreaction engineering can systematize itself just like chemical reaction engineering. Central to this undertaking is a new approach to engineering secondary metabolism known as 'multivariate modular metabolic engineering' (MMME), whose novelty lies in its assessment and elimination of regulatory and pathway bottlenecks by re-defining the metabolic network as a collection of distinct modules. After introducing the core principles of MMME, we shall then present a number of recent developments in secondary metabolic engineering that could potentially serve as its facilitators. It is hoped that the ever-declining costs of de novo gene synthesis; the improved use of bioinformatic tools to mine, sort and analyze biological data; and the increasing sensitivity and sophistication of investigational tools will make the maturation of microbial metabolic engineering an autocatalytic process. Encouraged by these advances, research groups across the world would take up the challenge of secondary metabolite production in simple hosts with renewed vigor, thereby adding to the range of products synthesized using metabolic engineering.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Methods and applications for assembling large DNA constructs.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2012-05-26
    Chuck Merryman,Daniel G Gibson

    The construction of large DNA molecules that encode pathways, biological machinery, and entire genomes has been limited to the reproduction of natural sequences. However, now that robust methods for assembling hundreds of DNA fragments into constructs > 20 kb are readily available, optimization of large genetic elements for metabolic engineering purposes is becoming more routine. Here, various DNA assembly methodologies are reviewed and some of their potential applications are discussed. We tested the potential of DNA assembly to install rational changes in complex biosynthetic pathways, their potential for generating complex libraries, and consider how various strategies are applicable to metabolic engineering.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prediction of dynamic behavior of mutant strains from limited wild-type data.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2012-04-14
    Hyun-Seob Song,Doraiswami Ramkrishna

    Metabolic engineering is the field of introducing genetic changes in organisms so as to modify their function towards synthesizing new products of high impact to society. However, engineered cells frequently have impaired growth rates thus seriously limiting the rate at which such products are made. The problem is attributable to inadequate understanding of how a metabolic network functions in a dynamic sense. Predictions of mutant strain behavior in the past have been based on steady state theories such as flux balance analysis (FBA), minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA), and regulatory on/off minimization (ROOM). Such predictions are restricted to product yields and cannot address productivity, which is of focal interest to applications. We demonstrate that our framework ( [Song and Ramkrishna, 2010] and [Song and Ramkrishna, 2011]), based on a “cybernetic” view of metabolic systems, makes predictions of the dynamic behavior of mutant strains of Escherichia coli from a limited amount of data obtained from the wild-type. Dynamic frameworks must necessarily address the issue of metabolic regulation, which the cybernetic approach does by postulating that metabolism is an optimal dynamic response of the organism to the environment in driving reactions towards ensuring survival. The predictions made in this paper are without parallel in the literature and lay the foundation for rational metabolic engineering.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Overexpression of isocitrate lyase-glyoxylate bypass influence on metabolism in Aspergillus niger.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2009-03-10
    S Meijer,J Otero,R Olivares,M R Andersen,L Olsson,J Nielsen

    In order to improve the production of succinate and malate by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger the activity of the glyoxylate bypass pathway was increased by over-expression of the isocitrate lyase (icl) gene. The hypothesis was that when isocitrate lyase was up-regulated the flux towards glyoxylate would increase, leading to excess formation of malate and succinate compared to the wild-type. However,metabolic network analysis showed that an increased icl expression did not result in an increased glyoxylate bypass flux. The analysis did show a global response with respect to gene expression, leading to an increased flux through the oxidative part of the TCA cycle. Instead of an increased production of succinate and malate, a major increase in fumarate production was observed. The effect of malonate, a competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), on the physiological behaviour of the cells was investigated. Inhibition of SDH was expected to lead to succinate production, but this was not observed. There was an increase in citrate and oxalate production in the wild-type strain. Further more, in the strain with over-expression of icl the organic acid production shifted from fumarate towards malate production when malonate was added to the cultivation medium. Overall,the icl over-expression and malonate addition had a significant impact on metabolism and on organic acid production profiles. Although the expected succinate and malate formation was not observed, a distinct and interesting production of fumarate and malate was found.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visualization of protoplast fusion and quantitation of recombination in fused protoplasts of auxotrophic strains of Escherichia coli.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2005-06-25
    MingHua Dai,Sara Ziesman,Thomas Ratcliffe,Ryan T Gill,Shelley D Copley

    Protoplast fusion has been used to combine genes from different organisms to create strains with desired properties. A recently developed variant on this approach, genome shuffling, involves generation of a genetically heterogeneous population of a single organism, followed by recursive protoplast fusion to allow recombination of mutations within the fused protoplasts. These are powerful techniques for engineering of microbial strains for desirable industrial properties. However, there is a prevailing opinion that it will be difficult to use these methods for engineering of Gram-negative bacteria because the outer membrane makes protoplast fusion more difficult. Here we describe the successful use of protoplast fusion in Escherichia coli. Using two auxotrophic strains of E. coli, we obtained prototrophic strains by recombination in fused protoplasts at frequencies of 0.05-0.7% based on the number of protoplasts subjected to fusion. This frequency is three-four orders of magnitude better than those previously reported for recombination in fused protoplasts of Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli and Providencia alcalifaciens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New stable isotope-mass spectrometric techniques for measuring fluxes through intact metabolic pathways in mammalian systems: introduction of moving pictures into functional genomics and biochemical phenotyping.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    Marc K Hellerstein

    The thesis of this review is that fully assembled metabolic pathways in living systems, rather than genes or proteins, are the true units of function in biology and biochemistry. A corollary is that measurement of metabolic fluxes (biochemical kinetics) is thereby required to understand biochemical control and gene function. Recent methodologic advances for improving observability of metabolic pathway fluxes in vivo are reviewed. Stable isotope-mass spectrometric techniques discussed here include mass isotopomer distribution analysis (combinatorial analysis), for measurement of polymerization biosynthesis; 2H(2)O administration, for measuring synthesis of DNA (i.e., cell proliferation), RNA, proteins, lipids, glycolipids and other classes of molecules; non-invasive probes of intracellular metabolism, by sampling secreted metabolites in accessible body fluids, after isotopic labeling of the intracellular pathway; and measurement of multiple molecular fluxes concurrently, particularly through use of 2H(2)O. Examples are given of pathway fluxes measured by each of these techniques, noting the often-surprising results. It is concluded that the introduction of "moving pictures" as tools for biochemical phenotyping could radically alter many signature areas of contemporary biology, including functional genomics, drug discovery and development, and disease research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Basic principles of metabolic modeling of NMR (13)C isotopic turnover to determine rates of brain metabolism in vivo.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    Graeme F Mason,Douglas L Rothman

    Metabolic modeling is a necessary part of the analysis of isotopic labeling data that is being obtained in the brain and other organs. Here are explained the basic principles of metabolic modeling of isotopic labeling studies, particularly with regard to (13)C isotopic measurements performed in vivo. The basic elements needed to simulate isotopic flows are described, and how to combine them to perform modeling analyses is explained. Procedures to introduce and evaluate model constraints and simplifications are discussed. The basic principle of isotopomer analysis is explained, as are mechanics of least-squares fitting of simulations to data. Closely related to the fitting is the effect of data scatter, which is discussed in the context of the non-normal distributions of uncertainty that are often seen with (13)C labeling measurements in vivo. This article is meant to provide a general background for investigators to begin to apply metabolic modeling analysis to (13)C isotopic labeling studies performed in vivo.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Estimation of metabolic flux from dominant rate constants in vivo: application to brain and heart.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    David M Cohen,Richard N Bergman

    In an earlier paper (Cohen and Bergman, Am. J. Physiol. 268 (1995) E397), we explored the relationship between the exponents in the exponential curve fit to isotopic enrichment versus time and the fractional turnover rate of the largest metabolic pool in the pathway. Here we present the analysis on a more rigorous footing and apply it to questions of cerebral and cardiac metabolism. Our emphasis in this paper is to describe and justify mathematically an approach for analysis of metabolic dynamics, not with the intention of replacing the use of numerical software for estimation of flux rates but for giving the scientist the opportunity to examine the system in an approximate manner, and thereby to check not only that the results of the numerical solution are the correct solutions to the equations but also that the equations portray the correct simplification of the metabolic pathway. We introduce the "dominant rate constant" as a tool for deriving algebraic formulas relating rates of metabolic flux, sizes of metabolic pools, and the dynamics of isotopic enrichment. Illustrations of such algebraic formulas are provided for the rates of the citric acid cycle (CAC), glycolysis and glutamine synthesis in brain, as well as the rate of the CAC in heart. In addition, we prove that formulas for estimation of rates of glycolysis and of the CAC depend critically on the fractional turnover rates of lactate and glutamate, respectively. The justification for analysis of simulated data is that we are studying the effects of simplifications of metabolic models on the accuracy of estimation of metabolic pathways. Our use of the dominant rate constant is an analytical convenience that allows us to assess proposed simplifications of metabolic pathways.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A critical perspective of the use of (13)C-isotopomer analysis by GCMS and NMR as applied to cardiac metabolism.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    Christine Des Rosiers,Steven Lloyd,Blandine Comte,John C Chatham

    The aim of this article is to provide a guide for metabolic physiologists and bioengineers to the combined use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in stable isotope investigations in any biological systems. Building on our past experience with these two techniques, as applied separately to the investigation of citric acid metabolism in the ex vivo perfused rat heart we initiated a collaborative study for their critical evaluation. This article, which expands on our previous work (Mol. Cel. Biol., 2003), directly compares GCMS- and NMR-determined 13C-isotopomer and flux data obtained from ex vivo rat heart perfusion studies with 13C-substrates. Overall we have found excellent agreement between the 13C-enrichments of GCMS- and NMR-determined citric acid cycle metabolites (citrate, 2-ketoglutarate, succinate and malate) and glutamate; however the unlabeled component (M) was consistently underestimated by NMR. Despite this discrepancy there was reasonably good agreement in the relative fluxes of 13C-substrates through the citric acid cycle determined by the two techniques. Nevertheless, further investigations appear necessary before maximal advantage can be taken of the complementary 13C-isotopomer and flux data of GCMS and NMR for probing the dynamics of cellular metabolism.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Accumulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate as a measure of glucose uptake in the isolated perfused heart: a 31P NMR study.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    James C A Hopkins,George K Radda,Richard L Veech,Kieran Clarke

    The accumulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate (2DG6P), detected using 31P NMR spectroscopy, has been used as a measure of the rate of glucose uptake, yet the accuracy of this measurement has not been verified. In this study, isolated rat hearts were perfused with different substrates or isoproterenol for 30 min before measurement of either 2DG6P accumulation or [2-3H]glucose uptake, without and with insulin. Basal contractile function and metabolite concentrations were the same for all hearts. The basal rates of 2DG6P accumulation differed significantly, depending on the preceding perfusion protocol, and were 38-60% of the [2-3H]glucose uptake rates, whereas insulin-stimulated 2DG6P accumulation was the same or 71% higher than the [2-3H]glucose uptake rates. Therefore the ratio of 2DG6P accumulation/[2-3H]glucose uptake rates varied from 0.38 to 1.71, depending on the prior perfusion conditions or the presence of insulin. The rates of 2DG6P hydrolysis were found to be proportional to the intracellular 2DG6P concentrations, with a K(m) of 17.5mM and V(max) of 1.4 micromol/g dry weight/min. We conclude that the rates of 2DG6P accumulation do not accurately reflect glucose uptake rates under all physiological conditions in the isolated heart and should be used with caution.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Using isotope tracers to study metabolism: application in mouse models.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    Brendan J McCabe,Stephen F Previs

    The application of isotope tracers for investigating metabolism in mice is discussed. To familiarize the reader, some basic principles regarding the use of tracer methods are outlined. Emphasis is placed on showing how investigators are using isotope tracers to study the regulation of carbohydrate, fat and/or protein turnover in vivo. Finally, some of the advantages of using labeled water (i.e., 2H(2)O and/or H(2)18O) to trace the kinetics of biological processes are considered. The background provided in this report should assist engineers in designing studies that enhance our understanding of conditions in which metabolism is altered (e.g., diabetes, cancer cachexia, failure to thrive and travel at zero-gravity).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • A window into cellular metabolism: hepatic metabolism of (15)N-labelled substrates.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    John T Brosnan,Margaret E Brosnan,Itzhak Nissim

    It is now apparent that many of the subtleties of cellular metabolism are intrinsically associated with cell structure and that their physiological study requires techniques that respect the integrity of cells and organs. We have used 15N-substrates to examine urea synthesis in the intact perfused rat liver. This work permits us to determine the extent to which different amino acids donate nitrogen atoms to the two nitrogens of urea. It is apparent that alanine and the amino group of glutamine provide nitrogen for urea synthesis primarily via cytoplasmic aspartate, whereas mitochondrial ammonia is the preferred route of entry for nitrogen from pre-formed ammonia or from the amide nitrogen of glutamine. Most importantly, this methodology permits us to explore for the occurrence of metabolic channels in such a highly organised, physiological system. Our studies indicate that a metabolic channel does not exist between glutaminase and carbamoylphosphate synthetase 1.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Probing metabolic pathways with isotopic tracers: insights from mammalian metabolic physiology.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2004-01-22
    Joanne K Kelleher

    Metabolic Engineering offers an opportunity to forge a link between metabolic physiologists, working with mammalian systems and metabolic engineers. Many parallels may be drawn between the specific modification of metabolic networks to improve cellular properties and the analysis of metabolic networks in search of causes of disease. At the core of both fields is the measurement of fluxes. This issue of Metabolic Engineering highlights important topics: mammalian metabolic physiology where estimating fluxes is challenging. The challenges come from compartmentation of metabolites, from dilution of tracer by endogenous pools, and from the difficulty of sampling relevant pools. The common theme across these investigations is the use of isotopic tracers. The wide variety of tracers and tracer analysis techniques in use in mammalian metabolic physiology reflects the complexity of the systems under study. In presenting these examples from the field of mammalian metabolic physiology, our goal is to strengthen the linkages between physiologists and engineers as we develop our knowledge and appreciation of the complexity of metabolic networks.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic engineering for microbial production of shikimic acid.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Marco Krämer,Johannes Bongaerts,Roel Bovenberg,Susanne Kremer,Ulrike Müller,Sonja Orf,Marcel Wubbolts,Leon Raeven

    Shikimic acid is a high valued compound used as a key starting material for the synthesis of the neuramidase inhibitor GS4104, which was developed under the name Tamiflu for treatment of antiviral infections. An excellent alternative to the isolation of shikimic acid from fruits of the Illicium plant is the fermentative production by metabolic engineered microorganisms. Fermentative production of shikimic acid was most successfully carried out by rational designed Escherichia coli strains by blocking the aromatic amino acid pathway after the production of shikimic acid. An alternative is to produce shikimic acid as a result of dephosphorylation of shikimate-3-phosphate. Engineering the uptake of carbon, the regulatory circuits, central metabolism and the common aromatic pathway including shikimic acid import that have all been targeted to effect higher productivities and lower by-product formation are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effects of alternate optimal solutions in constraint-based genome-scale metabolic models.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    R Mahadevan,C H Schilling

    Genome-scale constraint-based models of several organisms have now been constructed and are being used for model driven research. A key issue that may arise in the use of such models is the existence of alternate optimal solutions wherein the same maximal objective (e.g., growth rate) can be achieved through different flux distributions. Herein, we investigate the effects that alternate optimal solutions may have on the predicted range of flux values calculated using currently practiced linear (LP) and quadratic programming (QP) methods. An efficient LP-based strategy is described to calculate the range of flux variability that can be present in order to achieve optimal as well as suboptimal objective states. Sample results are provided for growth predictions of E. coli using glucose, acetate, and lactate as carbon substrates. These results demonstrate the extent of flux variability to be highly dependent on environmental conditions and network composition. In addition we examined the impact of alternate optima for growth under gene knockout conditions as calculated using QP-based methods. It was observed that calculations using QP-based methods can show significant variation in growth rate if the flux variability among alternate optima is high. The underlying biological significance and general source of such flux variability is further investigated through the identification of redundancies in the network (equivalent reaction sets) that lead to alternate solutions. Collectively, these results illustrate the variability inherent in metabolic flux distributions and the possible implications of this heterogeneity for constraint-based modeling approaches. These methods also provide an efficient and robust method to calculate the range of flux distributions that can be derived from quantitative fermentation data.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Coordinate expression of multiple bacterial carotenoid genes in canola leading to altered carotenoid production.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Monica P Ravanello,Dangyang Ke,Julie Alvarez,Bihua Huang,Christine K Shewmaker

    Carotenoids have drawn much attention recently because of their potentially positive benefits to human health as well as their utility in both food and animal feed. Previous work in canola (Brassica napus) seed over-expressing the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (crtB) demonstrated a change in carotenoid content, such that the total levels of carotenoids, including phytoene and downstream metabolites like beta-carotene, were elevated 50-fold, with the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene being 2:1. This result raised the possibility that the composition of metabolites in this pathway could be modified further in conjunction with the increased flux obtained with crtB. Here we report on the expression of additional bacterial genes for the enzymes geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (crtE), phytoene desaturase (crtI) and lycopene cyclase (crtY and the plant B. napus lycopene beta-cyclase) engineered in conjunction with phytoene synthase (crtB) in transgenic canola seed. Analysis of the carotenoid levels by HPLC revealed a 90% decrease in phytoene levels for the double construct expressing crtB in conjunction with crtI. The transgenic seed from all the double constructs, including the one expressing the bacterial crtB and the plant lycopene beta-cyclase showed an increase in the levels of total carotenoid similar to that previously observed by expressing crtB alone but minimal effects were observed with respect to the ratio of beta- to alpha-carotene compared to the original construct. However, the beta- to alpha-carotene ratio was increased from 2:1 to 3:1 when a triple construct consisting of the bacterial phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase and lycopene cyclase genes were expressed together. This result suggests that the bacterial genes may form an aggregate complex that allows in vivo activity of all three proteins through substrate channeling. This finding should allow further manipulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway for downstream products with enhanced agronomic, animal feed and human nutritional values.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetic engineering of Escherichia coli for production of tetrahydrobiopterin.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Katsuhiko Yamamoto,Eri Kataoka,Nobue Miyamoto,Kazuaki Furukawa,Kazuhiro Ohsuye,Masayuki Yabuta

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for various enzymes in mammals. In vivo, it is synthesized from GTP via the three-step pathway of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCHI), 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) and sepiapterin reductase (SPR). BH4 is a medicine used to treat atypical hyperphenylalaninemia. It is currently synthesized by chemical means, which consists of many steps, and requires costly materials and complicated procedures. To explore an alternative microbial method for BH4 production, we utilized recombinant DNA technology to construct recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains carrying genes expressing GCHI, PTPS and SPR enzymes. These strains successfully produced BH4, which was detected as dihydrobiopterin and biopterin, oxidation products of BH4. In order to increase BH4 productivity we made further improvements. First, to increase the de novo GTP supply, an 8-azaguanine resistant mutant was isolated and an additional guaBA operon was introduced. Second, to augment the activity of GCHI, the folE gene from E. coli was replaced by the mtrA gene from Bacillus subtilis. These modifications provided us with a strain showing significantly higher productivity, up to 4.0 g of biopterin/L of culture broth. The results suggest the possibility of commercial BH4 production by our method.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A comparison of the properties of a Bcl-xL variant to the wild-type anti-apoptosis inhibitor in mammalian cell cultures.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Bruno Figueroa,T M Sauerwald,G A Oyler,J Marie Hardwick,Michael J Betenbaugh

    The overexpression of bcl-2 and its homologues is a widely used strategy to inhibit apoptosis in mammalian cell culture systems. In this study, we have evaluated the Bcl-2 homologue, Bcl-x(L) and compared its effectiveness to a Bcl-x(L) mutant lacking most of the non-conserved unstructured loop domain, Bcl-x(L)Delta (deletion of amino acids 26 through 83). The cell line, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), was genetically modified to express constitutively Bcl-x(L) or the Bcl-x(L) variant and subjected to model apoptotic insults including Sindbis virus (SV) infection, gradual serum withdrawal, and serum deprivation. When cells were engineered to overexpress Bcl-x(L)Delta, cell death due to the SV was inhibited, and Bcl-x(L)Delta provided comparable protection to the wild-type Bcl-x(L) even though expression levels were much lower for the mutant. Furthermore, the cells expressing Bcl-x(L)Delta continued to proliferate following infection while CHO-bcl-x(L) ceased proliferation immediately following infection. As a result, total production of a heterologous protein encoded on the SV was highest in cell lines expressing Bcl-x(L)Delta. Cells expressing the variant Bcl-x(L) also continued to proliferate and showed increased viable cell numbers following gradual serum withdrawal. In contrast, wild-type Bcl-x(L) expressing CHO cells were found to arrest growth but maintain viability following serum withdrawal. Interestingly, CHO cells expressing Bcl-x(L)Delta were also able to recover and return to rapid growth rates much faster than either the wild-type CHO-bcl-x(L) or CHO following the replenishment of fresh complete medium containing 10% FBS. Confocal imaging of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to the N terminus of Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-x(L)Delta indicated dense aggregates of the Bcl-x(L)Delta while the wild-type protein was distributed throughout the cell in a manner resembling transmembrane localization. As an alternative to complete removal of the loop domain, Bcl-x(L) variants were created in which aspartate residues containing potential caspase recognition sites within the loop domain of Bcl-x(L) were removed. Cell populations expressing various Bcl-x(L)-Asp mutants were exposed to an apoptotic spent medium stimulus, and the cells expressing these Bcl-x(L) variants provided increased viabilities as compared to cells containing wild-type Bcl-x(L) protein. These studies indicate that modification of anti-apoptotic genes can affect multiple cellular properties including response to apoptotic stimuli and cell growth. This knowledge can be valuable in the design of improved apoptosis inhibitors for biotechnology applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Induction of a hypermetabolic state in cultured hepatocytes by glucagon and H2O2.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-12-04
    Kyongbum Lee,François Berthiaume,Gregory N Stephanopoulos,Martin L Yarmush

    Stress hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines are putative signals triggering increased energy expenditure or "hypermetabolism" commonly observed in inflammatory states. Cytokines also cause the release of reactive oxidants by immune cells resident in tissues in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a role in the induction of hypermetabolism. We examined the effect of glucagon (1.0 nM), a catabolic stress hormone, and the oxidant H(2)O(2) (1.0 mM) on the metabolism of stable hepatocyte cultures for 4 days. Combined H(2)O(2) and glucagon treatment, but not H(2)O(2) or glucagon used alone, increased the hepatocyte oxygen uptake rate 25% above control untreated cells after a lag-time of 72 h. The same treatment also increased the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2). These effects were significantly inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (5mM) and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) inhibitor dehydroepianderosterone (200 microM). Glucagon alone induced urea synthesis and H(2)O(2) alone induced the PPP. These findings show, for the first time, that oxidative stress, in combination with glucagon, increases metabolic energy expenditure in cultured cells, and that this effect may be mediated by UCP-2. Furthermore, the results implicate the PPP in the induction of the hypermetabolic response.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of metabolic networks using a pathway distance metric through linear programming.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Evangelos Simeonidis,Stuart C G Rison,Janet M Thornton,I David L Bogle,Lazaros G Papageorgiou

    The solution of the shortest path problem in biochemical systems constitutes an important step for studies of their evolution. In this paper, a linear programming (LP) algorithm for calculating minimal pathway distances in metabolic networks is studied. Minimal pathway distances are identified as the smallest number of metabolic steps separating two enzymes in metabolic pathways. The algorithm deals effectively with circularity and reaction directionality. The applicability of the algorithm is illustrated by calculating the minimal pathway distances for Escherichia coli small molecule metabolism enzymes, and then considering their correlations with genome distance (distance separating two genes on a chromosome) and enzyme function (as characterised by enzyme commission number). The results illustrate the effectiveness of the LP model. In addition, the data confirm that propinquity of genes on the genome implies similarity in function (as determined by co-involvement in the same region of the metabolic network), but suggest that no correlation exists between pathway distance and enzyme function. These findings offer insight into the probable mechanism of pathway evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic flux analysis as a tool for the elucidation of the metabolism of neurotransmitter glutamate.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Aristotle Chatziioannou,Georgios Palaiologos,Fragiskos N Kolisis

    A flux analysis model for the metabolism of neurotransmitter glutamate is constructed, in order to study functional aspects of its metabolism. This work is based on the potassium [K(+)] evoked neurotransmitter glutamate released, as measured in a series of experiments of superfused rat or mouse brain preparations. These measurements are combined with data reported, concerning the metabolism of glutamate and its precursors, glutamine and glucose in rat cerebral cells in vivo. The proposed stoichiometry of the specific reaction network renders the model solvable. The classification procedure establishes that the measured fluxes are all balanceable and all non-measured fluxes can be calculated. The system is well posed with a condition number of 7.8536. The results emphasize the importance of phosphate activated glutaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in the metabolism of neurotransmitter glutamate. Reported data on the rate of the malate-aspartate shuttle, as well as the anaplerotic flux of the glial pyruvate carboxylase reaction are in agreement with the estimations calculated from the proposed model.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Engineering central metabolism in crop species: learning the system.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Fernando Carrari,Ewa Urbanczyk-Wochniak,Lothar Willmitzer,Alisdair R Fernie

    Over many centuries much effort has been expended on crop improvement, most recently by use of molecular genetic technologies. Although genome sequence information for crop species is not yet available in the public domain, most of the genes of central metabolism have already been cloned and the corresponding transgenic plants generated. Although these plants have often confirmed the hypotheses based on more indirect methodologies, they have also produced unexpected challenges to the metabolic engineer in outlining the enormous flexibility and complexity inherent in plant metabolism. Intriguingly, comparison of transcript and metabolite levels of the TCA cycle revealed strong correlations in expression levels but little coordination in the levels of metabolic intermediates. These factors explain why many attempts to engineer central metabolism have proven unsuccessful to date and suggest that a greater understanding of the regulatory circuits and networks controlling metabolism is required before engineering can become routine. In this article we intend to illustrate these challenges by reviewing attempts to manipulate the central metabolic pathways of Solanaceae (sps.) as well as demonstrating the role for systems biology approaches in metabolic engineering in crops.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • RNA interference as a metabolic engineering tool: potential for in vivo control of protein expression in an insect larval model.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Shannon F Kramer,William E Bentley

    Many ex vivo factors influence the yield of recombinant protein produced via AcMNPV (Autographa californica multiple nucleocapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) in Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae. Among these are: the method of infection, the time of infection, the virus load, and the time of harvest. In vivo strategies, however, that attempt to manipulate host function in this and other expression systems have largely been ignored. In this work, RNA interference (RNAi) is shown as an effective metabolic engineering controller to downregulate targeted gene expression. Specifically, RNAi was made to virus-encoded gfp(uv) and was found to inhibit the production of GFPuv in larvae when injected within an 18-h window (before and after) of baculovirus infection. The level of inhibition was found to depend, both in duration and extent, on the concentration of injected RNAi. That relatively low levels of RNAi can inhibit protein synthesis driven by the strong polyhedrin (polh) promoter of AcMNPV, suggests that RNAi will find utility as an in vivo metabolic controller in metabolic engineering studies such as this one pertaining to protein expression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Catalase and chondroitin sulfate derivatives against thrombotic effect induced by reactive oxygen species in a rat artery.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Alexander V Maksimenko,Vladimir L Golubykh,Elena G Tischenko

    Antithrombotic activity of catalase (CAT) and chondroitin sulfate (CHS) preparations was studied in a rat model of arterial injury induced by ferrous chloride. Equal doses (according to catalytically active CAT) were used to examine the effect of native CAT, CAT-CHS covalent conjugate and mixture of native CAT and free CHS in a ratio corresponding to their contents in the conjugate. The antithrombotic activity of the derivatives was determined by the time during which arterial occlusion developed (occlusion time) and by the mass of the formed thrombus. The antithrombotic activities of the conjugate and mixture were similar and markedly higher than that of native CAT. The conjugate was more effective with respect to deceleration and prevention of arterial occlusion. Small doses of the preparations altered the structure of the formed thrombus, promoting sustained blood flow. Further investigations of the antithrombotic activity of CAT, superoxide dismutase and CHS derivatives have been outlined.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dynamic simulation and metabolic re-design of a branched pathway using linlog kinetics.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Diana Visser,Joseph J Heijnen

    This paper presents a new mathematical framework for modeling of in vivo dynamics and for metabolic re-design: the linlog approach. This approach is an extension of metabolic control analysis (MCA), valid for large changes of enzyme and metabolite levels. Furthermore, the presented framework combines MCA with kinetic modeling, thereby also combining the merits of both approaches. The linlog framework includes general expressions giving the steady-state fluxes and metabolite concentrations as a function of enzyme levels and extracellular concentrations, and a metabolic design equation that allows direct calculation of required enzyme levels for a desired steady state when control and response coefficients are available. Expressions giving control coefficients as a function of the enzyme levels are also derived. The validity of the linlog approximation in metabolic modeling is demonstrated by application of linlog kinetics to a branched pathway with moiety conservation, reversible reactions and allosteric interactions. Results show that the linlog approximation is able to describe the non-linear dynamics of this pathway very well for concentration changes up to a factor 20. Also the metabolic design equation was tested successfully.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Archaeal proteasomes: potential in metabolic engineering.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-09-02
    Julie A Maupin-Furlow,Steven J Kaczowka,Christopher J Reuter,Kheir Zuobi-Hasona,Malgorzata A Gil

    Archaea are a valuable source of enzymes for industrial and scientific applications because of their ability to survive extreme conditions including high salt and temperature. Thanks to advances in molecular biology and genetics, archaea are also attractive hosts for metabolic engineering. Understanding how energy-dependent proteases and chaperones function to maintain protein quality control is key to high-level synthesis of recombinant products. In archaea, proteasomes are central players in energy-dependent proteolysis and form elaborate nanocompartments that degrade proteins into oligopeptides by processive hydrolysis. The catalytic core responsible for this proteolytic activity is the 20S proteasome, a barrel-shaped particle with a central channel and axial gates on each end that limit substrate access to a central proteolytic chamber. AAA proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) are likely to play several roles in mediating energy-dependent proteolysis by the proteasome. These include ATP binding/hydrolysis, substrate binding/unfolding, opening of the axial gates, and translocation of substrate into the proteolytic chamber.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transcriptional profiling of gene expression in response to glucose in Bacillus subtilis: regulation of the central metabolic pathways.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-07-10
    Hans-Matti Blencke,Georg Homuth,Holger Ludwig,Ulrike Mäder,Michael Hecker,Jörg Stülke

    Chemoheterotrophic bacteria use a few central metabolic pathways for carbon catabolism and energy production as well as for the generation of the main precursors for anabolic reactions. All sources of carbon and energy are converted to intermediates of these central pathways and then further metabolized. While the regulation of genes encoding enzymes used to introduce specific substrates into the central metabolism has already been studied to some detail, much less is known about the regulation of the central metabolic pathways. In this study, we investigated the responses of the Bacillus subtilis transcriptome to the presence of glucose and analyzed the role of the pleiotropic transcriptional regulator CcpA in these responses. We found that CcpA directly represses genes involved in the utilization of secondary carbon sources. In contrast, induction by glucose seems to be mediated by a variety of different mechanisms. In the presence of glucose, the genes encoding glycolytic enzymes are induced. Moreover, the genes responsible for the production of acetate from pyruvate with a concomitant substrate-level phosphorylation are induced by glucose. In contrast, the genes required for the complete oxidation of the sugar (Krebs cycle, respiration) are repressed if excess glucose is available for the bacteria. In the absence of glucose, the genes of the Krebs cycle as well as gluconeogenic genes are derepressed. The genes encoding enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway are expressed both in the presence and the absence of glucose, as suggested by the central role of this pathway in generating anabolic precursors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic engineering of apoptosis in cultured animal cells: implications for the biotechnology industry.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-07-10
    Joaquim Vives,Sandra Juanola,Jordi Joan Cairó,Francesc Gòdia

    Animal cells have been widely used to obtain a wide range of products for human and animal healthcare applications. However, the extreme sensitivity of these cells in respect to changes experienced in their environment is evidenced by the activation of a gene-encoded program known as apoptosis, resulting in their death and destruction. From the bioprocess angle, losses in cell viability bring lower productivities and higher risks of product degradation. Consequently, many research efforts have been devoted to the development of apoptosis protective mechanisms, including the metabolic engineering of apoptosis pathways, that has proven effective in diminishing programmed cell death in a variety of biotechnological relevant cell lines. This review is focused especially in the encouraging initial results obtained with the over-expression of cloned anti-apoptosis genes, from both endogenous and viral origin interfering at mitochondrial and initiator caspases levels.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Control analysis of mitochondrial metabolism in intact hepatocytes: effect of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-07-10
    François Berthiaume,Annette D MacDonald,Yoon H Kang,Martin L Yarmush

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are produced by hepatic nonparenchymal cells after systemic injury and have been reported to inhibit ATP synthesis in hepatocytes, which may contribute to hepatic dysfunction in inflammatory states. To elucidate the mechanisms of action of IL-1beta and IL-6 on hepatocellular ATP synthesis, we measured the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of stable hepatocyte cultures, and analyzed the dynamic MMP response following the addition of mitochondrial inhibitors (antimycin A and oligomycin) with a model of mitochondrial metabolism. IL-1beta reduced mitochondrial OUR coupled to ATP synthesis via inhibition of phosphorylation reactions which dissipate the MMP, including ATP synthesis and consumption. Furthermore, the ATP synthesis rate in cytokine-free and IL-1beta-treated hepatocytes was controlled primarily by phosphorylation reactions, which corresponds to a state where the ATP synthesis rate closely follows the cellular energy demand. Thus, IL-1beta-mediated effects on electron transport and substrate oxidation reactions are not likely to significantly impact on ATP synthesis. IL-6 did not reduce mitochondrial OUR coupled to ATP synthesis, but shifted the control for ATP synthesis towards processes which generate the MMP, indicating that IL-6 induces a metabolic state where cellular functions are limited by the mitochondrial energy supply.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Production process monitoring by serial mapping of microbial carbon flux distributions using a novel Sensor Reactor approach: II--(13)C-labeling-based metabolic flux analysis and L-lysine production.
    Metab. Eng. (IF 7.808) Pub Date : 2003-07-10
    A Drysch,M El Massaoudi,C Mack,R Takors,A A de Graaf,H Sahm

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is intensively used for the industrial large-scale (fed-) batch production of amino acids, especially glutamate and lysine. However, metabolic flux analyses based on 13C-labeling experiments of this organism have hitherto been restricted to small-scale batch conditions and carbon-limited chemostat cultures, and are therefore of questionable relevance for industrial fermentations. To lever flux analysis to the industrial level, a novel Sensor Reactor approach was developed (El Massaoudi et al., Metab. Eng., submitted), in which a 300-L production reactor and a 1-L Sensor Reactor are run in parallel master/slave modus, thus enabling 13C-based metabolic flux analysis to generate a series of flux maps that document large-scale fermentation courses in detail. We describe the successful combination of this technology with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, metabolite balancing methods and a mathematical description of 13C-isotope labelings resulting in a powerful tool for quantitative pathway analysis during a batch fermentation. As a first application, 13C-based metabolic flux analysis was performed on exponentially growing, lysine-producing C. glutamicum MH20-22B during three phases of a pilot-scale batch fermentation. By studying the growth, (co-) substrate consumption and (by-) product formation, the similarity of the fermentations in production and Sensor Reactor was verified. Applying a generally applicable mathematical model, which included metabolite and carbon labeling balances for the analysis of proteinogenic amino acid 13C-isotopomer labeling data, the in vivo metabolic flux distribution was investigated during subsequent phases of exponential growth. It was shown for the first time that the in vivo reverse C(4)-decarboxylation flux at the anaplerotic node in C. glutamicum significantly decreased (70%) in parallel with threefold increased lysine formation during the investigated subsequent phases of exponential growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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