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  • PRV Editorial - Physiological Reviews: The Past, the Present and the Future
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2021-01-14
    Sadis Matalon

    Physiological Reviews, Ahead of Print.

  • Lipodystrophy: A paradigm for understanding the consequences of "overloading" adipose tissue
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Koini Lim; Afreen Haider; Claire Adams; Alison Sleigh; David Savage

    Lipodystrophies have been recognised since at least the 19th century and despite their rarity tended to attract considerable medical attention due to the severity and somewhat paradoxical nature of the associated metabolic disease which so closely mimics that of obesity. Within the last 20 years most of the monogenic subtypes have been characterized, facilitating family genetic screening and earlier

  • Bone Metastasis: Mechanisms, Therapies and Biomarkers
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    Philippe Clezardin; Rob Coleman; Margherita Puppo; Penelope Ottewell; Edith Bonnelye; Frédéric Paycha; Cyril B Confavreux; Ingunn Holen

    Skeletal metastases are frequent complications of many cancers, causing bone complications (fractures, bone pain, disability), which negatively affect the patient's quality of life. Here, we first discuss the burden of skeletal complications in cancer bone metastasis. We then describe the pathophysiology of bone metastasis. Bone metastasis is a multistage process; long before the development of clinically

  • G protein-coupled receptor-G protein interactions: a single-molecule perspective
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-12-17
    Davide Calebiro; Zsombor Koszegi; Yann Lanoiselée; Tamara Miljus; Shannon L O'Brien

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate many cellular and physiological processes, responding to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including hormones, neurotransmitters, odorants and light. Decades of biochemical and pharmacological studies have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms of GPCR signaling. Thanks to recent advances in structural biology, we now possess an atomistic

  • Sympathetic and sensory-motor nerves in peripheral small arteries
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Christian Aalkjaer; Holger Nilsson; Jo De Mey G. R.

    Small arteries, which play important roles in controlling blood flow, blood pressure and capillary pressure, are under nervous influence. Their innervation is predominantly sympathetic and sensory-motor in nature and while some arteries are densely innervated others are only sparsely so. Innervation of small arteries is a key mechanism in regulating vascular resistance. In the second half of the previous

  • Developmental Origins of Metabolic Disease
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Daniel J Hoffman; Theresa L. Powell; Emily S Barrett; Daniel B Hardy

    Almost 2 billion adults in the world are overweight and more than half of them are classified as obese while nearly 1/3 of children globally experience poor growth and development. Given the vast amount of knowledge that has been gleaned from decades of research on growth and development, a number of questions remains as to why the world is now in the midst of a global epidemic of obesity accompanied

  • Sex Determination, Gonadal Sex Differentiation and Pl­­asticity in Vertebrate Species
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Yoshitaka Nagahama; Tapas Chakraborty; Bindhu Paul-Prasanth; Kohei Ohta; Masaru Nakamura

    A diverse array of sex determination (SD) mechanisms, encompassing environmental to genetic, have been found to exist among vertebrates, covering a spectrum from fixed SD mechanisms (mammals) to functional sex change in fishes (sequential hermaphroditic fishes). A major landmark in vertebrate SD was the discovery of the SRY gene in 1990. Since that time, many attempts to clone an SRY ortholog from

  • Inflammation and thrombosis in COVID-19 pathophysiology: Proteinase-activated and purinergic receptors as drivers and candidate therapeutic targets
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Krishna Sriram; Paul A Insel

    Evolving information has identified disease mechanisms and dysregulation of host biology that might be targeted therapeutically in COVID-19. Thrombosis and coagulopathy, associated with pulmonary injury and inflammation, are emerging clinical features of COVID-19. We present a framework for mechanisms of thrombosis in COVID-19 that initially derive from interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with ACE2, resulting

  • Cardiac Transmembrane Ion Channels and Action Potentials: Cellular Physiology and Arrhythmogenic Behavior
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-10-29
    András Varró; Jakub Tomek; Norbert Nagy; Laszlo Virag; Elisa Passini; Blanca Rodriguez; Istvan Baczkó

    Cardiac arrhythmias are among the leading causes of mortality. They often arise from alterations in the electrophysiological properties of cardiac cells, and their underlying ionic mechanisms. It is therefore critical to further unravel the patho-physiology of the ionic basis of human cardiac electrophysiology in health and disease. In the first part of this review, current knowledge on the differences

  • RNA-binding proteins balance brain function in health and disease
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-10-01
    Rico Schieweck; Jovica Ninkovic; Michael A Kiebler

    Posttranscriptional gene expression including splicing, RNA transport, translation and RNA decay provides an important regulatory layer in many if not all molecular pathways. Research in the last decades has positioned RNA‐binding proteins (RBPs) right into the center of posttranscriptional gene regulation. We therefore propose interdependent networks of RBPs to regulate complex pathways within the

  • Behavioral and Neurobiological Mechanisms of Pavlovian and Instrumental Extinction Learning
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Mark E. Bouton; Steven Maren; Gavan P McNally

    This article reviews the behavioral neuroscience of extinction, the phenomenon in which a behavior that has been acquired through Pavlovian or instrumental (operant) learning decreases in strength when the outcome that reinforced it is removed. Behavioral research indicates that neither Pavlovian nor operant extinction depends substantially on erasure of the original learning, but instead depends on

  • Pregnancy and COVID-19.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Elizabeth An Wastnedge,Rebecca M Reynolds,Sara R van Boeckel,Sarah J Stock,Fiona Denison,Jacqueline A Maybin,Hilary Od Critchley

    There are many unknowns for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical experience of pregnancies complicated with infection by other coronaviruses e.g. SARS and MERS, has led to pregnant woman being considered potentially vulnerable to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Physiological changes during pregnancy have a significant impact on the immune system, respiratory system, cardiovascular function

  • Neuronal circuits in barrel cortex for whisker sensory perception.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Jochen Staiger,Carl C H Petersen

    The array of whiskers on the snout provides rodents with tactile sensory information relating to the size, shape and texture of objects in their immediate environment. Rodents can use their whiskers to detect stimuli, distinguish textures, locate objects and navigate. Important aspects of whisker sensation are thought to result from neuronal computations in the whisker somatosensory cortex (wS1). Each

  • Molecular Physiology of Bile Acid Signaling in Health, Disease and Aging.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Alessia Perino,Hadrien Demagny,Laura Alejandra Velazquez-Villegas,Kristina Schoonjans

    Over the last two decades, bile acids (BAs) have become established as important signaling molecules that enable fine-tuned inter-tissue communication from the liver, their site of production, over the intestine, where they are modified by the gut microbiota, to virtually any organ, where they exert their pleiotropic physiological effects. The chemical variety of BAs, to a large extent determined by

  • Brain mechanisms of insomnia: new perspectives on causes and consequences.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Eus J W Van Someren

    While insomnia is the second most common mental disorder, progress in our understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms has been limited. The present review addresses the definition and prevalence of insomnia and explores its subjective and objective characteristics across the 24-hour day. Subsequently, the review extensively addresses how the vulnerability to develop insomnia is affected

  • Moving Immune Therapy Forward Targeting TME.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Kayla F Goliwas,Jessy S Deshane,Craig A Elmets,Mohammad Athar

    The host immune system shapes the fate of tumor progression. Hence, manipulating patients' immune system to activate host immune responses against cancer pathogenesis is a promising strategy to develop effective therapeutic interventions for metastatic and drug resistant cancers. Understanding the dynamic mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment (TME) that contribute to heterogeneity and metabolic

  • Role of O-Linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) Protein Modification in Cellular (Patho)Physiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    John C Chatham,Jianhua Zhang,Adam Raymond Wende

    In the mid 1980s, the identification of serine and threonine residues on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins modified by an O-linkage by a N-acetylglucosamine moiety (O-GlcNAc) overturned the widely held assumption that glycosylation only occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and secretory pathways. In contrast to traditional glycosylation, the O-GlcNAc modification does not lead to

  • The FGF/FGFR System in the Physiopathology of the Prostate Gland.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Arianna Giacomini,Elisabetta Grillo,Sara Rezzola,Domenico Ribatti,Marco Rusnati,Roberto Ronca,Marco Presta

    Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are a family of proteins possessing paracrine, autocrine or endocrine functions in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, angiogenesis, tissue homeostasis, wound repair, and cancer. Canonical FGFs bind and activate tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs), triggering intracellular signaling cascades that mediate their biological activity. Experimental

  • Immunometabolic Status of COVID-19 Cancer Patients.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    A Sica,M P Colombo,A Trama,L Horn,M C Garassino,V Torri

    Cancer patients appear to be more likely to be diagnosed with COVID-19. This is supported by the understanding of immunometabolic pathways that intersect patients with infection and cancer. However, data derived by case series and retrospective studies do not offer a coherent interpretation, since data from China suggest an increased risk of COVID-19, while data from United States and Italy show a

  • SUMO: From Bench to Bedside.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Hui-Ming Chang,Edward T H Yeh

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  • Anti-protease Treatments Targeting Plasmin(ogen) and Neutrophil Elastase May Be Beneficial in Fighting COVID-19.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Alain R Thierry

    Physiological Reviews, Volume 100, Issue 4, Page 1597-1598, October 2020.

  • Consideration of Tranexamic Acid Administration to COVID-19 Patients.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Haruhiko Ogawa,Hidesaku Asakura

    Physiological Reviews, Volume 100, Issue 4, Page 1595-1596, October 2020.

  • Neuropathic pain: From mechanisms to treatment.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Nanna Brix Finnerup,Rohini Kuner,Troels Staehelin Jensen

    Neuropathic pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system is a common chronic pain condition with major impact on quality of life. Examples include trigeminal neuralgia, painful polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia and central poststroke pain. Most patients complain of an ongoing or intermittent spontaneous pain of e.g. burning, pricking, squeezing quality, which may be accompanied

  • Nongenomic Actions of Thyroid Hormone: the Integrin Component.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Paul J Davis,Shaker A Mousa,Hung-Yun Lin

    The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone analogues. The receptor is largely expressed and activated in tumor cells and rapidly dividing endothelial cells. The principal ligand for this receptor is L-thyroxine (T4), usually regarded only as a prohormone for 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), the hormone analogue that expresses thyroid

  • Cellular circuits in the brain and their modulation in acute and chronic pain.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Rohini Kuner,Thomas Kuner

    Chronic, pathological pain remains a global health problem and a challenge to basic and clinical sciences. A major obstacle to preventing, treating or reverting chronic pain has been that the nature of neural circuits underlying the diverse components of the complex, multidimensional experience of pain is not well understood. Moreover, chronic pain involves diverse maladaptive plasticity processes

  • CRISPR-tools for physiology & cell state changes - potential of transcriptional engineering and epigenome editing.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Christopher Breunig,Anna Köferle,Andrea Neuner,Maximilian Wiesbeck,Valentin Baumann,Stefan H Stricker

    Given the large amount of genome-wide data that has been collected during the last decades a good understanding of how and why cells change during development, homeostasis and disease might be expected. Unfortunately, the opposite is true; Triggers that cause cellular state changes remain elusive and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Although genes with the potential to influence

  • SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: From the Bench to the Bedside.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-06-04
    Stefano Romagnoli,Adriano Peris,A Raffaele De Gaudio,Pierangelo Geppetti

    First isolated in China in early 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus responsible for the ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The disease has been spreading rapidly across the globe, with the largest burden falling on China, Europe and the United States. COVID-19 is a new clinical syndrome characterized by respiratory symptoms

    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Giulia Biffi,David A Tuveson

    Efforts to develop anti-cancer therapies have largely focused on targeting the epithelial compartment, despite the presence of non-neoplastic stromal components that substantially contribute to the progression of the tumor. Indeed, cancer cell survival, growth, migration and even dormancy are influenced by the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). Within the TME, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)

  • An Ounce of Prevention May Prevent Hospitalization.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Andrew B Barker,Brant M Wagener

    Physiological Reviews, Volume 100, Issue 3, Page 1347-1348, July 2020.

  • Molecular Physiology and Pathophysiology of Bilirubin Handling by the Blood, Liver, Intestine, and Brain in the Newborn.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Thor W R Hansen,Ronald J Wong,David K Stevenson

    Bilirubin is the end product of heme catabolism formed during a process that involves oxidation-reduction reactions and conserves iron body stores. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is common in newborn infants, but rare later in life. The basic physiology of bilirubin metabolism, such as production, transport, and excretion, has been well described. However, in the neonate, numerous variables related

  • Cardiac Mechano-Electric Coupling: Acute Effects of Mechanical Stimulation on Heart Rate and Rhythm.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-05-07
    T Alexander Quinn,Peter Kohl

    The heart is vital for biological function in almost all chordates, including human. It beats continually throughout our life, supplying the body with oxygen and nutrients while removing waste products. If it stops - so does life. The heartbeat involves precise coordination of the activity of billions of individual cells, as well as their swift and well-coordinated adaption to changes in physiological

  • Phosphate Transport in Epithelial and Nonepithelial Tissue.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Nati Hernando,Kenneth B Gagnon,Eleanor D Lederer

    Phosphate is an essential nutrient for life and is a critical component of bone formation, a major signaling molecule, and structural component of cell walls. Phosphate is also a component of high-energy compounds (i.e. AMP, ADP, and ATP), and essential for nucleic acid helical structure (i.e. RNA and DNA). Phosphate plays a central role in the process of mineralization, normal serum levels being associated

  • The Renal Physiology of Pendrin-Positive Intercalated Cells.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Susan M Wall,Jill W Verlander,Cesar A Romero

    Intercalated cells (ICs) are found in the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. Of the three IC subtypes identified, type B intercalated cells are one of the best characterized and known to mediate Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion, largely through the anion exchanger pendrin. This exchanger is thought to act in tandem with the Na+-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NDCBE, to mediate net NaCl absorption

  • Role of the Epigenome in Heart Failure.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Roberto Papait,Simone Serio,Gianluigi Condorelli

    Gene expression is needed for the maintenance of heart function under normal conditions and in response to stress. Each cell type of the heart has a specific program controlling transcription. Different types of stress induce modifications of these programs, and if prolonged, can lead to altered cardiac phenotype and, eventually, to heart failure. The transcriptional status of a gene is regulated by

  • Glial connexins and pannexins in the healthy and diseased brain.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Christian Ba Giaume,Christian C Naus,Juan Carlos Saez,Luc Leybaert

    Over the past several decades a large amount of data have established that glial cells, the main cell population in the brain, dynamically interact with neurons and thus impact their activity and survival. One typical feature of glia is their marked expression of several connexins, the membrane proteins forming intercellular gap junction channels and hemichannels. Pannexins, which have a tetraspan

  • The Female Response to Seminal Fluid.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    John E Schjenken,Sarah A Robertson

    Seminal fluid is often assumed to have just one function in mammalian reproduction, delivering sperm to fertilize oocytes. But seminal fluid also transmits signaling agents that interact with female reproductive tissues to facilitate conception and .pregnancy. Upon seminal fluid contact, female tissues initiate a controlled inflammatory response that affects several aspects of reproductive function

  • Microenvironmental Determinants of Pancreatic Cancer.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Elisabeth Hessmann,Soeren M Buchholz,Ihsan Ekin Demir,Shiv K Singh,Thomas M Gress,Volker Ellenrieder,Albrecht Neesse

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) belongs to the most lethal solid tumors in humans. A histological hallmark feature of PDAC is the pronounced tumor microenvironment (TME) that dynamically evolves during tumor progression. The TME consists of different non-neoplastic cells such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), immune cells, endothelial cells and neurons. Furthermore, abundant extracellular

  • Elevated Plasmin(ogen) as a Common Risk Factor for COVID-19 Susceptibility.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Hong-Long Ji,Runzhen Zhao,Sadis Matalon,Michael A Matthay

    Patients with hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular illness, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and kidney dysfunction have worse clinical outcomes when infected with SARS-CoV-2, for unknown reasons. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence for the existence of elevated plasmin(ogen) in COVID-19 patients with these comorbid conditions. Plasmin, and other

  • Brain Lateralization: A Comparative Perspective.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Onur Güntürkün,Felix Ströckens,Sebastian Ocklenburg

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  • Impact of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection on Host Functions: Implications for Antiviral Strategies.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    MengJie Hu,Marie A Bogoyevitch,David A Jans

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the leading causes of viral respiratory tract infection in infants, the elderly and the immunocompromised worldwide, causing more deaths each year than influenza. Years of research into RSV since its discovery over 60 years ago have elucidated detailed mechanisms of the host-pathogen interface. RSV infection elicits widespread transcriptomic and proteomic

  • Are We Meeting the Promise of Endotypes and Precision Medicine in Asthma?
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Anuradha Ray,Matthew Camiolo,Anne Fitzpatrick,Marc Gauthier,Sally E Wenzel

    While the term "asthma" has long been known to describe heterogeneous groupings of patients, only recently have data evolved which enable a molecular understanding of the clinical differences. The evolution of transcriptomics (and other 'omics platforms) and improved statistical analyses in combination with large clinical cohorts opened the door for molecular characterization of pathobiologic processes

  • Emerging Approaches for Restoration of Hearing and Vision.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Sonja Kleinlogel,Christian Vogl,Marcus Jeschke,Jakob Neef,Tobias Moser

    Impairments of vision and hearing are highly prevalent conditions limiting the quality of life and presenting a major socioeconomic burden. For long, retinal and cochlear disorders have remained intractable for causal therapies, with sensory rehabilitation limited to glasses, hearing aids, and electrical cochlear or retinal implants. Recently, the application of gene therapy and optogenetics to eye

  • The Urothelium: Life in a Liquid Environment.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Marianela G Dalghi,Nicolas Montalbetti,Marcelo D Carattino,Gerard Apodaca

    The urothelium, which lines the renal pelvis, ureters, urinary bladder, and proximal urethra, forms a high resistance but adaptable barrier that surveils its mechanochemical environment and communicates changes to underlying tissues including afferent nerve fibers and the smooth muscle. The goal of this review is to summarize new insights into urothelial biology and function that have occurred in the

  • Physiology and Pathophysiology of Itch.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Ferda Cevikbas,Ethan A Lerner

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  • Ion Channels Controlling Circadian Rhythms in Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Excitability.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-03-12
    Jenna R M Harvey,Amber E Plante,Andrea L Meredith

    Animals synchronize to the environmental day-night cycle by means of an internal circadian clock in the brain. In mammals, this timekeeping mechanism is housed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and is entrained by light input from the retina. The output of the SCN is a neural code for circadian time, which arises from the collective activity of neurons within the SCN circuit

  • Mammalian Transient Receptor Potential TRPA1 Channels: From Structure to Disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Karel Talavera,Justyna B Startek,Julio Alvarez-Collazo,Brett Boonen,Yeranddy A Alpizar,Alicia Sanchez,Robbe Naert,Bernd Nilius

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin (TRPA) channels are Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels remarkably conserved through the animal kingdom. Mammals have only one member, TRPA1, which is widely expressed in sensory neurons and in non-neuronal cells (such as epithelial cells and hair cells). TRPA1 owes its name to the presence of 14 ankyrin repeats located in the NH2 terminus of the channel

  • Origin and Evolution of the Neuroendocrine Control of Reproduction in Vertebrates, With Special Focus on Genome and Gene Duplications.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Sylvie Dufour,Bruno Quérat,Hervé Tostivint,Catherine Pasqualini,Hubert Vaudry,Karine Rousseau

    In humans, as in the other mammals, the neuroendocrine control of reproduction is ensured by the brain-pituitary gonadotropic axis. Multiple internal and environmental cues are integrated via brain neuronal networks, ultimately leading to the modulation of the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The decapeptide GnRH is released into the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal blood system

  • mRNA Metabolism in Cardiac Development and Disease: Life After Transcription.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Chen Gao,Yibin Wang

    The central dogma of molecular biology illustrates the importance of mRNAs as critical mediators between genetic information encoded at the DNA level and proteomes/metabolomes that determine the diverse functional outcome at the cellular and organ levels. Although the total number of protein-producing (coding) genes in the mammalian genome is ~20,000, it is evident that the intricate processes of cardiac

  • Stiffness Sensing by Cells.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Paul A Janmey,Daniel A Fletcher,Cynthia A Reinhart-King

    Physical stimuli are essential for the function of eukaryotic cells, and changes in physical signals are important elements in normal tissue development as well as in disease initiation and progression. The complexity of physical stimuli and the cellular signals they initiate are as complex as those triggered by chemical signals. One of the most important, and the focus of this review, is the effect

  • Revisiting the Functional Anatomy of the Human Brain: Toward a Meta-Networking Theory of Cerebral Functions.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Guillaume Herbet,Hugues Duffau

    For more than one century, brain processing was mainly thought in a localizationist framework, in which one given function was underpinned by a discrete, isolated cortical area, and with a similar cerebral organization across individuals. However, advances in brain mapping techniques in humans have provided new insights into the organizational principles of anatomo-functional architecture. Here, we

  • Physiology of the Endometrium and Regulation of Menstruation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Hilary O D Critchley,Jacqueline A Maybin,Gregory M Armstrong,Alistair R W Williams

    The physiological functions of the uterine endometrium (uterine lining) are preparation for implantation, maintenance of pregnancy if implantation occurs, and menstruation in the absence of pregnancy. The endometrium thus plays a pivotal role in reproduction and continuation of our species. Menstruation is a steroid-regulated event, and there are alternatives for a progesterone-primed endometrium,

  • From Ancient to Emerging Infections: The Odyssey of Viruses in the Male Genital Tract.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Anna Le Tortorec,Giulia Matusali,Dominique Mahé,Florence Aubry,Séverine Mazaud-Guittot,Laurent Houzet,Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford

    The male genital tract (MGT) is the target of a number of viral infections that can have deleterious consequences at the individual, offspring, and population levels. These consequences include infertility, cancers of male organs, transmission to the embryo/fetal development abnormalities, and sexual dissemination of major viral pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus

  • Muscle Toxicity of Drugs: When Drugs Turn Physiology into Pathophysiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Lando Janssen,Neeltje A E Allard,Christiaan G J Saris,Jaap Keijer,Maria T E Hopman,Silvie Timmers

    Drugs are prescribed to manage or prevent symptoms and diseases, but may sometimes cause unexpected toxicity to muscles. The symptomatology and clinical manifestations of the myotoxic reaction can vary significantly between drugs and between patients on the same drug. This poses a challenge on how to recognize and prevent the occurrence of drug-induced muscle toxicity. The key to appropriate management

  • Renal Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling: A Story of Self-protection.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Jens Leipziger,Helle Praetorius

    Autocrine and paracrine signaling in the kidney adds an extra level of diversity and complexity to renal physiology. The extensive scientific production on the topic precludes easy understanding of the fundamental purpose of the vast number of molecules and systems that influence the renal function. This systematic review provides the broader pen strokes for a collected image of renal paracrine signaling

  • Phylogenic Determinants of Cardiovascular Frailty, Focus on Hemodynamics and Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Jean-Baptiste Michel

    The evolution of the circulatory system from invertebrates to mammals has involved the passage from an open system to a closed in-parallel system via a closed in-series system, accompanying the increasing complexity and efficiency of life's biological functions. The archaic heart enables pulsatile motion waves of hemolymph in invertebrates, and the in-series circulation in fish occurs with only an

  • Pathogenesis of HIV-Related Lung Disease: Immunity, Infection, and Inflammation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Sushma K Cribbs,Kristina Crothers,Alison Morris

    Despite anti-retroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-related pulmonary disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality for people living with HIV (PLWH). The spectrum of lung diseases has changed from acute opportunistic infections resulting in death to chronic lung diseases for those with access to ART. Chronic immune activation and suppression can result in

  • Connexins: Key Players in the Control of Vascular Plasticity and Function.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Ulrich Pohl

    Of the 21 members of the connexin family, 4 (Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45) are expressed in the endothelium and/or smooth muscle of intact blood vessels to a variable and dynamically regulated degree. Full-length connexins oligomerize and form channel structures connecting the cytosol of adjacent cells (gap junctions) or the cytosol with the extracellular space (hemichannels). The different connexins

  • The Physiology of the Gastric Parietal Cell.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Amy C Engevik,Izumi Kaji,James R Goldenring

    Parietal cells are responsible for gastric acid secretion, which aids in the digestion of food, absorption of minerals, and control of harmful bacteria. However, a fine balance of activators and inhibitors of parietal cell-mediated acid secretion is required to ensure proper digestion of food, while preventing damage to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. As a result, parietal cell secretion is highly

  • Stem Cells and the Differentiation Hierarchy in Mammary Gland Development.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Nai Yang Fu,Emma Nolan,Geoffrey J Lindeman,Jane E Visvader

    The mammary gland is a highly dynamic organ that undergoes profound changes within its epithelium during puberty and the reproductive cycle. These changes are fueled by dedicated stem and progenitor cells. Both short- and long-lived lineage-restricted progenitors have been identified in adult tissue as well as a small pool of multipotent mammary stem cells (MaSCs), reflecting intrinsic complexity within

  • Mechanisms and Consequences of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Sensing in Mammals.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 25.588) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Eoin P Cummins,Moritz J Strowitzki,Cormac T Taylor

    Molecular oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the primary gaseous substrate and product of oxidative phosphorylation in respiring organisms, respectively. Variance in the levels of either of these gasses outside of the physiological range presents a serious threat to cell, tissue, and organism survival. Therefore, it is essential that endogenous levels are monitored and kept at appropriate concentrations

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