当前期刊: Physiological Reviews Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
  • 更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Stem Cells and the Differentiation Hierarchy in Mammary Gland Development.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-09-21
    Naiyang Fu,Emma Nolan,Geoffrey J Lindeman,Jane E Visvader

    The mammary gland is a highly dynamic organ that undergoes profound changes within its epithelium during puberty and the reproductive cycle. These changes are fuelled by dedicated stem and progenitor cells. Both short- and long-lived lineage-restricted progenitors have been identified in adult tissue as well as a small pool of multipotent mammary stem cells (MaSCs), reflecting intrinsic complexity within the epithelial hierarchy. While unipotent progenitor cells predominantly execute day-to-day homeostasis and postnatal morphogenesis during puberty and pregnancy, multipotent MaSCs have been implicated in coordinating alveologenesis and long-term ductal maintenance. Nonetheless, the multipotency of stem cells in the adult remains controversial. The advent of large-scale single cell molecular profiling has revealed striking changes in the gene expression landscape through ontogeny and the presence of transient intermediate populations. An increasing number of lineage cell-fate determination factors and potential niche regulators have now been mapped along the hierarchy, with many implicated in breast carcinogenesis. The emerging diversity amongst stem and progenitor populations of the mammary epithelium is likely to underpin the heterogeneity that characterizes breast cancer.

  • Mechanisms and Consequences of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Sensing in Mammals
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Eoin P. Cummins, Moritz J. Strowitzki, Cormac T. Taylor

  • Pavlovian Conditioning of Immunological and Neuroendocrine Functions
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Martin Hadamitzky, Laura Lückemann, Gustavo Pacheco-López, Manfred Schedlowski

  • 更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Current Principles of Motor Control, with Special Reference to Vertebrate Locomotion
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Sten Grillner, Abdeljabbar El Manira

  • Extracellular Nucleotides and P2 Receptors in Renal Function
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Volker Vallon, Robert Unwin, Edward W. Inscho, Jens Leipziger, Bellamkonda K. Kishore

  • Sensory Processing at Ribbon Synapses in the Retina and the Cochlea
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Tobias Moser, Chad P. Grabner, Frank Schmitz

  • SIRT6, a Mammalian Deacylase with Multitasking Abilities
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Andrew R. Chang, Christina M. Ferrer, Raul Mostoslavsky

  • Free Fatty Acid Receptors in Health and Disease
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Ikuo Kimura, Atsuhiko Ichimura, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Miki Igarashi

  • Regulation of the Renal NaCl Cotransporter and Its Role in Potassium Homeostasis.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : null
    Ewout J Hoorn,Martin Gritter,Catherina A Cuevas,Robert A Fenton

    Daily dietary potassium (K+) intake may be as large as the extracellular K+ pool. To avoid acute hyperkalemia, rapid removal of K+ from the extracellular space is essential. This is achieved by translocating K+ into cells and increasing urinary K+ excretion. Emerging data now indicate that the renal thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is critically involved in this homeostatic kaliuretic response. This suggests that the early distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a K+ sensor that can modify sodium (Na+) delivery to downstream segments to promote or limit K+ secretion. K+ sensing is mediated by the basolateral K+ channels Kir4.1/5.1, a capacity that the DCT likely shares with other nephron segments. Thus, next to K+-induced aldosterone secretion, K+ sensing by renal epithelial cells represents a second feedback mechanism to control K+ balance. NCC's role in K+ homeostasis has both physiological and pathophysiological implications. During hypovolemia, NCC activation by the renin-angiotensin system stimulates Na+ reabsorption while preventing K+ secretion. Conversely, NCC inactivation by high dietary K+ intake maximizes kaliuresis and limits Na+ retention, despite high aldosterone levels. NCC activation by a low-K+ diet contributes to salt-sensitive hypertension. K+-induced natriuresis through NCC offers a novel explanation for the antihypertensive effects of a high-K+ diet. A possible role for K+ in chronic kidney disease is also emerging, as epidemiological data reveal associations between higher urinary K+ excretion and improved renal outcomes. This comprehensive review will embed these novel insights on NCC regulation into existing concepts of K+ homeostasis in health and disease.

  • Stiffness Sensing in Cells and Tissues.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Paul A Janmey,Dan Fletcher,Cynthia A Reinhart-King

    Physical stimuli are essential for the function of eukaryotic cells, and changes in physical signals are important elements in normal tissue development as well as in disease initiation and progression. The complexity of physical stimuli and the cellular signals they initiate are as complex as those triggered by chemical signals. One of the most important, and the focus of this review, is the effect of substrate mechanical properties on cell structure and function. The past decade has produced a nearly exponentially increasing number of mechanobiological studies to define how substrate stiffness alters cell biology using both purified systems and intact tissues. Here we attempt to identify common features of mechanosensing in different systems while also highlighting the numerous informative exceptions to what in early studies appeared to be simple rules by which cells respond to mechanical stresses.

  • mRNA Metabolism in Cardiac Development and Disease - Life After Transcription.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Chen Gao,Yibin Wang

    The central dogma of molecular biology illustrates the importance of messenger RNAs as critical mediators between genetic information encoded at the DNA level and proteomes/metabolomes at the cellular and organ levels. Although the total number of protein-producing (coding) genes in the mammalian genome is approximately 20,000, it is evident that the intricate processes of cardiac development and the highly regulated physiological regulation in the normal heart, as well as the complex manifestation of pathological remodeling in a diseased heart, would require a much higher degree of complexity at the transcriptome level and beyond. Indeed, in addition to an extensive regulatory scheme implemented at the level of transcription, the complexity of transcript processing following transcription is dramatically increased. RNA processing includes post-transcriptional modification, alternative splicing, editing and transportation, ribosomal loading, and degradation. While transcriptional control of cardiac genes has been a major focus of investigation in recent decades, a great deal of progress has recently been made in our understanding of how post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA contributes to transcriptome complexity. In this review, we highlight some of the key molecular processes and major players in RNA maturation and post-transcriptional regulation. In addition, we provide an update to the recent progress made in the discovery of RNA processing regulators implicated in cardiac development and disease. While post-transcriptional modulation is a complex and challenging problem to study, recent technological advancements are paving the way for a new era of exciting discoveries and potential clinical translation in the context of cardiac biology and diseases.

  • Muscle Toxicity of Drugs: When Medication Turns Physiology into Pathophysiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Lando Janssen,Neeltje Allard,Christiaan Saris,Jaap Keijer,Maria T E Hopman,Silvie Timmers

    Drugs are prescribed to manage or prevent symptoms and diseases, but may sometimes cause unexpected toxicity to muscles. The symptomatology and clinical manifestations of the myotoxic reaction can vary significantly between drugs and between patients on the same drug. This poses a challenge on how to recognize and prevent the occurrence of drug-induced muscle toxicity. The key to appropriate management of myotoxicity is prompt recognition that the symptoms of patients may be drug-related and to be aware that inter-individual differences in susceptibility to drug-induced toxicity exist. The most prevalent and well-documented drug class with unintended myotoxicity are the statins, but even today new classes of drugs with unintended myotoxicity are being discovered. This review will start off by explaining the principles of drug-induced myotoxicity and the different terminologies used to distinguish between grades of toxicity. The main part of the review will focus on the most important pathogenic mechanisms by which drugs can cause muscle toxicity, which will be exemplified by drugs with high-risk of muscle toxicity. This will be done by providing information on the clinical and laboratory features, muscle electromyography and biopsy findings, pathological mechanism and management for a specific drug from each pathogenic classification. In addition, rather new classes of drugs with unintended myotoxicity will be highlighted. Furthermore, we will explain why it is so difficult to diagnose a drug-induced muscle disease, and which tests can be used as a diagnostic aid. Lastly, a brief description will be given on how to manage and treat drug-induced myotoxicity.

  • Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Genetic Disease That Involves Mucociliary Dysfunction of the Peripheral Airways.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2016-09-16
    Christopher M Evans,Tasha E Fingerlin,Marvin I Schwarz,David Lynch,Jonathan Kurche,Laura Warg,Ivana V Yang,David A Schwartz

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable complex genetic disorder that is associated with sequence changes in 7 genes (MUC5B, TERT, TERC, RTEL1, PARN, SFTPC, and SFTPA2) and with variants in at least 11 novel loci. We have previously found that 1) a common gain-of-function promoter variant in MUC5B rs35705950 is the strongest risk factor (genetic and otherwise), accounting for 30-35% of the risk of developing IPF, a disease that was previously considered idiopathic; 2) the MUC5B promoter variant can potentially be used to identify individuals with preclinical pulmonary fibrosis and is predictive of radiologic progression of preclinical pulmonary fibrosis; and 3) MUC5B may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis with MUC5B message and protein expressed in bronchiolo-alveolar epithelia of IPF and the characteristic IPF honeycomb cysts. Based on these considerations, we hypothesize that excessive production of MUC5B either enhances injury due to reduced mucociliary clearance or impedes repair consequent to disruption of normal regenerative mechanisms in the distal lung. In aggregate, these novel considerations should have broad impact, resulting in specific etiologic targets, early detection of disease, and novel biologic pathways for use in the design of future intervention, prevention, and mechanistic studies of IPF.

  • Disordered lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2007-04-13
    David B Savage,Kitt Falk Petersen,Gerald I Shulman

    Although abnormal glucose metabolism defines type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and accounts for many of its symptoms and complications, efforts to understand the pathogenesis of T2DM are increasingly focused on disordered lipid metabolism. Here we review recent human studies exploring the mechanistic links between disorders of fatty acid/lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. As "mouse models of insulin resistance" were comprehensively reviewed in Physiological Reviews by Nandi et al. in 2004, we will concentrate on human studies involving the use of isotopes and/or magnetic resonance spectroscopy, occasionally drawing on mouse models which provide additional mechanistic insight.

  • Mammalian transient receptor potential TRPA1 channels: from structure to disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Karel Talavera,Justyna B Startek,Julio Alvarez-Collazo,Brett Boonen,Yeranddy A Alpizar,Alicia Sanchez,Robbe Naert,Bernd Nilius

    The Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin TRPA channels are Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channels remarkably conserved through the animal kingdom. Mammals have only one member, TRPA1, which is widely expressed in sensory neurons and in non-neuronal cells (such as epithelial cells and hair cells). TRPA1 owes its name to the presence of 14 ankyrin repeats located in the N-terminus of the channel, an unusual structural feature that may be relevant to its interactions with intracellular components. TRPA1 is primarily involved in the detection of an extremely wide variety of exogenous stimuli that may produce cellular damage. This include a plethora of electrophilic compounds that interact with nucleophilic amino acid residues in the channel, and many other chemically-unrelated compounds whose only common feature seems to be their ability to partition in the plasma membrane. TRPA1 has been reported to be activated by cold, heat and mechanical stimuli, and its function is modulated by multiple factors, including Ca2+, trace metals, pH, and reactive oxygen, nitrogen and carbonyl species. TRPA1 is involved in acute and chronic pain, inflammation, plays a role in the pathophysiology of nearly all organ systems and is an attractive target for the treatment of related diseases. Here we review the current knowledge about the mammalian TRPA1 channel, linking its unique structure, widely tuned sensory properties and complex regulation to its roles in multiple pathophysiological conditions.

  • The physiology of the gastric parietal cell.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : null
    Amy C Engevik,Izumi Kaji,James R Goldenring

    Parietal cells are responsible for gastric acid secretion, which aids in the digestion of food, absorption of minerals and control of harmful bacteria. However, a fine balance of activators and inhibitors of parietal cell mediated acid secretion is required to ensure proper digestion of food, while preventing damage to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. As a result, parietal cell secretion is highly regulated through numerous mechanisms including the vagus nerve, gastrin, histamine, ghrelin, somatostatin, GLP-1 and other agonists and antagonists. The tight regulation of parietal cells ensures the proper secretion of HCl. The H,K-ATPase enzyme expressed in parietal cells regulates the exchange of cytoplasmic H+ for extracellular K+. The H+ secreted into the gastric lumen by the H,K-ATPase combines with luminal Cl- to form gastric acid, HCl. Inhibition of the H,K-ATPase is the most efficacious method of preventing harmful gastric acid secretion. Proton pump inhibitors and potassium competitive acid blockers are widely used therapeutically to inhibit acid secretion. Stimulated delivery of the H,K-ATPase to the parietal cell apical surface requires the fusion of intracellular tubulovesicles with the overlying secretory canaliculus, a process that represents the most prominent example of apical membrane recycling. In addition to their unique ability to secrete gastric acid, parietal cells also play an important role in gastric mucosal homeostasis through the secretion of multiple growth factor molecules. The gastric parietal cell therefore plays multiple roles in gastric secretion and protection as well as coordination of physiological repair.

  • Origin and Evolution of the Neuroendocrine Control of Reproduction in Vertebrates, with Special Focus on Genome and Gene Duplications.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : null
    Sylvie Dufour,Bruno Quérat,Hervé Tostivint,Catherine Pasqualini,Hubert Vaudry,Karine Rousseau

    In human, as in the other mammals, the neuroendocrine control of reproduction is ensured by the brain-pituitary gonadotropic axis. Multiple internal and environmental cues are integrated via brain neuronal networks, ultimately leading to the modulation of the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The decapeptide GnRH is released into the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal blood system, and stimulates the production of pituitary glycoprotein hormones, the two gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A novel actor, the neuropeptide Kiss, acting upstream of GnRH, has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Other neuropeptides, such as gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH)/ RF-amide related peptide (RFRP), and other members of the RF-amide peptide superfamily, as well as various non-peptidic neuromediators such has dopamine, serotonin also provide a large panel of stimulatory or inhibitory regulators. This paper addresses the origin and evolution of the vertebrate gonadotropic axis. Brain-pituitary neuroendocrine axes are typical of vertebrates, the pituitary gland, mediator and amplifier of brain control on peripheral organs, being a vertebrate innovation. The paper reviews, from molecular and functional perspectives, the evolution across vertebrate radiation of some key-actors of the vertebrate neuroendocrine control of reproduction, and traces back their origin along the vertebrate lineage and in other metazoa before the emergence of vertebrates. A focus is given on how gene duplications, resulting from either local events or from whole genome duplication events (WGD), and followed by paralogous gene loss or conservation, might have shaped the evolutionary scenarios of current families of key-actors of the gonadotropic axis.

  • Pathogenesis of HIV-related lung disease: Immunity, infection, and inflammation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Sushma K Cribbs,Kristina Crothers,Alison Morris

    Despite anti-retroviral therapy (ART), HIV-related pulmonary disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality for people living with HIV (PLWH). The spectrum of lung diseases has changed from acute opportunistic infections resulting in death to chronic lung diseases for those with access to ART. Chronic immune activation and suppression can result in impairment of innate immunity and progressive loss of T cell and B cell functionality with aberrant cytokine and chemokine responses systemically as well as in the lung. HIV can be detected in the lungs of PLWH and has profound effects on cellular immune functions. In addition, HIV-related lung injury and disease can occur secondary to a number of mechanisms including altered pulmonary and systemic inflammatory pathways, viral persistence in the lung, oxidative stress with additive effects of smoke exposure, microbial translocation, and alterations in the lung and gut microbiome. Although ART has had profound effects on systemic viral suppression in HIV, the impact of ART on lung immunology still needs to be fully elucidated. Understanding of the mechanisms by which HIV-related lung diseases continue to occur is critical to the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies to improve lung health in PLWH.

  • Ammonia Transporters and Their Role in Acid-Base Balance.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-02-06
    I David Weiner,Jill W Verlander

    Acid-base homeostasis is critical to maintenance of normal health. Renal ammonia excretion is the quantitatively predominant component of renal net acid excretion, both under basal conditions and in response to acid-base disturbances. Although titratable acid excretion also contributes to renal net acid excretion, the quantitative contribution of titratable acid excretion is less than that of ammonia under basal conditions and is only a minor component of the adaptive response to acid-base disturbances. In contrast to other urinary solutes, ammonia is produced in the kidney and then is selectively transported either into the urine or the renal vein. The proportion of ammonia that the kidney produces that is excreted in the urine varies dramatically in response to physiological stimuli, and only urinary ammonia excretion contributes to acid-base homeostasis. As a result, selective and regulated renal ammonia transport by renal epithelial cells is central to acid-base homeostasis. Both molecular forms of ammonia, NH3 and NH4+, are transported by specific proteins, and regulation of these transport processes determines the eventual fate of the ammonia produced. In this review, we discuss these issues, and then discuss in detail the specific proteins involved in renal epithelial cell ammonia transport.

  • Murine Electrophysiological Models of Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2016-12-16
    Christopher L-H Huang

    Cardiac arrhythmias can follow disruption of the normal cellular electrophysiological processes underlying excitable activity and their tissue propagation as coherent wavefronts from the primary sinoatrial node pacemaker, through the atria, conducting structures and ventricular myocardium. These physiological events are driven by interacting, voltage-dependent, processes of activation, inactivation, and recovery in the ion channels present in cardiomyocyte membranes. Generation and conduction of these events are further modulated by intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and metabolic and structural change. This review describes experimental studies on murine models for known clinical arrhythmic conditions in which these mechanisms were modified by genetic, physiological, or pharmacological manipulation. These exemplars yielded molecular, physiological, and structural phenotypes often directly translatable to their corresponding clinical conditions, which could be investigated at the molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and whole animal levels. Arrhythmogenesis could be explored during normal pacing activity, regular stimulation, following imposed extra-stimuli, or during progressively incremented steady pacing frequencies. Arrhythmic substrate was identified with temporal and spatial functional heterogeneities predisposing to reentrant excitation phenomena. These could arise from abnormalities in cardiac pacing function, tissue electrical connectivity, and cellular excitation and recovery. Triggering events during or following recovery from action potential excitation could thereby lead to sustained arrhythmia. These surface membrane processes were modified by alterations in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis and energetics, as well as cellular and tissue structural change. Study of murine systems thus offers major insights into both our understanding of normal cardiac activity and its propagation, and their relationship to mechanisms generating clinical arrhythmias.

  • Absence of Dystrophin Disrupts Skeletal Muscle Signaling: Roles of Ca2+, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Nitric Oxide in the Development of Muscular Dystrophy.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2015-12-18
    David G Allen,Nicholas P Whitehead,Stanley C Froehner

    Dystrophin is a long rod-shaped protein that connects the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton to a complex of proteins in the surface membrane (dystrophin protein complex, DPC), with further connections via laminin to other extracellular matrix proteins. Initially considered a structural complex that protected the sarcolemma from mechanical damage, the DPC is now known to serve as a scaffold for numerous signaling proteins. Absence or reduced expression of dystrophin or many of the DPC components cause the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited diseases in which repeated bouts of muscle damage lead to atrophy and fibrosis, and eventually muscle degeneration. The normal function of dystrophin is poorly defined. In its absence a complex series of changes occur with multiple muscle proteins showing reduced or increased expression or being modified in various ways. In this review, we will consider the various proteins whose expression and function is changed in muscular dystrophies, focusing on Ca(2+)-permeable channels, nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, and caveolins. Excessive Ca(2+) entry, increased membrane permeability, disordered caveolar function, and increased levels of reactive oxygen species are early changes in the disease, and the hypotheses for these phenomena will be critically considered. The aim of the review is to define the early damage pathways in muscular dystrophy which might be appropriate targets for therapy designed to minimize the muscle degeneration and slow the progression of the disease.

  • Neuronal Reward and Decision Signals: From Theories to Data.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2015-06-26
    Wolfram Schultz

    Rewards are crucial objects that induce learning, approach behavior, choices, and emotions. Whereas emotions are difficult to investigate in animals, the learning function is mediated by neuronal reward prediction error signals which implement basic constructs of reinforcement learning theory. These signals are found in dopamine neurons, which emit a global reward signal to striatum and frontal cortex, and in specific neurons in striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex projecting to select neuronal populations. The approach and choice functions involve subjective value, which is objectively assessed by behavioral choices eliciting internal, subjective reward preferences. Utility is the formal mathematical characterization of subjective value and a prime decision variable in economic choice theory. It is coded as utility prediction error by phasic dopamine responses. Utility can incorporate various influences, including risk, delay, effort, and social interaction. Appropriate for formal decision mechanisms, rewards are coded as object value, action value, difference value, and chosen value by specific neurons. Although all reward, reinforcement, and decision variables are theoretical constructs, their neuronal signals constitute measurable physical implementations and as such confirm the validity of these concepts. The neuronal reward signals provide guidance for behavior while constraining the free will to act.

  • Estrogen Effects on Cognitive and Synaptic Health Over the Lifecourse.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2015-06-26
    Yuko Hara,Elizabeth M Waters,Bruce S McEwen,John H Morrison

    Estrogen facilitates higher cognitive functions by exerting effects on brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Estrogen induces spinogenesis and synaptogenesis in these two brain regions and also initiates a complex set of signal transduction pathways via estrogen receptors (ERs). Along with the classical genomic effects mediated by activation of ER α and ER β, there are membrane-bound ER α, ER β, and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) that can mediate rapid nongenomic effects. All key ERs present throughout the body are also present in synapses of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. This review summarizes estrogen actions in the brain from the standpoint of their effects on synapse structure and function, noting also the synergistic role of progesterone. We first begin with a review of ER subtypes in the brain and how their abundance and distributions are altered with aging and estrogen loss (e.g., ovariectomy or menopause) in the rodent, monkey, and human brain. As there is much evidence that estrogen loss induced by menopause can exacerbate the effects of aging on cognitive functions, we then review the clinical trials of hormone replacement therapies and their effectiveness on cognitive symptoms experienced by women. Finally, we summarize studies carried out in nonhuman primate models of age- and menopause-related cognitive decline that are highly relevant for developing effective interventions for menopausal women. Together, we highlight a new understanding of how estrogen affects higher cognitive functions and synaptic health that go well beyond its effects on reproduction.

  • The physiology of protein S-acylation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2015-04-03
    Luke H Chamberlain,Michael J Shipston

    Protein S-acylation, the only fully reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, is emerging as a ubiquitous mechanism to control the properties and function of a diverse array of proteins and consequently physiological processes. S-acylation results from the enzymatic addition of long-chain lipids, most typically palmitate, onto intracellular cysteine residues of soluble and transmembrane proteins via a labile thioester linkage. Addition of lipid results in increases in protein hydrophobicity that can impact on protein structure, assembly, maturation, trafficking, and function. The recent explosion in global S-acylation (palmitoyl) proteomic profiling as a result of improved biochemical tools to assay S-acylation, in conjunction with the recent identification of enzymes that control protein S-acylation and de-acylation, has opened a new vista into the physiological function of S-acylation. This review introduces key features of S-acylation and tools to interrogate this process, and highlights the eclectic array of proteins regulated including membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, enzymes and kinases, signaling adapters and chaperones, cell adhesion, and structural proteins. We highlight recent findings correlating disruption of S-acylation to pathophysiology and disease and discuss some of the major challenges and opportunities in this rapidly expanding field.

  • Neuronal SUMOylation: mechanisms, physiology, and roles in neuronal dysfunction.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2014-10-08
    Jeremy M Henley,Tim J Craig,Kevin A Wilkinson

    Protein SUMOylation is a critically important posttranslational protein modification that participates in nearly all aspects of cellular physiology. In the nearly 20 years since its discovery, SUMOylation has emerged as a major regulator of nuclear function, and more recently, it has become clear that SUMOylation has key roles in the regulation of protein trafficking and function outside of the nucleus. In neurons, SUMOylation participates in cellular processes ranging from neuronal differentiation and control of synapse formation to regulation of synaptic transmission and cell survival. It is a highly dynamic and usually transient modification that enhances or hinders interactions between proteins, and its consequences are extremely diverse. Hundreds of different proteins are SUMO substrates, and dysfunction of protein SUMOylation is implicated in a many different diseases. Here we briefly outline core aspects of the SUMO system and provide a detailed overview of the current understanding of the roles of SUMOylation in healthy and diseased neurons.

  • 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: intracellular gate-keepers of tissue glucocorticoid action.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2013-08-01
    Karen Chapman,Megan Holmes,Jonathan Seckl

    Glucocorticoid action on target tissues is determined by the density of "nuclear" receptors and intracellular metabolism by the two isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) which catalyze interconversion of active cortisol and corticosterone with inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone. 11β-HSD type 1, a predominant reductase in most intact cells, catalyzes the regeneration of active glucocorticoids, thus amplifying cellular action. 11β-HSD1 is widely expressed in liver, adipose tissue, muscle, pancreatic islets, adult brain, inflammatory cells, and gonads. 11β-HSD1 is selectively elevated in adipose tissue in obesity where it contributes to metabolic complications. Similarly, 11β-HSD1 is elevated in the ageing brain where it exacerbates glucocorticoid-associated cognitive decline. Deficiency or selective inhibition of 11β-HSD1 improves multiple metabolic syndrome parameters in rodent models and human clinical trials and similarly improves cognitive function with ageing. The efficacy of inhibitors in human therapy remains unclear. 11β-HSD2 is a high-affinity dehydrogenase that inactivates glucocorticoids. In the distal nephron, 11β-HSD2 ensures that only aldosterone is an agonist at mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). 11β-HSD2 inhibition or genetic deficiency causes apparent mineralocorticoid excess and hypertension due to inappropriate glucocorticoid activation of renal MR. The placenta and fetus also highly express 11β-HSD2 which, by inactivating glucocorticoids, prevents premature maturation of fetal tissues and consequent developmental "programming." The role of 11β-HSD2 as a marker of programming is being explored. The 11β-HSDs thus illuminate the emerging biology of intracrine control, afford important insights into human pathogenesis, and offer new tissue-restricted therapeutic avenues.

  • Molecular mechanism of pancreatic and salivary gland fluid and HCO3 secretion.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2012-02-03
    Min Goo Lee,Ehud Ohana,Hyun Woo Park,Dongki Yang,Shmuel Muallem

    Fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion is a vital function of all epithelia and is required for the survival of the tissue. Aberrant fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion is associated with many epithelial diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis, Sjögren's syndrome, and other epithelial inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Significant progress has been made over the last 20 years in our understanding of epithelial fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion, in particular by secretory glands. Fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion by secretory glands is a two-step process. Acinar cells secrete isotonic fluid in which the major salt is NaCl. Subsequently, the duct modifies the volume and electrolyte composition of the fluid to absorb the Cl(-) and secrete HCO(3)(-). The relative volume secreted by acinar and duct cells and modification of electrolyte composition of the secreted fluids varies among secretory glands to meet their physiological functions. In the pancreas, acinar cells secrete a small amount of NaCl-rich fluid, while the duct absorbs the Cl(-) and secretes HCO(3)(-) and the bulk of the fluid in the pancreatic juice. Fluid secretion appears to be driven by active HCO(3)(-) secretion. In the salivary glands, acinar cells secrete the bulk of the fluid in the saliva that is driven by active Cl(-) secretion and contains high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-). The salivary glands duct absorbs both the Na(+) and Cl(-) and secretes K(+) and HCO(3)(-). In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanism of fluid and HCO(3)(-) secretion by the pancreas and salivary glands, to highlight the similarities of the fundamental mechanisms of acinar and duct cell functions, and to point out the differences to meet gland-specific secretions.

  • Dendritic excitability and synaptic plasticity.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2008-04-09
    P Jesper Sjöström,Ede A Rancz,Arnd Roth,Michael Häusser

    Most synaptic inputs are made onto the dendritic tree. Recent work has shown that dendrites play an active role in transforming synaptic input into neuronal output and in defining the relationships between active synapses. In this review, we discuss how these dendritic properties influence the rules governing the induction of synaptic plasticity. We argue that the location of synapses in the dendritic tree, and the type of dendritic excitability associated with each synapse, play decisive roles in determining the plastic properties of that synapse. Furthermore, since the electrical properties of the dendritic tree are not static, but can be altered by neuromodulators and by synaptic activity itself, we discuss how learning rules may be dynamically shaped by tuning dendritic function. We conclude by describing how this reciprocal relationship between plasticity of dendritic excitability and synaptic plasticity has changed our view of information processing and memory storage in neuronal networks.

  • Mouse models and the urinary concentrating mechanism in the new millennium.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2007-10-12
    Robert A Fenton,Mark A Knepper

    Our understanding of urinary concentrating and diluting mechanisms at the end of the 20th century was based largely on data from renal micropuncture studies, isolated perfused tubule studies, tissue analysis studies and anatomical studies, combined with mathematical modeling. Despite extensive data, several key questions remained to be answered. With the advent of the 21st century, a new approach, transgenic and knockout mouse technology, is providing critical new information about urinary concentrating processes. The central goal of this review is to summarize findings in transgenic and knockout mice pertinent to our understanding of the urinary concentrating mechanism, focusing chiefly on mice in which expression of specific renal transporters or receptors has been deleted. These include the major renal water channels (aquaporins), urea transporters, ion transporters and channels (NHE3, NKCC2, NCC, ENaC, ROMK, ClC-K1), G protein-coupled receptors (type 2 vasopressin receptor, prostaglandin receptors, endothelin receptors, angiotensin II receptors), and signaling molecules. These studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the urinary concentrating mechanism including: 1) elucidation of the role of water absorption from the descending limb of Henle in countercurrent multiplication, 2) an evaluation of the feasibility of the passive model of Kokko-Rector and Stephenson, 3) explication of the role of inner medullary collecting duct urea transport in water conservation, 4) an evaluation of the role of tubuloglomerular feedback in maintenance of appropriate distal delivery rates for effective regulation of urinary water excretion, and 5) elucidation of the importance of water reabsorption in the connecting tubule versus the collecting duct for maintenance of water balance.

  • Nitric oxide and peroxynitrite in health and disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2007-01-24
    Pál Pacher,Joseph S Beckman,Lucas Liaudet

    The discovery that mammalian cells have the ability to synthesize the free radical nitric oxide (NO) has stimulated an extraordinary impetus for scientific research in all the fields of biology and medicine. Since its early description as an endothelial-derived relaxing factor, NO has emerged as a fundamental signaling device regulating virtually every critical cellular function, as well as a potent mediator of cellular damage in a wide range of conditions. Recent evidence indicates that most of the cytotoxicity attributed to NO is rather due to peroxynitrite, produced from the diffusion-controlled reaction between NO and another free radical, the superoxide anion. Peroxynitrite interacts with lipids, DNA, and proteins via direct oxidative reactions or via indirect, radical-mediated mechanisms. These reactions trigger cellular responses ranging from subtle modulations of cell signaling to overwhelming oxidative injury, committing cells to necrosis or apoptosis. In vivo, peroxynitrite generation represents a crucial pathogenic mechanism in conditions such as stroke, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, diabetes, circulatory shock, chronic inflammatory diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, novel pharmacological strategies aimed at removing peroxynitrite might represent powerful therapeutic tools in the future. Evidence supporting these novel roles of NO and peroxynitrite is presented in detail in this review.

  • Aquaporins in the kidney: from molecules to medicine.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2002-01-05
    Søren Nielsen,Jørgen Frøkiaer,David Marples,Tae-Hwan Kwon,Peter Agre,Mark A Knepper

    The discovery of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) answered the long-standing biophysical question of how water specifically crosses biological membranes. In the kidney, at least seven aquaporins are expressed at distinct sites. AQP1 is extremely abundant in the proximal tubule and descending thin limb and is essential for urinary concentration. AQP2 is exclusively expressed in the principal cells of the connecting tubule and collecting duct and is the predominant vasopressin-regulated water channel. AQP3 and AQP4 are both present in the basolateral plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells and represent exit pathways for water reabsorbed apically via AQP2. Studies in patients and transgenic mice have demonstrated that both AQP2 and AQP3 are essential for urinary concentration. Three additional aquaporins are present in the kidney. AQP6 is present in intracellular vesicles in collecting duct intercalated cells, and AQP8 is present intracellularly at low abundance in proximal tubules and collecting duct principal cells, but the physiological function of these two channels remains undefined. AQP7 is abundant in the brush border of proximal tubule cells and is likely to be involved in proximal tubule water reabsorption. Body water balance is tightly regulated by vasopressin, and multiple studies now have underscored the essential roles of AQP2 in this. Vasopressin regulates acutely the water permeability of the kidney collecting duct by trafficking of AQP2 from intracellular vesicles to the apical plasma membrane. The long-term adaptational changes in body water balance are controlled in part by regulated changes in AQP2 and AQP3 expression levels. Lack of functional AQP2 is seen in primary forms of diabetes insipidus, and reduced expression and targeting are seen in several diseases associated with urinary concentrating defects such as acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, postobstructive polyuria, as well as acute and chronic renal failure. In contrast, in conditions with water retention such as severe congestive heart failure, pregnancy, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, both AQP2 expression levels and apical plasma membrane targetting are increased, suggesting a role for AQP2 in the development of water retention. Continued analysis of the aquaporins is providing detailed molecular insight into the fundamental physiology and pathophysiology of water balance and water balance disorders.

  • From Molecules to Mechanisms: Functional Proteomics and Its Application to Renal Tubule Physiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Markus M Rinschen,Kavee Limbutara,Mark A Knepper,D Michael Payne,Trairak Pisitkun

    Classical physiological studies using electrophysiological, biophysical, biochemical, and molecular techniques have created a detailed picture of molecular transport, bioenergetics, contractility and movement, and growth, as well as the regulation of these processes by external stimuli in cells and organisms. Newer systems biology approaches are beginning to provide deeper and broader understanding of these complex biological processes and their dynamic responses to a variety of environmental cues. In the past decade, advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have provided invaluable tools to further elucidate these complex cellular processes, thereby confirming, complementing, and advancing common views of physiology. As one notable example, the application of proteomics to study the regulation of kidney function has yielded novel insights into the chemical and physical processes that tightly control body fluids, electrolytes, and metabolites to provide optimal microenvironments for various cellular and organ functions. Here, we systematically review, summarize, and discuss the most significant key findings from functional proteomic studies in renal epithelial physiology. We also identify further improvements in technological and bioinformatics methods that will be essential to advance precision medicine in nephrology.

  • Taste reception.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 1996-07-01
    B Lindemann

    Recent research on cellular mechanisms of peripheral taste has defined transduction pathways involving membrane receptors, G proteins, second messengers, and ion channels. Receptors for organic tastants received much attention, because they provide the specificity of a response. Their future cloning will constitute a major advance. Taste transduction typically utilizes two or more pathways in parallel. For instance, sweet-sensitive taste cells of the rat appear to respond to sucrose with activation of adenylyl cyclase, followed by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent membrane events and Ca2+ uptake. The same cells respond differently to some artificial sweeteners, i.e., with activation of phospholipase C (PLC) followed by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. Some bitter tastants block K+ channels or initiate the cascade receptor G1 protein, PLC, IP3, and Ca2+ release or the cascade receptor alpha-gustducin, phosphodiesterase (PDE), cAMP decrease, and opening of cAMP-blocked channels. Membrane-permeant bitter tastants may elicit a cellular response by interacting with G protein, PLC, or PDE of the above cascades. Salt taste is initiated by current flowing into the taste cell through cation channels located in the apical membrane, even though basolateral channels may also contribute (following salt diffusion through paracellular pathways). In rodents, the Na+-specific component of salt taste is typically mediated by apical amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels, but less specific and not amiloride-sensitive taste components exist in addition. Sour taste may in part be mediated by amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels conducting protons, but other mechanisms certainly contribute. Thus the transduction of taste cells generally comprises parallel pathways. Furthermore, the transduction pathways vary with the location of taste buds on the tongue and, of course, across species of animals. To identify these pathways, to understand how they are controlled and why they evolved to this complexity are major goals of present research.

  • Innate Immune Signaling Activated by MDR Bacteria in the Airway.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2015-11-20
    Dane Parker,Danielle Ahn,Taylor Cohen,Alice Prince

    Health care-associated bacterial pneumonias due to multiple-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are an important public health problem and are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to antimicrobial resistance, these organisms have adapted to the milieu of the human airway and have acquired resistance to the innate immune clearance mechanisms that normally prevent pneumonia. Given the limited efficacy of antibiotics, bacterial clearance from the airway requires an effective immune response. Understanding how specific airway pathogens initiate and regulate innate immune signaling, and whether this response is excessive, leading to host-induced pathology may guide future immunomodulatory therapy. We will focus on three of the most important causes of health care-associated pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and review the mechanisms through which an inappropriate or damaging innate immune response is stimulated, as well as describe how airway pathogens cause persistent infection by evading immune activation.

  • DEPTOR at the Nexus of Cancer, Metabolism, and Immunity.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-06-14
    Alexandre Caron,David M Briscoe,Denis Richard,Mathieu Laplante

    DEP domain-containing mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is an important modulator of mTOR, a kinase at the center of two important protein complexes named mTORC1 and mTORC2. These highly studied complexes play essential roles in regulating growth, metabolism, and immunity in response to mitogens, nutrients, and cytokines. Defects in mTOR signaling have been associated with the development of many diseases, including cancer and diabetes, and approaches aiming at modulating mTOR activity are envisioned as an attractive strategy to improve human health. DEPTOR interaction with mTOR represses its kinase activity and rewires the mTOR signaling pathway. Over the last years, several studies have revealed key roles for DEPTOR in numerous biological and pathological processes. Here, we provide the current state of the knowledge regarding the cellular and physiological functions of DEPTOR by focusing on its impact on the mTOR pathway and its role in promoting health and disease.

  • Corrigendum.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-11-18

  • Corrigendum.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-06-16

  • Corrigendum.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2016-09-16

  • Normalization of the vasculature for treatment of cancer and other diseases.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2011-07-12
    Shom Goel,Dan G Duda,Lei Xu,Lance L Munn,Yves Boucher,Dai Fukumura,Rakesh K Jain

    New vessel formation (angiogenesis) is an essential physiological process for embryologic development, normal growth, and tissue repair. Angiogenesis is tightly regulated at the molecular level. Dysregulation of angiogenesis occurs in various pathologies and is one of the hallmarks of cancer. The imbalance of pro- and anti-angiogenic signaling within tumors creates an abnormal vascular network that is characterized by dilated, tortuous, and hyperpermeable vessels. The physiological consequences of these vascular abnormalities include temporal and spatial heterogeneity in tumor blood flow and oxygenation and increased tumor interstitial fluid pressure. These abnormalities and the resultant microenvironment fuel tumor progression, and also lead to a reduction in the efficacy of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. With the discovery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a major driver of tumor angiogenesis, efforts have focused on novel therapeutics aimed at inhibiting VEGF activity, with the goal of regressing tumors by starvation. Unfortunately, clinical trials of anti-VEGF monotherapy in patients with solid tumors have been largely negative. Intriguingly, the combination of anti-VEGF therapy with conventional chemotherapy has improved survival in cancer patients compared with chemotherapy alone. These seemingly paradoxical results could be explained by a "normalization" of the tumor vasculature by anti-VEGF therapy. Preclinical studies have shown that anti-VEGF therapy changes tumor vasculature towards a more "mature" or "normal" phenotype. This "vascular normalization" is characterized by attenuation of hyperpermeability, increased vascular pericyte coverage, a more normal basement membrane, and a resultant reduction in tumor hypoxia and interstitial fluid pressure. These in turn can lead to an improvement in the metabolic profile of the tumor microenvironment, the delivery and efficacy of exogenously administered therapeutics, the efficacy of radiotherapy and of effector immune cells, and a reduction in number of metastatic cells shed by tumors into circulation in mice. These findings are consistent with data from clinical trials of anti-VEGF agents in patients with various solid tumors. More recently, genetic and pharmacological approaches have begun to unravel some other key regulators of vascular normalization such as proteins that regulate tissue oxygen sensing (PHD2) and vessel maturation (PDGFRβ, RGS5, Ang1/2, TGF-β). Here, we review the pathophysiology of tumor angiogenesis, the molecular underpinnings and functional consequences of vascular normalization, and the implications for treatment of cancer and nonmalignant diseases.

  • Synaptic control of motoneuronal excitability.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2000-04-04
    J C Rekling,G D Funk,D A Bayliss,X W Dong,J L Feldman

    Movement, the fundamental component of behavior and the principal extrinsic action of the brain, is produced when skeletal muscles contract and relax in response to patterns of action potentials generated by motoneurons. The processes that determine the firing behavior of motoneurons are therefore important in understanding the transformation of neural activity to motor behavior. Here, we review recent studies on the control of motoneuronal excitability, focusing on synaptic and cellular properties. We first present a background description of motoneurons: their development, anatomical organization, and membrane properties, both passive and active. We then describe the general anatomical organization of synaptic input to motoneurons, followed by a description of the major transmitter systems that affect motoneuronal excitability, including ligands, receptor distribution, pre- and postsynaptic actions, signal transduction, and functional role. Glutamate is the main excitatory, and GABA and glycine are the main inhibitory transmitters acting through ionotropic receptors. These amino acids signal the principal motor commands from peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal structures. Amines, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, and neuropeptides, as well as the glutamate and GABA acting at metabotropic receptors, modulate motoneuronal excitability through pre- and postsynaptic actions. Acting principally via second messenger systems, their actions converge on common effectors, e.g., leak K(+) current, cationic inward current, hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ca(2+) channels, or presynaptic release processes. Together, these numerous inputs mediate and modify incoming motor commands, ultimately generating the coordinated firing patterns that underlie muscle contractions during motor behavior.

  • Mechanism of signaling by growth hormone receptor.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 1996-10-01
    L S Argetsinger,C Carter-Su

    Growth hormone (GH) has long been known to stimulate linear growth and regulate metabolism. The cellular mechanism by which GH elicits these effects has only recently begun to be understood. This review provides an overview of a current model of GH signaling. Briefly, binding of GH to GH receptor induces receptor dimerization and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of GH receptor and JAK2 recruits and activates signaling molecules such as Stat transcription factors, SHC, and insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 that lead to the release of second messengers such as diacylglycerol, calcium, and nitric oxide and the activation of enzymes such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase C, phospholipase A2, and phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase. These pathways regulate cellular function including gene transcription, metabolite transport, and enzymatic activity that result in the ability of GH to control body growth and metabolism.

  • Growth, differentiation, and survival: multiple physiological functions for insulin-like growth factors.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 1996-10-01
    C E Stewart,P Rotwein

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF-I and IGF-II, comprise a conserved pair of secreted proteins with diverse effects on growth, development, and metabolism. Insulin-like growth factor action is initiated upon binding to cell-surface receptors and is modulated through interactions with secreted IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). The last decade has seen an explosion of new information about the physiological roles of the IGFs. In this review, we critically examine this information from biochemical, cell biological, and molecular genetic perspectives. We discuss the structures and functions of the two IGF receptors, outline the actions of the six IGFBPs, and summarize and interpret recent studies highlighting essential roles for components of the IGF system in the growth and development of the embryo and fetus, in tissue differentiation, in cell survival and proliferation, and in cancer. These results are discussed in the context of new opportunities for understanding the mechanisms of IGF action in multiple biological processes.

  • Calcium pumps in health and disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2009-10-01
    Marisa Brini,Ernesto Carafoli

    Ca2+-ATPases (pumps) are key actors in the regulation of Ca2+ in eukaryotic cells and are thus essential to the correct functioning of the cell machinery. They have high affinity for Ca2+ and can efficiently regulate it down to very low concentration levels. Two of the pumps have been known for decades (the SERCA and PMCA pumps); one (the SPCA pump) has only become known recently. Each pump is the product of a multigene family, the number of isoforms being further increased by alternative splicing of the primary transcripts. The three pumps share the basic features of the catalytic mechanism but differ in a number of properties related to tissue distribution, regulation, and role in the cellular homeostasis of Ca2+. The molecular understanding of the function of the pumps has received great impetus from the solution of the three-dimensional structure of one of them, the SERCA pump. These spectacular advances in the structure and molecular mechanism of the pumps have been accompanied by the emergence and rapid expansion of the topic of pump malfunction, which has paralleled the rapid expansion of knowledge in the topic of Ca2+-signaling dysfunction. Most of the pump defects described so far are genetic: when they are very severe, they produce gross and global disturbances of Ca2+ homeostasis that are incompatible with cell life. However, pump defects may also be of a type that produce subtler, often tissue-specific disturbances that affect individual components of the Ca2+-controlling and/or processing machinery. They do not bring cells to immediate death but seriously compromise their normal functioning.

  • Role of alternative splicing in generating isoform diversity among plasma membrane calcium pumps.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2001-01-12
    E E Strehler,D A Zacharias

    Calcium pumps of the plasma membrane (also known as plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases or PMCAs) are responsible for the expulsion of Ca(2+) from the cytosol of all eukaryotic cells. Together with Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers, they are the major plasma membrane transport system responsible for the long-term regulation of the resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Like the Ca(2+) pumps of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum (SERCAs), which pump Ca(2+) from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, the PMCAs belong to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. Mammalian PMCAs are encoded by four separate genes, and additional isoform variants are generated via alternative RNA splicing of the primary gene transcripts. The expression of different PMCA isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. PMCAs 1 and 4 are found in virtually all tissues in the adult, whereas PMCAs 2 and 3 are primarily expressed in excitable cells of the nervous system and muscles. During mouse embryonic development, PMCA1 is ubiquitously detected from the earliest time points, and all isoforms show spatially overlapping but distinct expression patterns with dynamic temporal changes occurring during late fetal development. Alternative splicing affects two major locations in the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump protein: the first intracellular loop and the COOH-terminal tail. These two regions correspond to major regulatory domains of the pumps. In the first cytosolic loop, the affected region is embedded between a putative G protein binding sequence and the site of phospholipid sensitivity, and in the COOH-terminal tail, splicing affects pump regulation by calmodulin, phosphorylation, and differential interaction with PDZ domain-containing anchoring and signaling proteins. Recent evidence demonstrating differential distribution, dynamic regulation of expression, and major functional differences between alternative splice variants suggests that these transporters play a more dynamic role than hitherto assumed in the spatial and temporal control of Ca(2+) signaling. The identification of mice carrying PMCA mutations that lead to diseases such as hearing loss and ataxia, as well as the corresponding phenotypes of genetically engineered PMCA "knockout" mice further support the concept of specific, nonredundant roles for each Ca(2+) pump isoform in cellular Ca(2+) regulation.

  • CLC-0 and CFTR: chloride channels evolved from transporters.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2008-04-09
    Tsung-Yu Chen,Tzyh-Chang Hwang

    CLC-0 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels play important roles in Cl(-) transport across cell membranes. These two proteins belong to, respectively, the CLC and ABC transport protein families whose members encompass both ion channels and transporters. Defective function of members in these two protein families causes various hereditary human diseases. Ion channels and transporters were traditionally viewed as distinct entities in membrane transport physiology, but recent discoveries have blurred the line between these two classes of membrane transport proteins. CLC-0 and CFTR can be considered operationally as ligand-gated channels, though binding of the activating ligands appears to be coupled to an irreversible gating cycle driven by an input of free energy. High-resolution crystallographic structures of bacterial CLC proteins and ABC transporters have led us to a better understanding of the gating properties for CLC and CFTR Cl(-) channels. Furthermore, the joined force between structural and functional studies of these two protein families has offered a unique opportunity to peek into the evolutionary link between ion channels and transporters. A promising byproduct of this exercise is a deeper mechanistic insight into how different transport proteins work at a fundamental level.

  • Function and regulation of human copper-transporting ATPases.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2007-07-07
    Svetlana Lutsenko,Natalie L Barnes,Mee Y Bartee,Oleg Y Dmitriev

    Copper-transporting ATPases (Cu-ATPases) ATP7A and ATP7B are evolutionarily conserved polytopic membrane proteins with essential roles in human physiology. The Cu-ATPases are expressed in most tissues, and their transport activity is crucial for central nervous system development, liver function, connective tissue formation, and many other physiological processes. The loss of ATP7A or ATP7B function is associated with severe metabolic disorders, Menkes disease, and Wilson disease. In cells, the Cu-ATPases maintain intracellular copper concentration by transporting copper from the cytosol across cellular membranes. They also contribute to protein biosynthesis by delivering copper into the lumen of the secretory pathway where metal ion is incorporated into copper-dependent enzymes. The biosynthetic and homeostatic functions of Cu-ATPases are performed in different cell compartments; targeting to these compartments and the functional activity of Cu-ATPase are both regulated by copper. In recent years, significant progress has been made in understanding the structure, function, and regulation of these essential transporters. These studies raised many new questions related to specific physiological roles of Cu-ATPases in various tissues and complex mechanisms that control the Cu-ATPase function. This review summarizes current data on the structural organization and functional properties of ATP7A and ATP7B as well as their localization and functions in various tissues, and discusses the current models of regulated trafficking of human Cu-ATPases.

    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-05-05
    Rodrigo S Lacruz,Stefan Habelitz,J Timothy Wright,Michael L Paine

    Dental enamel is the hardest and most mineralized tissue in extinct and extant vertebrate species and provides maximum durability that allows teeth to function as weapons and/or tools as well as for food processing. Enamel development and mineralization is an intricate process tightly regulated by cells of the enamel organ called ameloblasts. These heavily polarized cells form a monolayer around the developing enamel tissue and move as a single forming front in specified directions as they lay down a proteinaceous matrix that serves as a template for crystal growth. Ameloblasts maintain intercellular connections creating a semi-permeable barrier that at one end (basal/proximal) receives nutrients and ions from blood vessels, and at the opposite end (secretory/apical/distal) forms extracellular crystals within specified pH conditions. In this unique environment, ameloblasts orchestrate crystal growth via multiple cellular activities including modulating the transport of minerals and ions, pH regulation, proteolysis, and endocytosis. In many vertebrates, the bulk of the enamel tissue volume is first formed and subsequently mineralized by these same cells as they retransform their morphology and function. Cell death by apoptosis and regression are the fates of many ameloblasts following enamel maturation, and what cells remain of the enamel organ are shed during tooth eruption, or are incorporated into the tooth's epithelial attachment to the oral gingiva. In this review, we examine key aspects of dental enamel formation, from its developmental genesis to the ever-increasing wealth of data on the mechanisms mediating ionic transport, as well as the clinical outcomes resulting from abnormal ameloblast function.

  • Evolving and Expanding the Roles of Mitophagy as a Homeostatic and Pathogenic Process.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Åsa B Gustafsson,Gerald W Dorn

    The central functions fulfilled by mitochondria as both energy generators essential for tissue homeostasis and gateways to programmed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mandate tight control over the quality and quantity of these ubiquitous endosymbiotic organelles. Mitophagy, the targeted engulfment and destruction of mitochondria by the cellular autophagy apparatus, has conventionally been considered as the mechanism primarily responsible for mitochondrial quality control. However, our understanding of how, why, and under what specific conditions mitophagy is activated has grown tremendously over the past decade. Evidence is accumulating that nonmitophagic mitochondrial quality control mechanisms are more important to maintaining normal tissue homeostasis whereas mitophagy is an acute tissue stress response. Moreover, previously unrecognized mitophagic regulation of mitochondrial quantity control, metabolic reprogramming, and cell differentiation suggests that the mechanisms linking genetic or acquired defects in mitophagy to neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases or cancer are more complex than simple failure of normal mitochondrial quality control. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of mitophagy in cellular homeostasis and disease and examine the most revolutionary concepts in these areas. In this context, we discuss evidence that atypical mitophagy and nonmitophagic pathways play central roles in mitochondrial quality control, functioning that was previously considered to be the primary domain of mitophagy.

  • TRPV4: Molecular Conductor of a Diverse Orchestra.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2016-06-03
    John P M White,Mario Cibelli,Laszlo Urban,Bernd Nilius,J Graham McGeown,Istvan Nagy

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) is a calcium-permeable nonselective cation channel, originally described in 2000 by research teams led by Schultz (Nat Cell Biol 2: 695-702, 2000) and Liedtke (Cell 103: 525-535, 2000). TRPV4 is now recognized as being a polymodal ionotropic receptor that is activated by a disparate array of stimuli, ranging from hypotonicity to heat and acidic pH. Importantly, this ion channel is constitutively expressed and capable of spontaneous activity in the absence of agonist stimulation, which suggests that it serves important physiological functions, as does its widespread dissemination throughout the body and its capacity to interact with other proteins. Not surprisingly, therefore, it has emerged more recently that TRPV4 fulfills a great number of important physiological roles and that various disease states are attributable to the absence, or abnormal functioning, of this ion channel. Here, we review the known characteristics of this ion channel's structure, localization and function, including its activators, and examine its functional importance in health and disease.

  • Activin A in Mammalian Physiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Enrrico Bloise,Pasquapina Ciarmela,Cynthia Dela Cruz,Stefano Luisi,Felice Petraglia,Fernando M Reis

    Activins are dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and resulting from the assembly of two beta subunits, which may also be combined with alpha subunits to form inhibins. Activins were discovered in 1986 following the isolation of inhibins from porcine follicular fluid, and were characterized as ovarian hormones that stimulate follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) release by the pituitary gland. In particular, activin A was shown to be the isoform of greater physiological importance in humans. The current understanding of activin A surpasses the reproductive system and allows its classification as a hormone, a growth factor, and a cytokine. In more than 30 yr of intense research, activin A was localized in female and male reproductive organs but also in other organs and systems as diverse as the brain, liver, lung, bone, and gut. Moreover, its roles include embryonic differentiation, trophoblast invasion of the uterine wall in early pregnancy, and fetal/neonate brain protection in hypoxic conditions. It is now recognized that activin A overexpression may be either cytostatic or mitogenic, depending on the cell type, with important implications for tumor biology. Activin A also regulates bone formation and regeneration, enhances joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, and triggers pathogenic mechanisms in the respiratory system. In this 30-yr review, we analyze the evidence for physiological roles of activin A and the potential use of activin agonists and antagonists as therapeutic agents.

  • The Activity of Peptides of the Calcitonin Family in Bone.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Dorit Naot,David S Musson,Jillian Cornish

    Calcitonin was discovered over 50 yr ago as a new hormone that rapidly lowers circulating calcium levels. This effect is caused by the inhibition of calcium efflux from bone, as calcitonin is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption. Calcitonin has been in clinical use for conditions of accelerated bone turnover, including Paget's disease and osteoporosis; although in recent years, with the development of drugs that are more potent inhibitors of bone resorption, its use has declined. A number of peptides that are structurally similar to calcitonin form the calcitonin family, which currently includes calcitonin gene-related peptides (αCGRP and βCGRP), amylin, adrenomedullin, and intermedin. Apart from being structurally similar, the peptides signal through related receptors and have some overlapping biological activities, although other activities are peptide specific. In bone, in vitro studies and administration of the peptides to animals generally found inhibitory effects on osteoclasts and bone resorption and positive effects on osteoblasts and bone formation. Surprisingly, studies in genetically modified mice have demonstrated that the physiological role of calcitonin appears to be the inhibition of osteoblast activity and bone turnover, whereas amylin inhibits osteoclast activity. The review article focuses on the activities of peptides of the calcitonin family in bone and the challenges in understanding the relationship between the pharmacological effects and the physiological roles of these peptides.

  • Lower Body Negative Pressure: Physiological Effects, Applications, and Implementation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Nandu Goswami,Andrew Philip Blaber,Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay,Victor A Convertino

    This review presents lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a unique tool to investigate the physiology of integrated systemic compensatory responses to altered hemodynamic patterns during conditions of central hypovolemia in humans. An early review published in Physiological Reviews over 40 yr ago (Wolthuis et al. Physiol Rev 54: 566-595, 1974) focused on the use of LBNP as a tool to study effects of central hypovolemia, while more than a decade ago a review appeared that focused on LBNP as a model of hemorrhagic shock (Cooke et al. J Appl Physiol (1985) 96: 1249-1261, 2004). Since then there has been a great deal of new research that has applied LBNP to investigate complex physiological responses to a variety of challenges including orthostasis, hemorrhage, and other important stressors seen in humans such as microgravity encountered during spaceflight. The LBNP stimulus has provided novel insights into the physiology underlying areas such as intolerance to reduced central blood volume, sex differences concerning blood pressure regulation, autonomic dysfunctions, adaptations to exercise training, and effects of space flight. Furthermore, approaching cardiovascular assessment using prediction models for orthostatic capacity in healthy populations, derived from LBNP tolerance protocols, has provided important insights into the mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension and central hypovolemia, especially in some patient populations as well as in healthy subjects. This review also presents a concise discussion of mathematical modeling regarding compensatory responses induced by LBNP. Given the diverse applications of LBNP, it is to be expected that new and innovative applications of LBNP will be developed to explore the complex physiological mechanisms that underline health and disease.

  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Use in Human Models of Disease and Development.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Peter Karagiannis,Kazutoshi Takahashi,Megumu Saito,Yoshinori Yoshida,Keisuke Okita,Akira Watanabe,Haruhisa Inoue,Jun K Yamashita,Masaya Todani,Masato Nakagawa,Mitsujiro Osawa,Yoshimi Yashiro,Shinya Yamanaka,Kenji Osafune

    The discovery of somatic cell nuclear transfer proved that somatic cells can carry the same genetic code as the zygote, and that activating parts of this code are sufficient to reprogram the cell to an early developmental state. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) nearly half a century later provided a molecular mechanism for the reprogramming. The initial creation of iPSCs was accomplished by the ectopic expression of four specific genes (OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-Myc; OSKM). iPSCs have since been acquired from a wide range of cell types and a wide range of species, suggesting a universal molecular mechanism. Furthermore, cells have been reprogrammed to iPSCs using a myriad of methods, although OSKM remains the gold standard. The sources for iPSCs are abundant compared with those for other pluripotent stem cells; thus the use of iPSCs to model the development of tissues, organs, and other systems of the body is increasing. iPSCs also, through the reprogramming of patient samples, are being used to model diseases. Moreover, in the 10 years since the first report, human iPSCs are already the basis for new cell therapies and drug discovery that have reached clinical application. In this review, we examine the generation of iPSCs and their application to disease and development.

  • Hippocampal GABAergic Inhibitory Interneurons.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Kenneth A Pelkey,Ramesh Chittajallu,Michael T Craig,Ludovic Tricoire,Jason C Wester,Chris J McBain

    In the hippocampus GABAergic local circuit inhibitory interneurons represent only ~10-15% of the total neuronal population; however, their remarkable anatomical and physiological diversity allows them to regulate virtually all aspects of cellular and circuit function. Here we provide an overview of the current state of the field of interneuron research, focusing largely on the hippocampus. We discuss recent advances related to the various cell types, including their development and maturation, expression of subtype-specific voltage- and ligand-gated channels, and their roles in network oscillations. We also discuss recent technological advances and approaches that have permitted high-resolution, subtype-specific examination of their roles in numerous neural circuit disorders and the emerging therapeutic strategies to ameliorate such pathophysiological conditions. The ultimate goal of this review is not only to provide a touchstone for the current state of the field, but to help pave the way for future research by highlighting where gaps in our knowledge exist and how a complete appreciation of their roles will aid in future therapeutic strategies.

  • Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Proteins in Skeletal Development and Disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-06-16
    Tao Yang,Bart O Williams

    The identification of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) provided a foundation for subsequent studies in lipoprotein metabolism, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and many other fundamental biological functions. The importance of the LDLR led to numerous studies that identified homologous molecules and ultimately resulted in the description of the LDL-receptor superfamily, a group of proteins that contain domains also found in the LDLR. Subsequent studies have revealed that members of the LDLR-related protein family play roles in regulating many aspects of signal transduction. This review is focused on the roles of selected members of this protein family in skeletal development and disease. We present background on the identification of this subgroup of receptors, discuss the phenotypes associated with alterations in their function in human patients and mouse models, and describe the current efforts to therapeutically target these proteins to treat human skeletal disease.

  • Estrogens in Male Physiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-05-26
    Paul S Cooke,Manjunatha K Nanjappa,CheMyong Ko,Gail S Prins,Rex A Hess

    Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches concentrations normally found only in females and in some species nanomolar concentrations of estrone sulfate are found in semen. Aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, is expressed in Leydig cells, seminiferous epithelium, and other male organs. Early studies showed E2 binding in numerous male tissues, and ESR1 and ESR2 each show unique distributions and actions in males. Exogenous estrogen treatment produced male reproductive pathologies in laboratory animals and men, especially during development, and studies with transgenic mice with compromised estrogen signaling demonstrated an E2 role in normal male physiology. Efferent ductules and epididymal functions are dependent on estrogen signaling through ESR1, whose loss impaired ion transport and water reabsorption, resulting in abnormal sperm. Loss of ESR1 or aromatase also produces effects on nonreproductive targets such as brain, adipose, skeletal muscle, bone, cardiovascular, and immune tissues. Expression of GPER is extensive in male tracts, suggesting a possible role for E2 signaling through this receptor in male reproduction. Recent evidence also indicates that membrane ESR1 has critical roles in male reproduction. Thus estrogens are important physiological regulators in males, and future studies may reveal additional roles for estrogen signaling in various target tissues.

    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-05-05
    Philipp Gut,Sven Reischauer,Didier Y R Stainier,Rima Arnaout

    The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases worldwide is staggering. The emergence of systems approaches in biology promises new therapies, faster and cheaper diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, a profound understanding of pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels remains a fundamental requirement for discovery and therapeutics. Animal models of human disease are cornerstones of drug discovery as they allow identification of novel pharmacological targets by linking gene function with pathogenesis. The zebrafish model has been used for decades to study development and pathophysiology. More than ever, the specific strengths of the zebrafish model make it a prime partner in an age of discovery transformed by big-data approaches to genomics and disease. Zebrafish share a largely conserved physiology and anatomy with mammals. They allow a wide range of genetic manipulations, including the latest genome engineering approaches. They can be bred and studied with remarkable speed, enabling a range of large-scale phenotypic screens. Finally, zebrafish demonstrate an impressive regenerative capacity scientists hope to unlock in humans. Here, we provide a comprehensive guide on applications of zebrafish to investigate cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. We delineate advantages and limitations of zebrafish models of human disease and summarize their most significant contributions to understanding disease progression to date.

  • Platelets in Pulmonary Immune Responses and Inflammatory Lung Diseases.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2016-08-05
    Elizabeth A Middleton,Andrew S Weyrich,Guy A Zimmerman

    Platelets are essential for physiological hemostasis and are central in pathological thrombosis. These are their traditional and best known activities in health and disease. In addition, however, platelets have specializations that broaden their functional repertoire considerably. These functional capabilities, some of which are recently discovered, include the ability to sense and respond to infectious and immune signals and to act as inflammatory effector cells. Human platelets and platelets from mice and other experimental animals can link the innate and adaptive limbs of the immune system and act across the immune continuum, often also linking immune and hemostatic functions. Traditional and newly recognized facets of the biology of platelets are relevant to defensive, physiological immune responses of the lungs and to inflammatory lung diseases. The emerging view of platelets as blood cells that are much more diverse and versatile than previously thought further predicts that additional features of the biology of platelets and of megakaryocytes, the precursors of platelets, will be discovered and that some of these will also influence pulmonary immune defenses and inflammatory injury.

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
上海纽约大学William Glover