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  • Brain Lateralization: A Comparative Perspective
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Onur Güntürkün; Felix Ströckens; Sebastian Ocklenburg

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Physiology and Pathophysiology of Itch
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Ferda Cevikbas; Ethan A. Lerner

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Are We meeting the Promise of Endotypes and Precision Medicine in Asthma.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Anuradha Ray,Matthew Camiolo,Anne Fitzpatrick,Marc Gauthier,Sally E Wenzel

    While the term "asthma" has long been known to describe heterogeneous groupings of patients, only recently have data evolved which enable a molecular understanding of the clinical differences. The evolution of transcriptomics (and other 'omics platforms) and improved statistical analyses in combination with large clinical cohorts opened the door for molecular characterization of pathobiologic processes

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Mammalian Transient Receptor Potential TRPA1 Channels: From Structure to Disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Karel Talavera,Justyna B Startek,Julio Alvarez-Collazo,Brett Boonen,Yeranddy A Alpizar,Alicia Sanchez,Robbe Naert,Bernd Nilius

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin (TRPA) channels are Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels remarkably conserved through the animal kingdom. Mammals have only one member, TRPA1, which is widely expressed in sensory neurons and in non-neuronal cells (such as epithelial cells and hair cells). TRPA1 owes its name to the presence of 14 ankyrin repeats located in the NH2 terminus of the channel

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Origin and Evolution of the Neuroendocrine Control of Reproduction in Vertebrates, With Special Focus on Genome and Gene Duplications.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Sylvie Dufour,Bruno Quérat,Hervé Tostivint,Catherine Pasqualini,Hubert Vaudry,Karine Rousseau

    In humans, as in the other mammals, the neuroendocrine control of reproduction is ensured by the brain-pituitary gonadotropic axis. Multiple internal and environmental cues are integrated via brain neuronal networks, ultimately leading to the modulation of the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The decapeptide GnRH is released into the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal blood system

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • mRNA Metabolism in Cardiac Development and Disease: Life After Transcription.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Chen Gao,Yibin Wang

    The central dogma of molecular biology illustrates the importance of mRNAs as critical mediators between genetic information encoded at the DNA level and proteomes/metabolomes that determine the diverse functional outcome at the cellular and organ levels. Although the total number of protein-producing (coding) genes in the mammalian genome is ~20,000, it is evident that the intricate processes of cardiac

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Stiffness Sensing by Cells.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Paul A Janmey,Daniel A Fletcher,Cynthia A Reinhart-King

    Physical stimuli are essential for the function of eukaryotic cells, and changes in physical signals are important elements in normal tissue development as well as in disease initiation and progression. The complexity of physical stimuli and the cellular signals they initiate are as complex as those triggered by chemical signals. One of the most important, and the focus of this review, is the effect

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Revisiting the functional anatomy of the human brain: Toward a meta-networking theory of cerebral functions.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Guillaume Herbet,Hugues Duffau

    For more than one century, brain processing was mainly thought in a localisationist framework, in which one given function was underpinned by a discrete, isolated cortical area, and with a similar cerebral organization across individuals. However, advances in brain mapping techniques in humans have provided new insights into the organizational principles of anatomo-functional architecture. Here, we

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Physiology of the endometrium and regulation of menstruation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Hilary Od Critchley,Jacqueline A Maybin,Gregory M Armstrong,Alistair R W Williams

    The physiological functions of the uterine endometrium (uterine lining) are preparation for implantation, maintenance of pregnancy if implantation occurs, and menstruation in the absence of pregnancy. The endometrium thus plays a pivotal role in reproduction and continuation of our species. Menstruation is a steroid regulated event and there are alternatives for a progesterone-primed endometrium, i

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • From Ancient to Emerging Infections: The Odyssey of Viruses in the Male Genital Tract.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Anna Le Tortorec,Giulia Matusali,Dominique Mahé,Florence Aubry,Severine Mazaud-Guittot,Laurent Houzet,Nathalie Dejucq-Rainsford

    The male genital tract (MGT) is the target of a number of viral infections that can have deleterious consequences at the individual, offspring and population levels. These consequences include infertility, cancers of male organs, transmission to the embryo/fetal development abnormalities and sexual dissemination of major viral pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Muscle Toxicity of Drugs: When Drugs Turn Physiology into Pathophysiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
    Lando Janssen,Neeltje A E Allard,Christiaan G J Saris,Jaap Keijer,Maria T E Hopman,Silvie Timmers

    Drugs are prescribed to manage or prevent symptoms and diseases, but may sometimes cause unexpected toxicity to muscles. The symptomatology and clinical manifestations of the myotoxic reaction can vary significantly between drugs and between patients on the same drug. This poses a challenge on how to recognize and prevent the occurrence of drug-induced muscle toxicity. The key to appropriate management

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Renal autocrine and paracrine signaling -a story of self-protection.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Jens Leipziger,Helle A Praetorius

    Autocrine and paracrine signaling in the kidney adds an extra level of diversity and complexity to renal physiology. The extensive scientific production on the topic precludes easy understanding of the fundamental purpose of the vast number of molecules and systems that influence the renal function. This systematic review provides the broader pen strokes for a collected image of renal paracrine signaling

    更新日期:2020-01-30
  • Phylogenic determinants of cardiovascular frailty, focus on hemodynamics and arterial smooth muscle cells.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Jean-Baptiste Michel

    The evolution of the circulatory system from invertebrates to mammals has involved the passage from an open system to a closed in-parallel system via a closed in-series system, accompanying the increasing complexity and efficiency of life's biological functions. The archaic heart enables pulsatile motion waves of hemolymph in invertebrates, and the in-series circulation in fish occurs with only an

    更新日期:2020-01-30
  • The female response to seminal fluid.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    John Even Schjenken,Sarah Anne Robertson

    Seminal fluid is often assumed to have just one function in mammalian reproduction - delivering sperm to fertilize oocytes. But seminal fluid also transmits signaling agents that interact with female reproductive tissues to facilitate conception and pregnancy. Upon seminal fluid contact, female tissues initiate a controlled inflammatory response that affects several aspects of reproductive function

    更新日期:2020-01-30
  • Pathogenesis of HIV-Related Lung Disease: Immunity, Infection, and Inflammation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Sushma K Cribbs,Kristina Crothers,Alison Morris

    Despite anti-retroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV)-related pulmonary disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality for people living with HIV (PLWH). The spectrum of lung diseases has changed from acute opportunistic infections resulting in death to chronic lung diseases for those with access to ART. Chronic immune activation and suppression can result in

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Connexins: Key Players in the Control of Vascular Plasticity and Function.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Ulrich Pohl

    Of the 21 members of the connexin family, 4 (Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45) are expressed in the endothelium and/or smooth muscle of intact blood vessels to a variable and dynamically regulated degree. Full-length connexins oligomerize and form channel structures connecting the cytosol of adjacent cells (gap junctions) or the cytosol with the extracellular space (hemichannels). The different connexins

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The Physiology of the Gastric Parietal Cell.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Amy C Engevik,Izumi Kaji,James R Goldenring

    Parietal cells are responsible for gastric acid secretion, which aids in the digestion of food, absorption of minerals, and control of harmful bacteria. However, a fine balance of activators and inhibitors of parietal cell-mediated acid secretion is required to ensure proper digestion of food, while preventing damage to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. As a result, parietal cell secretion is highly

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Stem Cells and the Differentiation Hierarchy in Mammary Gland Development.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Nai Yang Fu,Emma Nolan,Geoffrey J Lindeman,Jane E Visvader

    The mammary gland is a highly dynamic organ that undergoes profound changes within its epithelium during puberty and the reproductive cycle. These changes are fueled by dedicated stem and progenitor cells. Both short- and long-lived lineage-restricted progenitors have been identified in adult tissue as well as a small pool of multipotent mammary stem cells (MaSCs), reflecting intrinsic complexity within

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Mechanisms and Consequences of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Sensing in Mammals.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Eoin P Cummins,Moritz J Strowitzki,Cormac T Taylor

    Molecular oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the primary gaseous substrate and product of oxidative phosphorylation in respiring organisms, respectively. Variance in the levels of either of these gasses outside of the physiological range presents a serious threat to cell, tissue, and organism survival. Therefore, it is essential that endogenous levels are monitored and kept at appropriate concentrations

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Pavlovian Conditioning of Immunological and Neuroendocrine Functions
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Martin Hadamitzky, Laura Lückemann, Gustavo Pacheco-López, Manfred Schedlowski

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • 更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Current Principles of Motor Control, with Special Reference to Vertebrate Locomotion
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Sten Grillner, Abdeljabbar El Manira

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Extracellular Nucleotides and P2 Receptors in Renal Function.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Volker Vallon,Robert Unwin,Edward W Inscho,Jens Leipziger,Bellamkonda K Kishore

    The understanding of the nucleotide/P2 receptor system in the regulation of renal hemodynamics and transport function has grown exponentially over the last 20 yr. This review attempts to integrate the available data while also identifying areas of missing information. First, the determinants of nucleotide concentrations in the interstitial and tubular fluids of the kidney are described, including mechanisms

    更新日期:2019-11-08
  • Sensory Processing at Ribbon Synapses in the Retina and the Cochlea
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Tobias Moser, Chad P. Grabner, Frank Schmitz

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • SIRT6, a Mammalian Deacylase with Multitasking Abilities.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Andrew R Chang,Christina M Ferrer,Raul Mostoslavsky

    Mammalian sirtuins have emerged in recent years as critical modulators of multiple biological processes, regulating cellular metabolism, DNA repair, gene expression, and mitochondrial biology. As such, they evolved to play key roles in organismal homeostasis, and defects in these proteins have been linked to a plethora of diseases, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging. In this review, we

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Free Fatty Acid Receptors in Health and Disease
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Ikuo Kimura, Atsuhiko Ichimura, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Miki Igarashi

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolving and Expanding the Roles of Mitophagy as a Homeostatic and Pathogenic Process.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Åsa B Gustafsson,Gerald W Dorn

    The central functions fulfilled by mitochondria as both energy generators essential for tissue homeostasis and gateways to programmed apoptotic and necrotic cell death mandate tight control over the quality and quantity of these ubiquitous endosymbiotic organelles. Mitophagy, the targeted engulfment and destruction of mitochondria by the cellular autophagy apparatus, has conventionally been considered

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Activin A in Mammalian Physiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Enrrico Bloise,Pasquapina Ciarmela,Cynthia Dela Cruz,Stefano Luisi,Felice Petraglia,Fernando M Reis

    Activins are dimeric glycoproteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and resulting from the assembly of two beta subunits, which may also be combined with alpha subunits to form inhibins. Activins were discovered in 1986 following the isolation of inhibins from porcine follicular fluid, and were characterized as ovarian hormones that stimulate follicle stimulating hormone

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Activity of Peptides of the Calcitonin Family in Bone.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Dorit Naot,David S Musson,Jillian Cornish

    Calcitonin was discovered over 50 yr ago as a new hormone that rapidly lowers circulating calcium levels. This effect is caused by the inhibition of calcium efflux from bone, as calcitonin is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption. Calcitonin has been in clinical use for conditions of accelerated bone turnover, including Paget's disease and osteoporosis; although in recent years, with the development

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lower Body Negative Pressure: Physiological Effects, Applications, and Implementation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Nandu Goswami,Andrew Philip Blaber,Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay,Victor A Convertino

    This review presents lower body negative pressure (LBNP) as a unique tool to investigate the physiology of integrated systemic compensatory responses to altered hemodynamic patterns during conditions of central hypovolemia in humans. An early review published in Physiological Reviews over 40 yr ago (Wolthuis et al. Physiol Rev 54: 566-595, 1974) focused on the use of LBNP as a tool to study effects

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Corrigendum.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-11-18

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Use in Human Models of Disease and Development.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    Peter Karagiannis,Kazutoshi Takahashi,Megumu Saito,Yoshinori Yoshida,Keisuke Okita,Akira Watanabe,Haruhisa Inoue,Jun K Yamashita,Masaya Todani,Masato Nakagawa,Mitsujiro Osawa,Yoshimi Yashiro,Shinya Yamanaka,Kenji Osafune

    The discovery of somatic cell nuclear transfer proved that somatic cells can carry the same genetic code as the zygote, and that activating parts of this code are sufficient to reprogram the cell to an early developmental state. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) nearly half a century later provided a molecular mechanism for the reprogramming. The initial creation of iPSCs was

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • From Molecules to Mechanisms: Functional Proteomics and Its Application to Renal Tubule Physiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Markus M Rinschen,Kavee Limbutara,Mark A Knepper,D Michael Payne,Trairak Pisitkun

    Classical physiological studies using electrophysiological, biophysical, biochemical, and molecular techniques have created a detailed picture of molecular transport, bioenergetics, contractility and movement, and growth, as well as the regulation of these processes by external stimuli in cells and organisms. Newer systems biology approaches are beginning to provide deeper and broader understanding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • DEPTOR at the Nexus of Cancer, Metabolism, and Immunity.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-06-14
    Alexandre Caron,David M Briscoe,Denis Richard,Mathieu Laplante

    DEP domain-containing mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-interacting protein (DEPTOR) is an important modulator of mTOR, a kinase at the center of two important protein complexes named mTORC1 and mTORC2. These highly studied complexes play essential roles in regulating growth, metabolism, and immunity in response to mitogens, nutrients, and cytokines. Defects in mTOR signaling have been associated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Oxytocin Receptor: From Intracellular Signaling to Behavior.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-06-14
    Benjamin Jurek,Inga D Neumann

    The many facets of the oxytocin (OXT) system of the brain and periphery elicited nearly 25,000 publications since 1930 (see FIGURE 1 , as listed in PubMed), which revealed central roles for OXT and its receptor (OXTR) in reproduction, and social and emotional behaviors in animal and human studies focusing on mental and physical health and disease. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of OXT expression

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pharmacology of Adenosine Receptors: The State of the Art.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    Pier Andrea Borea,Stefania Gessi,Stefania Merighi,Fabrizio Vincenzi,Katia Varani

    Adenosine is a ubiquitous endogenous autacoid whose effects are triggered through the enrollment of four G protein-coupled receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Due to the rapid generation of adenosine from cellular metabolism, and the widespread distribution of its receptor subtypes in almost all organs and tissues, this nucleoside induces a multitude of physiopathological effects, regulating central nervous

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • CLC Chloride Channels and Transporters: Structure, Function, Physiology, and Disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-05-31
    Thomas J Jentsch,Michael Pusch

    CLC anion transporters are found in all phyla and form a gene family of eight members in mammals. Two CLC proteins, each of which completely contains an ion translocation parthway, assemble to homo- or heteromeric dimers that sometimes require accessory β-subunits for function. CLC proteins come in two flavors: anion channels and anion/proton exchangers. Structures of these two CLC protein classes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endosomal and Phagosomal SNAREs.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-05-24
    Ilse Dingjan,Peter T A Linders,Danielle R J Verboogen,Natalia H Revelo,Martin Ter Beest,Geert van den Bogaart

    The soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein family is of vital importance for organelle communication. The complexing of cognate SNARE members present in both the donor and target organellar membranes drives the membrane fusion required for intracellular transport. In the endocytic route, SNARE proteins mediate trafficking between endosomes and phagosomes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physiology of Astroglia.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-01-20
    Alexei Verkhratsky,Maiken Nedergaard

    Astrocytes are neural cells of ectodermal, neuroepithelial origin that provide for homeostasis and defense of the central nervous system (CNS). Astrocytes are highly heterogeneous in morphological appearance; they express a multitude of receptors, channels, and membrane transporters. This complement underlies their remarkable adaptive plasticity that defines the functional maintenance of the CNS in

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuroimmune Interactions: From the Brain to the Immune System and Vice Versa.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-01-20
    Robert Dantzer

    Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chemogenetic Tools for Causal Cellular and Neuronal Biology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-01-20
    Deniz Atasoy,Scott M Sternson

    Chemogenetic technologies enable selective pharmacological control of specific cell populations. An increasing number of approaches have been developed that modulate different signaling pathways. Selective pharmacological control over G protein-coupled receptor signaling, ion channel conductances, protein association, protein stability, and small molecule targeting allows modulation of cellular processes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding Key Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Protection to Mitigate Disease: Current Knowledge and Emerging Concepts.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-01-20
    Bianca C Bernardo,Jenny Y Y Ooi,Kate L Weeks,Natalie L Patterson,Julie R McMullen

    The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The ACE2/Angiotensin-(1-7)/MAS Axis of the Renin-Angiotensin System: Focus on Angiotensin-(1-7).
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2018-01-20
    Robson Augusto Souza Santos,Walkyria Oliveira Sampaio,Andreia C Alzamora,Daisy Motta-Santos,Natalia Alenina,Michael Bader,Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key player in the control of the cardiovascular system and hydroelectrolyte balance, with an influence on organs and functions throughout the body. The classical view of this system saw it as a sequence of many enzymatic steps that culminate in the production of a single biologically active metabolite, the octapeptide angiotensin (ANG) II, by the angiotensin

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Arterial Stiffening: Relevance in Development, Aging, and Disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Patrick Lacolley,Véronique Regnault,Patrick Segers,Stéphane Laurent

    The cushioning function of large arteries encompasses distension during systole and recoil during diastole which transforms pulsatile flow into a steady flow in the microcirculation. Arterial stiffness, the inverse of distensibility, has been implicated in various etiologies of chronic common and monogenic cardiovascular diseases and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The first components

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hippocampal GABAergic Inhibitory Interneurons.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-09-29
    Kenneth A Pelkey,Ramesh Chittajallu,Michael T Craig,Ludovic Tricoire,Jason C Wester,Chris J McBain

    In the hippocampus GABAergic local circuit inhibitory interneurons represent only ~10-15% of the total neuronal population; however, their remarkable anatomical and physiological diversity allows them to regulate virtually all aspects of cellular and circuit function. Here we provide an overview of the current state of the field of interneuron research, focusing largely on the hippocampus. We discuss

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Posttranslational Modification as a Critical Determinant of Cytoplasmic Innate Immune Recognition.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-06-16
    Paul J Baker,Dominic De Nardo,Fiona Moghaddas,Le Son Tran,Annabell Bachem,Tan Nguyen,Thomas Hayman,Hazel Tye,James E Vince,Sammy Bedoui,Richard L Ferrero,Seth L Masters

    Cell surface innate immune receptors can directly detect a variety of extracellular pathogens to which cytoplasmic innate immune sensors are rarely exposed. Instead, within the cytoplasm, the environment is rife with cellular machinery and signaling pathways that are indirectly perturbed by pathogenic microbes to activate intracellular sensors, such as pyrin, NLRP1, NLRP3, or NLRC4. Therefore, subtle

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Corrigendum.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-06-16

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Proteins in Skeletal Development and Disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-06-16
    Tao Yang,Bart O Williams

    The identification of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) provided a foundation for subsequent studies in lipoprotein metabolism, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and many other fundamental biological functions. The importance of the LDLR led to numerous studies that identified homologous molecules and ultimately resulted in the description of the LDL-receptor superfamily, a group of proteins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of the Immune System in Hypertension.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe,Hector Pons,Richard J Johnson

    High blood pressure is present in more than one billion adults worldwide and is the most important modifiable risk factor of death resulting from cardiovascular disease. While many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, a role of the immune system has been firmly established by a large number of investigations from many laboratories around the world. Immunosuppressive drugs and inhibition

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPases and Their Role as Major New Players in Human Disease.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    Nicholas Stafford,Claire Wilson,Delvac Oceandy,Ludwig Neyses,Elizabeth J Cartwright

    The Ca2+ extrusion function of the four mammalian isoforms of the plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) is well established. There is also ever-increasing detail known of their roles in global and local Ca2+ homeostasis and intracellular Ca2+ signaling in a wide variety of cell types and tissues. It is becoming clear that the spatiotemporal patterns of expression of the PMCAs and the fact that their

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Membrane and Nuclear Estrogen Receptor Alpha Actions: From Tissue Specificity to Medical Implications.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-05-26
    Jean-Francois Arnal,Françoise Lenfant,Raphaël Metivier,Gilles Flouriot,Daniel Henrion,Marine Adlanmerini,Coralie Fontaine,Pierre Gourdy,Pierre Chambon,Benita Katzenellenbogen,John Katzenellenbogen

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been recognized now for several decades as playing a key role in reproduction and exerting functions in numerous nonreproductive tissues. In this review, we attempt to summarize the in vitro studies that are the basis of our current understanding of the mechanisms of action of ERα as a nuclear receptor and the key roles played by its two activation functions (AFs)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Estrogens in Male Physiology.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-05-26
    Paul S Cooke,Manjunatha K Nanjappa,CheMyong Ko,Gail S Prins,Rex A Hess

    Estrogens have historically been associated with female reproduction, but work over the last two decades established that estrogens and their main nuclear receptors (ESR1 and ESR2) and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) also regulate male reproductive and nonreproductive organs. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is measureable in blood of men and males of other species, but in rete testis fluids, E2 reaches

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • DENTAL ENAMEL FORMATION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ORAL HEALTH AND DISEASE.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-05-05
    Rodrigo S Lacruz,Stefan Habelitz,J Timothy Wright,Michael L Paine

    Dental enamel is the hardest and most mineralized tissue in extinct and extant vertebrate species and provides maximum durability that allows teeth to function as weapons and/or tools as well as for food processing. Enamel development and mineralization is an intricate process tightly regulated by cells of the enamel organ called ameloblasts. These heavily polarized cells form a monolayer around the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • LITTLE FISH, BIG DATA: ZEBRAFISH AS A MODEL FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND METABOLIC DISEASE.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-05-05
    Philipp Gut,Sven Reischauer,Didier Y R Stainier,Rima Arnaout

    The burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases worldwide is staggering. The emergence of systems approaches in biology promises new therapies, faster and cheaper diagnostics, and personalized medicine. However, a profound understanding of pathogenic mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels remains a fundamental requirement for discovery and therapeutics. Animal models of human disease are

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Autoantibodies to Synaptic Receptors and Neuronal Cell Surface Proteins in Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-03-17
    Josep Dalmau,Christian Geis,Francesc Graus

    Investigations in the last 10 years have revealed a new category of neurological diseases mediated by antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins. There are currently 16 such diseases all characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal proteins involved in synaptic signaling and plasticity. In clinical practice these findings have changed the diagnostic and treatment approach to potentially

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Brain-Machine Interfaces: From Basic Science to Neuroprostheses and Neurorehabilitation.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-03-10
    Mikhail A Lebedev,Miguel A L Nicolelis

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) combine methods, approaches, and concepts derived from neurophysiology, computer science, and engineering in an effort to establish real-time bidirectional links between living brains and artificial actuators. Although theoretical propositions and some proof of concept experiments on directly linking the brains with machines date back to the early 1960s, BMI research

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The New Biology and Pharmacology of Glucagon.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-03-10
    T D Müller,B Finan,C Clemmensen,R D DiMarchi,M H Tschöp

    In the last two decades we have witnessed sizable progress in defining the role of gastrointestinal signals in the control of glucose and energy homeostasis. Specifically, the molecular basis of the huge metabolic benefits in bariatric surgery is emerging while novel incretin-based medicines based on endogenous hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and pancreas-derived amylin are improving diabetes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bone Cell Bioenergetics and Skeletal Energy Homeostasis.
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-02-17
    Ryan C Riddle,Thomas L Clemens

    The rising incidence of metabolic diseases worldwide has prompted renewed interest in the study of intermediary metabolism and cellular bioenergetics. The application of modern biochemical methods for quantitating fuel substrate metabolism with advanced mouse genetic approaches has greatly increased understanding of the mechanisms that integrate energy metabolism in the whole organism. Examination

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neoteny, Prolongation of Youth: From Naked Mole Rats to "Naked Apes" (Humans).
    Physiol. Rev. (IF 24.250) Pub Date : 2017-02-17
    Vladimir P Skulachev,Susanne Holtze,Mikhail Y Vyssokikh,Lora E Bakeeva,Maxim V Skulachev,Alexander V Markov,Thomas B Hildebrandt,Viktor A Sadovnichii

    It has been suggested that highly social mammals, such as naked mole rats and humans, are long-lived due to neoteny (the prolongation of youth). In both species, aging cannot operate as a mechanism facilitating natural selection because the pressure of this selection is strongly reduced due to 1) a specific social structure where only the "queen" and her "husband(s)" are involved in reproduction (naked

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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