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  • A single-dose live-attenuated YF17D-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    Lorena Sanchez-Felipe; Thomas Vercruysse; Sapna Sharma; Ji Ma; Viktor Lemmens; Dominique Van Looveren; Mahadesh Prasad Arkalagud Javarappa; Robbert Boudewijns; Bert Malengier-Devlies; Laurens Liesenborghs; Suzanne J. F. Kaptein; Carolien De Keyzer; Lindsey Bervoets; Sarah Debaveye; Madina Rasulova; Laura Seldeslachts; Li-Hsin Li; Sander Jansen; Michael Bright Yakass; Babs E. Verstrepen; Kinga P. Böszörményi;

    The explosively expanding COVID-19 pandemic urges the development of safe, efficacious and fast-acting vaccines. Several vaccine platforms are leveraged for a rapid emergency response1. We describe the discovery of a live virus-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate using the yellow fever 17D (YF17D) vaccine as vector to express a non-cleavable prefusion form of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigen. We assess

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Metallaphotoredox aryl and alkyl radiomethylation for PET ligand discovery
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Robert W. Pipal; Kenneth T. Stout; Patricia Z. Musacchio; Sumei Ren; Thomas J. A. Graham; Stefan Verhoog; Liza Gantert; Talakad G. Lohith; Alexander Schmitz; Hsiaoju S. Lee; David Hesk; Eric D. Hostetler; Ian W. Davies; David W. C. MacMillan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands are highly enabling tracers which facilitate in vivo characterization of central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates, neurodegenerative diseases, and numerous oncology targets1. While both tritium and carbon-11 radioisotopologs are generally necessary for in vitro and in vivo characterization of radioligands2, there exist few radiolabeling protocols

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Progenitor identification and SARS-CoV-2 infection in human distal lung organoids
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Ameen A. Salahudeen; Shannon S. Choi; Arjun Rustagi; Junjie Zhu; Vincent van Unen; Sean M. de la O; Ryan A. Flynn; Mar Margalef-Català; António J. M. Santos; Jihang Ju; Arpit Batish; Tatsuya Usui; Grace X. Y. Zheng; Caitlin E. Edwards; Lisa E. Wagar; Vincent Luca; Benedict Anchang; Monica Nagendran; Khanh Nguyen; Daniel J. Hart; Jessica M. Terry; Phillip Belgrader; Solongo B. Ziraldo; Tarjei S. Mikkelsen;

    The distal lung contains terminal bronchioles and alveoli that facilitate gas exchange. Three-dimensional in vitro human distal lung culture systems would strongly facilitate investigation of pathologies including interstitial lung disease, cancer, and SARS-CoV-2-associated COVID-19 pneumonia. We generated long-term feeder-free, chemically defined culture of distal lung progenitors as organoids derived

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Experimental evidence of neutrinos produced in the CNO fusion cycle in the Sun
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25

    For most of their existence, stars are fuelled by the fusion of hydrogen into helium. Fusion proceeds via two processes that are well understood theoretically: the proton–proton (pp) chain and the carbon–nitrogen–oxygen (CNO) cycle1,2. Neutrinos that are emitted along such fusion processes in the solar core are the only direct probe of the deep interior of the Sun. A complete spectroscopic study of

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • TRF2-mediated telomere protection is dispensable in pluripotent stem cells
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Marta Markiewicz-Potoczny; Anastasia Lobanova; Anisha M. Loeb; Oktay Kirak; Teresa Olbrich; Sergio Ruiz; Eros Lazzerini Denchi

    In mammals, telomere protection is mediated by the essential protein TRF2, which binds chromosome ends and ensures genome integrity1,2. TRF2 depletion results in end-to-end chromosome fusions in all cell types that have been tested so far. Here we find that TRF2 is dispensable for the proliferation and survival of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Trf2−/− (also known as Terf2) ES cells do not exhibit

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The barley pan-genome reveals the hidden legacy of mutation breeding
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Murukarthick Jayakodi; Sudharsan Padmarasu; Georg Haberer; Venkata Suresh Bonthala; Heidrun Gundlach; Cécile Monat; Thomas Lux; Nadia Kamal; Daniel Lang; Axel Himmelbach; Jennifer Ens; Xiao-Qi Zhang; Tefera T. Angessa; Gaofeng Zhou; Cong Tan; Camilla Hill; Penghao Wang; Miriam Schreiber; Lori B. Boston; Christopher Plott; Jerry Jenkins; Yu Guo; Anne Fiebig; Hikmet Budak; Dongdong Xu; Jing Zhang; Chunchao

    Genetic diversity is key to crop improvement. Owing to pervasive genomic structural variation, a single reference genome assembly cannot capture the full complement of sequence diversity of a crop species (known as the ‘pan-genome’1). Multiple high-quality sequence assemblies are an indispensable component of a pan-genome infrastructure. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop with

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles turn molecular triplet excitons bright
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Sanyang Han; Renren Deng; Qifei Gu; Limeng Ni; Uyen Huynh; Jiangbin Zhang; Zhigao Yi; Baodan Zhao; Hiroyuki Tamura; Anton Pershin; Hui Xu; Zhiyuan Huang; Shahab Ahmad; Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi; Aditya Sadhanala; Ming Lee Tang; Artem Bakulin; David Beljonne; Xiaogang Liu; Akshay Rao

    The generation, control and transfer of triplet excitons in molecular and hybrid systems is of great interest owing to their long lifetime and diffusion length in both solid-state and solution phase systems, and to their applications in light emission1, optoelectronics2,3, photon frequency conversion4,5 and photocatalysis6,7. Molecular triplet excitons (bound electron–hole pairs) are ‘dark states’

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • TRF2-independent chromosome end protection during pluripotency
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Phil Ruis; David Van Ly; Valerie Borel; Georgia R. Kafer; Afshan McCarthy; Steven Howell; Robert Blassberg; Ambrosius P. Snijders; James Briscoe; Kathy K. Niakan; Paulina Marzec; Anthony J. Cesare; Simon J. Boulton

    Mammalian telomeres protect chromosome ends from aberrant DNA repair1. TRF2, a component of the telomere-specific shelterin protein complex, facilitates end protection through sequestration of the terminal telomere repeat sequence within a lariat T-loop structure2,3. Deleting TRF2 (also known as TERF2) in somatic cells abolishes T-loop formation, which coincides with telomere deprotection, chromosome

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Fibrosis: from mechanisms to medicines
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Neil C. Henderson; Florian Rieder; Thomas A. Wynn

    Fibrosis can affect any organ and is responsible for up to 45% of all deaths in the industrialized world. It has long been thought to be relentlessly progressive and irreversible, but both preclinical models and clinical trials in various organ systems have shown that fibrosis is a highly dynamic process. This has clear implications for therapeutic interventions that are designed to capitalize on this

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Antarctic ice dynamics amplified by Northern Hemisphere sea-level forcing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Natalya Gomez; Michael E. Weber; Peter U. Clark; Jerry X. Mitrovica; Holly K. Han

    Sea-level rise due to ice loss in the Northern Hemisphere in response to insolation and greenhouse gas forcing is thought to have caused grounding-line retreat of marine-based sectors of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS)1,2,3. Such interhemispheric sea-level forcing may explain the synchronous evolution of global ice sheets over ice-age cycles. Recent studies that indicate that the AIS experienced substantial

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A network of grassroots reserves protects tropical river fish diversity
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Aaron A. Koning; K. Martin Perales; Etienne Fluet-Chouinard; Peter B. McIntyre

    Intensive fisheries have reduced fish biodiversity and abundance in aquatic ecosystems worldwide1,2,3. ‘No-take’ marine reserves have become a cornerstone of marine ecosystem-based fisheries management4,5,6, and their benefits for adjacent fisheries are maximized when reserve design fosters synergies among nearby reserves7,8. The applicability of this marine reserve network paradigm to riverine biodiversity

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The gut microbiota is associated with immune cell dynamics in humans
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Jonas Schluter; Jonathan U. Peled; Bradford P. Taylor; Kate A. Markey; Melody Smith; Ying Taur; Rene Niehus; Anna Staffas; Anqi Dai; Emily Fontana; Luigi A. Amoretti; Roberta J. Wright; Sejal Morjaria; Maly Fenelus; Melissa S. Pessin; Nelson J. Chao; Meagan Lew; Lauren Bohannon; Amy Bush; Anthony D. Sung; Tobias M. Hohl; Miguel-Angel Perales; Marcel R. M. van den Brink; Joao B. Xavier

    The gut microbiota influences development1,2,3 and homeostasis4,5,6,7 of the mammalian immune system, and is associated with human inflammatory8 and immune diseases9,10 as well as responses to immunotherapy11,12,13,14. Nevertheless, our understanding of how gut bacteria modulate the immune system remains limited, particularly in humans, where the difficulty of direct experimentation makes inference

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Functional adaptive landscapes predict terrestrial capacity at the origin of limbs
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Blake V. Dickson; Jennifer A. Clack; Timothy R. Smithson; Stephanie E. Pierce

    The acquisition of terrestrial, limb-based locomotion during tetrapod evolution has remained a subject of debate for more than a century1,2. Our current understanding of the locomotor transition from water to land is largely based on a few exemplar fossils such as Tiktaalik3, Acanthostega4, Ichthyostega5 and Pederpes6. However, isolated bony elements may reveal hidden functional diversity, providing

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A map of cis -regulatory elements and 3D genome structures in zebrafish
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Hongbo Yang; Yu Luan; Tingting Liu; Hyung Joo Lee; Li Fang; Yanli Wang; Xiaotao Wang; Bo Zhang; Qiushi Jin; Khai Chung Ang; Xiaoyun Xing; Juan Wang; Jie Xu; Fan Song; Iyyanki Sriranga; Chachrit Khunsriraksakul; Tarik Salameh; Daofeng Li; Mayank N. K. Choudhary; Jacek Topczewski; Kai Wang; Glenn S. Gerhard; Ross C. Hardison; Ting Wang; Keith C. Cheng; Feng Yue

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been widely used in the study of human disease and development, and about 70% of the protein-coding genes are conserved between the two species1. However, studies in zebrafish remain constrained by the sparse annotation of functional control elements in the zebrafish genome. Here we performed RNA sequencing, assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Discoveries in structure and physiology of mechanically activated ion channels
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    J. M. Kefauver; A. B. Ward; A. Patapoutian

    The ability to sense physical forces is conserved across all organisms. Cells convert mechanical stimuli into electrical or chemical signals via mechanically activated ion channels. In recent years, the identification of new families of mechanosensitive ion channels—such as PIEZO and OSCA/TMEM63 channels—along with surprising insights into well-studied mechanosensitive channels have driven further

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Multiple wheat genomes reveal global variation in modern breeding
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Sean Walkowiak; Liangliang Gao; Cecile Monat; Georg Haberer; Mulualem T. Kassa; Jemima Brinton; Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez; Markus C. Kolodziej; Emily Delorean; Dinushika Thambugala; Valentyna Klymiuk; Brook Byrns; Heidrun Gundlach; Venkat Bandi; Jorge Nunez Siri; Kirby Nilsen; Catharine Aquino; Axel Himmelbach; Dario Copetti; Tomohiro Ban; Luca Venturini; Michael Bevan; Bernardo Clavijo; Dal-Hoe

    Advances in genomics have expedited the improvement of several agriculturally important crops but similar efforts in wheat (Triticum spp.) have been more challenging. This is largely owing to the size and complexity of the wheat genome1, and the lack of genome-assembly data for multiple wheat lines2,3. Here we generated ten chromosome pseudomolecule and five scaffold assemblies of hexaploid wheat to

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Commensal-driven immune zonation of the liver promotes host defence
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Anita Gola; Michael G. Dorrington; Emily Speranza; Claudia Sala; Rochelle M. Shih; Andrea J. Radtke; Harikesh S. Wong; Antonio P. Baptista; Jonathan M. Hernandez; Gastone Castellani; Iain D. C. Fraser; Ronald N. Germain

    The liver connects the intestinal portal vasculature with the general circulation, using a diverse array of immune cells to protect from pathogens that translocate from the gut1. In liver lobules, blood flows from portal triads that are situated in periportal lobular regions to the central vein via a polarized sinusoidal network. Despite this asymmetry, resident immune cells in the liver are considered

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Spin-enhanced nanodiamond biosensing for ultrasensitive diagnostics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Benjamin S. Miller; Léonard Bezinge; Harriet D. Gliddon; Da Huang; Gavin Dold; Eleanor R. Gray; Judith Heaney; Peter J. Dobson; Eleni Nastouli; John J. L. Morton; Rachel A. McKendry

    The quantum spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond enable diverse applications in quantum computing and communications1. However, fluorescent nanodiamonds also have attractive properties for in vitro biosensing, including brightness2, low cost3 and selective manipulation of their emission4. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are essential for the early detection of disease, but they often

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Late Cretaceous bird from Madagascar reveals unique development of beaks
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Patrick M. O’Connor; Alan H. Turner; Joseph R. Groenke; Ryan N. Felice; Raymond R. Rogers; David W. Krause; Lydia J. Rahantarisoa

    Mesozoic birds display considerable diversity in size, flight adaptations and feather organization1,2,3,4, but exhibit relatively conserved patterns of beak shape and development5,6,7. Although Neornithine (that is, crown group) birds also exhibit constraint on facial development8,9, they have comparatively diverse beak morphologies associated with a range of feeding and behavioural ecologies, in contrast

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Neural circuit mechanisms of sexual receptivity in Drosophila females
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Kaiyu Wang; Fei Wang; Nora Forknall; Tansy Yang; Christopher Patrick; Ruchi Parekh; Barry J. Dickson

    Choosing a mate is one of the most consequential decisions a female will make during her lifetime. A female fly signals her willingness to mate by opening her vaginal plates, allowing a courting male to copulate1,2. Vaginal plate opening (VPO) occurs in response to the male courtship song and is dependent on the mating status of the female. How these exteroceptive (song) and interoceptive (mating status)

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Splicing factor YBX1 mediates persistence of JAK2 -mutated neoplasms
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Ashok Kumar Jayavelu; Tina M. Schnöder; Florian Perner; Carolin Herzog; Arno Meiler; Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy; Nicolas Huber; Juliane Mohr; Bärbel Edelmann-Stephan; Rebecca Austin; Sabine Brandt; Francesca Palandri; Nicolas Schröder; Berend Isermann; Frank Edlich; Amit U. Sinha; Martin Ungelenk; Christian A. Hübner; Robert Zeiser; Susann Rahmig; Claudia Waskow; Iain Coldham; Thomas Ernst; Andreas

    Janus kinases (JAKs) mediate responses to cytokines, hormones and growth factors in haematopoietic cells1,2. The JAK gene JAK2 is frequently mutated in the ageing haematopoietic system3,4 and in haematopoietic cancers5. JAK2 mutations constitutively activate downstream signalling and are drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). In clinical use, JAK inhibitors have mixed effects on the overall

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Electrical switching of magnetic order in an orbital Chern insulator
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    H. Polshyn; J. Zhu; M. A. Kumar; Y. Zhang; F. Yang; C. L. Tschirhart; M. Serlin; K. Watanabe; T. Taniguchi; A. H. MacDonald; A. F. Young

    Magnetism typically arises from the joint effect of Fermi statistics and repulsive Coulomb interactions, which favours ground states with non-zero electron spin. As a result, controlling spin magnetism with electric fields—a longstanding technological goal in spintronics and multiferroics1,2—can be achieved only indirectly. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct electric-field control of magnetic

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Unconventional ferroelectricity in moiré heterostructures
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Zhiren Zheng; Qiong Ma; Zhen Bi; Sergio de la Barrera; Ming-Hao Liu; Nannan Mao; Yang Zhang; Natasha Kiper; Kenji Watanabe; Takashi Taniguchi; Jing Kong; William A. Tisdale; Ray Ashoori; Nuh Gedik; Liang Fu; Su-Yang Xu; Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    The constituent particles of matter can arrange themselves in various ways, giving rise to emergent phenomena that can be surprisingly rich and often cannot be understood by studying only the individual constituents. Discovering and understanding the emergence of such phenomena in quantum materials—especially those in which multiple degrees of freedom or energy scales are delicately balanced—is of

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Key role of chemistry versus bias in electrocatalytic oxygen evolution
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Hong Nhan Nong; Lorenz J. Falling; Arno Bergmann; Malte Klingenhof; Hoang Phi Tran; Camillo Spöri; Rik Mom; Janis Timoshenko; Guido Zichittella; Axel Knop-Gericke; Simone Piccinin; Javier Pérez-Ramírez; Beatriz Roldan Cuenya; Robert Schlögl; Peter Strasser; Detre Teschner; Travis E. Jones

    The oxygen evolution reaction has an important role in many alternative-energy schemes because it supplies the protons and electrons required for converting renewable electricity into chemical fuels1,2,3. Electrocatalysts accelerate the reaction by facilitating the required electron transfer4, as well as the formation and rupture of chemical bonds5. This involvement in fundamentally different processes

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • LDLRAD3 is a receptor for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Hongming Ma; Arthur S. Kim; Natasha M. Kafai; James T. Earnest; Aadit P. Shah; James Brett Case; Katherine Basore; Theron C. Gilliland; Chengqun Sun; Christopher A. Nelson; Larissa B. Thackray; William B. Klimstra; Daved H. Fremont; Michael S. Diamond

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a neurotropic alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes that causes encephalitis and death in humans1. VEEV is a biodefence concern because of its potential for aerosol spread and the current lack of sufficient countermeasures. The host factors that are required for VEEV entry and infection remain poorly characterized. Here, using a genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9-based

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • A molecular cell atlas of the human lung from single-cell RNA sequencing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kyle J. Travaglini; Ahmad N. Nabhan; Lolita Penland; Rahul Sinha; Astrid Gillich; Rene V. Sit; Stephen Chang; Stephanie D. Conley; Yasuo Mori; Jun Seita; Gerald J. Berry; Joseph B. Shrager; Ross J. Metzger; Christin S. Kuo; Norma Neff; Irving L. Weissman; Stephen R. Quake; Mark A. Krasnow

    Although single-cell RNA sequencing studies have begun to provide compendia of cell expression profiles1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, it has been difficult to systematically identify and localize all molecular cell types in individual organs to create a full molecular cell atlas. Here, using droplet- and plate-based single-cell RNA sequencing of approximately 75,000 human cells across all lung tissue compartments

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Host ANP32A mediates the assembly of the influenza virus replicase
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Loïc Carrique; Haitian Fan; Alexander P. Walker; Jeremy R. Keown; Jane Sharps; Ecco Staller; Wendy S. Barclay; Ervin Fodor; Jonathan M. Grimes

    Aquatic birds represent a vast reservoir from which new pandemic influenza A viruses can emerge1. Influenza viruses contain a negative-sense segmented RNA genome that is transcribed and replicated by the viral heterotrimeric RNA polymerase (FluPol) in the context of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes2,3. RNA polymerases of avian influenza A viruses (FluPolA) replicate viral RNA inefficiently in human

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Observation of gauge invariance in a 71-site Bose–Hubbard quantum simulator
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Bing Yang; Hui Sun; Robert Ott; Han-Yi Wang; Torsten V. Zache; Jad C. Halimeh; Zhen-Sheng Yuan; Philipp Hauke; Jian-Wei Pan

    The modern description of elementary particles, as formulated in the standard model of particle physics, is built on gauge theories1. Gauge theories implement fundamental laws of physics by local symmetry constraints. For example, in quantum electrodynamics Gauss’s law introduces an intrinsic local relation between charged matter and electromagnetic fields, which protects many salient physical properties

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Small-molecule-induced polymerization triggers degradation of BCL6
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Mikołaj Słabicki; Hojong Yoon; Jonas Koeppel; Lena Nitsch; Shourya S. Roy Burman; Cristina Di Genua; Katherine A. Donovan; Adam S. Sperling; Moritz Hunkeler; Jonathan M. Tsai; Rohan Sharma; Andrew Guirguis; Charles Zou; Priya Chudasama; Jessica A. Gasser; Peter G. Miller; Claudia Scholl; Stefan Fröhling; Radosław P. Nowak; Eric S. Fischer; Benjamin L. Ebert

    Effective and sustained inhibition of non-enzymatic oncogenic driver proteins is a major pharmacological challenge. The clinical success of thalidomide analogues demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of drug-induced degradation of transcription factors and other cancer targets1,2,3, but a substantial subset of proteins are resistant to targeted degradation using existing approaches4,5. Here we report

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • A blue ring nebula from a stellar merger several thousand years ago
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Keri Hoadley; D. Christopher Martin; Brian D. Metzger; Mark Seibert; Andrew McWilliam; Ken J. Shen; James D. Neill; Gudmundur Stefansson; Andrew Monson; Bradley E. Schaefer

    Stellar mergers are a brief but common phase in the evolution of binary star systems1,2. These events have many astrophysical implications; for example, they may lead to the creation of atypical stars (such as magnetic stars3, blue stragglers4 and rapid rotators5), they play an important part in our interpretation of stellar populations6 and they represent formation channels of compact-object mergers7

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • The scales of human mobility
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Laura Alessandretti; Ulf Aslak; Sune Lehmann

    There is a contradiction at the heart of our current understanding of individual and collective mobility patterns. On the one hand, a highly influential body of literature on human mobility driven by analyses of massive empirical datasets finds that human movements show no evidence of characteristic spatial scales. There, human mobility is described as scale free1,2,3. On the other hand, geographically

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • The growth equation of cities
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Vincent Verbavatz; Marc Barthelemy

    The science of cities seeks to understand and explain regularities observed in the world’s major urban systems. Modelling the population evolution of cities is at the core of this science and of all urban studies. Quantitatively, the most fundamental problem is to understand the hierarchical organization of city population and the statistical occurrence of megacities. This was first thought to be described

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • MFSD12 mediates the import of cysteine into melanosomes and lysosomes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Charles H. Adelmann; Anna K. Traunbauer; Brandon Chen; Kendall J. Condon; Sze Ham Chan; Tenzin Kunchok; Caroline A. Lewis; David M. Sabatini

    Dozens of genes contribute to the wide variation in human pigmentation. Many of these genes encode proteins that localize to the melanosome—the organelle, related to the lysosome, that synthesizes pigment—but have unclear functions1,2. Here we describe MelanoIP, a method for rapidly isolating melanosomes and profiling their labile metabolite contents. We use this method to study MFSD12, a transmembrane

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Clustered versus catastrophic global vertebrate declines
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Brian Leung; Anna L. Hargreaves; Dan A. Greenberg; Brian McGill; Maria Dornelas; Robin Freeman

    Recent analyses have reported catastrophic global declines in vertebrate populations1,2. However, the distillation of many trends into a global mean index obscures the variation that can inform conservation measures and can be sensitive to analytical decisions. For example, previous analyses have estimated a mean vertebrate decline of more than 50% since 1970 (Living Planet Index2). Here we show, however

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Assembly of synaptic active zones requires phase separation of scaffold molecules
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Nathan A. McDonald; Richard D. Fetter; Kang Shen

    The formation of synapses during neuronal development is essential for establishing neural circuits and a nervous system1. Every presynapse builds a core ‘active zone’ structure, where ion channels cluster and synaptic vesicles release their neurotransmitters2. Although the composition of active zones is well characterized2,3, it is unclear how active-zone proteins assemble together and recruit the

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Drivers and dynamics of a massive adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Fabrizia Ronco; Michael Matschiner; Astrid Böhne; Anna Boila; Heinz H. Büscher; Athimed El Taher; Adrian Indermaur; Milan Malinsky; Virginie Ricci; Ansgar Kahmen; Sissel Jentoft; Walter Salzburger

    Adaptive radiation is the likely source of much of the ecological and morphological diversity of life1,2,3,4. How adaptive radiations proceed and what determines their extent remains unclear in most cases1,4. Here we report the in-depth examination of the spectacular adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika. On the basis of whole-genome phylogenetic analyses, multivariate morphological

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • RNA nucleation by MSL2 induces selective X chromosome compartmentalization
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Claudia Isabelle Keller Valsecchi; M. Felicia Basilicata; Plamen Georgiev; Aline Gaub; Janine Seyfferth; Tanvi Kulkarni; Amol Panhale; Giuseppe Semplicio; Vinitha Manjunath; Herbert Holz; Pouria Dasmeh; Asifa Akhtar

    Confinement of the X chromosome to a territory for dosage compensation is a prime example of how subnuclear compartmentalization is used to regulate transcription at the megabase scale. In Drosophila melanogaster, two sex-specific non-coding RNAs (roX1 and roX2) are transcribed from the X chromosome. They associate with the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex1, which acetylates histone H4 lysine 16

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Coupling of hippocampal theta and ripples with pontogeniculooccipital waves
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Juan F. Ramirez-Villegas; Michel Besserve; Yusuke Murayama; Henry C. Evrard; Axel Oeltermann; Nikos K. Logothetis

    The hippocampus has a major role in encoding and consolidating long-term memories, and undergoes plastic changes during sleep1. These changes require precise homeostatic control by subcortical neuromodulatory structures2. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, however, remain unknown. Here, using multi-structure recordings in macaque monkeys, we show that the brainstem transiently modulates

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Sources of particulate-matter air pollution and its oxidative potential in Europe
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kaspar R. Daellenbach; Gaëlle Uzu; Jianhui Jiang; Laure-Estelle Cassagnes; Zaira Leni; Athanasia Vlachou; Giulia Stefenelli; Francesco Canonaco; Samuël Weber; Arjo Segers; Jeroen J. P. Kuenen; Martijn Schaap; Olivier Favez; Alexandre Albinet; Sebnem Aksoyoglu; Josef Dommen; Urs Baltensperger; Marianne Geiser; Imad El Haddad; Jean-Luc Jaffrezo; André S. H. Prévôt

    Particulate matter is a component of ambient air pollution that has been linked to millions of annual premature deaths globally1,2,3. Assessments of the chronic and acute effects of particulate matter on human health tend to be based on mass concentration, with particle size and composition also thought to play a part4. Oxidative potential has been suggested to be one of the many possible drivers of

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Structure and function of virion RNA polymerase of a crAss-like phage
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Arina V. Drobysheva; Sofia A. Panafidina; Matvei V. Kolesnik; Evgeny I. Klimuk; Leonid Minakhin; Maria V. Yakunina; Sergei Borukhov; Emelie Nilsson; Karin Holmfeldt; Natalya Yutin; Kira S. Makarova; Eugene V. Koonin; Konstantin V. Severinov; Petr G. Leiman; Maria L. Sokolova

    CrAss-like phages are a recently described expansive group of viruses that includes the most abundant virus in the human gut1,2,3. The genomes of all crAss-like phages encode a large virion-packaged protein2,4 that contains a DFDxD sequence motif, which forms the catalytic site in cellular multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs)5. Here, using Cellulophaga baltica crAss-like phage phi14:2 as a model system

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • A network of transcriptional repressors modulates auxin responses
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Jekaterina Truskina; Jingyi Han; Elina Chrysanthou; Carlos S. Galvan-Ampudia; Stéphanie Lainé; Géraldine Brunoud; Julien Macé; Simon Bellows; Jonathan Legrand; Anne-Maarit Bågman; Margot E. Smit; Ondřej Smetana; Arnaud Stigliani; Silvana Porco; Malcolm J. Bennett; Ari Pekka Mähönen; François Parcy; Etienne Farcot; Francois Roudier; Siobhan M. Brady; Anthony Bishopp; Teva Vernoux

    The regulation of signalling capacity, combined with the spatiotemporal distribution of developmental signals themselves, is pivotal in setting developmental responses in both plants and animals1. The hormone auxin is a key signal for plant growth and development that acts through the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors2,3,4. A subset of these, the conserved class A ARFs5, are transcriptional

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Tension heterogeneity directs form and fate to pattern the myocardial wall
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Rashmi Priya; Srinivas Allanki; Alessandra Gentile; Shivani Mansingh; Veronica Uribe; Hans-Martin Maischein; Didier Y. R. Stainier

    How diverse cell fates and complex forms emerge and feed back to each other to sculpt functional organs remains unclear. In the developing heart, the myocardium transitions from a simple epithelium to an intricate tissue that consists of distinct layers: the outer compact and inner trabecular layers. Defects in this process, which is known as cardiac trabeculation, cause cardiomyopathies and embryonic

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Widespread endogenization of giant viruses shapes genomes of green algae
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Mohammad Moniruzzaman; Alaina R. Weinheimer; Carolina A. Martinez-Gutierrez; Frank O. Aylward

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs)—viruses that have integrated their genomes into those of their hosts—are prevalent in eukaryotes and have an important role in genome evolution1,2. The vast majority of EVEs that have been identified to date are small genomic regions comprising a few genes2, but recent evidence suggests that some large double-stranded DNA viruses may also endogenize into the genome

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Structural basis for the final steps of human 40S ribosome maturation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Michael Ameismeier; Ivo Zemp; Jasmin van den Heuvel; Matthias Thoms; Otto Berninghausen; Ulrike Kutay; Roland Beckmann

    Eukaryotic ribosomes consist of a small 40S and a large 60S subunit that are assembled in a highly coordinated manner. More than 200 factors ensure correct modification, processing and folding of ribosomal RNA and the timely incorporation of ribosomal proteins1,2. Small subunit maturation ends in the cytosol, when the final rRNA precursor, 18S-E, is cleaved at site 3 by the endonuclease NOB13. Previous

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Defining HPV-specific B cell responses in patients with head and neck cancer
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Andreas Wieland; Mihir R. Patel; Maria A. Cardenas; Christiane S. Eberhardt; William H. Hudson; Rebecca C. Obeng; Christopher C. Griffith; Xu Wang; Zhuo G. Chen; Haydn T. Kissick; Nabil F. Saba; Rafi Ahmed

    Tumours often contain B cells and plasma cells but the antigen specificity of these intratumoral B cells is not well understood1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. Here we show that human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific B cell responses are detectable in samples from patients with HPV-positive head and neck cancers, with active production of HPV-specific IgG antibodies in situ. HPV-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs)

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Phenotypic variation of transcriptomic cell types in mouse motor cortex
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Federico Scala; Dmitry Kobak; Matteo Bernabucci; Yves Bernaerts; Cathryn René Cadwell; Jesus Ramon Castro; Leonard Hartmanis; Xiaolong Jiang; Sophie Laturnus; Elanine Miranda; Shalaka Mulherkar; Zheng Huan Tan; Zizhen Yao; Hongkui Zeng; Rickard Sandberg; Philipp Berens; Andreas S. Tolias

    Cortical neurons exhibit extreme diversity in gene expression as well as in morphological and electrophysiological properties1,2. Most existing neural taxonomies are based on either transcriptomic3,4 or morpho-electric5,6 criteria, as it has been technically challenging to study both aspects of neuronal diversity in the same set of cells7. Here we used Patch-seq8 to combine patch-clamp recording, biocytin

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Decoding myofibroblast origins in human kidney fibrosis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Christoph Kuppe; Mahmoud M. Ibrahim; Jennifer Kranz; Xiaoting Zhang; Susanne Ziegler; Javier Perales-Patón; Jitske Jansen; Katharina C. Reimer; James R. Smith; Ross Dobie; John R. Wilson-Kanamari; Maurice Halder; Yaoxian Xu; Nazanin Kabgani; Nadine Kaesler; Martin Klaus; Lukas Gernhold; Victor G. Puelles; Tobias B. Huber; Peter Boor; Sylvia Menzel; Remco M. Hoogenboezem; Eric M. J. Bindels; Joachim

    Kidney fibrosis is the hallmark of chronic kidney disease progression, however, currently no antifibrotic therapies exist.1–3 This is largely because the origin, functional heterogeneity and regulation of scar-forming cells during human kidney fibrosis remains poorly understood.1,2,4 Here, using single cell RNA-seq, we profiled the transcriptomes of proximal tubule and non-proximal tubule cells in

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Sensory pollutants alter bird phenology and fitness across a continent
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Masayuki Senzaki; Jesse R. Barber; Jennifer N. Phillips; Neil H. Carter; Caren B. Cooper; Mark A. Ditmer; Kurt M. Fristrup; Christopher J. W. McClure; Daniel J. Mennitt; Luke P. Tyrrell; Jelena Vukomanovic; Ashley A. Wilson; Clinton D. Francis

    Expansion of anthropogenic noise and night lighting across our planet1,2 is of increasing conservation concern3,4,5,6. Despite growing knowledge of physiological and behavioural responses to these stimuli from single-species and local-scale studies, whether these pollutants affect fitness is less clear, as is how and why species vary in their sensitivity to these anthropic stressors. Here we leverage

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Slower decay of landfalling hurricanes in a warming world
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Lin Li; Pinaki Chakraborty

    When a hurricane strikes land, the destruction of property and the environment and the loss of life are largely confined to a narrow coastal area. This is because hurricanes are fuelled by moisture from the ocean1,2,3, and so hurricane intensity decays rapidly after striking land4,5. In contrast to the effect of a warming climate on hurricane intensification, many aspects of which are fairly well understood6

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • HSP40 proteins use class-specific regulation to drive HSP70 functional diversity
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Ofrah Faust; Meital Abayev-Avraham; Anne S. Wentink; Michael Maurer; Nadinath B. Nillegoda; Nir London; Bernd Bukau; Rina Rosenzweig

    The ubiquitous heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family consists of ATP-dependent molecular chaperones, which perform numerous cellular functions that affect almost all aspects of the protein life cycle from synthesis to degradation1,2,3. Achieving this broad spectrum of functions requires precise regulation of HSP70 activity. Proteins of the HSP40 family, also known as J-domain proteins (JDPs), have a

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Organized crime in the fisheries sector threatens a sustainable ocean economy
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Emma Witbooi; Kamal-Deen Ali; Mas Achmad Santosa; Gail Hurley; Yunus Husein; Sarika Maharaj; Ifesinachi Okafor-Yarwood; Inés Arroyo Quiroz; Omar Salas

    The threat of criminal activity in the fisheries sector has concerned the international community for a number of years. In more recent times, the presence of organized crime in fisheries has come to the fore. In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly asked all states to contribute to increasing our understanding the connection between illegal fishing and transnational organized crime at sea. Policy-makers

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • A yeast living ancestor reveals the origin of genomic introgressions
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Melania D’Angiolo; Matteo De Chiara; Jia-Xing Yue; Agurtzane Irizar; Simon Stenberg; Karl Persson; Agnès Llored; Benjamin Barré; Joseph Schacherer; Roberto Marangoni; Eric Gilson; Jonas Warringer; Gianni Liti

    Genome introgressions drive evolution across the animal1, plant2 and fungal3 kingdoms. Introgressions initiate from archaic admixtures followed by repeated backcrossing to one parental species. However, how introgressions arise in reproductively isolated species, such as yeast4, has remained unclear. Here we identify a clonal descendant of the ancestral yeast hybrid that founded the extant Saccharomyces

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • A reference map of potential determinants for the human serum metabolome
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Noam Bar; Tal Korem; Omer Weissbrod; David Zeevi; Daphna Rothschild; Sigal Leviatan; Noa Kosower; Maya Lotan-Pompan; Adina Weinberger; Caroline I. Le Roy; Cristina Menni; Alessia Visconti; Mario Falchi; Tim D. Spector; Jerzy Adamski; Paul W. Franks; Oluf Pedersen; Eran Segal

    The serum metabolome contains a plethora of biomarkers and causative agents of various diseases, some of which are endogenously produced and some that have been taken up from the environment1. The origins of specific compounds are known, including metabolites that are highly heritable2,3, or those that are influenced by the gut microbiome4, by lifestyle choices such as smoking5, or by diet6. However

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Molecular dissection of amyloid disaggregation by human HSP70
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Anne S. Wentink; Nadinath B. Nillegoda; Jennifer Feufel; Gabrielė Ubartaitė; Carolyn P. Schneider; Paolo De Los Rios; Janosch Hennig; Alessandro Barducci; Bernd Bukau

    The deposition of highly ordered fibrillar-type aggregates into inclusion bodies is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. The high stability of such amyloid fibril aggregates makes them challenging substrates for the cellular protein quality-control machinery1,2. However, the human HSP70 chaperone and its co-chaperones DNAJB1 and HSP110 can dissolve preformed fibrils

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Progressive Cactus is a multiple-genome aligner for the thousand-genome era
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Joel Armstrong; Glenn Hickey; Mark Diekhans; Ian T. Fiddes; Adam M. Novak; Alden Deran; Qi Fang; Duo Xie; Shaohong Feng; Josefin Stiller; Diane Genereux; Jeremy Johnson; Voichita Dana Marinescu; Jessica Alföldi; Robert S. Harris; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; David Haussler; Elinor Karlsson; Erich D. Jarvis; Guojie Zhang; Benedict Paten

    New genome assemblies have been arriving at a rapidly increasing pace, thanks to decreases in sequencing costs and improvements in third-generation sequencing technologies1,2,3. For example, the number of vertebrate genome assemblies currently in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database4 increased by more than 50% to 1,485 assemblies in the year from July 2018 to July 2019

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • A measure of smell enables the creation of olfactory metamers
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Aharon Ravia; Kobi Snitz; Danielle Honigstein; Maya Finkel; Rotem Zirler; Ofer Perl; Lavi Secundo; Christophe Laudamiel; David Harel; Noam Sobel

    Wavelength is a physical measure of light, and the intricate understanding of its link to perceived colour enables the creation of perceptual entities such as metamers—non-overlapping spectral compositions that generate identical colour percepts1. By contrast, scientists have been unable to develop a physical measure linked to perceived smell, even one that merely reflects the extent of perceptual

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Feeding induces cholesterol biosynthesis via the mTORC1–USP20–HMGCR axis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Xiao-Yi Lu; Xiong-Jie Shi; Ao Hu; Ju-Qiong Wang; Yi Ding; Wei Jiang; Ming Sun; Xiaolu Zhao; Jie Luo; Wei Qi; Bao-Liang Song

    Cholesterol is an essential lipid and its synthesis is nutritionally and energetically costly1,2. In mammals, cholesterol biosynthesis increases after feeding and is inhibited under fasting conditions3. However, the regulatory mechanisms of cholesterol biosynthesis at the fasting–feeding transition remain poorly understood. Here we show that the deubiquitylase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 20 (USP20)

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Inhibition of PCSK9 potentiates immune checkpoint therapy for cancer
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Xinjian Liu; Xuhui Bao; Mengjie Hu; Hanman Chang; Meng Jiao; Jin Cheng; Liyi Xie; Qian Huang; Fang Li; Chuan-Yuan Li

    Despite its success in achieving the long-term survival of 10–30% of treated individuals, immune therapy is still ineffective for most patie