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  • Correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-04
    Katherine McMahan; Jingyou Yu; Noe B. Mercado; Carolin Loos; Lisa H. Tostanoski; Abishek Chandrashekar; Jinyan Liu; Lauren Peter; Caroline Atyeo; Alex Zhu; Esther A. Bondzie; Gabriel Dagotto; Makda S. Gebre; Catherine Jacob-Dolan; Zhenfeng Li; Felix Nampanya; Shivani Patel; Laurent Pessaint; Alex Van Ry; Kelvin Blade; Jake Yalley-Ogunro; Mehtap Cabus; Renita Brown; Anthony Cook; Elyse Teow; Hanne Andersen;

    Recent studies have reported protective efficacy of both natural immunity1 and vaccine-induced immunity2–7 against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) challenge in rhesus macaques. However, the importance of humoral and cellular immunity for protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection remains to be determined. Here we show that adoptive transfer of purified IgG from convalescent

    更新日期:2020-12-04
  • Enhanced triple-α reaction reduces proton-rich nucleosynthesis in supernovae
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Shilun Jin; Luke F. Roberts; Sam M. Austin; Hendrik Schatz

    The rate of the triple-α reaction that forms 12C affects1,2 the synthesis of heavy elements in the Ga–Cd range in proton-rich neutrino-driven outflows of core-collapse supernovae3,4,5. Initially, these outflows contain only protons and neutrons; these later combine to form α particles, then 12C nuclei via the triple-α reaction, and eventually heavier nuclei as the material expands and cools. Previous

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Inference in artificial intelligence with deep optics and photonics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Gordon Wetzstein; Aydogan Ozcan; Sylvain Gigan; Shanhui Fan; Dirk Englund; Marin Soljačić; Cornelia Denz; David A. B. Miller; Demetri Psaltis

    Artificial intelligence tasks across numerous applications require accelerators for fast and low-power execution. Optical computing systems may be able to meet these domain-specific needs but, despite half a century of research, general-purpose optical computing systems have yet to mature into a practical technology. Artificial intelligence inference, however, especially for visual computing applications

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Thermochemical lithosphere differentiation and the origin of cratonic mantle
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Fabio A. Capitanio; Oliver Nebel; Peter A. Cawood

    Cratons record the early history of continental lithosphere formation, yet how they became the most enduring part of the lithosphere on Earth remains unknown1. Here we propose a mechanism for the formation of large volumes of melt-depleted cratonic lithospheric mantle (CLM) and its evolution to stable cratons. Numerical models show large decompression melting of a hot, early Earth mantle beneath a

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Determination of the fine-structure constant with an accuracy of 81 parts per trillion
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Léo Morel; Zhibin Yao; Pierre Cladé; Saïda Guellati-Khélifa

    The standard model of particle physics is remarkably successful because it is consistent with (almost) all experimental results. However, it fails to explain dark matter, dark energy and the imbalance between matter and antimatter in the Universe. Because discrepancies between standard-model predictions and experimental observations may provide evidence of new physics, an accurate evaluation of these

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Autonomous navigation of stratospheric balloons using reinforcement learning
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Marc G. Bellemare; Salvatore Candido; Pablo Samuel Castro; Jun Gong; Marlos C. Machado; Subhodeep Moitra; Sameera S. Ponda; Ziyu Wang

    Efficiently navigating a superpressure balloon in the stratosphere1 requires the integration of a multitude of cues, such as wind speed and solar elevation, and the process is complicated by forecast errors and sparse wind measurements. Coupled with the need to make decisions in real time, these factors rule out the use of conventional control techniques2,3. Here we describe the use of reinforcement

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Reprogramming to recover youthful epigenetic information and restore vision
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Yuancheng Lu; Benedikt Brommer; Xiao Tian; Anitha Krishnan; Margarita Meer; Chen Wang; Daniel L. Vera; Qiurui Zeng; Doudou Yu; Michael S. Bonkowski; Jae-Hyun Yang; Songlin Zhou; Emma M. Hoffmann; Margarete M. Karg; Michael B. Schultz; Alice E. Kane; Noah Davidsohn; Ekaterina Korobkina; Karolina Chwalek; Luis A. Rajman; George M. Church; Konrad Hochedlinger; Vadim N. Gladyshev; Steve Horvath; Morgan

    Ageing is a degenerative process that leads to tissue dysfunction and death. A proposed cause of ageing is the accumulation of epigenetic noise that disrupts gene expression patterns, leading to decreases in tissue function and regenerative capacity1,2,3. Changes to DNA methylation patterns over time form the basis of ageing clocks4, but whether older individuals retain the information needed to restore

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Structure of the class D GPCR Ste2 dimer coupled to two G proteins
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Vaithish Velazhahan; Ning Ma; Gáspár Pándy-Szekeres; Albert J. Kooistra; Yang Lee; David E. Gloriam; Nagarajan Vaidehi; Christopher G. Tate

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are divided phylogenetically into six classes1,2, denoted A to F. More than 370 structures of vertebrate GPCRs (belonging to classes A, B, C and F) have been determined, leading to a substantial understanding of their function3. By contrast, there are no structures of class D GPCRs, which are found exclusively in fungi where they regulate survival and reproduction

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Ultrafast structural changes within a photosynthetic reaction centre
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Robert Dods; Petra Båth; Dmitry Morozov; Viktor Ahlberg Gagnér; David Arnlund; Hoi Ling Luk; Joachim Kübel; Michał Maj; Adams Vallejos; Cecilia Wickstrand; Robert Bosman; Kenneth R. Beyerlein; Garrett Nelson; Mengning Liang; Despina Milathianaki; Joseph Robinson; Rajiv Harimoorthy; Peter Berntsen; Erik Malmerberg; Linda Johansson; Rebecka Andersson; Sergio Carbajo; Elin Claesson; Chelsie E. Conrad;

    Photosynthetic reaction centres harvest the energy content of sunlight by transporting electrons across an energy-transducing biological membrane. Here we use time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography1 using an X-ray free-electron laser2 to observe light-induced structural changes in the photosynthetic reaction centre of Blastochloris viridis on a timescale of picoseconds. Structural perturbations

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Availability of food determines the need for sleep in memory consolidation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Nitin S. Chouhan; Leslie C. Griffith; Paula Haynes; Amita Sehgal

    Sleep remains a major mystery of biology, with little understood about its basic function. One of the most commonly proposed functions of sleep is the consolidation of memory1,2,3. However, as conditions such as starvation require the organism to be awake and active4, the ability to switch to a memory consolidation mechanism that is not contingent on sleep may confer an evolutionary advantage. Here

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Distinct hypothalamic control of same- and opposite-sex mounting behaviour in mice
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Tomomi Karigo; Ann Kennedy; Bin Yang; Mengyu Liu; Derek Tai; Iman A. Wahle; David J. Anderson

    Animal behaviours that are superficially similar can express different intents in different contexts, but how this flexibility is achieved at the level of neural circuits is not understood. For example, males of many species can exhibit mounting behaviour towards same- or opposite-sex conspecifics1, but it is unclear whether the intent and neural encoding of these behaviours are similar or different

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Highly multiplexed spatial mapping of microbial communities
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Hao Shi; Qiaojuan Shi; Benjamin Grodner; Joan Sesing Lenz; Warren R. Zipfel; Ilana Lauren Brito; Iwijn De Vlaminck

    Mapping the complex biogeography of microbial communities in situ with high taxonomic and spatial resolution poses a major challenge because of the high density1 and rich diversity2 of species in environmental microbiomes and the limitations of optical imaging technology3,4,5,6. Here we introduce high-phylogenetic-resolution microbiome mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization (HiPR-FISH), a versatile

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • The neuropeptide Pth2 dynamically senses others via mechanosensation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Lukas Anneser; Ivan C. Alcantara; Anja Gemmer; Kristina Mirkes; Soojin Ryu; Erin M. Schuman

    Species that depend on membership in social groups for survival exhibit changes in neuronal gene expression and behaviour when they face restricted social interactions or isolation1,2,3. Here we show that, across the lifespan of zebrafish (Danio rerio), social isolation specifically decreased the level of transcription of pth2, the gene that encodes the vertebrate-specific neuropeptide Pth2. However

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Structure of the shutdown state of myosin-2
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Charlotte A. Scarff; Glenn Carrington; David Casas-Mao; Joseph M. Chalovich; Peter J. Knight; Neil A. Ranson; Michelle Peckham

    Myosin-2 is essential for processes as diverse as cell division and muscle contraction. Dephosphorylation of its regulatory light chain promotes an inactive, ‘shutdown’ state with the filament-forming tail folded onto the two heads1, which prevents filament formation and inactivates the motors2. The mechanism by which this happens is unclear. Here we report a cryo-electron microscopy structure of shutdown

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • ALDH4A1 is an atherosclerosis auto-antigen targeted by protective antibodies
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Cristina Lorenzo; Pilar Delgado; Christian E. Busse; Alejandro Sanz-Bravo; Inmaculada Martos-Folgado; Elena Bonzon-Kulichenko; Alessia Ferrarini; Ileana B. Gonzalez-Valdes; Sonia M. Mur; Raquel Roldán-Montero; Diego Martinez-Lopez; Jose L. Martin-Ventura; Jesús Vázquez; Hedda Wardemann; Almudena R. Ramiro

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the world, with most CVD-related deaths resulting from myocardial infarction or stroke. The main underlying cause of thrombosis and cardiovascular events is atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease that can remain asymptomatic for long periods. There is an urgent need for therapeutic and diagnostic options in this area. Atherosclerotic

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Cryo-EM structure of the inhibited (10S) form of myosin II
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Shixin Yang; Prince Tiwari; Kyoung Hwan Lee; Osamu Sato; Mitsuo Ikebe; Raúl Padrón; Roger Craig

    Myosin II is the motor protein that enables muscle cells to contract and nonmuscle cells to move and change shape1. The molecule has two identical heads attached to an elongated tail, and can exist in two conformations: 10S and 6S, named for their sedimentation coefficients2,3. The 6S conformation has an extended tail and assembles into polymeric filaments, which pull on actin filaments to generate

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • A brainstem peptide system activated at birth protects postnatal breathing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Yingtang Shi; Daniel S. Stornetta; Robert J. Reklow; Alisha Sahu; Yvonne Wabara; Ashley Nguyen; Keyong Li; Yong Zhang; Edward Perez-Reyes; Rachel A. Ross; Bradford B. Lowell; Ruth L. Stornetta; Gregory D. Funk; Patrice G. Guyenet; Douglas A. Bayliss

    Among numerous challenges encountered at the beginning of extrauterine life, the most celebrated is the first breath that initiates a life-sustaining motor activity1. The neural systems that regulate breathing are fragile early in development, and it is not clear how they adjust to support breathing at birth. Here we identify a neuropeptide system that becomes activated immediately after birth and

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Galactosaminogalactan activates the inflammasome to provide host protection
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Benoit Briard; Thierry Fontaine; Parimal Samir; David E. Place; Laetitia Muszkieta; R. K. Subbarao Malireddi; Rajendra Karki; Shelbi Christgen; Perrine Bomme; Peter Vogel; Rémi Beau; Emilia Mellado; Oumaima Ibrahim-Granet; Bernard Henrissat; Ravi C. Kalathur; Cam Robinson; Jean-Paul Latgé; Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti

    Inflammasomes are important sentinels of innate immune defence that are activated in response to diverse stimuli, including pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)1. Activation of the inflammasome provides host defence against aspergillosis2,3, which is a major health concern for patients who are immunocompromised. However, the Aspergillus fumigatus PAMPs that are responsible for inflammasome

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • A single-dose live-attenuated YF17D-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    Lorena Sanchez-Felipe; Thomas Vercruysse; Sapna Sharma; Ji Ma; Viktor Lemmens; Dominique Van Looveren; Mahadesh Prasad Arkalagud Javarappa; Robbert Boudewijns; Bert Malengier-Devlies; Laurens Liesenborghs; Suzanne J. F. Kaptein; Carolien De Keyzer; Lindsey Bervoets; Sarah Debaveye; Madina Rasulova; Laura Seldeslachts; Li-Hsin Li; Sander Jansen; Michael Bright Yakass; Babs E. Verstrepen; Kinga P. Böszörményi;

    The explosively expanding COVID-19 pandemic urges the development of safe, efficacious and fast-acting vaccines. Several vaccine platforms are leveraged for a rapid emergency response1. We describe the discovery of a live virus-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate using the yellow fever 17D (YF17D) vaccine as vector to express a non-cleavable prefusion form of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike antigen. We assess

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Metallaphotoredox aryl and alkyl radiomethylation for PET ligand discovery
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Robert W. Pipal; Kenneth T. Stout; Patricia Z. Musacchio; Sumei Ren; Thomas J. A. Graham; Stefan Verhoog; Liza Gantert; Talakad G. Lohith; Alexander Schmitz; Hsiaoju S. Lee; David Hesk; Eric D. Hostetler; Ian W. Davies; David W. C. MacMillan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands are highly enabling tracers which facilitate in vivo characterization of central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates, neurodegenerative diseases, and numerous oncology targets1. While both tritium and carbon-11 radioisotopologs are generally necessary for in vitro and in vivo characterization of radioligands2, there exist few radiolabeling protocols

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Progenitor identification and SARS-CoV-2 infection in human distal lung organoids
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Ameen A. Salahudeen; Shannon S. Choi; Arjun Rustagi; Junjie Zhu; Vincent van Unen; Sean M. de la O; Ryan A. Flynn; Mar Margalef-Català; António J. M. Santos; Jihang Ju; Arpit Batish; Tatsuya Usui; Grace X. Y. Zheng; Caitlin E. Edwards; Lisa E. Wagar; Vincent Luca; Benedict Anchang; Monica Nagendran; Khanh Nguyen; Daniel J. Hart; Jessica M. Terry; Phillip Belgrader; Solongo B. Ziraldo; Tarjei S. Mikkelsen;

    The distal lung contains terminal bronchioles and alveoli that facilitate gas exchange. Three-dimensional in vitro human distal lung culture systems would strongly facilitate investigation of pathologies including interstitial lung disease, cancer, and SARS-CoV-2-associated COVID-19 pneumonia. We generated long-term feeder-free, chemically defined culture of distal lung progenitors as organoids derived

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Experimental evidence of neutrinos produced in the CNO fusion cycle in the Sun
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25

    For most of their existence, stars are fuelled by the fusion of hydrogen into helium. Fusion proceeds via two processes that are well understood theoretically: the proton–proton (pp) chain and the carbon–nitrogen–oxygen (CNO) cycle1,2. Neutrinos that are emitted along such fusion processes in the solar core are the only direct probe of the deep interior of the Sun. A complete spectroscopic study of

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • TRF2-mediated telomere protection is dispensable in pluripotent stem cells
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Marta Markiewicz-Potoczny; Anastasia Lobanova; Anisha M. Loeb; Oktay Kirak; Teresa Olbrich; Sergio Ruiz; Eros Lazzerini Denchi

    In mammals, telomere protection is mediated by the essential protein TRF2, which binds chromosome ends and ensures genome integrity1,2. TRF2 depletion results in end-to-end chromosome fusions in all cell types that have been tested so far. Here we find that TRF2 is dispensable for the proliferation and survival of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Trf2−/− (also known as Terf2) ES cells do not exhibit

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The barley pan-genome reveals the hidden legacy of mutation breeding
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Murukarthick Jayakodi; Sudharsan Padmarasu; Georg Haberer; Venkata Suresh Bonthala; Heidrun Gundlach; Cécile Monat; Thomas Lux; Nadia Kamal; Daniel Lang; Axel Himmelbach; Jennifer Ens; Xiao-Qi Zhang; Tefera T. Angessa; Gaofeng Zhou; Cong Tan; Camilla Hill; Penghao Wang; Miriam Schreiber; Lori B. Boston; Christopher Plott; Jerry Jenkins; Yu Guo; Anne Fiebig; Hikmet Budak; Dongdong Xu; Jing Zhang; Chunchao

    Genetic diversity is key to crop improvement. Owing to pervasive genomic structural variation, a single reference genome assembly cannot capture the full complement of sequence diversity of a crop species (known as the ‘pan-genome’1). Multiple high-quality sequence assemblies are an indispensable component of a pan-genome infrastructure. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop with

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Lanthanide-doped inorganic nanoparticles turn molecular triplet excitons bright
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Sanyang Han; Renren Deng; Qifei Gu; Limeng Ni; Uyen Huynh; Jiangbin Zhang; Zhigao Yi; Baodan Zhao; Hiroyuki Tamura; Anton Pershin; Hui Xu; Zhiyuan Huang; Shahab Ahmad; Mojtaba Abdi-Jalebi; Aditya Sadhanala; Ming Lee Tang; Artem Bakulin; David Beljonne; Xiaogang Liu; Akshay Rao

    The generation, control and transfer of triplet excitons in molecular and hybrid systems is of great interest owing to their long lifetime and diffusion length in both solid-state and solution phase systems, and to their applications in light emission1, optoelectronics2,3, photon frequency conversion4,5 and photocatalysis6,7. Molecular triplet excitons (bound electron–hole pairs) are ‘dark states’

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • TRF2-independent chromosome end protection during pluripotency
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Phil Ruis; David Van Ly; Valerie Borel; Georgia R. Kafer; Afshan McCarthy; Steven Howell; Robert Blassberg; Ambrosius P. Snijders; James Briscoe; Kathy K. Niakan; Paulina Marzec; Anthony J. Cesare; Simon J. Boulton

    Mammalian telomeres protect chromosome ends from aberrant DNA repair1. TRF2, a component of the telomere-specific shelterin protein complex, facilitates end protection through sequestration of the terminal telomere repeat sequence within a lariat T-loop structure2,3. Deleting TRF2 (also known as TERF2) in somatic cells abolishes T-loop formation, which coincides with telomere deprotection, chromosome

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Fibrosis: from mechanisms to medicines
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Neil C. Henderson; Florian Rieder; Thomas A. Wynn

    Fibrosis can affect any organ and is responsible for up to 45% of all deaths in the industrialized world. It has long been thought to be relentlessly progressive and irreversible, but both preclinical models and clinical trials in various organ systems have shown that fibrosis is a highly dynamic process. This has clear implications for therapeutic interventions that are designed to capitalize on this

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Antarctic ice dynamics amplified by Northern Hemisphere sea-level forcing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Natalya Gomez; Michael E. Weber; Peter U. Clark; Jerry X. Mitrovica; Holly K. Han

    Sea-level rise due to ice loss in the Northern Hemisphere in response to insolation and greenhouse gas forcing is thought to have caused grounding-line retreat of marine-based sectors of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS)1,2,3. Such interhemispheric sea-level forcing may explain the synchronous evolution of global ice sheets over ice-age cycles. Recent studies that indicate that the AIS experienced substantial

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A network of grassroots reserves protects tropical river fish diversity
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Aaron A. Koning; K. Martin Perales; Etienne Fluet-Chouinard; Peter B. McIntyre

    Intensive fisheries have reduced fish biodiversity and abundance in aquatic ecosystems worldwide1,2,3. ‘No-take’ marine reserves have become a cornerstone of marine ecosystem-based fisheries management4,5,6, and their benefits for adjacent fisheries are maximized when reserve design fosters synergies among nearby reserves7,8. The applicability of this marine reserve network paradigm to riverine biodiversity

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The gut microbiota is associated with immune cell dynamics in humans
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Jonas Schluter; Jonathan U. Peled; Bradford P. Taylor; Kate A. Markey; Melody Smith; Ying Taur; Rene Niehus; Anna Staffas; Anqi Dai; Emily Fontana; Luigi A. Amoretti; Roberta J. Wright; Sejal Morjaria; Maly Fenelus; Melissa S. Pessin; Nelson J. Chao; Meagan Lew; Lauren Bohannon; Amy Bush; Anthony D. Sung; Tobias M. Hohl; Miguel-Angel Perales; Marcel R. M. van den Brink; Joao B. Xavier

    The gut microbiota influences development1,2,3 and homeostasis4,5,6,7 of the mammalian immune system, and is associated with human inflammatory8 and immune diseases9,10 as well as responses to immunotherapy11,12,13,14. Nevertheless, our understanding of how gut bacteria modulate the immune system remains limited, particularly in humans, where the difficulty of direct experimentation makes inference

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Functional adaptive landscapes predict terrestrial capacity at the origin of limbs
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Blake V. Dickson; Jennifer A. Clack; Timothy R. Smithson; Stephanie E. Pierce

    The acquisition of terrestrial, limb-based locomotion during tetrapod evolution has remained a subject of debate for more than a century1,2. Our current understanding of the locomotor transition from water to land is largely based on a few exemplar fossils such as Tiktaalik3, Acanthostega4, Ichthyostega5 and Pederpes6. However, isolated bony elements may reveal hidden functional diversity, providing

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A map of cis -regulatory elements and 3D genome structures in zebrafish
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Hongbo Yang; Yu Luan; Tingting Liu; Hyung Joo Lee; Li Fang; Yanli Wang; Xiaotao Wang; Bo Zhang; Qiushi Jin; Khai Chung Ang; Xiaoyun Xing; Juan Wang; Jie Xu; Fan Song; Iyyanki Sriranga; Chachrit Khunsriraksakul; Tarik Salameh; Daofeng Li; Mayank N. K. Choudhary; Jacek Topczewski; Kai Wang; Glenn S. Gerhard; Ross C. Hardison; Ting Wang; Keith C. Cheng; Feng Yue

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been widely used in the study of human disease and development, and about 70% of the protein-coding genes are conserved between the two species1. However, studies in zebrafish remain constrained by the sparse annotation of functional control elements in the zebrafish genome. Here we performed RNA sequencing, assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Discoveries in structure and physiology of mechanically activated ion channels
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    J. M. Kefauver; A. B. Ward; A. Patapoutian

    The ability to sense physical forces is conserved across all organisms. Cells convert mechanical stimuli into electrical or chemical signals via mechanically activated ion channels. In recent years, the identification of new families of mechanosensitive ion channels—such as PIEZO and OSCA/TMEM63 channels—along with surprising insights into well-studied mechanosensitive channels have driven further

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Multiple wheat genomes reveal global variation in modern breeding
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Sean Walkowiak; Liangliang Gao; Cecile Monat; Georg Haberer; Mulualem T. Kassa; Jemima Brinton; Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez; Markus C. Kolodziej; Emily Delorean; Dinushika Thambugala; Valentyna Klymiuk; Brook Byrns; Heidrun Gundlach; Venkat Bandi; Jorge Nunez Siri; Kirby Nilsen; Catharine Aquino; Axel Himmelbach; Dario Copetti; Tomohiro Ban; Luca Venturini; Michael Bevan; Bernardo Clavijo; Dal-Hoe

    Advances in genomics have expedited the improvement of several agriculturally important crops but similar efforts in wheat (Triticum spp.) have been more challenging. This is largely owing to the size and complexity of the wheat genome1, and the lack of genome-assembly data for multiple wheat lines2,3. Here we generated ten chromosome pseudomolecule and five scaffold assemblies of hexaploid wheat to

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Commensal-driven immune zonation of the liver promotes host defence
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Anita Gola; Michael G. Dorrington; Emily Speranza; Claudia Sala; Rochelle M. Shih; Andrea J. Radtke; Harikesh S. Wong; Antonio P. Baptista; Jonathan M. Hernandez; Gastone Castellani; Iain D. C. Fraser; Ronald N. Germain

    The liver connects the intestinal portal vasculature with the general circulation, using a diverse array of immune cells to protect from pathogens that translocate from the gut1. In liver lobules, blood flows from portal triads that are situated in periportal lobular regions to the central vein via a polarized sinusoidal network. Despite this asymmetry, resident immune cells in the liver are considered

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Spin-enhanced nanodiamond biosensing for ultrasensitive diagnostics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Benjamin S. Miller; Léonard Bezinge; Harriet D. Gliddon; Da Huang; Gavin Dold; Eleanor R. Gray; Judith Heaney; Peter J. Dobson; Eleni Nastouli; John J. L. Morton; Rachel A. McKendry

    The quantum spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond enable diverse applications in quantum computing and communications1. However, fluorescent nanodiamonds also have attractive properties for in vitro biosensing, including brightness2, low cost3 and selective manipulation of their emission4. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are essential for the early detection of disease, but they often

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Late Cretaceous bird from Madagascar reveals unique development of beaks
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Patrick M. O’Connor; Alan H. Turner; Joseph R. Groenke; Ryan N. Felice; Raymond R. Rogers; David W. Krause; Lydia J. Rahantarisoa

    Mesozoic birds display considerable diversity in size, flight adaptations and feather organization1,2,3,4, but exhibit relatively conserved patterns of beak shape and development5,6,7. Although Neornithine (that is, crown group) birds also exhibit constraint on facial development8,9, they have comparatively diverse beak morphologies associated with a range of feeding and behavioural ecologies, in contrast

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Neural circuit mechanisms of sexual receptivity in Drosophila females
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Kaiyu Wang; Fei Wang; Nora Forknall; Tansy Yang; Christopher Patrick; Ruchi Parekh; Barry J. Dickson

    Choosing a mate is one of the most consequential decisions a female will make during her lifetime. A female fly signals her willingness to mate by opening her vaginal plates, allowing a courting male to copulate1,2. Vaginal plate opening (VPO) occurs in response to the male courtship song and is dependent on the mating status of the female. How these exteroceptive (song) and interoceptive (mating status)

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Splicing factor YBX1 mediates persistence of JAK2 -mutated neoplasms
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Ashok Kumar Jayavelu; Tina M. Schnöder; Florian Perner; Carolin Herzog; Arno Meiler; Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy; Nicolas Huber; Juliane Mohr; Bärbel Edelmann-Stephan; Rebecca Austin; Sabine Brandt; Francesca Palandri; Nicolas Schröder; Berend Isermann; Frank Edlich; Amit U. Sinha; Martin Ungelenk; Christian A. Hübner; Robert Zeiser; Susann Rahmig; Claudia Waskow; Iain Coldham; Thomas Ernst; Andreas

    Janus kinases (JAKs) mediate responses to cytokines, hormones and growth factors in haematopoietic cells1,2. The JAK gene JAK2 is frequently mutated in the ageing haematopoietic system3,4 and in haematopoietic cancers5. JAK2 mutations constitutively activate downstream signalling and are drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). In clinical use, JAK inhibitors have mixed effects on the overall

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Electrical switching of magnetic order in an orbital Chern insulator
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    H. Polshyn; J. Zhu; M. A. Kumar; Y. Zhang; F. Yang; C. L. Tschirhart; M. Serlin; K. Watanabe; T. Taniguchi; A. H. MacDonald; A. F. Young

    Magnetism typically arises from the joint effect of Fermi statistics and repulsive Coulomb interactions, which favours ground states with non-zero electron spin. As a result, controlling spin magnetism with electric fields—a longstanding technological goal in spintronics and multiferroics1,2—can be achieved only indirectly. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct electric-field control of magnetic

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Unconventional ferroelectricity in moiré heterostructures
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Zhiren Zheng; Qiong Ma; Zhen Bi; Sergio de la Barrera; Ming-Hao Liu; Nannan Mao; Yang Zhang; Natasha Kiper; Kenji Watanabe; Takashi Taniguchi; Jing Kong; William A. Tisdale; Ray Ashoori; Nuh Gedik; Liang Fu; Su-Yang Xu; Pablo Jarillo-Herrero

    The constituent particles of matter can arrange themselves in various ways, giving rise to emergent phenomena that can be surprisingly rich and often cannot be understood by studying only the individual constituents. Discovering and understanding the emergence of such phenomena in quantum materials—especially those in which multiple degrees of freedom or energy scales are delicately balanced—is of

    更新日期:2020-11-23
  • Key role of chemistry versus bias in electrocatalytic oxygen evolution
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Hong Nhan Nong; Lorenz J. Falling; Arno Bergmann; Malte Klingenhof; Hoang Phi Tran; Camillo Spöri; Rik Mom; Janis Timoshenko; Guido Zichittella; Axel Knop-Gericke; Simone Piccinin; Javier Pérez-Ramírez; Beatriz Roldan Cuenya; Robert Schlögl; Peter Strasser; Detre Teschner; Travis E. Jones

    The oxygen evolution reaction has an important role in many alternative-energy schemes because it supplies the protons and electrons required for converting renewable electricity into chemical fuels1,2,3. Electrocatalysts accelerate the reaction by facilitating the required electron transfer4, as well as the formation and rupture of chemical bonds5. This involvement in fundamentally different processes

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • LDLRAD3 is a receptor for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Hongming Ma; Arthur S. Kim; Natasha M. Kafai; James T. Earnest; Aadit P. Shah; James Brett Case; Katherine Basore; Theron C. Gilliland; Chengqun Sun; Christopher A. Nelson; Larissa B. Thackray; William B. Klimstra; Daved H. Fremont; Michael S. Diamond

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a neurotropic alphavirus transmitted by mosquitoes that causes encephalitis and death in humans1. VEEV is a biodefence concern because of its potential for aerosol spread and the current lack of sufficient countermeasures. The host factors that are required for VEEV entry and infection remain poorly characterized. Here, using a genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9-based

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • A molecular cell atlas of the human lung from single-cell RNA sequencing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kyle J. Travaglini; Ahmad N. Nabhan; Lolita Penland; Rahul Sinha; Astrid Gillich; Rene V. Sit; Stephen Chang; Stephanie D. Conley; Yasuo Mori; Jun Seita; Gerald J. Berry; Joseph B. Shrager; Ross J. Metzger; Christin S. Kuo; Norma Neff; Irving L. Weissman; Stephen R. Quake; Mark A. Krasnow

    Although single-cell RNA sequencing studies have begun to provide compendia of cell expression profiles1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, it has been difficult to systematically identify and localize all molecular cell types in individual organs to create a full molecular cell atlas. Here, using droplet- and plate-based single-cell RNA sequencing of approximately 75,000 human cells across all lung tissue compartments

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Host ANP32A mediates the assembly of the influenza virus replicase
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Loïc Carrique; Haitian Fan; Alexander P. Walker; Jeremy R. Keown; Jane Sharps; Ecco Staller; Wendy S. Barclay; Ervin Fodor; Jonathan M. Grimes

    Aquatic birds represent a vast reservoir from which new pandemic influenza A viruses can emerge1. Influenza viruses contain a negative-sense segmented RNA genome that is transcribed and replicated by the viral heterotrimeric RNA polymerase (FluPol) in the context of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes2,3. RNA polymerases of avian influenza A viruses (FluPolA) replicate viral RNA inefficiently in human

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Observation of gauge invariance in a 71-site Bose–Hubbard quantum simulator
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Bing Yang; Hui Sun; Robert Ott; Han-Yi Wang; Torsten V. Zache; Jad C. Halimeh; Zhen-Sheng Yuan; Philipp Hauke; Jian-Wei Pan

    The modern description of elementary particles, as formulated in the standard model of particle physics, is built on gauge theories1. Gauge theories implement fundamental laws of physics by local symmetry constraints. For example, in quantum electrodynamics Gauss’s law introduces an intrinsic local relation between charged matter and electromagnetic fields, which protects many salient physical properties

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Small-molecule-induced polymerization triggers degradation of BCL6
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Mikołaj Słabicki; Hojong Yoon; Jonas Koeppel; Lena Nitsch; Shourya S. Roy Burman; Cristina Di Genua; Katherine A. Donovan; Adam S. Sperling; Moritz Hunkeler; Jonathan M. Tsai; Rohan Sharma; Andrew Guirguis; Charles Zou; Priya Chudasama; Jessica A. Gasser; Peter G. Miller; Claudia Scholl; Stefan Fröhling; Radosław P. Nowak; Eric S. Fischer; Benjamin L. Ebert

    Effective and sustained inhibition of non-enzymatic oncogenic driver proteins is a major pharmacological challenge. The clinical success of thalidomide analogues demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of drug-induced degradation of transcription factors and other cancer targets1,2,3, but a substantial subset of proteins are resistant to targeted degradation using existing approaches4,5. Here we report

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • A blue ring nebula from a stellar merger several thousand years ago
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Keri Hoadley; D. Christopher Martin; Brian D. Metzger; Mark Seibert; Andrew McWilliam; Ken J. Shen; James D. Neill; Gudmundur Stefansson; Andrew Monson; Bradley E. Schaefer

    Stellar mergers are a brief but common phase in the evolution of binary star systems1,2. These events have many astrophysical implications; for example, they may lead to the creation of atypical stars (such as magnetic stars3, blue stragglers4 and rapid rotators5), they play an important part in our interpretation of stellar populations6 and they represent formation channels of compact-object mergers7

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • The scales of human mobility
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Laura Alessandretti; Ulf Aslak; Sune Lehmann

    There is a contradiction at the heart of our current understanding of individual and collective mobility patterns. On the one hand, a highly influential body of literature on human mobility driven by analyses of massive empirical datasets finds that human movements show no evidence of characteristic spatial scales. There, human mobility is described as scale free1,2,3. On the other hand, geographically

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • The growth equation of cities
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Vincent Verbavatz; Marc Barthelemy

    The science of cities seeks to understand and explain regularities observed in the world’s major urban systems. Modelling the population evolution of cities is at the core of this science and of all urban studies. Quantitatively, the most fundamental problem is to understand the hierarchical organization of city population and the statistical occurrence of megacities. This was first thought to be described

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • MFSD12 mediates the import of cysteine into melanosomes and lysosomes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Charles H. Adelmann; Anna K. Traunbauer; Brandon Chen; Kendall J. Condon; Sze Ham Chan; Tenzin Kunchok; Caroline A. Lewis; David M. Sabatini

    Dozens of genes contribute to the wide variation in human pigmentation. Many of these genes encode proteins that localize to the melanosome—the organelle, related to the lysosome, that synthesizes pigment—but have unclear functions1,2. Here we describe MelanoIP, a method for rapidly isolating melanosomes and profiling their labile metabolite contents. We use this method to study MFSD12, a transmembrane

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Clustered versus catastrophic global vertebrate declines
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Brian Leung; Anna L. Hargreaves; Dan A. Greenberg; Brian McGill; Maria Dornelas; Robin Freeman

    Recent analyses have reported catastrophic global declines in vertebrate populations1,2. However, the distillation of many trends into a global mean index obscures the variation that can inform conservation measures and can be sensitive to analytical decisions. For example, previous analyses have estimated a mean vertebrate decline of more than 50% since 1970 (Living Planet Index2). Here we show, however

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Assembly of synaptic active zones requires phase separation of scaffold molecules
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Nathan A. McDonald; Richard D. Fetter; Kang Shen

    The formation of synapses during neuronal development is essential for establishing neural circuits and a nervous system1. Every presynapse builds a core ‘active zone’ structure, where ion channels cluster and synaptic vesicles release their neurotransmitters2. Although the composition of active zones is well characterized2,3, it is unclear how active-zone proteins assemble together and recruit the

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Drivers and dynamics of a massive adaptive radiation in cichlid fishes
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Fabrizia Ronco; Michael Matschiner; Astrid Böhne; Anna Boila; Heinz H. Büscher; Athimed El Taher; Adrian Indermaur; Milan Malinsky; Virginie Ricci; Ansgar Kahmen; Sissel Jentoft; Walter Salzburger

    Adaptive radiation is the likely source of much of the ecological and morphological diversity of life1,2,3,4. How adaptive radiations proceed and what determines their extent remains unclear in most cases1,4. Here we report the in-depth examination of the spectacular adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika. On the basis of whole-genome phylogenetic analyses, multivariate morphological

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • RNA nucleation by MSL2 induces selective X chromosome compartmentalization
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Claudia Isabelle Keller Valsecchi; M. Felicia Basilicata; Plamen Georgiev; Aline Gaub; Janine Seyfferth; Tanvi Kulkarni; Amol Panhale; Giuseppe Semplicio; Vinitha Manjunath; Herbert Holz; Pouria Dasmeh; Asifa Akhtar

    Confinement of the X chromosome to a territory for dosage compensation is a prime example of how subnuclear compartmentalization is used to regulate transcription at the megabase scale. In Drosophila melanogaster, two sex-specific non-coding RNAs (roX1 and roX2) are transcribed from the X chromosome. They associate with the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex1, which acetylates histone H4 lysine 16

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Coupling of hippocampal theta and ripples with pontogeniculooccipital waves
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Juan F. Ramirez-Villegas; Michel Besserve; Yusuke Murayama; Henry C. Evrard; Axel Oeltermann; Nikos K. Logothetis

    The hippocampus has a major role in encoding and consolidating long-term memories, and undergoes plastic changes during sleep1. These changes require precise homeostatic control by subcortical neuromodulatory structures2. The underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, however, remain unknown. Here, using multi-structure recordings in macaque monkeys, we show that the brainstem transiently modulates

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Sources of particulate-matter air pollution and its oxidative potential in Europe
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Kaspar R. Daellenbach; Gaëlle Uzu; Jianhui Jiang; Laure-Estelle Cassagnes; Zaira Leni; Athanasia Vlachou; Giulia Stefenelli; Francesco Canonaco; Samuël Weber; Arjo Segers; Jeroen J. P. Kuenen; Martijn Schaap; Olivier Favez; Alexandre Albinet; Sebnem Aksoyoglu; Josef Dommen; Urs Baltensperger; Marianne Geiser; Imad El Haddad; Jean-Luc Jaffrezo; André S. H. Prévôt

    Particulate matter is a component of ambient air pollution that has been linked to millions of annual premature deaths globally1,2,3. Assessments of the chronic and acute effects of particulate matter on human health tend to be based on mass concentration, with particle size and composition also thought to play a part4. Oxidative potential has been suggested to be one of the many possible drivers of

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Structure and function of virion RNA polymerase of a crAss-like phage
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Arina V. Drobysheva; Sofia A. Panafidina; Matvei V. Kolesnik; Evgeny I. Klimuk; Leonid Minakhin; Maria V. Yakunina; Sergei Borukhov; Emelie Nilsson; Karin Holmfeldt; Natalya Yutin; Kira S. Makarova; Eugene V. Koonin; Konstantin V. Severinov; Petr G. Leiman; Maria L. Sokolova

    CrAss-like phages are a recently described expansive group of viruses that includes the most abundant virus in the human gut1,2,3. The genomes of all crAss-like phages encode a large virion-packaged protein2,4 that contains a DFDxD sequence motif, which forms the catalytic site in cellular multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs)5. Here, using Cellulophaga baltica crAss-like phage phi14:2 as a model system

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • A network of transcriptional repressors modulates auxin responses
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Jekaterina Truskina; Jingyi Han; Elina Chrysanthou; Carlos S. Galvan-Ampudia; Stéphanie Lainé; Géraldine Brunoud; Julien Macé; Simon Bellows; Jonathan Legrand; Anne-Maarit Bågman; Margot E. Smit; Ondřej Smetana; Arnaud Stigliani; Silvana Porco; Malcolm J. Bennett; Ari Pekka Mähönen; François Parcy; Etienne Farcot; Francois Roudier; Siobhan M. Brady; Anthony Bishopp; Teva Vernoux

    The regulation of signalling capacity, combined with the spatiotemporal distribution of developmental signals themselves, is pivotal in setting developmental responses in both plants and animals1. The hormone auxin is a key signal for plant growth and development that acts through the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors2,3,4. A subset of these, the conserved class A ARFs5, are transcriptional

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Tension heterogeneity directs form and fate to pattern the myocardial wall
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Rashmi Priya; Srinivas Allanki; Alessandra Gentile; Shivani Mansingh; Veronica Uribe; Hans-Martin Maischein; Didier Y. R. Stainier

    How diverse cell fates and complex forms emerge and feed back to each other to sculpt functional organs remains unclear. In the developing heart, the myocardium transitions from a simple epithelium to an intricate tissue that consists of distinct layers: the outer compact and inner trabecular layers. Defects in this process, which is known as cardiac trabeculation, cause cardiomyopathies and embryonic

    更新日期:2020-11-18
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