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  • Gearing up for a ‘monumental’ mission to Mars
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Amber Dance

    Engineer and roboticist Zach Ousnamer is helping to prepare NASA’s Perseverance rover for its launch to the red planet.

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Human thirst set to draw down mountains’ water banks
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-06

    One-quarter of the global lowland population could depend on water from higher elevations by mid-century.

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Seeking an ‘exit plan’ for leaving academia amid coronavirus worries
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Chris Woolston

    The pandemic is prompting some early-career researchers to rethink their hopes for a university post.

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Reset Sustainable Development Goals for a pandemic world
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Robin Naidoo; Brendan Fisher

    COVID-19 is exposing the fragility of the goals adopted by the United Nations — two-thirds are now unlikely to be met.

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Untying the insulating and superconducting orders in magic-angle graphene
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Petr Stepanov; Ipsita Das; Xiaobo Lu; Ali Fahimniya; Kenji Watanabe; Takashi Taniguchi; Frank H. L. Koppens; Johannes Lischner; Leonid Levitov; Dmitri K. Efetov

    The coexistence of superconducting and correlated insulating states in magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 prompts fascinating questions about their relationship. Independent control of the microscopic mechanisms that govern these phases could help uncover their individual roles and shed light on their intricate interplay. Here we report on direct tuning of electronic interactions

    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • 更新日期:2020-07-06
  • A three‐phase inverter circuit using half‐bridge cells and T‐NPC for medium‐voltage applications
    Int. J. Circ. Theory Appl. (IF 1.581) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Abhilash Tirupathi; Kirubakaran Annamalai; Somasekhar Veeramraju Tirumala
    更新日期:2020-07-06
  • Design of an 8‐bit time‐mode cyclic ADC based on macro modeling
    Int. J. Circ. Theory Appl. (IF 1.581) Pub Date : 2020-07-04
    Zaniar Hoseini; Kye‐Shin Lee; Chun Ki Kwon
    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • RSSI quantization and genetic algorithm based localization in wireless sensor networks
    Ad Hoc Netw. (IF 3.643) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Qianqian Ren; Yang Zhang; Ioanis Nikolaidis; Jinbao Li; Yu Pan

    This paper proposes a RSSI quantization and genetic algorithm based localization method. To quantize RSSI measurements from sensor nodes, we first divide sensing disks of nodes into multiple-rings and adopt genetic algorithm based on elitist preservation strategy to determine rings width. Secondly, we calculate the overlapping of rings and construct the mapping between a binary code sequence and the

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Coronapod: Lessons from pandemic ‘war-game’ simulations
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Noah Baker; Amy Maxmen; Benjamin Thompson

    Hear the latest science from the coronavirus pandemic.

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Goodbye, Pluto’s atmosphere
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-03

    The gases that envelop the distant dwarf planet might finally be freezing out and falling to the surface.

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Daily briefing: Cosmologists are mapping invisible magnetic fields that pervade the Universe
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Emma Stoye

    Curved magnetic fields could have arisen in the first instants after the Big Bang. Plus: the best evidence yet for the existence of particle-like anyons, and how sewage surveillance could be used to track coronavirus outbreaks.

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Six months of coronavirus: the mysteries scientists are still racing to solve
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Ewen Callaway; Heidi Ledford; Smriti Mallapaty

    Six months into the outbreak, Nature looks at the pressing questions that researchers are tackling.

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • A guide to R — the pandemic’s misunderstood metric
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    David Adam

    What the reproduction number can and can’t tell us about managing COVID-19.

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Welcome anyons! Physicists find best evidence yet for long-sought 2D structures
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Davide Castelvecchi

    The ‘quasiparticles’ defy the categories of ordinary particles and herald a potential way to build quantum computers.

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Design of a reversible structure for memory in quantum‐dot cellular automata
    Int. J. Circ. Theory Appl. (IF 1.581) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Fereshteh Salimzadeh; Saeed Rasouli Heikalabad; Farhad Soleimanian Gharehchopogh
    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • The challenges of modeling and forecasting the spread of COVID-19 [Applied Mathematics]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Andrea L. Bertozzi, Elisa Franco, George Mohler, Martin B. Short, Daniel Sledge

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed epidemic modeling at the forefront of worldwide public policy making. Nonetheless, modeling and forecasting the spread of COVID-19 remains a challenge. Here, we detail three regional-scale models for forecasting and assessing the course of the pandemic. This work demonstrates the utility of parsimonious models for early-time data and provides

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Revealing 29 sets of independently modulated genes in Staphylococcus aureus, their regulators, and role in key physiological response [Microbiology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Saugat Poudel, Hannah Tsunemoto, Yara Seif, Anand V. Sastry, Richard Szubin, Sibei Xu, Henrique Machado, Connor A. Olson, Amitesh Anand, Joe Pogliano, Victor Nizet, Bernhard O. Palsson

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to infect many different tissue sites is enabled, in part, by its transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) that coordinates its gene expression to respond to different environments. We elucidated the organization and activity of this TRN by applying independent component analysis to a compendium of 108 RNA-sequencing expression profiles from two S. aureus clinical

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Premature termination codons in the DMD gene cause reduced local mRNA synthesis [Genetics]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Raquel García-Rodríguez, Monika Hiller, Laura Jiménez-Gracia, Zarah van der Pal, Judit Balog, Kevin Adamzek, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Pietro Spitali

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the DMD gene leading to the presence of premature termination codons (PTC). Previous transcriptional studies have shown reduced DMD transcript levels in DMD patient and animal model muscles when PTC are present. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) has been suggested to be responsible for the observed reduction, but there is no experimental evidence

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Evaporating droplets on oil-wetted surfaces: Suppression of the coffee-stain effect [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Yaxing Li, Christian Diddens, Tim Segers, Herman Wijshoff, Michel Versluis, Detlef Lohse

    The evaporation of suspension droplets is the underlying mechanism in many surface-coating and surface-patterning applications. However, the uniformity of the final deposit suffers from the coffee-stain effect caused by contact line pinning. Here, we show that control over particle deposition can be achieved through droplet evaporation on oil-wetted hydrophilic surfaces. We demonstrate by flow visualization

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • An engineered chimeric toxin that cleaves activated mutant and wild-type RAS inhibits tumor growth [Biochemistry]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Vania Vidimar, Greg L. Beilhartz, Minyoung Park, Marco Biancucci, Matthew B. Kieffer, David R. Gius, Roman A. Melnyk, Karla J. F. Satchell

    Despite nearly four decades of effort, broad inhibition of oncogenic RAS using small-molecule approaches has proven to be a major challenge. Here we describe the development of a pan-RAS biologic inhibitor composed of the RAS-RAP1–specific endopeptidase fused to the protein delivery machinery of diphtheria toxin. We show that this engineered chimeric toxin irreversibly cleaves and inactivates intracellular

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Extensive sequence and structural evolution of Arginase 2 inhibitory antibodies enabled by an unbiased approach to affinity maturation [Biochemistry]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Denice T. Y. Chan, Lesley Jenkinson, Stuart W. Haynes, Mark Austin, Agata Diamandakis, Daniel Burschowsky, Chitra Seewooruthun, Alexandra Addyman, Sebastian Fiedler, Stephanie Ryman, Jessica Whitehouse, Louise H. Slater, Ellen Gowans, Yoko Shibata, Michelle Barnard, Robert W. Wilkinson, Tristan J. Vaughan, Sarah V. Holt, Vincenzo Cerundolo, Mark D. Carr, Maria A. T. Groves

    Affinity maturation is a powerful technique in antibody engineering for the in vitro evolution of antigen binding interactions. Key to the success of this process is the expansion of sequence and combinatorial diversity to increase the structural repertoire from which superior binding variants may be selected. However, conventional strategies are often restrictive and only focus on small regions of

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Base rate neglect and neural computations for subjective weight in decision under uncertainty [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Yun-Yen Yang, Shih-Wei Wu

    Base rate neglect, an important bias in estimating probability of uncertain events, describes humans’ tendency to underweight base rate (prior) relative to individuating information (likelihood). However, the neural mechanisms that give rise to this bias remain elusive. In this study, subjects chose between uncertain prospects where estimating reward probability was essential. We found that when the

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Extracellular proteolytic cascade in tomato activates immune protease Rcr3 [Plant Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Judith K. Paulus, Jiorgos Kourelis, Selva Ramasubramanian, Felix Homma, Alice Godson, Anja C. Hörger, Tram Ngoc Hong, Daniel Krahn, Laura Ossorio Carballo, Shuaishuai Wang, Joe Win, Matthew Smoker, Sophien Kamoun, Suomeng Dong, Renier A. L. van der Hoorn

    Proteolytic cascades regulate immunity and development in animals, but these cascades in plants have not yet been reported. Here we report that the extracellular immune protease Rcr3 of tomato is activated by P69B and other subtilases (SBTs), revealing a proteolytic cascade regulating extracellular immunity in solanaceous plants. Rcr3 is a secreted papain-like Cys protease (PLCP) of tomato that acts

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • ADVICE-LOC: An adaptive vehicle-centric location management scheme for intelligent connected cars
    Ad Hoc Netw. (IF 3.643) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Noura Aljeri; Azzedine Boukerche

    With the recent advances and wide availability of heterogeneous wireless access technologies, inter-vehicle communication systems are expected to culminate in the integration of different wireless networks based on such standards as 5G/6G, coupling with multimedia and sensor networks for the next generation of connected and autonomous vehicles. However, the high mobility nature of vehicles poses intrinsic

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Displaying images on a plane of rotation via mutual inductance coupling wireless controls
    Ad Hoc Netw. (IF 3.643) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    Jingjing Wu; Huanghui Shen; Ran Yin; Yashuo He; Jiatong Li; Cheng Wang

    This work presents an innovative display technique, which renders the image displaying capability to the plane of rotation by installing a rectilinear LED array. Basing on the persistence of vision of human eyes, the rotating scan of LEDs generates the stable display of images under the timing control. Because of the cyclic motions during the rotating scan, the timely display control signals have to

    更新日期:2020-07-03
  • Feasibility of blood testing combined with PET-CT to screen for cancer and guide intervention.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Anne Marie Lennon,Adam H Buchanan,Isaac Kinde,Andrew Warren,Ashley Honushefsky,Ariella T Cohain,David H Ledbetter,Fred Sanfilippo,Kathleen Sheridan,Dillenia Rosica,Christian S Adonizio,Hee Jung Hwang,Kamel Lahouel,Joshua D Cohen,Christopher Douville,Aalpen A Patel,Leonardo N Hagmann,David D Rolston,Nirav Malani,Shibin Zhou,Chetan Bettegowda,David L Diehl,Bobbi Urban,Christopher D Still,Lisa Kann,Julie

    Cancer treatments are often more successful when the disease is detected early. We evaluated the feasibility and safety of multicancer blood testing coupled with positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging to detect cancer in a prospective, interventional study of 10,006 women not previously known to have cancer. Positive blood tests were independently confirmed by a diagnostic

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Sharing vitamins: Cobamides unveil microbial interactions
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Olga M. Sokolovskaya, Amanda N. Shelton, Michiko E. Taga

    Microbial communities are essential to fundamental processes on Earth. Underlying the compositions and functions of these communities are nutritional interdependencies among individual species. One class of nutrients, cobamides (the family of enzyme cofactors that includes vitamin B12), is widely used for a variety of microbial metabolic functions, but these structurally diverse cofactors are synthesized

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Number of HIV-1 founder variants is determined by the recency of the source partner infection
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Ch. Julián Villabona-Arenas, Matthew Hall, Katrina A. Lythgoe, Stephen G. Gaffney, Roland R. Regoes, Stéphane Hué, Katherine E. Atkins

    During sexual transmission, the high genetic diversity of HIV-1 within an individual is frequently reduced to one founder variant that initiates infection. Understanding the drivers of this bottleneck is crucial to developing effective infection control strategies. Little is known about the importance of the source partner during this bottleneck. To test the hypothesis that the source partner affects

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • A piperidinium salt stabilizes efficient metal-halide perovskite solar cells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Yen-Hung Lin, Nobuya Sakai, Peimei Da, Jiaying Wu, Harry C. Sansom, Alexandra J. Ramadan, Suhas Mahesh, Junliang Liu, Robert D. J. Oliver, Jongchul Lim, Lee Aspitarte, Kshama Sharma, P. K. Madhu, Anna B. Morales‐Vilches, Pabitra K. Nayak, Sai Bai, Feng Gao, Chris R. M. Grovenor, Michael B. Johnston, John G. Labram, James R. Durrant, James M. Ball, Bernard Wenger, Bernd Stannowski, Henry J. Snaith

    Longevity has been a long-standing concern for hybrid perovskite photovoltaics. We demonstrate high-resilience positive-intrinsic-negative perovskite solar cells by incorporating a piperidinium-based ionic compound into the formamidinium-cesium lead-trihalide perovskite absorber. With the bandgap tuned to be well suited for perovskite-on-silicon tandem cells, this piperidinium additive enhances the

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • C(sp3)–H functionalizations of light hydrocarbons using decatungstate photocatalysis in flow
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Gabriele Laudadio, Yuchao Deng, Klaas van der Wal, Davide Ravelli, Manuel Nuño, Maurizio Fagnoni, Duncan Guthrie, Yuhan Sun, Timothy Noël

    Direct activation of gaseous hydrocarbons remains a major challenge for the chemistry community. Because of the intrinsic inertness of these compounds, harsh reaction conditions are typically required to enable C(sp3)–H bond cleavage, barring potential applications in synthetic organic chemistry. Here, we report a general and mild strategy to activate C(sp3)–H bonds in methane, ethane, propane, and

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • An ideal Josephson junction in an ultracold two-dimensional Fermi gas
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Niclas Luick, Lennart Sobirey, Markus Bohlen, Vijay Pal Singh, Ludwig Mathey, Thomas Lompe, Henning Moritz

    The role of reduced dimensionality in high-temperature superconductors is still under debate. Recently, ultracold atoms have emerged as an ideal model system to study such strongly correlated two-dimensional (2D) systems. Here, we report on the realization of a Josephson junction in an ultracold 2D Fermi gas. We measure the frequency of Josephson oscillations as a function of the phase difference across

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Strongly correlated superfluid order parameters from dc Josephson supercurrents
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    W. J. Kwon, G. Del Pace, R. Panza, M. Inguscio, W. Zwerger, M. Zaccanti, F. Scazza, G. Roati

    The direct-current (dc) Josephson effect provides a phase-sensitive tool for investigating superfluid order parameters. We report on the observation of dc Josephson supercurrents in strongly interacting fermionic superfluids across a tunneling barrier in the absence of any applied potential difference. For sufficiently strong barriers, we observed a sinusoidal current-phase relation, in agreement with

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Ultrahigh capacitive energy density in ion-bombarded relaxor ferroelectric films
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jieun Kim, Sahar Saremi, Megha Acharya, Gabriel Velarde, Eric Parsonnet, Patrick Donahue, Alexander Qualls, David Garcia, Lane W. Martin

    Dielectric capacitors can store and release electric energy at ultrafast rates and are extensively studied for applications in electronics and electric power systems. Among various candidates, thin films based on relaxor ferroelectrics, a special kind of ferroelectric with nanometer-sized domains, have attracted special attention because of their high energy densities and efficiencies. We show that

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Rapid development of an inactivated vaccine candidate for SARS-CoV-2.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Qiang Gao,Linlin Bao,Haiyan Mao,Lin Wang,Kangwei Xu,Minnan Yang,Yajing Li,Ling Zhu,Nan Wang,Zhe Lv,Hong Gao,Xiaoqin Ge,Biao Kan,Yaling Hu,Jiangning Liu,Fang Cai,Deyu Jiang,Yanhui Yin,Chengfeng Qin,Jing Li,Xuejie Gong,Xiuyu Lou,Wen Shi,Dongdong Wu,Hengming Zhang,Lang Zhu,Wei Deng,Yurong Li,Jinxing Lu,Changgui Li,Xiangxi Wang,Weidong Yin,Yanjun Zhang,Chuan Qin

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in an unprecedented public health crisis. Because of the novelty of the virus, there are currently no SARS-CoV-2–specific treatments or vaccines available. Therefore, rapid development of effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Here, we developed a

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Cell position fates and collective fountain flow in bacterial biofilms revealed by light-sheet microscopy.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Boyang Qin,Chenyi Fei,Andrew A Bridges,Ameya A Mashruwala,Howard A Stone,Ned S Wingreen,Bonnie L Bassler

    Bacterial biofilms represent a basic form of multicellular organization that confers survival advantages to constituent cells. The sequential stages of cell ordering during biofilm development have been studied in the pathogen and model biofilm-former Vibrio cholerae. It is unknown how spatial trajectories of individual cells and the collective motions of many cells drive biofilm expansion. We developed

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Thermal bottlenecks in the life cycle define climate vulnerability of fish
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Flemming T. Dahlke, Sylke Wohlrab, Martin Butzin, Hans-Otto Pörtner

    Species’ vulnerability to climate change depends on the most temperature-sensitive life stages, but for major animal groups such as fish, life cycle bottlenecks are often not clearly defined. We used observational, experimental, and phylogenetic data to assess stage-specific thermal tolerance metrics for 694 marine and freshwater fish species from all climate zones. Our analysis shows that spawning

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • The histone H3-H4 tetramer is a copper reductase enzyme
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Narsis Attar, Oscar A. Campos, Maria Vogelauer, Chen Cheng, Yong Xue, Stefan Schmollinger, Lukasz Salwinski, Nathan V. Mallipeddi, Brandon A. Boone, Linda Yen, Sichen Yang, Shannon Zikovich, Jade Dardine, Michael F. Carey, Sabeeha S. Merchant, Siavash K. Kurdistani

    Eukaryotic histone H3-H4 tetramers contain a putative copper (Cu2+) binding site at the H3-H3′ dimerization interface with unknown function. The coincident emergence of eukaryotes with global oxygenation, which challenged cellular copper utilization, raised the possibility that histones may function in cellular copper homeostasis. We report that the recombinant Xenopus laevis H3-H4 tetramer is an oxidoreductase

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • A phage-encoded anti-CRISPR enables complete evasion of type VI-A CRISPR-Cas immunity.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Alexander J Meeske,Ning Jia,Alice K Cassel,Albina Kozlova,Jingqiu Liao,Martin Wiedmann,Dinshaw J Patel,Luciano A Marraffini

    The CRISPR RNA (crRNA)–guided nuclease Cas13 recognizes complementary viral transcripts to trigger the degradation of both host and viral RNA during the type VI CRISPR-Cas antiviral response. However, how viruses can counteract this immunity is not known. We describe a listeriaphage (ϕLS46) encoding an anti-CRISPR protein (AcrVIA1) that inactivates the type VI-A CRISPR system of Listeria seeligeri

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Mart M Lamers,Joep Beumer,Jelte van der Vaart,Kèvin Knoops,Jens Puschhof,Tim I Breugem,Raimond B G Ravelli,J Paul van Schayck,Anna Z Mykytyn,Hans Q Duimel,Elly van Donselaar,Samra Riesebosch,Helma J H Kuijpers,Debby Schippers,Willine J van de Wetering,Miranda de Graaf,Marion Koopmans,Edwin Cuppen,Peter J Peters,Bart L Haagmans,Hans Clevers

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an influenza-like disease that is primarily thought to infect the lungs with transmission through the respiratory route. However, clinical evidence suggests that the intestine may present another viral target organ. Indeed, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Physics meets America's defense agenda
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Melanie Frappier

    In Quantum Legacies: Dispatches from an Uncertain World, David Kaiser gives a witty and insightful overview of the development of modern physics. Through a series of previously published but carefully reedited essays, he explores how America's defense agenda has shaped physics research and education, from the ever-increasing size of research teams to the way we talk about quantum phenomena.

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Better homes and safer spaces
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Barbara Brown

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) pandemic has transformed our homes into schools, workplaces, recreational centers, and experimental kitchens, rendering us increasingly aware of the opportunities and constraints built into their design. In her new book, The Great Indoors, science journalist Emily Anthes helps us channel this awareness into an appreciation of how design alters our feelings and

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Improve alignment of research policy and societal values
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Peter Novitzky, Michael J. Bernstein, Vincent Blok, Robert Braun, Tung Tung Chan, Wout Lamers, Anne Loeber, Ingeborg Meijer, Ralf Lindner, Erich Griessler

    Historically, scientific and engineering expertise has been key in shaping research and innovation (R&I) policies, with benefits presumed to accrue to society more broadly over time (1). But there is persistent and growing concern about whether and how ethical and societal values are integrated into R&I policies and governance, as we confront public disbelief in science and political suspicion toward

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • When do fish succumb to heat?
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jennifer Sunday

    Physiological responses to temperature can provide a window into climate change vulnerability of species. How warm will it get relative to a species' ability to tolerate heat? One complication in answering this question is that an organism's temperature tolerance can change throughout its life span, and organisms in early life stages may be more sensitive to cold and heat extremes than adults (the

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Stronger bonds bring bigger challenges
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Gabriela Oksdath-Mansilla

    For organic chemists, synthesizing complex molecules in a few steps without waste and with minimal energy has been a long-standing challenge. In many cases, synthetic methodology now enables the design of straightforward syntheses of molecules with different degrees of structural complexity and even their large-scale production. The starting materials are often derived ultimately from hydrocarbons

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • The secret life of histones
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Johannes Rudolph, Karolin Luger

    Histone proteins are the ubiquitous organizers of all eukaryotic genomes (1). Two each of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 form a disk-shaped assembly around which 147 base pairs (bp) of DNA are tightly coiled. Hundreds of thousands of these connected nucleosomes wrap up further to form chromosomes. The substantial sequence conservation between eukaryotic histones and the presence of simple histones

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Shutting down RNA-targeting CRISPR
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Rodolphe Barrangou, Erik J. Sontheimer

    Explorations of the evolutionary arms race between bacteria and bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) have unearthed a variety of defense mechanisms that include CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR-associated nuclease) adaptive immune systems (1). Understanding the mechanisms of CRISPR-mediated immunity, involving DNA-encoded, RNA-guided, sequence-specific targeting of invasive nucleic acids (2, 3), has spawned

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Tracing cell trajectories in a biofilm
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Alma Dal Co, Michael P. Brenner

    Born in 1881 on a farm in Pennsylvania, Alice C. Evans dedicated her life to studying bacteria in dairy products. Early in her career, Alice became convinced that most bacteria display multicellular behavior as part of their life cycles. At the time, the morphological changes observed in bacterial life cycles created confusion among scientists. In 1928, as the first female president of the American

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Improbable oasis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Rodrigo Pérez Ortega

    Deep in Mexico's Chihuahuan Desert, the turquoise-blue pools of Cuatro Ciénegas host ancient microbes and provide a "window into early Earth." The waters of these pools, with a chemistry that resembles that of Earth's ancient seas, are home to unusual bacterial mats and formations called stromatolites. Some of the bacterial lineages in the pools date back to 680 million years ago. Valeria Souza Saldívar

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Greenland rock cores to trace ice's past melting
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Paul Voosen

    In 2021, U.S. researchers will go to the frozen expanse of Greenland's northern ice sheet to pinpoint the last time it disappeared. The 5-year, $7 million campaign, awarded last month by the National Science Foundation, will mark the first large U.S. ice drilling program in Greenland in more than 25 years. But unlike past projects, the target is not the climate records held in the ice, but the rocks

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • A colorful chemotherapy agent could be made less toxic
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jocelyn Kaiser

    Doxorubicin, an old chemotherapy drug known as "the red devil" because of its distinctive hue and toxicity, remains a key treatment for many cancer patients. But a new study reports the drug can be tweaked to reduce its most punishing side effect, cardiac damage, without blunting its ability to curb tumors. The work, from a team in the Netherlands, upends conventional thinking about doxorubicin and

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Rock seen inside Venus's orbit could solve puzzle
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Nola Redd

    Earlier this year, astronomers discovered an oddball asteroid inside the orbit of Venus—the first member of a predicted flock near the Sun, informally called Vatiras. No bigger than a small mountain, the asteroid has now gained another distinction: It appears to be rich in the mineral olivine, which makes up much of Earth's deep rock. Some astronomers think that is a clue to a larger set of "missing

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • The line starts to form for a coronavirus vaccine
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jon Cohen

    When and if the world has a COVID-19 vaccine, who should get it first? That question came into sharp relief last week as the World Health Organization and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began to publicly discuss priority groups such as the elderly and health care workers. New data suggested how fraught any prioritization is likely to be: Pregnant women—normally the last to receive

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • News at a glance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    In science news around the world, the world's second largest Ebola outbreak, in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is declared officially over. As the world battles the COVID-19 pandemic, an influenza virus strain widely circulating among pigs in China has the potential to spark another, researchers say. As part of a giant legal settlement, Bayer proposes to fund an independent

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Scale-free ferroelectricity induced by flat phonon bands in HfO2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Hyun-Jae Lee, Minseong Lee, Kyoungjun Lee, Jinhyeong Jo, Hyemi Yang, Yungyeom Kim, Seung Chul Chae, Umesh Waghmare, Jun Hee Lee

    Discovery of robust yet reversibly switchable electric dipoles at reduced dimensions is critical in advancing nanoelectronics devices. Energy bands flat in momentum space generate robust localized states that are activated independently of each other. We determined flat bands exist and induce robust yet independently switchable dipoles exhibiting a unique ferroelectricity in HfO2. Flat polar phonon

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Covalent surface modifications and superconductivity of two-dimensional metal carbide MXenes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Vladislav Kamysbayev, Alexander S. Filatov, Huicheng Hu, Xue Rui, Francisco Lagunas, Di Wang, Robert F. Klie, Dmitri V. Talapin

    Versatile chemical transformations of surface functional groups in 2D transition-metal carbides (MXenes) open up a new design space for this broad class of functional materials. We introduce a general strategy to install and remove surface groups by performing substitution and elimination reactions in molten inorganic salts. Successful synthesis of MXenes with O, NH, S, Cl, Se, Br, and Te surface terminations

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Primary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Wei Deng, Linlin Bao, Jiangning Liu, Chong Xiao, Jiayi Liu, Jing Xue, Qi Lv, Feifei Qi, Hong Gao, Pin Yu, Yanfeng Xu, Yajin Qu, Fengdi Li, Zhiguang Xiang, Haisheng Yu, Shuran Gong, Mingya Liu, Guanpeng Wang, Shunyi Wang, Zhiqi Song, Ying Liu, Wenjie Zhao, Yunlin Han, Linna Zhao, Xing Liu, Qiang Wei, Chuan Qin

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic. It currently remains unclear whether convalescing patients have a risk of reinfection. We generated a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection that was characterized by interstitial pneumonia and systemic viral dissemination mainly

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Accelerating water dissociation in bipolar membranes and for electrocatalysis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Sebastian Z. Oener, Marc J. Foster, Shannon W. Boettcher

    Catalyzing water dissociation (WD) into protons and hydroxide ions is important both for fabricating bipolar membranes (BPMs) that can couple different pH environments into a single electrochemical device, and for accelerating electrocatalytic reactions that consume protons in neutral-to-alkaline media. We designed a BPM electrolyzer to quantitatively measure WD kinetics and show that, for metal nanoparticles

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Architecture and function of human uromodulin filaments in urinary tract infections
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Gregor L. Weiss, Jessica J. Stanisich, Maximilian M. Sauer, Chia-Wei Lin, Jonathan Eras, Dawid S. Zyla, Johannes Trück, Olivier Devuyst, Markus Aebi, Martin Pilhofer, Rudi Glockshuber

    Uromodulin is the most abundant protein in human urine and forms filaments that antagonize the adhesion of uropathogens; however, filament structure and mechanism of protection remain poorly understood. We used cryo-electron tomography to show that the uromodulin filament consists of a zigzag-shaped backbone with laterally protruding arms. N-glycosylation mapping and biophysical assays revealed that

    更新日期:2020-07-02
  • Dynamic neural and glial responses of a head-specific model for traumatic brain injury in Drosophila [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Janani Saikumar, China N. Byrns, Matthew Hemphill, David F. Meaney, Nancy M. Bonini

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the strongest environmental risk factor for the accelerated development of neurodegenerative diseases. There are currently no therapeutics to address this due to lack of insight into mechanisms of injury progression, which are challenging to study in mammalian models. Here, we have developed and extensively characterized a head-specific approach to TBI in Drosophila

    更新日期:2020-07-02
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