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  • A prototype of high‐sensitivity noncoherent receiver for ADS‐B signals
    Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. (IF 1.633) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Peng Ren; Jianxin Wang; Shushu Yang; Haiwei Song
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Linear Codes From Perfect Nonlinear Functions Over Finite Fields
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Yanan Wu; Nian Li; Xiangyong Zeng

    In this paper, a class of $p$ -ary 3-weight linear codes and a class of binary 2-weight linear codes are proposed respectively by virtue of the properties of the perfect nonlinear functions over $\mathbb {F}_{p^{m}}$ and $(m,s)$ -bent functions from $\mathbb {F}_{2^{m}}$ to $\mathbb {F}_{2^{s}}$ , where $p$ is an odd prime and $m, s$ are positive integers. The weight distributions are completely determined by the sign of the Walsh transform of weakly regular bent functions and the size of the preimage of the employed $(m,s)$ -bent functions at the zero point, respectively. As a special case, a class of optimal linear codes meeting Griesmer bound is obtained from our construction.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • An Explicit Construction of Optimal Streaming Codes for Channels With Burst and Arbitrary Erasures
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Damian Dudzicz; Silas L. Fong; Ashish Khisti

    This paper presents a new construction of error correcting codes which achieves optimal recovery of a streaming source over a packet erasure channel. The channel model considered is the sliding-window erasure model, with burst and arbitrary losses, introduced by Badr et al. We present a simple construction, when the rate of the code is at least 1/2, which achieves optimal error correction in this setup. Our proposed construction is explicit and systematic. It uses off-the-shelf maximum distance separable (MDS) codes and maximum rank distance (MRD) Gabidulin block codes as constituent codes and combines them in a simple manner. This is in contrast to other recent works, where the construction involves a careful design of the generator or parity check matrix from first principles. The field size requirement which depends on the constituent MDS and MRD codes is also analyzed.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • AI Coding: Learning to Construct Error Correction Codes
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Lingchen Huang; Huazi Zhang; Rong Li; Yiqun Ge; Jun Wang

    In this paper, we investigate an artificial-intelligence (AI) driven approach to design error correction codes (ECC). Classic error-correction code design based upon coding-theoretic principles typically strives to optimize some performance-related code property such as minimum Hamming distance, decoding threshold, or subchannel reliability ordering. In contrast, AI-driven approaches, such as reinforcement learning (RL) and genetic algorithms, rely primarily on optimization methods to learn the parameters of an optimal code within a certain code family. We employ a constructor-evaluator framework, in which the code constructor can be realized by various AI algorithms and the code evaluator provides code performance metric measurements. The code constructor keeps improving the code construction to maximize code performance that is evaluated by the code evaluator. As examples, we focus on RL and genetic algorithms to construct linear block codes and polar codes. The results show that comparable code performance can be achieved with respect to the existing codes. It is noteworthy that our method can provide superior performances to classic constructions in certain cases (e.g., list decoding for polar codes).

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Construction of Multiple-Burst-Correction Codes in Transform Domain and Its Relation to LDPC Codes
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Liyuan Song; Qin Huang; Zulin Wang

    This paper analyzes and explicitly constructs quasi-cyclic (QC) codes for correcting multiple bursts via matrix transformations. Our analysis demonstrates that the multiple-burst-correction capability of QC codes is determined by sub-matrices in the diagonal of their transformed parity-check matrices. By well designing these sub-matrices, the proposed QC codes are able to achieve optimal or asymptotically optimal multiple-burst-correction capability. Moreover, it proves that these codes can be QC low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC) codes, if the diagonal sub-matrices of their transformed parity-check matrices are Hadamard powers of base matrices. Analysis and simulation results show that our QC-LDPC codes perform well over not only random symbol error/erasure channels, but also burst channels.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Rate-Loss Mitigation of SC-LDPC Codes Without Performance Degradation
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Hee-Youl Kwak; Dae-Young Yun; Jong-Seon No

    In research on spatially-coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) codes, rate-loss of SC-LDPC codes is one of the main issues to be addressed. One way to mitigate the rate-loss is to attach additional variable nodes with an irregular degree distribution, where the degree distribution is optimized with a constraint that the belief propagation (BP) threshold should not be degraded by attaching variable nodes. However, it is observed that the degree distribution obtained with the BP threshold constraint induces degradation of the finite-length performance. In order to address the problem, we propose new optimization methods to attach additional variable nodes while minimizing performance degradation. The proposed optimization methods are based on several design techniques including the scaling law, local threshold, expected graph evolution, differential evolution algorithms, the use of a protograph structure, and puncturing codewords. Using the optimized structure for additional variable nodes, the rate-loss of SC-LDPC codes can be reduced by more than 53% without sacrificing the finite-length performance. It is also shown that the rate-loss mitigation can be translated into a performance improvement if the proposed and the conventional SC-LDPC codes are compared at the same code rate.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Pilot Assisted Adaptive Thresholding for Sneak-Path Mitigation in Resistive Memories With Failed Selection Devices
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Zehui Chen; Clayton Schoeny; Lara Dolecek

    Resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) with the crossbar structure is one promising candidate to be used as a next generation non-volatile memory device. In a crossbar ReRAM, in which a memristor is positioned on each row-column intersection, the sneak-path problem is one of the main challenges for a reliable readout. The sneak-path problem can be solved with additional selection devices. When some selection devices fail short, the sneak-path problem re-occurs. The re-occurred sneak-path problem is addressed in this paper. The re-occurred sneak-path event can be described combinatorially and its adverse effect can be modeled as a parallel interference. Based on a simple pilot construction, we probabilistically characterize the inter-cell dependency of the re-occurred sneak-path events. Utilizing this dependency, we propose adaptive thresholding schemes for resistive memory readout using side information provided by pilot cells. This estimation theoretic approach effectively reduces the bit-error rate while maintaining low redundancy overhead and low complexity.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Generalized FFT-Based One-Bit Quantization System for Wideband Spectrum Sensing
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Abdelmohsen Ali; Walaa Hamouda

    In this paper, we maximize the benefits from the ultra low power wideband sensing approach based on FFT-based 1-bit quantization by addressing the practical limitations to this method. Unlike the conventional architecture that assumes a fully synchronized and coordinated Primary User (PU) network, the proposed system relaxes these limitations by providing an analytical framework for an uncoordinated asynchronous FFT-based 1-bit quantization system. For this system, we analytically derive the sub-band power which is the main parameter for the closed-form expressions representing the false alarm and detection probabilities. Further, improving the system performance through cooperative sensing is considered. While respecting the decision fusion cooperation, the optimum threshold for the generalized FFT-based 1-bit quantization system is derived such that the aggregate error rate is minimized. In addition to its significant power and complexity reduction, the presented analysis expands the use of the FFT-based 1-bit quantization wideband sensing approach in practical deployments. The sensing performance and the analytical results are assessed through comparisons with respective results from computer simulations.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Cooperative Tracking by Multi-Agent Systems Using Signals of Opportunity
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Yunlong Wang; Ying Wu; Yuan Shen

    The omnipresent signals of opportunity (SOOP) enable an effective way for passive target tracking using multiple agents. However, cooperative target tracking via non-cooperative SOOP is challenging since the positions of agents are not precisely known. In this paper, we determine the performance bounds of cooperative tracking using SOOP by multiple asynchronous agents equipped with antenna arrays. The Fisher information matrix of joint target and agent positions can be decomposed as the sum of the information from SOOP and self-localization networks, where the correlation of signals introduces an additional Fisher information component and the multipath effect is characterized by path-overlap coefficients. We demonstrate how the location information coupling between the target and agents affects localization accuracy and how the cooperation among agents improves tracking performance. Moreover, the angular information is shown to mitigate multipath and asynchronous effects by spatiotemporal separation and time-independent measurements, respectively. Then we propose a distributed hybrid belief propagation based algorithm for cooperative tracking and network synchronization via likelihood consensus. Finally, numerical results validate our theoretical analysis and the performance of the proposed algorithm.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • The Capacity of Memoryless Channels With Sampled Cyclostationary Gaussian Noise
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Nir Shlezinger; Emeka Abakasanga; Ron Dabora; Yonina C. Eldar

    Non-orthogonal communications play an important role in future digital communication architectures. In such scenarios, the received signal is corrupted by an interfering communications signal, which is much stronger than the thermal noise, and is often modeled as a cyclostationary process in continuous-time. To facilitate digital processing, the receiver typically samples the received signal synchronously with the symbol rate of the information signal . If the period of the statistics of the interference is synchronized with that of the information signal, then the sampled interference is modeled as a discrete-time (DT) cyclostationary random process. However, in the common interference scenario, the period of the statistics of the interference is not necessarily synchronized with that of the information signal. In such cases, the DT interference may be modeled as an almost cyclostationary random process. In this work we characterize the capacity of DT memoryless additive noise channels in which the noise arises from a sampled cyclostationary Gaussian process. For the case of synchronous sampling, capacity can be obtained in closed form. When sampling is not synchronized with the symbol rate of the interference, the resulting channel is not information stable, thus classic information-theoretic tools are not applicable. Using information spectrum methods, we prove that capacity can be obtained as the limit of a sequence of capacities of channels with additive cyclostationary Gaussian noise. Our results allow to characterize the effects of changes in the sampling rate and sampling time offset on the capacity of the resulting DT channel. In particular, it is demonstrated that minor variations in the sampling period, such that the resulting noise switches from being synchronously-sampled to being asynchronously-sampled, can substantially change the capacity.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Centralized Caching and Delivery of Correlated Contents Over Gaussian Broadcast Channels
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Qianqian Yang; Parisa Hassanzadeh; Deniz Gündüz; Elza Erkip

    Content delivery in a multi-user cache-aided broadcast network is studied, where a server holding a database of correlated contents communicates with the users over a Gaussian broadcast channel (BC). The minimum transmission power required to satisfy all possible demand combinations is studied, when the users are equipped with caches of equal size. Two centralized caching schemes are proposed, both of which not only utilize the user’s local caches, but also exploit the correlation among the contents in the database. The first scheme implements uncoded cache placement and delivers coded contents to users using superposition coding. The second scheme, which is proposed for small cache sizes, places coded contents in users’ caches and jointly encodes the cached contents of users and the messages targeted at them. The performance of the proposed schemes, which provide upper bounds on the required transmit power for a given cache capacity, is characterized. The scheme based on coded placement improves upon the first one for small cache sizes, and under certain conditions meets the uncoded placement lower bound. A lower bound on the required transmit power is also presented assuming uncoded cache placement. Our results indicate that exploiting the correlations among the contents in a cache-aided Gaussian BC can provide significant energy savings.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Performance Analysis of Device-to-Device Aided Multicasting in General Network Topologies
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Thomas Varela Santana; Richard Combes; Mari Kobayashi

    We consider a Device-to-Device (D2D) aided multicast channel, where a base station (BS) wishes to convey a common message to many receivers and these receivers cooperate with each other. We analyze the performance of a two-phase cooperative multicasting scheme requiring only statistical channel knowledge at the BS. Our analysis reveals that, as the number of receivers K grows, the two-phase scheme guarantees an average multicast rate of $\frac {1 }{ 2} \log _{2}(1 + \beta \ln \text {K})$ with high probability for any $\beta < \beta ^\star $ where $\beta ^\star $ depends on the network topology. This scheme undergoes a phase transition at threshold $\beta ^\star \ln \text {K}$ where transmissions are successful/unsuccessful with high probability when the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) is above/below this threshold. We also analyze the multicast outage rate when a target joint decoding probability is fixed. Finally, we propose two enhanced schemes by optimally allocating the time resource between two phases and combining received signals from two phases. 1 1 A part of the results presented in the current manuscript has been presented at the IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory 2018 [1]. The results are published in Chapter 3 of the P.h.D. Thesis of the first author [2].

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Analysis of Non-Orthogonal Sequences for Grant-Free RA With Massive MIMO
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Jie Ding; Daiming Qu; Jinho Choi

    Massive MIMO based grant-free random access (mGFRA) is a promising RA technique for massive access with low signaling overhead. However, due to a limited orthogonal preamble size, preamble collision is a key factor that constrains the success probability of mGFRA. In this paper, we examine the potential of applying non-orthogonal preambles to mitigate the issue, where two typical non-orthogonal sequences, i.e., Gaussian distribution sequences and Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequences, are taken into account. Asymptotic behaviors of the success probabilities with the non-orthogonal preamble sequences are analyzed and compared using derived closed-forms. Through the analysis we reveal that ZC sequences outperform Gaussian ones. However, though non-orthogonal sequences are able to reduce or even alleviate the preamble collision, they do not necessarily provide better performance than the orthogonal counterpart. In addition, regarding orthogonal sequences as a single-root case of ZC sequences, we show that there exists an optimal number of ZC roots that maximizes the success probability for mGFRA, which is low-bounded by orthogonal baseline. Simulation results evaluate the performance of non-orthogonal sequences in mGFRA under various practical system parameters, and validate our analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Uplink Sum-Rate and Power Scaling Laws for Multi-User Massive MIMO-FBMC Systems
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Prem Singh; Himanshu B. Mishra; Aditya K. Jagannatham; K. Vasudevan; Lajos Hanzo

    This paper analyses the performance of filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) signaling in conjunction with offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OQAM) in multi-user (MU) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Initially, closed form expressions are derived for tight lower bounds corresponding to the achievable uplink sum-rates for FBMC-based single-cell MU massive MIMO systems relying on maximum ratio combining (MRC), zero forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) receiver processing with/without perfect channel state information (CSI) at the base station (BS). This is achieved by exploiting the statistical properties of the intrinsic interference that is characteristic of FBMC systems. Analytical results are also developed for power scaling in the uplink of MU massive MIMO-FBMC systems. The above analysis of the achievable sum-rates and corresponding power scaling laws is subsequently extended to multi-cell scenarios considering both perfect as well as imperfect CSI, and the effect of pilot contamination. The delay-spread-induced performance erosion imposed on the linear processing aided BS receiver is numerically quantified by simulations. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the close match between our analysis and simulations, and to illustrate and compare the performance of FBMC and traditional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based MU massive MIMO systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Spatial Modulation for Uplink Multi-User mmWave MIMO Systems With Hybrid Structure
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Wei Wang; Wei Zhang

    Spatial modulation is an efficient transmission scheme for RF-chain limited MIMO systems. In this paper, we design a beam-switching based spatial modulation for mmWave MIMO uplink systems. At user side, a power iteration based algorithm is proposed to generate spatial symbols under the constant modulus constraint. With the generated spatial codebook, the optimal transmission mode is determined. At base station side, a round-robin path selection algorithm is proposed to select paths that are separated in angle of arrival. Inter-user interference is then suppressed by constraining the power of the received spatial symbols over selected paths only. Finally, ordered successive interference cancelation is applied to further reduce interference among users. Numerical results show that the proposed beam-switching based spatial modulation is superior to transmission over the strongest propagation path and is able to yield a satisfactory error performance in mmWave MIMO uplink.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • On the Secure Degrees of Freedom of Two-Way 2 × 2 × 2 MIMO Interference Channel
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Ye Fan; Xiaodong Wang; Xuewen Liao

    We investigate the secure degrees of freedom (SDoF) for the two-way $2\times 2\times 2$ MIMO interference channel (IC) under three wiretap models, i.e., the confidential messages (CM) model, the untrusted relays (UR) model, and the combined CM and UR (CM-UR) model. For the general case of arbitrary antenna configuration under each wiretap model, we derive the upper bound on SDoF with Markov chain and secrecy constraints, and obtain the achievability schemes with designed interference neutralization, cooperative jamming, and interference alignment schemes. To gain insight on these bounds, we further consider the special case where each user node has $M$ antennas and each relay node has $N$ antennas, and highlight the modification process when achieving the maximum SDoF. For such special case, we show that the optimum SDoF of the CM model is achieved in the regimes $M\ge N$ and $M < ({N}/{2})$ ; and for the UR model and CM-UR model, the optimum SDoF is achieved in the regimes $N\le ({M}/{2})$ , $N > 2M$ , and $N=M$ .

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Multiuser Detection for Nonlinear MIMO Uplink
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Sheng Chen; Soon Xin Ng; Emad F. Khalaf; Ali Morfeq; Naif D. Alotaibi

    For the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uplink employing high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signaling and with nonlinear high power amplifiers (HPAs) at mobile users’ transmitters, the existing multiuser detection methods can no longer be applied. We propose a novel nonlinear multiuser detection scheme for the nonlinear MIMO uplink. Specifically, we adopt an effective B-spline parameterization of the nonlinear transmit HPAs and derive an efficient and accurate algorithm to identify the nonlinear MIMO uplink channel, including the nonlinear B-spline model of the nonlinear transmit HPAs and the estimate of the linear MIMO channel matrix. Moreover, as the direct result of this nonlinear MIMO channel identification, the B-spline inverse model of nonlinear transmit HPAs can readily be identified. The nonlinear multiuser detection can be effectively implemented by the zero-forcing linear detection based on the estimated linear MIMO channel and followed by compensating the nonlinear distortion of the nonlinear transmit HPAs based on the estimated B-spline inverse model. An extensive simulation investigation is performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed nonlinear multiuser detection scheme for nonlinear MIMO uplink with high-order QAM signaling.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Bridging the Gap Between MMSE-DFE and Optimal Detection of MIMO Systems
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Mohammad Kazem Izadinasab; Oussama Damen

    In this paper, we propose a novel low-complexity, near-optimal soft-input soft-output detector for $\text {N}\times \text {M}$ multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Our algorithm is based on the combination of minimum mean square error decision feedback equalization (MMSE-DFE) and conditional optimization. In a round-robin fashion, one symbol is detected using exhaustive search in such a way that all $\text {N}\times (\text {M}-1)$ submatrices of the baseband channel matrix are considered and the one with the best metric is chosen. This search over all columns of the channel matrix, which can be performed in parallel, has the advantages of improving the performance of the hard-output version of the detector, and refining the list of candidates for efficient implementation of the soft-output detector for MIMO systems with error correcting codes. In particular, it is shown that the error performance of the soft-output system is comparable to that of the list sphere decoder (LSD) but with much smaller list size, and hence smaller complexity than the latter. We also analyze the performance and complexity of the proposed algorithm and discuss different techniques to further reduce its complexity without affecting the performance. Finally, the obtained theoretical results are validated via simulations.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Toward Massive MIMO 2.0: Understanding Spatial Correlation, Interference Suppression, and Pilot Contamination
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Luca Sanguinetti; Emil Björnson; Jakob Hoydis

    Since the seminal paper by Marzetta from 2010, Massive MIMO has changed from being a theoretical concept with an infinite number of antennas to a practical technology. The key concepts are adopted into the 5G New Radio Standard and base stations (BSs) with $M=64$ fully digital transceivers have been commercially deployed in sub-6GHz bands. The fast progress was enabled by many solid research contributions of which the vast majority assume spatially uncorrelated channels and signal processing schemes developed for single-cell operation. These assumptions make the performance analysis and optimization of Massive MIMO tractable but have three major caveats: 1) practical channels are spatially correlated; 2) large performance gains can be obtained by multicell processing, without BS cooperation; 3) the interference caused by pilot contamination creates a finite capacity limit, as $M\to \infty $ . There is a thin line of papers that avoided these caveats, but the results are easily missed. Hence, this tutorial article explains the importance of considering spatial channel correlation and using signal processing schemes designed for multicell networks. We present recent results on the fundamental limits of Massive MIMO, which are not determined by pilot contamination but the ability to acquire channel statistics. These results will guide the journey towards the next level of Massive MIMO, which we call “Massive MIMO 2.0”.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Generalized Polarization-Space Modulation
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Jiliang Zhang; Kyeong Jin Kim; Andrés Alayón Glazunov; Yang Wang; Liqin Ding; Jie Zhang

    A novel generalized polarization-space modulation (GPSM) is proposed for polarized multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with a limit number of radio frequency (RF) chains. In the spatial domain, multiple dual-polarized (DP) transmit antennas are activated, and then combinations of those indices are used to convey information. While in the polarization domain, depending on the random input bits, only one polarization state is selected for each active DP transmit antenna to transmit information following the rule of the polarized shift keying. At the receiver, the maximum likelihood detector is employed as a benchmark to detect information bits being used to select the polarization state and activated DP antennas. In the detector, imperfect channel state information (CSI) is taken into account. Two less computationally complex detectors, i.e., a linear detector and a sphere decoding (SD) detector are proposed to relieve the computational burden. Sacrificing the average bit error probability (ABEP) performance, the proposed linear detector can reduce the computational complexity significantly. The proposed SD detector can achieve the optimum ABEP performance, while reducing computational complexity by reducing the search space. A closed-form union upper bound (UUB) on the ABEP of the GPSM system with imperfect CSI at the receiver is analytically derived and validated through simulations. From the UUB, a loose asymptotic bound on the ABEP, which sheds light on deriving the diversity gain and the coding gain, is derived. Numerical results show that the signal-to-noise ratio loss caused by increasing the number of transmit antennas is less than 3 dB while the spectral efficiency is increased by 7 b/z/Hz. Therefore, the GPSM can be a promising candidate of down link massive MIMO systems to achieve a high spectral efficiency with a limit number of RF chains.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • FFT-Assisted Coded Modem for Intensity-Modulated Signals Under Peak and Average Power Constraints
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Ru-Han Chen; Jian Zhang; Yan-Yu Zhang

    We consider an intensity-modulated (IM) communication system in the presence of Gaussian noise. To improve the reliability of such a system, a space-only constellation-optimal structure was proposed by Zhang under a peak and an average power constraint. However, how to utilize time resource to design signals has been an unsolved problem. In this paper, we design a complexity-efficient coded modem for IM signals under a peak- and an average-power constraint in finite-blocklength regimes. The proposed modem consists of a lattice-based multidimensional constellation bounded by the optimal shaping region, decomposable constellation mapping and demapping based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), and a fast demodulator with near maximum-likelihood performance. To the authors’ best knowledge, for the first time, the FFT and the inverse FFT (IFFT) algorithms are used for constellation mapping to reduce the involved complexity. Both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation results show that our proposed modem has significant signal-to-noise ratio gains and can support flexible-rate transmission compared to the one-dimensional optimal constellation with Gray labeling.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Importance Sampling for Coded-Modulation Error Probability Estimation
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Josep Font-Segura; Alfonso Martinez; Albert Guillén i Fàbregas

    This paper proposes an efficient simulation method based on importance sampling to estimate the random-coding error probability of coded modulation. The technique is valid for complex-valued modulations over Gaussian channels, channels with memory, and naturally extends to fading channels. The simulation method is built on two nested importance samplers to respectively estimate the pairwise error probability and generate the channel input and output. The effect of the respective number of samples on the overall bias and variance of the estimate of the error probability is characterized. For a memoryless channel, the estimator is shown to be consistent and with a small variance, growing with the square root of the code length, rather than the exponential growth of a standard Monte Carlo estimator.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Cache-Aided Interference Management in Partially Connected Linear Networks
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Fan Xu; Meixia Tao; Tiankai Zheng

    This paper studies caching in $(K\!+\!L\!-\!1)\!\times \!K$ partially connected wireless linear networks, where each of the $K$ receivers locally communicates with $L$ out of the $K\!+\!L\!-\!1$ transmitters, and caches are at all nodes. The goal is to design caching and delivery schemes to reduce the transmission latency, by using normalized delivery time (NDT) as the performance metric. For small transmitter cache size (any $L$ transmitters can collectively store the database just once), we propose a cyclic caching strategy so that each of every $L$ consecutive transmitters caches a distinct part of each file; the delivery strategy exploits coded multicasting and interference alignment by introducing virtual receivers. The obtained NDT is within a multiplicative gap of 2 to the optimum in the entire cache size region, and optimal in certain region. For large transmitter cache size (any $L$ transmitters can collectively store the database for multiple copies), we propose a modified caching strategy so that every bit is repeatedly cached at consecutive transmitters; the delivery strategy exploits self-interference cancellation and interference neutralization. By combining these schemes, the NDT is optimal in a larger region. We also extend our results to linear networks with heterogeneous receiver connectivity and partially connected circular networks.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Scheduling Policies for Federated Learning in Wireless Networks
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Howard H. Yang; Zuozhu Liu; Tony Q. S. Quek; H. Vincent Poor

    Motivated by the increasing computational capacity of wireless user equipments (UEs), e.g., smart phones, tablets, or vehicles, as well as the increasing concerns about sharing private data, a new machine learning model has emerged, namely federated learning (FL), that allows a decoupling of data acquisition and computation at the central unit. Unlike centralized learning taking place in a data center, FL usually operates in a wireless edge network where the communication medium is resource-constrained and unreliable. Due to limited bandwidth, only a portion of UEs can be scheduled for updates at each iteration. Due to the shared nature of the wireless medium, transmissions are subjected to interference and are not guaranteed. The performance of FL system in such a setting is not well understood. In this paper, an analytical model is developed to characterize the performance of FL in wireless networks. Particularly, tractable expressions are derived for the convergence rate of FL in a wireless setting, accounting for effects from both scheduling schemes and inter-cell interference. Using the developed analysis, the effectiveness of three different scheduling policies, i.e., random scheduling (RS), round robin (RR), and proportional fair (PF), are compared in terms of FL convergence rate. It is shown that running FL with PF outperforms RS and RR if the network is operating under a high signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) threshold, while RR is more preferable when the SINR threshold is low. Moreover, the FL convergence rate decreases rapidly as the SINR threshold increases, thus confirming the importance of compression and quantization of the update parameters. The analysis also reveals a trade-off between the number of scheduled UEs and subchannel bandwidth under a fixed amount of available spectrum.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Monte-Carlo Integration Models for Multiple Scattering Based Optical Wireless Communication
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Renzhi Yuan; Jianshe Ma; Ping Su; Yuhan Dong; Julian Cheng

    Monte-Carlo models are analyzed for multiple scattering channels in optical wireless communications. It is demonstrated that the system impulse response function can be obtained by Monte-Carlo integration model. The convergence performance for the Monte-Carlo integration model is analyzed and improved by introducing different sampling methods. The simulation results show that the gamma function model for channel impulse response function can only be applied to the cases where the common volume between the transmitted light beam and the receiving field-of-view is open. Numerical simulation suggests that for a three-order scattering case, the computation efficiency of the Monte-Carlo integration model based on partial importance sampling is about 12 times of the original Monte-Carlo integration model based on uniform sampling, and 5.6 times of the widely used Monte-Carlo simulation model. The numerical results also show that the Monte-Carlo integration model based on partial importance sampling has higher computation efficiency than the Monte-Carlo simulation model in a higher-order scattering communication scenario.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Weighted Sum Secrecy Rate Maximization for D2D Underlaid Cellular Networks
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Hao Xu; Giuseppe Caire; Wei Xu; Ming Chen

    This paper investigates the secrecy rate performance of a device-to-device (D2D) underlaid cellular network with an eavesdropper. Both the base station (BS) and the eavesdropper are assumed to have multiple antennas and apply minimum mean-square error (MMSE) receivers for detection. Different from the literature, mainly focused on enhancing the security of cellular communication using D2D jammers while neglected the secrecy performance of D2D communication, this paper aims to maximize the instantaneous weighted sum secrecy rate (IWSSR) of both cellular and D2D users. The maximization of IWSSR with respect to the transmit power of mobile users is a non-convex problem with non-differentiable objective function. In order to obtain efficient feasible solutions, we transform the IWSSR maximization problem to a min-max problem, relax the non-negative operator in secrecy rate expressions and then propose an alternative algorithm to solve the remaining problem. Simulation results show that the IWSSR of the network can be effectively increased by the proposed algorithm and, compared with exhaustive search (ES), the proposed algorithm performs very close to ES and involves much less computational complexity.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A Hidden OSTBC Scheme to Enhance Physical Layer Security by Employing a Pseudorandom Precoder
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Nader Sanandaji; Abolfazl Falahati

    The capability of exploiting Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes (OSTBC) for increasing physical layer security of wireless systems is studied. A technique named “hidden OSTBC” is introduced, in which, a pseudorandom sequence is utilized by both transmitter and legitimate receiver to provide required security. Traditionally, employing pseudorandom sequences with methods such as spread spectrum or cooperative jamming involves huge amount of bandwidth or transmission power constraints, which are major challenges for wireless systems. Without requiring additional power or bandwidth, this study is designed to address exploitation of a pseudorandom antipodal sequence as a precoder. Elements of this sequence are multiplied to each antenna’s transmitting symbol, and legitimate receiver employs the same sequence upon its combining rule. Mathematical analysis and simulations prove that an eavesdropper who does not know the pseudorandom sequence suffers from a degraded equivalent channel. Security enhancement is studied by investigating eavesdropper’s higher error rate compared with that of legitimate receiver. Also, by employing lattice-based codebooks, a lower-bound is drawn for secrecy capacity, implying the achievability of nearly perfect secrecy regarding information theoretic analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Secure Communications for UAV-Enabled Mobile Edge Computing Systems
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Yi Zhou; Cunhua Pan; Phee Lep Yeoh; Kezhi Wang; Maged Elkashlan; Branka Vucetic; Yonghui Li

    In this paper, we propose a secure unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mobile edge computing (MEC) system where multiple ground users offload large computing tasks to a nearby legitimate UAV in the presence of multiple eavesdropping UAVs with imperfect locations. To enhance security, jamming signals are transmitted from both the full-duplex legitimate UAV and non-offloading ground users. For this system, we design a low-complexity iterative algorithm to maximize the minimum secrecy capacity subject to latency, minimum offloading and total power constraints. Specifically, we jointly optimize the UAV location, users’ transmit power, UAV jamming power, offloading ratio, UAV computing capacity, and offloading user association. Numerical results show that our proposed algorithm significantly outperforms baseline strategies over a wide range of UAV self-interference (SI) efficiencies, locations and packet sizes of ground users. Furthermore, we show that there exists a fundamental tradeoff between the security and latency of UAV-enabled MEC systems which depends on the UAV SI efficiency and total UAV power constraints.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Secrecy and Covert Communications Against UAV Surveillance via Multi-Hop Networks
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Hui-Ming Wang; Yan Zhang; Xu Zhang; Zhetao Li

    The deployment of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for surveillance and monitoring gives rise to the confidential information leakage challenge in both civilian and military environments. The security and covert communication problems for a pair of terrestrial nodes against UAV surveillance are considered in this paper. To overcome the information leakage and increase the transmission reliability, a multi-hop relaying strategy is deployed. We aim to optimize the throughput by carefully designing the parameters of the multi-hop network, including the coding rates, transmit power, and required number of hops. In the secure transmission scenario, the expressions of the connection probability and secrecy outage probability of an end-to-end path are derived and the closed-form expressions of the optimal transmit power, transmission and secrecy rates under a fixed number of hops are obtained. In the covert communication problem, under the constraints of the detection error rate and aggregate power, the sub-problem of transmit power allocation is a convex problem and can be solved numerically. Simulation shows the impact of network settings on the transmission performance. The trade-off between secrecy/covertness and efficiency of the multi-hop transmission is discussed which leads to the existence of the optimal number of hops.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Learning-Based Resource Management in Device-to-Device Communications With Energy Harvesting Requirements
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Kisong Lee; Jun-Pyo Hong; Hyowoon Seo; Wan Choi

    In this paper, we propose a resource management method based on deep learning, which controls both the transmit power and the power splitting ratio to maximize the sum rate with low computational complexity in D2D networks with energy harvesting requirements. The introduction of the energy harvesting requirements to D2D networks makes it hard to design an effective resource management solution since the treatment of interference signals should be completely different from the conventional resource management focusing only on the rate maximization. To deal with drawbacks of the conventional deep learning-based approach, we propose a new training algorithm suitable for our resource management problem. Numerical simulations show that the proposed learning-based method outperforms the benchmark methods, which are derived from some relevant works, in most situations and achieves performances comparable to an exhaustive search in terms of the sum rate and energy outage probability. Although the conventional optimization-based method is derived to achieve the asymptotic optimal performance for a large network, the proposed deep learning method is shown to achieve almost the same performance with much lower computational complexity. Furthermore, simulation results offer new insights to the impact of the energy harvesting requirements on the behaviour of the optimal resource management.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Resource Allocation in NOMA Systems for Centralized and Distributed Antennas With Mixed Traffic Using Matching Theory
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Marie-Josepha Youssef; Joumana Farah; Charbel Abdel Nour; Catherine Douillard

    In this paper, we study the traffic-aware resource allocation problem for a system with mixed traffic types. The considered framework encompasses real-time (RT) users having strict QoS requirements (in terms of amount of data and latency), and best-effort (BE) users for which the system tries to strike a balance between throughput and fairness. The resource allocation problem is studied in different contexts: orthogonal and non-orthogonal multiple access (OMA and NOMA respectively) in either centralized or distributed antenna systems (CAS and DAS respectively). Following the formulation of the resource optimization problem, we propose a low complexity suboptimal solution based on matching theory for each system context. We also propose an iterative approach to determine the number of subbands per antenna for the DAS contexts. The proposed techniques aim at guaranteeing the requirements of RT users while maximizing the utility function of BE users. Simulation results show that the proposed allocation method based on matching theory greatly outperforms a previously proposed greedy approach, especially in terms of RT users satisfaction.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Sequence-Based Unicast in Wireless Sensor Networks
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Fang Liu; Kenneth W. Shum; Wing Shing Wong

    We consider a single-hop wireless sensor network in which each sensor node has an individual elastic data stream to transmit to each other node. We refer to this traffic pattern as unicast in this paper. The network has multiple slotted channels available for the data transmissions. To guarantee successful unicast within a bounded delay, we consider deterministic schemes that pre-assign each node a periodic schedule sequence to schedule transmitting and receiving at each time slot. The sequence period should be minimized since it upper bounds the unicast delay. We have investigated both synchronous TDMA sequences and asynchronous sequences. Since accurate time synchronization is difficult to achieve in sensor networks, we mainly present analysis and design for asynchronous sequences. In this paper, for a group-based channel assignment, we present a lower bound on the common period and propose a sequence construction method by which the period can achieve the same order as the lower bound. We also analyze optimal transmitting and receiving probabilities for two random schemes and compare their frequency utilization efficiency. Finally, unicast delay and energy consumption performance are compared by simulations.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Analog Mappings for Non-Linear Channels With Applications to Underwater Channels
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Mohamed Hassanin; Javier Garcia-Frias

    This paper discuses the application of Analog Joint Source Channel Coding (JSCC) to Non-Linear Channels, including underwater acoustic channels. Different from traditional digital communication systems, which utilize a source code followed by a channel code, Analog JSCC systems perform coding via a single mapping. We will focus on a particular class of analog codes called space filling curves. The underwater acoustic channel is typically non-linear with Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). We will first study a simplified version assuming no ISI, developing a scheme to adapt space filling curves to this environment, and studying the theoretical limits. Then, we will extend the analysis to the end-to-end acoustic channel (including ISI), discussing the proposed system in this case. Finally, we will present simulation results of the proposed communication system for the simplified (no ISI) and end-to-end channels.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Rate Distortion via Deep Learning
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Qing Li; Yang Chen

    We explore the connections between rate distortion/lossy source coding and deep learning models, the Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and Deep Belief Networks (DBNs). We show that rate distortion is a function of the RBM log partition function and that RBM/DBN can be used to learn the rate distortion approaching posterior as in the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm. We propose an algorithm for lossy compressing of binary sources. The algorithm consists of two stages, a training stage that learns the posterior with training data of the same class as the source, and a compression/reproduction stage that is comprised of a lossless compression and a lossless reproduction. Theoretical results show that the proposed algorithm achieves the optimum rate distortion function for stationary ergodic sources asymptotically. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the reported best results.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Signal Detection and Optimal Antenna Selection for Ambient Backscatter Communications With Multi-Antenna Tags
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Chen Chen; Gongpu Wang; Panagiotis D. Diamantoulakis; Ruisi He; George K. Karagiannidis; Chintha Tellambura

    Ambient backscatter devices (tags and readers) use existing radio frequency (RF) signals to transmit data. Most prior works consider single-antenna tags, but this paper investigates the case of multiple-antenna tags, which are capable of simultaneous energy harvesting and data transmission. However, the multi-antenna channel between the tag and the reader, and the unpredictable nature of RF signals due to uncontrollable RF sources (e.g., location and transmit power), make signal detection highly challenging. Thus, the detection process becomes a hypothesis testing problem with unknown parameters. Consequently, we design a blind detector based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) without using channel state information (CSI), signal power and noise variance. The decision threshold and detection probability of it are also analyzed in detail. Furthermore, to maximize its detection performance, we develop the optimal backscatter antenna selection scheme. Interestingly, we show that the detector performs best when only two backscatter antennas are selected. Finally, extensive simulation results validate the analysis and illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed detector.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Exploiting Power Adaptation With Transmit Antenna Selection for Interference-Outage Constrained Underlay Spectrum Sharing
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Rimalapudi Sarvendranath; Neelesh B. Mehta

    In underlay spectrum sharing, the interference constraint limits transmissions by the secondary transmitter, which concurrently accesses the spectrum, to protect the primary user from excessive interference. Transmit antenna selection enables a secondary user to overcome the limitations imposed by the interference constraint using low-complexity hardware. We develop an optimal and novel joint antenna selection and power adaptation rule that minimizes the average symbol error probability (SEP) of a secondary user that is subject to two practically well-motivated constraints. The first is the less-studied but general interference-outage constraint, which limits the probability that the interference power at the primary receiver exceeds a threshold. The second constraint limits the peak transmit power of the secondary transmitter. We show that the optimal rule for the interference-outage constraint has a novel structure that is markedly different from the rules considered in the literature. We then present an insightful geometric interpretation of its structure. Using this, we also propose a practically amenable and near-optimal variant of the optimal rule called the linear rule, and analyze its performance. Our numerical results show that the optimal rule reduces the average SEP by one to two orders of magnitude compared to the rules in the literature.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation for Secure NOMA-Enabled Mobile Edge Computing Networks
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Wei Wu; Fuhui Zhou; Rose Qingyang Hu; Baoyun Wang

    Mobile edge computing (MEC) has been envisaged as a promising technique in the next-generation wireless networks. In order to improve the security of computation tasks offloading and enhance user connectivity, physical layer security and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) are studied in MEC-aware networks. The secrecy outage probability is adopted to measure the secrecy performance of computation offloading by considering a practically passive eavesdropping scenario. The weighted sum-energy consumption minimization problem is firstly investigated subject to the secrecy offloading rate constraints, the computation latency constraints and the secrecy outage probability constraints. The semi-closed form expression for the optimal solution is derived. We then investigate the secrecy outage probability minimization problem by taking the priority of two users into account, and characterize the optimal secrecy offloading rates and power allocations with closed-form expressions. Numerical results demonstrate that the performance of our proposed design are better than those of the alternative benchmark schemes.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Online Spectrum Partitioning for LTE-U and WLAN Coexistence in Unlicensed Spectrum
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Weihua Wu; Qinghai Yang; Runzi Liu; Tony Q. S. Quek; Kyung Sup Kwak

    Long-term evolution (LTE) and wireless local area network (WLAN) are often presented as opposing technologies. Hence, efficient partitioning of the spectrum resources carries critical importance for achieving the coexistence of these on the unlicensed spectrum band. In this paper, we firstly develop an online spectrum partitioning algorithm, which needs little signal transmission and exchange between coordination manager and networks. Then, we focus on the convergence analysis of the online spectrum partitioning algorithm, which is difficult due to the time-varying wireless channels. To overcome this challenge, we model the algorithm and network dynamics as the stochastic differential equations (SDE) and show that the algorithm convergence is equivalent to the stochastic stability of a virtual stochastic dynamic system constructed by the SDEs. Then, we give the sufficient condition about the algorithm convergence and the upper bound on the tracking error of the spectrum partitioning algorithm under exogenous variations of time-varying channel state information (CSI). Based on the insights of the impact of time-varying CSI on algorithm convergence, an online compensative spectrum partitioning algorithm is developed to offset the tracking error caused by the disturbance of time-varying CSI. Through performance evaluation, we show that the coexistence performance efficiency will come at low expense of algorithm complexity and signal overhead.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Opportunistic Topological Interference Management
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Xinping Yi; Hua Sun

    The topological interference management (TIM) problem studies the degrees of freedom (DoF) of partially-connected interference networks with no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitters except the network topology (i.e., partial connectivity). In this paper, we consider a variant of the TIM problem with uncertainty in network topology, where the channel state with partial connectivity is only known to belong to one of $M$ states at the transmitters. In particular, the transmitter has access to all network topological information over $M$ states, but is unaware of which state it falls in exactly for communication. The receiver at any state is aware of the exact state it falls in besides the network topologies of all states, and wish to recover as much highly-prioritized information at current state as possible. We formulate it as the opportunistic TIM problem with network uncertainty modeled by $M$ state-varying network topologies. To adapt to network topology uncertainty and different message decoding priority, joint encoding and opportunistic decoding are enabled at the transmitters and receivers respectively. Specifically, being aware of all possible network topologies, each transmitter sends a signal jointly encoded from all messages desired over $M$ states, say $M$ distinct messages, and at a certain State $m$ , Receiver $k$ wishes to opportunistically decode the first $\pi _{k}(m) \in \{1,2,\cdots,M\}$ higher-priority messages. Under this opportunistic TIM setting, we construct a multi-state conflict graph to capture the mutual conflict of messages over $M$ states, and characterize the optimal DoF region of two classes of network topologies via polyhedral combinatorics. A remarkable fact is that, under an additional mild monotonous condition, the optimality conditions of orthogonal access and one-to-one interference alignment still apply to TIM with uncertainty in network topology.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • On the Performance Gain of NOMA Over OMA in Uplink Communication Systems
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Zhiqiang Wei; Lei Yang; Derrick Wing Kwan Ng; Jinhong Yuan; Lajos Hanzo

    In this paper, we investigate and reveal the ergodic sum-rate gain (ESG) of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) over orthogonal multiple access (OMA) in uplink cellular communication systems. A base station equipped with a single-antenna, with multiple antennas, and with massive antenna arrays is considered both in single-cell and multi-cell deployments. In particular, in single-antenna systems, we identify two types of gains brought about by NOMA: 1) a large-scale near-far gain arising from the distance discrepancy between the base station and users; 2) a small-scale fading gain originating from the multipath channel fading. Furthermore, we reveal that the large-scale near-far gain increases with the normalized cell size, while the small-scale fading gain is a constant, given by $\gamma = 0.57721$ nat/s/Hz, in Rayleigh fading channels. When extending single-antenna NOMA to M -antenna NOMA, we prove that both the large-scale near-far gain and small-scale fading gain achieved by single-antenna NOMA can be increased by a factor of M for a large number of users. Moreover, given a massive antenna array at the base station and considering a fixed ratio between the number of antennas, M , and the number of users, K , the ESG of NOMA over OMA increases linearly with both M and K . We then further extend the analysis to a multi-cell scenario. Compared to the single-cell case, the ESG in multi-cell systems degrades as NOMA faces more severe inter-cell interference due to the non-orthogonal transmissions. Besides, we unveil that a large cell size is always beneficial to the ergodic sum-rate performance of NOMA in both single-cell and multi-cell systems. Numerical results verify the accuracy of the analytical results derived and confirm the insights revealed about the ESG of NOMA over OMA in different scenarios.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Anti-Intelligent UAV Jamming Strategy via Deep Q-Networks
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Ning Gao; Zhijin Qin; Xiaojun Jing; Qiang Ni; Shi Jin

    The downlink communications are vulnerable to intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) jamming attack. In this paper, we propose a novel anti-intelligent UAV jamming strategy, in which the ground users can learn the optimal trajectory to elude such jamming. The problem is formulated as a stackelberg dynamic game, where the UAV jammer acts as a leader and the ground users act as followers. First, as the UAV jammer is only aware of the incomplete channel state information (CSI) of the ground users, for the first attempt, we model such leader sub-game as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Then, we obtain the optimal jamming trajectory via the developed deep recurrent Q-networks (DRQN) in the three-dimension space. Next, for the followers sub-game, we use the Markov decision process (MDP) to model it. Then we obtain the optimal communication trajectory via the developed deep Q-networks (DQN) in the two-dimension space. We prove the existence of the stackelberg equilibrium and derive the closed-form expression for the stackelberg equilibrium in a special case. Moreover, some insightful remarks are obtained and the time complexity of the proposed defense strategy is analyzed. The simulations show that the proposed defense strategy outperforms the benchmark strategies.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Conditional Capacity and Transmit Signal Design for SWIPT Systems With Multiple Nonlinear Energy Harvesting Receivers
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Rania Morsi; Vahid Jamali; Amelie Hagelauer; Derrick Wing Kwan Ng; Robert Schober

    In this paper, we study information-theoretic limits for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems employing practical nonlinear radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting (EH) receivers (Rxs). In particular, we consider a SWIPT system with one transmitter that broadcasts a common signal to an information decoding (ID) Rx and multiple EH Rxs. Owing to the nonlinearity of the EH Rxs’ circuitry, the efficiency of wireless power transfer depends on the waveform of the transmitted signal. We aim to answer the following fundamental question: What is the optimal input distribution of the transmit signal waveform that maximizes the information transfer rate at the ID Rx conditioned on individual minimum required direct-current (DC) powers to be harvested at the EH Rxs? Specifically, we study the conditional capacity problem of a SWIPT system impaired by additive white Gaussian noise subject to average-power (AP) and peak-power (PP) constraints at the transmitter and nonlinear EH constraints at the EH Rxs. To this end, we develop a novel nonlinear EH model that captures the saturation of the harvested DC power by taking into account not only the forward current of the rectifying diode but also the reverse breakdown current. Then, we derive a novel semi-closed-form expression for the harvested DC power, which simplifies to closed form for low input RF powers. The derived analytical expressions are shown to closely match circuit simulation results. We solve the conditional capacity problem for real- and complex-valued signalling and prove that the optimal input distribution that maximizes the rate-energy (R-E) region is unique and discrete with a finite number of mass points. Furthermore, we show that, for the considered nonlinear EH model and a given AP constraint, the boundary of the R-E region saturates for high PP constraints due to the saturation of the harvested DC power for high input RF powers. In addition, we devise a suboptimal input distribution whose R-E tradeoff performance is close to optimal. All theoretical findings are verified by numerical evaluations.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Hybrid Beamforming With Dynamic Subarrays and Low-Resolution PSs for mmWave MU-MISO Systems
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Hongyu Li; Ming Li; Qian Liu

    Analog/digital hybrid beamforming architectures with large-scale antenna arrays have been widely considered in millimeter wave (mmWave) communication systems because they can address the tradeoff between performance and hardware efficiency compared with traditional fully-digital beamforming. Most of the prior work on hybrid beamforming focused on fully-connected architecture or partially-connected scheme with fixed-subarrays, in which the analog beamformers are usually realized by infinite-resolution phase shifters (PSs). In this paper, we introduce a novel hybrid beamforming architecture with dynamic subarrays and hardware-efficient low-resolution PSs for mmWave multiuser multiple-input single-output (MU-MISO) systems. By dynamically connecting each RF chain to a non-overlap subarray via a switch network and PSs, we can exploit multiple-antenna and multiuser diversities to mitigate the performance loss due to the use of practical low-resolution PSs. An iterative hybrid beamformer design algorithm is first proposed based on fractional programming (FP), aiming at maximizing the sum-rate performance of the MU-MISO system. In an effort to reduce the complexity, we also present a simple heuristic hybrid beamformer design algorithm for the dynamic subarray scheme. Extensive simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed hybrid beamforming architecture with dynamic subarrays and low-resolution PSs compared to existing fixed-subarray schemes.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A Game-Theoretic Analysis for Complementary and Substitutable IoT Services Delivery With Externalities
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Yang Zhang; Zehui Xiong; Dusit Niyato; Ping Wang; H. Vincent Poor; Dong In Kim

    The Internet of Things (IoT) connects mobile and wireless devices, and enables the IoT service providers to deliver IoT services to the mobile users in various applications, e.g., transportation and communications. In this paper, the problem of IoT service delivery management is studied with the consideration of substitutability, complementarity, and externalities of delivering IoT services due to the diversity of different IoT components in mobile systems. The substitutable IoT services have similar functionalities to serve IoT users, and the IoT users can switch to buy service from any IoT service provider. The complementary IoT services have different functionalities to serve IoT users, and the IoT users may request a bundle of IoT services from multiple IoT service providers as their IoT services can be integrated. Externalities represent the situation in which IoT users in the same system can affect the utilities of each other due to the connections and interference among the IoT users, which leads to the presence of network effect and congestion effect. To analyze the impact of these factors on the performance of IoT systems, a multi-leader multi-follower Stackelberg game model is introduced. Therein, the IoT service providers and IoT users make their strategic decisions in terms of pricing and service requests, respectively, toward their individual objectives in a distributed manner. A closed-form equilibrium solution is derived analytically through backward induction.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Power Allocation in Cache-Aided NOMA Systems: Optimization and Deep Reinforcement Learning Approaches
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Khai Nguyen Doan; Mojtaba Vaezi; Wonjae Shin; H. Vincent Poor; Hyundong Shin; Tony Q. S. Quek

    This work exploits the advantages of two prominent techniques in future communication networks, namely caching and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA). Particularly, a system with Rayleigh fading channels and cache-enabled users is analyzed. It is shown that the caching-NOMA combination provides a new opportunity of cache hit which enhances the cache utility as well as the effectiveness of NOMA. Importantly, this comes without requiring users’ collaboration, and thus, avoids many complicated issues such as users’ privacy and security, selfishness, etc. In order to optimize users’ quality of service and, concurrently, ensure the fairness among users, the probability that all users can decode the desired signals is maximized. In NOMA, a combination of multiple messages are sent to users, and the defined objective is approached by finding an appropriate power allocation for message signals. To address the power allocation problem, two novel methods are proposed. The first one is a divide-and-conquer-based method for which closed-form expressions for the optimal resource allocation policy are derived making this method simple and flexible to the system context. The second one is based on deep reinforcement learning method that allows all users to share the full bandwidth. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods and to compare their performance.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Learning Physical-Layer Communication With Quantized Feedback
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Jinxiang Song; Bile Peng; Christian Häger; Henk Wymeersch; Anant Sahai

    Data-driven optimization of transmitters and receivers can reveal new modulation and detection schemes and enable physical-layer communication over unknown channels. Previous work has shown that practical implementations of this approach require a feedback signal from the receiver to the transmitter. In this paper, we study the impact of quantized feedback on data-driven learning of physical-layer communication. A novel quantization method is proposed, which exploits the specific properties of the feedback signal and is suitable for non-stationary signal distributions. The method is evaluated for linear and nonlinear channels. Simulation results show that feedback quantization does not appreciably affect the learning process and can lead to similar performance as compared to the case where unquantized feedback is used for training, even with 1-bit quantization. In addition, it is shown that learning is surprisingly robust to noisy feedback where random bit flips are applied to the quantization bits.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Joint User Access Mode Selection and Content Popularity Prediction in Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access-Based F-RANs
    IEEE Trans. Commun. (IF 5.690) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Shi Yan; Lin Qi; Yangcheng Zhou; Mugen Peng; G. M. Shafiqur Rahman

    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is regarded as a promising technology for the next-generation wireless communication system. Introducing NOMA into the fog radio access networks (F-RANs) is able to provide simultaneous transmissions to multiple users and significantly enhance F-RAN performance. However, due to the increasing number of users and the constraint of caching storage capacity, there exists a tradeoff between NOMA transmission performance and fronthaul saving. In this paper, a hierarchical game framework is presented to solve the joint optimization problem of user access mode selection and content popularity prediction in NOMA based F-RANs. More specifically, the access mode selection problem is formulated as an evolutionary game. The proposals’ evolutionary payoff expressions are derived by stochastic geometry tool, and the cost functions are related to the fog access point (F-AP) content placement profile as well as the fronthaul constraint. Moreover, the problem of what contents the F-AP should cache is modeled as a content popularity prediction problem, and based on both local and global user request states, a machine learning algorithm is presented to solve it. Simulation results validate the accuracy of analytical results and demonstrate our proposed algorithms can further improve the performance of NOMA based F-RANs.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Modeling and implementation of 5G edge caching over satellite
    Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. (IF 1.633) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Thang X. Vu; Yannick Poirier; Symeon Chatzinotas; Nicola Maturo; Joel Grotz; Frederic Roelens

    The fifth‐generation (5G) wireless networks have to deal with the high data rate and stringent latency requirements due to the massive invasion of connected devices and data‐hungry applications. Edge caching is a promising technique to overcome these challenges by prefetching the content closer to the end users at the edge node's local storage. In this paper, we analyze the performance of edge caching 5G networks with the aid of satellite communication systems. First, we investigate the satellite‐aided edge caching systems in two promising use cases: (a) in dense urban areas and (b) in sparsely populated regions, eg, rural areas. Second, we study the effectiveness of satellite systems via the proposed satellite‐aided caching algorithm, which can be used in three configurations: (a) mono‐beam satellite, (b) multi‐beam satellite, and (c) hybrid mode. Third, the proposed caching algorithm is evaluated by using both empirical Zipf‐distribution data and the more realistic Movielens dataset. Last but not least, the proposed caching scheme is implemented and tested by our developed demonstrators which allow real‐time analysis of the cache hit ratio and cost analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • A flexible LEO satellite modem with Ka‐band RF frontend for a data relay satellite system
    Int. J. Satell. Commun. Netw. (IF 1.633) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Zoltán Katona; Michael Gräßlin; Anton Donner; Norman Kranich; Hartmut Brandt; Hermann Bischl; Martin Brück
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Online Content Editor Team Joins Transactions on Wireless Communications
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Junshan Zhang

    In an effort to facilitate increased online multimedia content, Transactions on Wireless Communications (TWC) has established a new Online Editorial Team. One to two articles will be selected each month. The team will be working with authors to create slides, scripts, and video clips, showcasing innovative and exciting ideas from these articles. Emil Bjornson, Michele Wigger, and Zhu Han will serve as TWC’s Inaugural Editors for this new team; please welcome them to the TWC team.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Cooperative MIMO-OFDM-Based Exposure-Path Prevention Over 3D Clustered Wireless Camera Sensor Networks
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-08-12
    Jingqing Wang; Xi Zhang

    As compared with 2D wireless camera sensor networks (WCSNs), 3D WCSNs can capture more accurate and comprehensive information for exposure-path prevention in supervisory and military applications. However, 3D WCSNs impose many new challenges for energy-efficiency and interference-mitigation subject to required coverage rate constraint due to extensive power consumption over time-varying wireless channels. To overcome the above-mentioned problems, in this paper we propose the AQ-DBPSK/DS-CDMA (alternating quadratures differential binary phase shift keying/direct-sequence code division multiple access) based cooperative MIMO energy-efficient and interference-mitigating scheme under the constraint of optimal tradeoff between power consumption and coverage rate over multi-hop clustered WCSNs. In particular, we build sensing models to characterize the minimum coverage rate constraint and formulate the exposure-path prevention problem using the percolation theory. Then, we derive the critical density of camera sensors subject to minimum exposure-path prevention probability constraint. We develop the AQ-DBPSK/DS-CDMA scheme and also derive the optimal data rate to optimize transmit-power and data-rate trade-off. By deriving the critical density of camera sensors over 3D WCSNs, we apply the cooperative MIMO based NEW LEACH architecture for our multi-hop cooperative MIMO scheme. Also conducted is a set of simulations which show that our proposed scheme can outperform other existing schemes in terms of energy efficiency and interference-mitigation over multi-hop 3D clustered WCSNs.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Communications and Radar Coexistence in the Massive MIMO Regime: Uplink Analysis
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Carmen D’Andrea; Stefano Buzzi; Marco Lops

    This paper considers the uplink of a massive MIMO communication system using 5G New Radio-compliant multiple access, which has to co-exist with a radar system using the same frequency band. A system model taking into account the reverberation (clutter) produced by the radar system onto the massive MIMO receiver is proposed. In this scenario, several receivers for uplink channel estimation and data detection are proposed, ranging from the simple channel-matched beamformer to the zero-forcing and linear minimum mean square error receivers for clutter disturbance rejection, under the two opposite situations of perfectly known and completely unknown clutter covariance. A theoretical analysis is also provided, deriving a lower bound on the achievable uplink spectral efficiency and the mutual information between the input Gaussian-encoded symbols and the observables available at the communication receiver of the cellular massive MIMO system: regarding the latter, in particular, it is shown that, in the large antenna number regime, and under the assumption of perfect channel state information (CSI), the effect of radar clutter at the base station is suppressed and single-user capacity may be restored. Numerical results, illustrating the performance of the proposed detection schemes, confirm the findings of the theoretical analysis, and permit quantifying the system robustness to clutter effect for increasing number of antennas at the base station.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • UAV Trajectory Planning for Data Collection from Time-Constrained IoT Devices
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Moataz Samir; Sanaa Sharafeddine; Chadi M. Assi; Tri Minh Nguyen; Ali Ghrayeb

    The global evolution of wireless technologies and intelligent sensing devices are transforming the realization of smart cities. Among the myriad of use cases, there is a need to support applications whereby low-resource IoT devices need to upload their sensor data to a remote control centre by target hard deadlines; otherwise, the data becomes outdated and loses its value, for example, in emergency or industrial control scenarios. In addition, the IoT devices can be either located in remote areas with limited wireless coverage or in dense areas with relatively low quality of service. This motivates the utilization of UAVs to offload traffic from existing wireless networks by collecting data from time-constrained IoT devices with performance guarantees. To this end, we jointly optimize the trajectory of a UAV and the radio resource allocation to maximize the number of served IoT devices, where each device has its own target data upload deadline. The formulated optimization problem is shown to be mixed integer non-convex and generally NP-hard. To solve it, we first propose the high-complexity branch, reduce and bound (BRB) algorithm to find the global optimal solution for relatively small scale scenarios. Then, we develop an effective sub-optimal algorithm based on successive convex approximation in order to obtain results for larger networks. Next, we propose an extension algorithm to further minimize the UAV’s flight distance for cases where the initial and final UAV locations are known a priori. We demonstrate the favourable characteristics of the algorithms via extensive simulations and analysis as a function of various system parameters, with benchmarking against two greedy algorithms based on distance and deadline metrics.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Compressed Sensing Channel Estimation for OFDM With Non-Gaussian Multipath Gains
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Felipe Gómez-Cuba; Andrea J. Goldsmith

    This paper analyzes the impact of non-Gaussian multipath component (MPC) amplitude distributions on the performance of Compressed Sensing (CS) channel estimators for OFDM systems. The number of dominant MPCs that any CS algorithm needs to estimate in order to accurately represent the channel is characterized. This number relates to a Compressibility Index (CI) of the channel that depends on the fourth moment of the MPC amplitude distribution. A connection between the Mean Squared Error (MSE) of any CS estimation algorithm and the MPC amplitude distribution fourth moment is revealed that shows a smaller number of MPCs is needed to well-estimate channels when these components have large fourth moment amplitude gains. The analytical results are validated via simulations for channels with lognormal MPCs such as the NYU mmWave channel model. These simulations show that when the MPC amplitude distribution has a high fourth moment, the well known CS algorithm of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit performs almost identically to the Basis Pursuit De-Noising algorithm with a much lower computational cost.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Trace-Driven QoE-Aware Proactive Caching for Mobile Video Streaming in Metropolis
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Danlan Huang; Xiaoming Tao; Chunxiao Jiang; Shuguang Cui; Jianhua Lu

    To meet the ever-increasing demands for mobile video streaming, proactive caching over the network edge has been proposed as a promising solution for next generation wireless networks. In this paper, we consider the trace-driven cache-enabled video streaming design in the scenario of a metropolis to boost the spectral efficiency on the system side and the quality of experience (QoE) on the user side. A novel scheme to jointly provide proactive caching, power allocation, user association and adaptive video streaming is designed via the formation of a QoE-aware throughput maximization problem. Specifically, the caches are refreshed in the content placement phase according to the resource status and expected traffic, which is obtained by exploring the traces collected over a big city. In addition, users need to be associated with a proper small base station (SBS) in the content delivering phase to provide the highest attainable rate. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme via experiments conducted over real user trace datasets.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Making Cell-Free Massive MIMO Competitive With MMSE Processing and Centralized Implementation
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Emil Björnson; Luca Sanguinetti

    Cell-free Massive MIMO is considered as a promising technology for satisfying the increasing number of users and high rate expectations in beyond-5G networks. The key idea is to let many distributed access points (APs) communicate with all users in the network, possibly by using joint coherent signal processing. The aim of this paper is to provide the first comprehensive analysis of this technology under different degrees of cooperation among the APs. Particularly, the uplink spectral efficiencies of four different cell-free implementations are analyzed, with spatially correlated fading and arbitrary linear processing. It turns out that it is possible to outperform conventional Cellular Massive MIMO and small cell networks by a wide margin, but only using global or local minimum mean-square error (MMSE) combining. This is in sharp contrast to the existing literature, which advocates for maximum-ratio combining. Also, we show that a centralized implementation with optimal MMSE processing not only maximizes the SE but largely reduces the fronthaul signaling compared to the standard distributed approach. This makes it the preferred way to operate Cell-free Massive MIMO networks. Non-linear decoding is also investigated and shown to bring negligible improvements.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Efficient Rendezvous for Heterogeneous Interference in Cognitive Radio Networks
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
    Zhaoquan Gu; Tong Shen; Yuexuan Wang; Francis C.M. Lau

    Rendezvous is a fundamental building block in distributed cognitive-radio networks (CRNs), in which pairs or groups of users must find a jointly available channel. Research on the rendezvous problem has focused so far on minimizing the time to rendezvous (to find a suitable channel) or on maximizing the rendezvous degree (percentage of channels on which rendezvous can take place). In this paper, we model the rendezvous problem in a more realistic way that acknowledges the fact that available channels may suffer from interference which varies from location to location as well as over time. In other words, channels are influenced by heterogeneous interference. In this setting, CRNs benefit from rendezvous methods that find a quiet channel, which supports high symbol rates and does not suffer much from dropped packets. In this paper, we propose three important rendezvous design disciplines to achieve bounded rendezvous time, full rendezvous degree, and to rendezvous on quiet channels that suffer little interference. We first present the Disjoint Relaxed Difference Set (DRDS) based rendezvous algorithm as a cornerstone, which ensures rendezvous on every channel (full rendezvous degree) in bounded time. When channels suffer from heterogeneous interference, we propose the Interference based DRDS (I-DRDS) algorithm which ensures rendezvous on channels with less interference, incorporating the interference normalization and interference mapping methods. We conduct extensive simulations to evaluate the proposed algorithms; compared with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the results show that I-DRDS has the best rendezvous performance on less interfered channels, with slightly larger rendezvous time.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • SINR and Multiuser Efficiency Gap Between MIMO Linear Receivers
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-09-25
    G. Alfano; C.-F. Chiasserini; A. Nordio

    Due to their low complexity, Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) and Zero-Forcing (ZF) emerge as two appealing MIMO receivers. Although they provide asymptotically the same achievable rate as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grows large, a non-vanishing gap between the signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) obtained through the two receivers exists, affecting the error and outage probability, and the multiuser efficiency. Interestingly, both the SINR and the multiuser efficiency gaps can be compactly expressed as quadratic forms of random matrices, with a kernel that depends solely on the statistics of the interfering streams. By leveraging, we derive the closed-form distribution of such indefinite quadratic forms with random kernel matrix, which turns out to be proportional to the determinant of a matrix containing the system parameters. Then, specializing our result to different fading conditions, we obtain the closed-form statistics of both the SINR gap and the multiuser efficiency gap. Although the focus of this work is on the finite-size statistics, for completeness we also provide some results on the doubly-massive MIMO case. We validate all our derivations through extensive Monte Carlo simulations.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Joint Power Allocation and Splitting Control for SWIPT-Enabled NOMA Systems
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Jie Tang; Yu Yu; Mingqian Liu; Daniel K. C. So; Xiuyin Zhang; Zan Li; Kai-Kit Wong

    Transmission rate and harvested energy are well-known conflictive optimization objectives in simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) systems, and thus their trade-off and joint optimization are important problems to be studied. In this paper, we investigate joint power allocation and splitting control in a SWIPT-enabled non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) system with the power splitting (PS) technique, with an aim to optimize the total transmission rate and harvested energy simultaneously whilst satisfying the minimum rate and the harvested energy requirements of each user. These two conflicting objectives make the formulated problem a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. Since the harvested power is usually stored in the battery and used to support the reverse link transmission, we transform the harvested energy into throughput and define a new objective function by summing the weighted values of the transmission rate achieved by information decoding and transformed throughput from energy harvesting, defined as equivalent-sum-rate (ESR). As a result, the original problem is transformed into a single-objective optimization problem. The considered ESR maximization problem which involves joint optimization of power allocation and PS ratio is nonconvex, and hence challenging to solve. In order to tackle it, we decouple the original nonconvex problem into two convex subproblems and solve them iteratively. In addition, both equal PS ratio case and independent PS ratio case are considered to further explore the performance. Numerical results validate the theoretical findings and demonstrate that significant performance gain over the traditional rate maximization scheme can be achieved by the proposed algorithms in a SWIPT-enabled NOMA system.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Error Rate Analysis of Amplitude-Coherent Detection Over Rician Fading Channels With Receiver Diversity
    IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. (IF 6.394) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    Mohammad A. Al-Jarrah; Ki-Hong Park; Arafat Al-Dweik; Mohamed-Slim Alouini

    Amplitude-coherent (AC) detection is an efficient technique that can simplify the receiver design while providing reliable symbol error rate (SER). Therefore, this work considers AC detector design and SER analysis using M-ary amplitude shift keying (MASK) modulation with receiver diversity over Rician fading channels. More specifically, we derive the optimum, near-optimum and a suboptimum AC detectors and compare their SER with the coherent, phase-coherent, noncoherent and the heuristic AC detectors. Moreover, the analytical and asymptotic SER at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are derived for the heuristic detector using single and multiple receiving antennas. The obtained analytical and simulation results show that the SER of the AC and coherent MASK detectors are comparable, particularly for high values of the Rician K-factor, and small number of receiving antennas. In most of the considered scenarios, the heuristic AC detector outperforms the optimum noncoherent detector significantly, except for the binary ASK case at low SNRs. Moreover, the obtained results show that the heuristic AC detector is immune to phase noise, and thus, it outperforms the coherent detector in scenarios where the system is subject to considerable phase noise.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
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