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  • 更新日期:2020-09-28
  • 更新日期:2020-09-28
  • On the accuracy of official Chinese crop production data: Evidence from biophysical indexes of net primary production [Systems Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Gengyuan Liu, Xueqi Wang, Giovanni Baiocchi, Marco Casazza, Fanxin Meng, Yanpeng Cai, Yan Hao, Feng Wu, Zhifeng Yang

    With rapid economic growth and urbanization, self-sufficiency in crop production has become central to China’s agriculture policy. Accurate crop production statistics are essential for research, monitoring, and planning. Although researchers agree that China’s statistical authority has considerably modernized over time, China’s economic statistics have still been viewed as unreliable and often overstated

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • Delineation of a molecularly distinct terminally differentiated memory CD8 T cell population [Immunology and Inflammation]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    J. Justin Milner, Hongtuyet Nguyen, Kyla Omilusik, Miguel Reina-Campos, Matthew Tsai, Clara Toma, Arnaud Delpoux, Brigid S. Boland, Stephen M. Hedrick, John T. Chang, Ananda W. Goldrath

    Memory CD8 T cells provide durable protection against diverse intracellular pathogens and can be broadly segregated into distinct circulating and tissue-resident populations. Paradigmatic studies have demonstrated that circulating memory cells can be further divided into effector memory (Tem) and central memory (Tcm) populations based on discrete functional characteristics. Following resolution of

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • Deep learning of immune cell differentiation [Immunology and Inflammation]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Alexandra Maslova, Ricardo N. Ramirez, Ke Ma, Hugo Schmutz, Chendi Wang, Curtis Fox, Bernard Ng, Christophe Benoist, Sara Mostafavi, Immunological Genome Project

    Although we know many sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs), how the DNA sequence of cis-regulatory elements is decoded and orchestrated on the genome scale to determine immune cell differentiation is beyond our grasp. Leveraging a granular atlas of chromatin accessibility across 81 immune cell types, we asked if a convolutional neural network (CNN) could learn to infer cell type-specific chromatin

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • Glide symmetry breaking and Ising criticality in the quasi-1D magnet CoNb2O6 [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Michele Fava, Radu Coldea, S. A. Parameswaran

    We construct a microscopic spin-exchange Hamiltonian for the quasi–one-dimensional (1D) Ising magnet CoNb2O6 that captures detailed and hitherto-unexplained aspects of its dynamic spin structure factor. We perform a symmetry analysis that recalls that an individual Ising chain in this material is buckled, with two sites in each unit cell related by a glide symmetry. Combining this with numerical simulations

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • Speech can produce jet-like transport relevant to asymptomatic spreading of virus [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Manouk Abkarian, Simon Mendez, Nan Xue, Fan Yang, Howard A. Stone

    Many scientific reports document that asymptomatic and presymptomatic individuals contribute to the spread of COVID-19, probably during conversations in social interactions. Droplet emission occurs during speech, yet few studies document the flow to provide the transport mechanism. This lack of understanding prevents informed public health guidance for risk reduction and mitigation strategies, e.g

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • A mouse tissue atlas of small noncoding RNA [Genetics]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Alina Isakova, Tobias Fehlmann, Andreas Keller, Stephen R. Quake

    Small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a vital role in a broad range of biological processes both in health and disease. A comprehensive quantitative reference of small ncRNA expression would significantly advance our understanding of ncRNA roles in shaping tissue functions. Here, we systematically profiled the levels of five ncRNA classes (microRNA [miRNA], small nucleolar RNA [snoRNA], small nuclear

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Qian Zhang, Paul Bastard, Zhiyong Liu, Jérémie Le Pen, Marcela Moncada-Velez, Jie Chen, Masato Ogishi, Ira K. D. Sabli, Stephanie Hodeib, Cecilia Korol, Jérémie Rosain, Kaya Bilguvar, Junqiang Ye, Alexandre Bolze, Benedetta Bigio, Rui Yang, Andrés Augusto Arias, Qinhua Zhou, Yu Zhang, Fanny Onodi, Sarantis Korniotis, Léa Karpf, Quentin Philippot, Marwa Chbihi, Lucie Bonnet-Madin, Karim Dorgham, Nikaïa

    Clinical outcome upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 ranges from silent infection to lethal COVID-19. We have found an enrichment in rare variants predicted to be loss-of-function (LOF) at the 13 human loci known to govern TLR3- and IRF7-dependent type I interferon (IFN) immunity to influenza virus, in 659 patients with life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia, relative to 534 subjects with asymptomatic or benign

    更新日期:2020-09-26
  • A low‐loss compact six‐bit DMTL phase shifter for phased array antenna applications
    Int. J. Circ. Theory Appl. (IF 1.581) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Mir Majid Teymoori; Massoud Dousti; Saeid Afrang
    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • COVID-vaccine results are on the way — and scientists’ concerns are growing
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Smriti Mallapaty; Heidi Ledford

    Researchers warn that vaccines could stumble on safety trials, be fast-tracked because of politics or fail to meet the public’s expectations.

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • ‘Apocalyptic’ fires are ravaging the world’s largest tropical wetland
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Emiliano Rodríguez Mega

    Researchers fear South America’s Pantanal region will never recover.

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Daily briefing: Songbirds didn’t have to shout during the ‘anthropause’
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Flora Graham

    Imminent COVID-vaccine results, songbirds didn’t have to shout during the ‘anthropause’ and how Neanderthals lost their Y chromosome.

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Daily briefing: More heat means less ice, higher seas — and no going back
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Flora Graham

    Chilling findings about the vulnerability of the Antarctic ice sheet. Plus, hard numbers show the lack of diversity in science (and what to do about it).

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The rise of COVID-19 cases is associated with support for world leaders [Political Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Kai Chi Yam, Joshua Conrad Jackson, Christopher M. Barnes, Jenson Lau, Xin Qin, Hin Yeung Lee

    COVID-19 has emerged as one of the deadliest and most disruptive events in recent human history. Drawing from political science and psychological theories, we examine the effects of daily confirmed cases in a country on citizens’ support for the political leader through the first 120 d of 2020. Using three unique datasets which comprise daily approval ratings of head of government (n = 1,411,200) across

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Experience-dependent plasticity in an innate social behavior is mediated by hypothalamic LTP [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Stefanos Stagkourakis, Giada Spigolon, Grace Liu, David J. Anderson

    All animals can perform certain survival behaviors without prior experience, suggesting a “hard wiring” of underlying neural circuits. Experience, however, can alter the expression of innate behaviors. Where in the brain and how such plasticity occurs remains largely unknown. Previous studies have established the phenomenon of “aggression training,” in which the repeated experience of winning successive

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Physics of virus transmission by speaking droplets [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Roland R. Netz, William A. Eaton

    To make the physics of person-to-person virus transmission from emitted droplets of oral fluid while speaking easily understood, we present simple and transparent algebraic equations that capture the essential physics of the problem. Calculations with these equations provide a straightforward way of determining whether emitted droplets remain airborne or rapidly fall to the ground, after accounting

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The auxiliary glutamate receptor subunit dSol-1 promotes presynaptic neurotransmitter release and homeostatic potentiation [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Beril Kiragasi, Pragya Goel, Sarah Perry, Yifu Han, Xiling Li, Dion Dickman

    Presynaptic glutamate receptors (GluRs) modulate neurotransmitter release and are physiological targets for regulation during various forms of plasticity. Although much is known about the auxiliary subunits associated with postsynaptic GluRs, far less is understood about presynaptic auxiliary GluR subunits and their functions. At the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, a presynaptic GluR, DKaiR1D, localizes

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Deep profiling of protease substrate specificity enabled by dual random and scanned human proteome substrate phage libraries [Biochemistry]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Jie Zhou, Shantao Li, Kevin K. Leung, Brian O’Donovan, James Y. Zou, Joseph L. DeRisi, James A. Wells

    Proteolysis is a major posttranslational regulator of biology inside and outside of cells. Broad identification of optimal cleavage sites and natural substrates of proteases is critical for drug discovery and to understand protease biology. Here, we present a method that employs two genetically encoded substrate phage display libraries coupled with next generation sequencing (SPD-NGS) that allows up

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Alternative proton-binding site and long-distance coupling in Escherichia coli sodium-proton antiporter NhaA [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Jack A. Henderson, Yandong Huang, Oliver Beckstein, Jana Shen

    Escherichia coli NhaA is a prototypical sodium–proton antiporter responsible for maintaining cellular ion and volume homeostasis by exchanging two protons for one sodium ion; despite two decades of research, the transport mechanism of NhaA remains poorly understood. Recent crystal structure and computational studies suggested Lys300 as a second proton-binding site; however, functional measurements

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Stiffness of the interface between a colloidal body-centered cubic crystal and its liquid [Applied Physical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Hyerim Hwang, David A. Weitz, Frans Spaepen

    Equilibrium interfaces were established between body-centered cubic (BCC) crystals and their liquid using charged colloidal particles in an electric bottle. By measuring a time series of interfacial positions and computing the average power spectrum, their interfacial stiffness was determined according to the capillary fluctuation method. For the (100) and the (114) interfaces, the stiffnesses were

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The origin and diversification of pteropods precede past perturbations in the Earth’s carbon cycle [Evolution]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg, Arie W. Janssen, Deborah Wall-Palmer, Erica Goetze, Amy E. Maas, Jonathan A. Todd, Ferdinand Marlétaz

    Pteropods are a group of planktonic gastropods that are widely regarded as biological indicators for assessing the impacts of ocean acidification. Their aragonitic shells are highly sensitive to acute changes in ocean chemistry. However, to gain insight into their potential to adapt to current climate change, we need to accurately reconstruct their evolutionary history and assess their responses to

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Metabolic tuning of inhibition regulates hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain [Neuroscience]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Xinxing Wang, Hanxiao Liu, Johannes Morstein, Alexander J. E. Novak, Dirk Trauner, Qiaojie Xiong, Yuguo Yu, Shaoyu Ge

    Hippocampus-engaged behaviors stimulate neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus by largely unknown means. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used tetrode recording to analyze neuronal activity in the dentate gyrus of freely moving adult mice during hippocampus-engaged contextual exploration. We found that exploration induced an overall sustained increase in inhibitory neuron activity that was

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Synergy between 15-lipoxygenase and secreted PLA2 promotes inflammation by formation of TLR4 agonists from extracellular vesicles [Immunology and Inflammation]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Van Thai Ha, Duško Lainšček, Bernd Gesslbauer, Eva Jarc-Jovičić, Tuulia Hyötyläinen, Nejc Ilc, Katja Lakota, Matija Tomšič, Fons A. J. van de Loo, Valery Bochkov, Toni Petan, Roman Jerala, Mateja Manček-Keber

    Damage-associated endogenous molecules induce innate immune response, thus making sterile inflammation medically relevant. Stress-derived extracellular vesicles (stressEVs) released during oxidative stress conditions were previously found to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), resulting in expression of a different pattern of immune response proteins in comparison to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), underlying

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Emergence of the Southeast Asian islands as a driver for Neogene cooling [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Yuem Park, Pierre Maffre, Yves Goddéris, Francis A. Macdonald, Eliel S. C. Anttila, Nicholas L. Swanson-Hysell

    Steep topography, a tropical climate, and mafic lithologies contribute to efficient chemical weathering and carbon sequestration in the Southeast Asian islands. Ongoing arc–continent collision between the Sunda-Banda arc system and Australia has increased the area of subaerially exposed land in the region since the mid-Miocene. Concurrently, Earth’s climate has cooled since the Miocene Climatic Optimum

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Modeling between-population variation in COVID-19 dynamics in Hubei, Lombardy, and New York City [Population Biology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Bryan Wilder, Marie Charpignon, Jackson A. Killian, Han-Ching Ou, Aditya Mate, Shahin Jabbari, Andrew Perrault, Angel N. Desai, Milind Tambe, Maimuna S. Majumder

    As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, formulating targeted policy interventions that are informed by differential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission dynamics will be of vital importance to national and regional governments. We develop an individual-level model for SARS-CoV-2 transmission that accounts for location-dependent distributions of age, household structure

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Inferring transmission trees to guide targeting of interventions against visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis [Medical Sciences]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Lloyd A. C. Chapman, Simon E. F. Spencer, Timothy M. Pollington, Chris P. Jewell, Dinesh Mondal, Jorge Alvar, T. Déirdre Hollingsworth, Mary M. Cameron, Caryn Bern, Graham F. Medley

    Understanding of spatiotemporal transmission of infectious diseases has improved significantly in recent years. Advances in Bayesian inference methods for individual-level geo-located epidemiological data have enabled reconstruction of transmission trees and quantification of disease spread in space and time, while accounting for uncertainty in missing data. However, these methods have rarely been

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Constrained optimal foraging by marine bacterioplankton on particulate organic matter [Ecology]
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (IF 9.412) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Yutaka Yawata, Francesco Carrara, Filippo Menolascina, Roman Stocker

    Optimal foraging theory provides a framework to understand how organisms balance the benefits of harvesting resources within a patch with the sum of the metabolic, predation, and missed opportunity costs of foraging. Here, we show that, after accounting for the limited environmental information available to microorganisms, optimal foraging theory and, in particular, patch use theory also applies to

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • News at a glance
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    American Association for the Advancement of Science

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reversed highly criticized guidance suggesting people who were exposed to someone with COVID-19 don't need a test if they don't have symptoms. A Pew Research Center poll reveals public confidence in a coronavirus vaccine has plunged in the United States over the past 4 months. IBM announced a "road map" for the development of a full-fledged quantum

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Curved scour marks trace the directions of ancient quakes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Paul Voosen

    Many of the world's most dangerous earthquake faults have not ruptured in more than 100 years. To gauge the hazard they pose, geologists must figure out how the faults behaved in the past by looking for clues in the rocks themselves, including slickenlines, scour marks along the exposed rock face of a fault. Researchers in New Zealand now say that slickenlines, when curved, can reveal which end of

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The short, strange life of quantum radar
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Adrian Cho

    A mini–arms race is unfolding in the supposed field of quantum radar, spurred by press reports in 2016 that China had built one—potentially threatening the ability of stealthy military aircraft to hide from conventional radars. Governments around the world have tasked physicists to look into the idea. Whereas a conventional radar searches for objects by detecting pulse of microwaves reflected from

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Sizing up a green carbon sink
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Gabriel Popkin

    Forests are having their moment. Because trees can vacuum carbon from the atmosphere and lock it away in wood, governments and businesses are embracing efforts to fight climate change by reforesting cleared areas and planting trees on a massive scale. But scientists have warned that the enthusiasm and money flowing to forest-based climate solutions threaten to outpace the science. Two papers published

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Seeking a niche
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Jocelyn Kaiser

    Costa Rica's renowned biodiversity has made it a go-to destination for field biologists from around the world. Despite its relatively small population of just 5 million, the country has also been successful at nurturing a growing number of Costa Rican scientists who have returned home to launch their careers. It's a trend the government has encouraged, in part by filling open slots at universities

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • A tropical research treasure faces difficult times
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Jocelyn Kaiser

    As a new wave of tropical biologists rises in Costa Rica, an institution that has propelled many of their careers has fallen on hard times. The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS), a 57-year-old nonprofit that runs education programs and field stations in Costa Rica, this year began to emerge from a financial quagmire only to face disruptions caused by the coronavirus pandemic. Although Costa Rica

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Transformative tools for parasitic flatworms
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Timothy J. C. Anderson, Manoj T. Duraisingh

    Schistosomes, a type of parasitic flatworm, are complex multicellular pathogens with an oversized and probably underestimated impact on human health. Schistosomiasis is one of the “neglected” tropical diseases, named in part because of a perceived lack of tools to probe parasite biology. On pages 1649 and 1644 of this issue, Wang et al. (1) and Wendt et al. (2), respectively, show that this neglect

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Preventing pores and inflammation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Robert J. Pickering, Clare E. Bryant

    Inflammation is a tightly regulated process that is essential for host protection against infections. When it is dysregulated, however, inflammation becomes damaging, causing many common diseases such as sepsis, arthritis, asthma, and diabetes. Some programmed cell death pathways, such as pyroptosis and necroptosis, induce inflammation in response to pathogens or sterile stimuli. The pyroptosis executioner

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The last pieces of a puzzling early meeting
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Mikkel Heide Schierup

    Since the sequencing of the first Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes, genetic evidence has revealed an increasing number of admixture events between Homo sapiens and these archaic humans. However, scientists have lacked detailed information about Y chromosome sequences from our two closest relatives. Now, on page 1653 of this issue, Petr et al. (1) report intricate DNA sequencing data for Y chromosomes

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Intense x-rays can be (slightly) exciting
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Thomas Pfeifer

    Since their discovery by Röntgen (1) in 1895, x-ray imaging and spectroscopy have revolutionized disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, materials science, chemistry, and the life sciences. However, in the medical context, x-rays are also known for their darker side: They damage tissue. Although even that destructive nature is turned into a benefit in radiation therapy, on a fundamental level, x-rays

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Understanding quantum cause and effect
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Allen Stairs

    If you read a randomly selected nontechnical account of quantum entanglement, you will likely be told that measuring a particle in one place can instantly change another particle elsewhere, no matter the distance between the two. Surprisingly, this is something that Paul Halpern never claims in his new book, Synchronicity. As the title implies, the central concept of his century-spanning tale is "synchronicity

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The race to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Andrew Robinson

    Numerous Rosetta stone–related academic and popular studies have been published, including various biographies of both Champollion and Young, who strongly differed in intellectual outlook and personality. The Riddle of the Rosetta offers further commentary on these two individuals, their scholarship, and their rivalry, based on almost a decade of research by the book's authors, Jed Buchwald and Diane

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Distinct conformational states of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Yongfei Cai,Jun Zhang,Tianshu Xiao,Hanqin Peng,Sarah M Sterling,Richard M Walsh,Shaun Rawson,Sophia Rits-Volloch,Bing Chen

    Intervention strategies are urgently needed to control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The trimeric viral spike (S) protein catalyzes fusion between viral and target cell membranes to initiate infection. Here, we report two cryo–electron microscopy structures derived from a preparation of the full-length S protein, representing its prefusion (2.9-angstrom

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Rotational resonances in the H2CO roaming reaction are revealed by detailed correlations.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Mitchell S Quinn,Klaas Nauta,Meredith J T Jordan,Joel M Bowman,Paul L Houston,Scott H Kable

    Since its discovery 16 years ago, roaming has become a ubiquitous mechanism in molecular photochemistry. Its general features are now understood, but little detail is known about how the potential energy surface (PES) determines reaction outcomes. We performed detailed experiments on formaldehyde (H2CO) photodissociation and determined fully correlated quantum state distributions of the molecular hydrogen

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Inducing metallicity in graphene nanoribbons via zero-mode superlattices
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Daniel J. Rizzo, Gregory Veber, Jingwei Jiang, Ryan McCurdy, Ting Cao, Christopher Bronner, Ting Chen, Steven G. Louie, Felix R. Fischer, Michael F. Crommie

    The design and fabrication of robust metallic states in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are challenging because lateral quantum confinement and many-electron interactions induce electronic band gaps when graphene is patterned at nanometer length scales. Recent developments in bottom-up synthesis have enabled the design and characterization of atomically precise GNRs, but strategies for realizing GNR metallicity

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in BALB/c mice for testing vaccine efficacy.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Hongjing Gu,Qi Chen,Guan Yang,Lei He,Hang Fan,Yong-Qiang Deng,Yanxiao Wang,Yue Teng,Zhongpeng Zhao,Yujun Cui,Yuchang Li,Xiao-Feng Li,Jiangfan Li,Na-Na Zhang,Xiaolan Yang,Shaolong Chen,Yan Guo,Guangyu Zhao,Xiliang Wang,De-Yan Luo,Hui Wang,Xiao Yang,Yan Li,Gencheng Han,Yuxian He,Xiaojun Zhou,Shusheng Geng,Xiaoli Sheng,Shibo Jiang,Shihui Sun,Cheng-Feng Qin,Yusen Zhou

    The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has prioritized the development of small-animal models for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We adapted a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 by serial passaging in the respiratory tract of aged BALB/c mice. The resulting mouse-adapted strain at passage 6 (called MASCp6) showed increased infectivity in mouse lung and led

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The immunogenetics of sexual parasitism.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Jeremy B Swann,Stephen J Holland,Malte Petersen,Theodore W Pietsch,Thomas Boehm

    Sexual parasitism has evolved as a distinctive mode of reproduction among deep-sea anglerfishes. The permanent attachment of males to host females observed in these species represents a form of anatomical joining, which is otherwise unknown in nature. Pronounced modifications to immune facilities are associated with this reproductive trait. The genomes of species with temporarily attaching males lack

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Stable perovskite solar cells with efficiency exceeding 24.8% and 0.3-V voltage loss
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Mingyu Jeong, In Woo Choi, Eun Min Go, Yongjoon Cho, Minjin Kim, Byongkyu Lee, Seonghun Jeong, Yimhyun Jo, Hye Won Choi, Jiyun Lee, Jin-Hyuk Bae, Sang Kyu Kwak, Dong Suk Kim, Changduk Yang

    Further improvement and stabilization of perovskite solar cell (PSC) performance are essential to achieve the commercial viability of next-generation photovoltaics. Considering the benefits of fluorination to conjugated materials for energy levels, hydrophobicity, and noncovalent interactions, two fluorinated isomeric analogs of the well-known hole-transporting material (HTM) Spiro-OMeTAD are developed

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • High-impact marine heatwaves attributable to human-induced global warming
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Charlotte Laufkötter, Jakob Zscheischler, Thomas L. Frölicher

    Marine heatwaves (MHWs)—periods of extremely high ocean temperatures in specific regions—have occurred in all of Earth’s ocean basins over the past two decades, with severe negative impacts on marine organisms and ecosystems. However, for most individual MHWs, it is unclear to what extent they have been altered by human-induced climate change. We show that the occurrence probabilities of the duration

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • A neural correlate of sensory consciousness in a corvid bird
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Andreas Nieder, Lysann Wagener, Paul Rinnert

    Subjective experiences that can be consciously accessed and reported are associated with the cerebral cortex. Whether sensory consciousness can also arise from differently organized brains that lack a layered cerebral cortex, such as the bird brain, remains unknown. We show that single-neuron responses in the pallial endbrain of crows performing a visual detection task correlate with the birds’ perception

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Photon-recoil imaging: Expanding the view of nonlinear x-ray physics
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    U. Eichmann, H. Rottke, S. Meise, J.-E. Rubensson, J. Söderström, M. Agåker, C. Såthe, M. Meyer, T. M. Baumann, R. Boll, A. De Fanis, P. Grychtol, M. Ilchen, T. Mazza, J. Montano, V. Music, Y. Ovcharenko, D. E. Rivas, S. Serkez, R. Wagner, S. Eisebitt

    Addressing the ultrafast coherent evolution of electronic wave functions has long been a goal of nonlinear x-ray physics. A first step toward this goal is the investigation of stimulated x-ray Raman scattering (SXRS) using intense pulses from an x-ray free-electron laser. Earlier SXRS experiments relied on signal amplification during pulse propagation through dense resonant media. By contrast, our

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Succination inactivates gasdermin D and blocks pyroptosis.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Fiachra Humphries,Liraz Shmuel-Galia,Natalia Ketelut-Carneiro,Sheng Li,Bingwei Wang,Venkatesh V Nemmara,Ruth Wilson,Zhaozhao Jiang,Farnaz Khalighinejad,Khaja Muneeruddin,Scott A Shaffer,Ranjan Dutta,Carolina Ionete,Scott Pesiridis,Shuo Yang,Paul R Thompson,Katherine A Fitzgerald

    Activated macrophages undergo a metabolic switch to aerobic glycolysis, accumulating Krebs’ cycle intermediates that alter transcription of immune response genes. We extended these observations by defining fumarate as an inhibitor of pyroptotic cell death. We found that dimethyl fumarate (DMF) delivered to cells or endogenous fumarate reacts with gasdermin D (GSDMD) at critical cysteine residues to

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Designed protein logic to target cells with precise combinations of surface antigens.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Marc J Lajoie,Scott E Boyken,Alexander I Salter,Jilliane Bruffey,Anusha Rajan,Robert A Langan,Audrey Olshefsky,Vishaka Muhunthan,Matthew J Bick,Mesfin Gewe,Alfredo Quijano-Rubio,JayLee Johnson,Garreck Lenz,Alisha Nguyen,Suzie Pun,Colin E Correnti,Stanley R Riddell,David Baker

    Precise cell targeting is challenging because most mammalian cell types lack a single surface marker that distinguishes them from other cells. A solution would be to target cells using specific combinations of proteins present on their surfaces. In this study, we design colocalization-dependent protein switches (Co-LOCKR) that perform AND, OR, and NOT Boolean logic operations. These switches activate

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • A single-cell RNA-seq atlas of Schistosoma mansoni identifies a key regulator of blood feeding
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    George Wendt, Lu Zhao, Rui Chen, Chenxi Liu, Anthony J. O’Donoghue, Conor R. Caffrey, Michael L. Reese, James J. Collins

    Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that infects 240 million people. With no vaccines and only one drug available, new therapeutic targets are needed. The causative agents, schistosomes, are intravascular flatworm parasites that feed on blood and lay eggs, resulting in pathology. The function of the parasite’s various tissues in successful parasitism are poorly understood, hindering identification

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Large-scale RNAi screening uncovers therapeutic targets in the parasite Schistosoma mansoni
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Jipeng Wang, Carlos Paz, Gilda Padalino, Avril Coghlan, Zhigang Lu, Irina Gradinaru, Julie N. R. Collins, Matthew Berriman, Karl F. Hoffmann, James J. Collins

    Schistosome parasites kill 250,000 people every year. Treatment of schistosomiasis relies on the drug praziquantel. Unfortunately, a scarcity of molecular tools has hindered the discovery of new drug targets. Here, we describe a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen in adult Schistosoma mansoni that examined the function of 2216 genes. We identified 261 genes with phenotypes affecting neuromuscular

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The evolutionary history of Neanderthal and Denisovan Y chromosomes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Martin Petr, Mateja Hajdinjak, Qiaomei Fu, Elena Essel, Hélène Rougier, Isabelle Crevecoeur, Patrick Semal, Liubov V. Golovanova, Vladimir B. Doronichev, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Antonio Rosas, Michael V. Shunkov, Maxim B. Kozlikin, Anatoli P. Derevianko, Benjamin Vernot, Matthias Meyer, Janet Kelso

    Ancient DNA has provided new insights into many aspects of human history. However, we lack comprehensive studies of the Y chromosomes of Denisovans and Neanderthals because the majority of specimens that have been sequenced to sufficient coverage are female. Sequencing Y chromosomes from two Denisovans and three Neanderthals shows that the Y chromosomes of Denisovans split around 700 thousand years

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Synthetic connectivity, emergence, and self-regeneration in the network of prebiotic chemistry
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Agnieszka Wołos, Rafał Roszak, Anna Żądło-Dobrowolska, Wiktor Beker, Barbara Mikulak-Klucznik, Grzegorz Spólnik, Mirosław Dygas, Sara Szymkuć, Bartosz A. Grzybowski

    The challenge of prebiotic chemistry is to trace the syntheses of life’s key building blocks from a handful of primordial substrates. Here we report a forward-synthesis algorithm that generates a full network of prebiotic chemical reactions accessible from these substrates under generally accepted conditions. This network contains both reported and previously unidentified routes to biotic targets,

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The science and medicine of human immunology
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Bali Pulendran, Mark M. Davis

    Although the development of effective vaccines has saved countless lives from infectious diseases, the basic workings of the human immune system are complex and have required the development of animal models, such as inbred mice, to define mechanisms of immunity. More recently, new strategies and technologies have been developed to directly explore the human immune system with unprecedented precision

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • A cortex-like canonical circuit in the avian forebrain
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Martin Stacho, Christina Herold, Noemi Rook, Hermann Wagner, Markus Axer, Katrin Amunts, Onur Güntürkün

    Although the avian pallium seems to lack an organization akin to that of the cerebral cortex, birds exhibit extraordinary cognitive skills that are comparable to those of mammals. We analyzed the fiber architecture of the avian pallium with three-dimensional polarized light imaging and subsequently reconstructed local and associative pallial circuits with tracing techniques. We discovered an iteratively

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The endoplasmic reticulum P5A-ATPase is a transmembrane helix dislocase
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Michael J. McKenna, Sue Im Sim, Alban Ordureau, Lianjie Wei, J. Wade Harper, Sichen Shao, Eunyong Park

    Organelle identity depends on protein composition. How mistargeted proteins are selectively recognized and removed from organelles is incompletely understood. Here, we found that the orphan P5A–adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) transporter ATP13A1 (Spf1 in yeast) directly interacted with the transmembrane segment (TM) of mitochondrial tail–anchored proteins. P5A-ATPase activity mediated the extraction

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Ultrapotent human antibodies protect against SARS-CoV-2 challenge via multiple mechanisms
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    M. Alejandra Tortorici, Martina Beltramello, Florian A. Lempp, Dora Pinto, Ha V. Dang, Laura E. Rosen, Matthew McCallum, John Bowen, Andrea Minola, Stefano Jaconi, Fabrizia Zatta, Anna De Marco, Barbara Guarino, Siro Bianchi, Elvin J. Lauron, Heather Tucker, Jiayi Zhou, Alessia Peter, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Jason A. Wojcechowskyj, James Brett Case, Rita E. Chen, Hannah Kaiser, Martin Montiel-Ruiz

    Efficient therapeutic options are needed to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 that has caused more than 922,000 fatalities as of September 13th, 2020. We report the isolation and characterization of two ultrapotent SARS-CoV-2 human neutralizing antibodies (S2E12 and S2M11) that protect hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Cryo-electron microscopy structures show that S2E12 and S2M11 competitively

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Singing in a silent spring: Birds respond to a half-century soundscape reversion during the COVID-19 shutdown
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Elizabeth P. Derryberry, Jennifer N. Phillips, Graham E. Derryberry, Michael J. Blum, David Luther

    Actions taken to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have conspicuously reduced motor vehicle traffic, potentially alleviating auditory pressures on animals that rely on sound for survival and reproduction. Here we evaluate whether a common songbird responsively exploited newly emptied acoustic space by comparing soundscapes and songs across the San Francisco Bay Area prior to

    更新日期:2020-09-25
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
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