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  • Resolving the taxonomy of emerging zoonotic pathogens in the Trichophyton benhamiae complex
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Adéla Čmoková, Miroslav Kolařík, Radim Dobiáš, Lois L. Hoyer, Helena Janouškovcová, Rui Kano, Ivana Kuklová, Pavlína Lysková, Lenka Machová, Thomas Maier, Naďa Mallátová, Matěj Man, Karel Mencl, Pietro Nenoff, Andrea Peano, Hana Prausová, Dirk Stubbe, Silke Uhrlaß, Tomáš Větrovský, Cornelia Wiegand, Vit Hubka

    Species of the Trichophyton benhamiae complex are predominantly zoophilic pathogens with a worldwide distribution. These pathogens have recently become important due to their epidemic spread in pets and pet owners. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variability has been revealed in these emerging pathogens, but the species limits and host spectra have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we

  • Fungal diversity notes 1277–1386: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-10-31
    Hai-Sheng Yuan, Xu Lu, Yu-Cheng Dai, Kevin D. Hyde, Yu-He Kan, Ivana Kušan, Shuang-Hui He, Ning-Guo Liu, V. Venkateswara Sarma, Chang-Lin Zhao, Bao-Kai Cui, Nousheen Yousaf, Guangyu Sun, Shu-Yan Liu, Fang Wu, Chuan-Gen Lin, Monika C. Dayarathne, Tatiana Baptista Gibertoni, Lucas B. Conceição, Roberto Garibay-Orijel, Margarita Villegas-Ríos, Rodolfo Salas-Lizana, Tie-Zheng Wei, Jun-Zhi Qiu, Ze-Fen Yu

    This is the twelfth contribution to the Fungal Diversity Notes series on fungal taxonomy, based on materials collected from many countries which were examined and described using the methods of morphology, anatomy, and strain culture, combined with DNA sequence analyses. 110 taxa are described and illustrated, including five new genera, 92 new species, eight new combinations and other taxonomic contributions

  • One stop shop IV: taxonomic update with molecular phylogeny for important phytopathogenic genera: 76–100 (2020)
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Ruvishika S. Jayawardena, Kevin D. Hyde, Yi Jyun Chen, Viktor Papp, Balázs Palla, Dávid Papp, Chitrabhanu S. Bhunjun, Vedprakash G. Hurdeal, Chanokned Senwanna, Ishara S. Manawasinghe, Dulanjalee L. Harischandra, Ajay Kumar Gautam, Shubhi Avasthi, Boontiya Chuankid, Ishani D. Goonasekara, Sinang Hongsanan, XiangYu Zeng, Kapila K. Liyanage, NingGuo Liu, Anuruddha Karunarathna, Kalani K. Hapuarachchi

    This is a continuation of a series focused on providing a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi and fungus-like organisms. This paper focuses on one family: Erysiphaceae and 24 phytopathogenic genera: Armillaria, Barriopsis, Cercospora, Cladosporium, Clinoconidium, Colletotrichum, Cylindrocladiella, Dothidotthia,, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Golovinomyces, Heterobasidium, Meliola, Mucor

  • Resolving the Mortierellaceae phylogeny through synthesis of multi-gene phylogenetics and phylogenomics
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Natalie Vandepol, Julian Liber, Alessandro Desirò, Hyunsoo Na, Megan Kennedy, Kerrie Barry, Igor V. Grigoriev, Andrew N. Miller, Kerry O’Donnell, Jason E. Stajich, Gregory Bonito

    Early efforts to classify Mortierellaceae were based on macro- and micromorphology, but sequencing and phylogenetic studies with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) markers have demonstrated conflicting taxonomic groupings and polyphyletic genera. Although some taxonomic confusion in the family has been clarified, rDNA data alone is unable to resolve higher level phylogenetic relationships within Mortierellaceae

  • Mission impossible completed: unlocking the nomenclature of the largest and most complicated subgenus of Cortinarius , Telamonia
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Kare Liimatainen, Tuula Niskanen, Bálint Dima, Joseph F. Ammirati, Paul M. Kirk, Ilkka Kytövuori

    So far approximately 144,000 species of fungi have been named but sequences of the majority of them do not exist in the public databases. Therefore, the quality and coverage of public barcode databases is a bottleneck that hinders the study of fungi. Cortinarius is the largest genus of Agaricales with thousands of species world-wide. The most diverse subgenus in Cortinarius is Telamonia and its species

  • Multigene phylogeny of the family Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales): new taxa and the new systematic position of the Chinese cordycipitoid fungus Paecilomyces hepiali
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Yuan-Bing Wang, Yao Wang, Qi Fan, Dong-E Duan, Guo-Dong Zhang, Ru-Qin Dai, Yong-Dong Dai, Wen-Bo Zeng, Zi-Hong Chen, Dan-Dan Li, De-Xiang Tang, Zhi-Hong Xu, Tao Sun, Thi-Tra Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan Tran, Van-Minh Dao, Can-Ming Zhang, Luo-Dong Huang, Yong-Jun Liu, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Da-Rong Yang, Tatiana Sanjuan, Xing-Zhong Liu, Zhu L. Yang, Hong Yu

    The phylogeny and systematics of cordycipitoid fungi have been extensively studied in the last two decades. However, systematic positions of some taxa in the family Cordycipitaceae have not yet been thoroughly resolved. In this study, a new phylogenetic framework of Cordycipitaceae is reconstructed using multigene (nrSSU, nrLSU, tef-1α, rpb1 and rpb2) sequence data with large-scale taxon sampling.

  • The numbers of fungi: is the descriptive curve flattening?
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Kevin D. Hyde, Rajesh Jeewon, Yi-Jyun Chen, Chitrabhanu S. Bhunjun, Mark S. Calabon, Hong-Bo Jiang, Chuan-Gen Lin, Chada Norphanphoun, Phongeun Sysouphanthong, Dhandevi Pem, Saowaluck Tibpromma, Qian Zhang, Mingkwan Doilom, Ruvishika S. Jayawardena, Jian-Kui Liu, Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura, Chayanard Phukhamsakda, Rungtiwa Phookamsak, Abdullah M. Al-Sadi, Naritsada Thongklang, Yong Wang, Yusufjon

    The recent realistic estimate of fungal numbers which used various algorithms was between 2.2 and 3.8 million. There are nearly 100,000 accepted species of Fungi and fungus-like taxa, which is between 2.6 and 4.5% of the estimated species. Several forums such as Botanica Marina series, Fungal Diversity notes, Fungal Biodiversity Profiles, Fungal Systematics and Evolution—New and Interesting Fungi,

  • Identifying the ‘unidentified’ fungi: a global-scale long-read third-generation sequencing approach
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-08-08
    Leho Tedersoo, Sten Anslan, Mohammad Bahram, Urmas Kõljalg, Kessy Abarenkov

    Molecular identification methods, in particular high-throughput sequencing tools, have greatly improved our knowledge about fungal diversity and biogeography, but many of the recovered taxa from natural environments cannot be identified to species or even higher taxonomic levels. This study addresses the phylogenetic placement of previously unrecognized fungal groups by using two complementary approaches:

  • A re-evaluation of the Chaetothyriales using criteria of comparative biology
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Yu Quan, Lucia Muggia, Leandro F. Moreno, Meizhu Wang, Abdullah M. S. Al-Hatmi, Nickolas da Silva Menezes, Dongmei Shi, Shuwen Deng, Sarah Ahmed, Kevin D. Hyde, Vania A. Vicente, Yingqian Kang, J. Benjamin Stielow, Sybren de Hoog

    Chaetothyriales is an ascomycetous order within Eurotiomycetes. The order is particularly known through the black yeasts and filamentous relatives that cause opportunistic infections in humans. All species in the order are consistently melanized. Ecology and habitats of species are highly diverse, and often rather extreme in terms of exposition and toxicity. Families are defined on the basis of evolutionary

  • Culturable mycobiota from Karst caves in China II, with descriptions of 33 new species
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-07-26
    Zhi-Feng Zhang, Shi-Yue Zhou, Lily Eurwilaichitr, Supawadee Ingsriswang, Mubashar Raza, Qian Chen, Peng Zhao, Fang Liu, Lei Cai

    Karst caves are characterized by darkness, low temperature, high humidity, and oligotrophic organisms due to its relatively closed and strongly zonal environments. Up to now, 1626 species in 644 genera of fungi have been reported from caves and mines worldwide. In this study, we investigated the culturable mycobiota in karst caves in southwest China. In total, 251 samples from thirteen caves were collected

  • Microfungi associated with Clematis (Ranunculaceae) with an integrated approach to delimiting species boundaries
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Chayanard Phukhamsakda; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Alan J. L. Phillips; E. B. Gareth Jones; D. Jayarama Bhat; Marc Stadler; Chitrabhanu S. Bhunjun; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; Benjarong Thongbai; Erio Camporesi; Damien Ertz; Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Rekhani Hansika Perera; Anusha H. Ekanayake; Saowaluck Tibpromma; Mingkwan Doilom; Jianchu Xu; Kevin D. Hyde

    The cosmopolitan plant genus Clematis contains many climbing species that can be found worldwide. The genus occurs in the wild and is grown commercially for horticulture. Microfungi on Clematis were collected from Belgium, China, Italy, Thailand and the UK. They are characterized by morphology and analyses of gene sequence data using an integrated species concept to validate identifications. The study

  • Evolution of non-lichenized, saprotrophic species of Arthonia (Ascomycota, Arthoniales ) and resurrection of Naevia , with notes on Mycoporum
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Vinodhini Thiyagaraja; Robert Lücking; Damien Ertz; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; Samantha C. Karunarathna; Erio Camporesi; Kevin D. Hyde

    Fungi that are barely lichenized or non-lichenized and closely related to lichenized taxa, the so-called borderline fungi, are an important element in reconstructing the evolutionary history of lichenized lineages. Arthoniaceae is a prime example including non-lichenized, saprotrophic lineages which potentially were precursors to lichenized taxa. In this study, we focused on saprotrophic species of

  • A polyphasic approach to delineate species in Bipolaris
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Chitrabhanu S. Bhunjun; Yang Dong; Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Rajesh Jeewon; Chayanard Phukhamsakda; Digvijayini Bundhun; Kevin D. Hyde; Jun Sheng

    Bipolaris species are important plant pathogens with a worldwide distribution in tropical and temperate environments. Species recognition in Bipolaris has been problematic due to a lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures, the use of few gene regions for species resolution and overlapping morphological characters. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of different DNA barcodes in species delimitation

  • High quality genome sequences of thirteen Hypoxylaceae (Ascomycota) strengthen the phylogenetic family backbone and enable the discovery of new taxa
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Daniel Wibberg, Marc Stadler, Christopher Lambert, Boyke Bunk, Cathrin Spröer, Christian Rückert, Jörn Kalinowski, Russell J. Cox, Eric Kuhnert

    The Hypoxylaceae (Xylariales, Ascomycota) is a diverse family of mainly saprotrophic fungi, which commonly occur in angiosperm-dominated forests around the world. Despite their importance in forest and plant ecology as well as a prolific source of secondary metabolites and enzymes, genome sequences of related taxa are scarce and usually derived from environmental isolates. To address this lack of knowledge

  • Reallocation of foliicolous species of the genus Strigula into six genera (lichenized Ascomycota , Dothideomycetes , Strigulaceae )
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Shu-Hua Jiang; Robert Lücking; Amanda Barreto Xavier-Leite; Marcela E. S. Cáceres; André Aptroot; Carlos Viñas Portilla; Jiang-Chun Wei

    Strigula sensu lato has been previously defined based on phenotype characters as a rather broad genus including tropical to temperate species growing on a wide array of substrata. In this study, based on a multilocus phylogenetic approach, we show that foliicolous species form six well-delimited clades that correlate with diagnostic phenotype features, including thallus morphology, carbonization of

  • Taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungi associated with the invasive weed Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed)
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Ausana Mapook; Kevin D. Hyde; Eric H. C. McKenzie; E. B. Gareth Jones; D. Jayarama Bhat; Rajesh Jeewon; Marc Stadler; Milan C. Samarakoon; Maitree Malaithong; Benjawan Tanunchai; François Buscot; Tesfaye Wubet; Witoon Purahong

    This article provides morphological descriptions and illustrations of microfungi associated with the invasive weed, Chromolaena odorata, which were mainly collected in northern Thailand. Seventy-seven taxa distributed in ten orders, 23 families (of which Neomassarinaceae is new), 12 new genera (Chromolaenicola, Chromolaenomyces, Longiappendispora, Pseudocapulatispora, Murichromolaenicola, Neoophiobolus

  • Correction to: Fungicolous fungi: terminology, diversity, distribution, evolution, and species checklist
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Jing-Zu Sun, Xing-Zhong Liu, Eric H. C. McKenzie, Rajesh Jeewon, Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu, Xiao-Ling Zhang, Qi Zhao, Kevin D. Hyde

    There were errors in Figs. 1 and 2 in the original publication. Figure panels 1a, 1b, 1h and 1p did not match the legend. The correct Fig. 1 is published below. In Fig. 2, the word Fusion should be Fusional.

  • Taxonomy and phylogeny of hyaline-spored coelomycetes
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Wen-Jing Li; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu; D. Jayarama Bhat; Dong-Qin Dai; Erio Camporesi; Qing Tian; Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura; Zong-Long Luo; Qiu-Ju Shang; Jin-Feng Zhang; Narumon Tangthirasunun; Samantha C. Karunarathna; Jian-Chu Xu; Kevin D. Hyde

    Coelomycete is a general term used for asexual fungi which produce conidia in fruiting bodies: pycnidial, acervular, cupulate, pycnothyria or stromatic conidiomata. The group contains numerous plant pathogenic, saprobic and endophytic species associated with a wide range of hosts. Traditionally, morphological characters and host associations have been used as criteria to identify and classify coelomycetes

  • Elucidation of the life cycle of the endophytic genus Muscodor and its transfer to Induratia in Induratiaceae fam. nov., based on a polyphasic taxonomic approach
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-03-21
    Milan C. Samarakoon; Benjarong Thongbai; Kevin D. Hyde; Mark Brönstrup; Ulrike Beutling; Christopher Lambert; Andrew N. Miller; Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu; Itthayakorn Promputtha; Marc Stadler

    Molecular phylogenetic studies of cultures derived from some specimens of plant-inhabiting Sordariomycetes using ITS, LSU, rpb2 and tub2 DNA sequence data revealed close affinities to strains of Muscodor. The taxonomy of this biotechnologically important genus, which exclusively consists of endophytes with sterile mycelia that produce antibiotic volatile secondary metabolites, was based on a rather

  • Fungal diversity notes 1151–1276: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Kevin D. Hyde; Yang Dong; Rungtiwa Phookamsak; Rajesh Jeewon; D. Jayarama Bhat; E. B. Gareth Jones; Ning-Guo Liu; Pranami D. Abeywickrama; Ausana Mapook; Deping Wei; Rekhani H. Perera; Ishara S. Manawasinghe; Dhandevi Pem; Digvijayini Bundhun; Anuruddha Karunarathna; Anusha H. Ekanayaka; Dan-Feng Bao; Junfu Li; Milan C. Samarakoon; Napalai Chaiwan; Chuan-Gen Lin; Kunthida Phutthacharoen; Sheng-Nan

    Fungal diversity notes is one of the important journal series of fungal taxonomy that provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of new fungal taxa, as well as providing new information of fungal taxa worldwide. This article is the 11th contribution to the fungal diversity notes series, in which 126 taxa distributed in two phyla, six classes, 24 orders and 55 families are described and illustrated

  • Insights into the Tricholomatineae ( Agaricales , Agaricomycetes ): a new arrangement of Biannulariaceae and Callistosporium , Callistosporiaceae fam. nov., Xerophorus stat. nov., and Pleurocollybia incorporated into Callistosporium
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Alfredo Vizzini; Giovanni Consiglio; Mauro Marchetti; Pablo Alvarado

    A new classification of the taxa formerly ascribed to Biannulariaceae (≡ Catathelasmataceae), viz. Catathelasma (type), Callistosporium, Pleurocollybia, Macrocybe, Pseudolaccaria, Guyanagarika and Anupama is here proposed. Phylogenetic inference of the Tricholomatineae based on the analysis of a combined dataset of nuclear genes including ITS, 18S and 28S rDNA, tef1 and rpb2 data supports significantly

  • Notes, outline and divergence times of Basidiomycota
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Mao-Qiang He; Rui-Lin Zhao; Kevin D. Hyde; Dominik Begerow; Martin Kemler; Andrey Yurkov; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Olivier Raspé; Makoto Kakishima; Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez; Else C. Vellinga; Roy Halling; Viktor Papp; Ivan V. Zmitrovich; Bart Buyck; Damien Ertz; Nalin N. Wijayawardene; Bao-Kai Cui; Nathan Schoutteten; Xin-Zhan Liu; Tai-Hui Li; Yi-Jian Yao; Xin-Yu Zhu; An-Qi Liu; Guo-Jie Li; Ming-Zhe Zhang;

    The Basidiomycota constitutes a major phylum of the kingdom Fungi and is second in species numbers to the Ascomycota. The present work provides an overview of all validly published, currently used basidiomycete genera to date in a single document. An outline of all genera of Basidiomycota is provided, which includes 1928 currently used genera names, with 1263 synonyms, which are distributed in 241

  • Freshwater Sordariomycetes
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Zong-Long Luo; Kevin D. Hyde; Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu; Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura; Rajesh Jeewon; Dan-Feng Bao; Darbhe Jayarama Bhat; Chuan-Gen Lin; Wen-Li Li; Jing Yang; Ning-Guo Liu; Yong-Zhong Lu; Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Jun-Fu Li; Hong-Yan Su

    Sordariomycetes is one of the largest classes of Ascomycota that comprises a highly diverse range of fungi mainly characterized by perithecial ascomata and inoperculate unitunicate asci. Freshwater Sordariomycetes play an important role in ecosystems and some of them have the potential to produce bioactive compounds. This study documents and reviews the freshwater Sordariomycetes, which is one of the

  • The quest for a globally comprehensible Russula language
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Slavomír Adamčík; Brian Looney; Miroslav Caboň; Soňa Jančovičová; Katarína Adamčíková; Peter G. Avis; Magdalena Barajas; Rajendra P. Bhatt; Adriana Corrales; Kanad Das; Felix Hampe; Aniket Ghosh; Genevieve Gates; Ville Kälviäinen; Abdul Nasir Khalid; Munazza Kiran; Ruben De Lange; Hyun Lee; Young Woon Lim; Alejandro Kong; Cathrin Manz; Clark Ovrebo; Malka Saba; Tero Taipale; Annemieke Verbeken; Komsit

    Since 2007, the quality of Russula descriptions has improved and the use of molecular support for species delimitation and the number of published new species has increased. However, the description style is not consistent and has regional or author-specific patterns. Most recent publications still favour descriptions of spores compared to hymenium and pileipellis elements, and usually only the spore

  • Culturable plant pathogenic fungi associated with sugarcane in southern China
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Mubashar Raza; Zhi-Feng Zhang; Kevin D. Hyde; Yong-Zhao Diao; Lei Cai

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) is one of the oldest crops cultivated by mankind. Numerous fungal taxa have been reported from this host, although most were not identified beyond genus level. In this study, we explored 31 sampling sites in Guangxi and Guangdong Provinces (China), and collected 370 diseased samples from leaves and roots of sugarcane, from which 762 strains were isolated. Our preliminary

  • One stop shop III: taxonomic update with molecular phylogeny for important phytopathogenic genera: 51–75 (2019)
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Kevin D. Hyde; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Rajesh Jeewon; Alan J. L. Phillips; Rekhani H. Perera; Nimali I. de Silva; Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumburua; Milan C. Samarakoon; Anusha H. Ekanayake; Danushka S. Tennakoon; Asha J. Dissanayake; Chada Norphanphoun; Chuangen Lin; Ishara S. Manawasinghe; Qian Tian; Rashika Brahmanage; Putarak Chomnunti; Sinang Hongsanan; Subashini C. Jayasiri;

    This is a continuation of a series focused on providing a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi and organisms. This paper focuses on 25 phytopathogenic genera: Alternaria, Capnodium, Chaetothyrina, Cytospora, Cyphellophora, Cyttaria, Dactylonectria, Diplodia, Dothiorella, Entoleuca, Eutiarosporella, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Lasiodiplodia, Macrophomina, Medeolaria, Neonectria, Neopestalotiopsis

  • A global review of the ecological significance of symbiotic associations between birds and fungi
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Todd F. Elliott; Michelle A. Jusino; James M. Trappe; Heino Lepp; Guy-Anthony Ballard; Jeremy J. Bruhl; Karl Vernes

    Symbiotic associations between mammals and fungi have been well documented and are widely regarded as vital to ecosystem functions around the world. Symbioses between birds and fungi are also ecologically vital but have been far less thoroughly studied. This manuscript is the first to review a wide range of symbiotic associations between birds and fungi. We compile the largest list to date of bird

  • Resource diversity of Chinese macrofungi: edible, medicinal and poisonous species
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Fang Wu; Li-Wei Zhou; Zhu-Liang Yang; Tolgor Bau; Tai-Hui Li; Yu-Cheng Dai

    The huge land areas in China provide highly diverse habitats for macrofungi. Of these macrofungi, many are directly related to people’s daily life and have been utilized by ancient Chinese for at least 6800 years. In this study, we evaluate the current known resource diversity of Chinese macrofungi. A total of 1662 taxa are summarized, and all species names and their authorities have been checked and

  • The amazing potential of fungi: 50 ways we can exploit fungi industrially
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Kevin D. Hyde; Jianchu Xu; Sylvie Rapior; Rajesh Jeewon; Saisamorn Lumyong; Allen Grace T. Niego; Pranami D. Abeywickrama; Janith V. S. Aluthmuhandiram; Rashika S. Brahamanage; Siraprapa Brooks; Amornrat Chaiyasen; K. W. Thilini Chethana; Putarak Chomnunti; Clara Chepkirui; Boontiya Chuankid; Nimali I. de Silva; Mingkwan Doilom; Craig Faulds; Eleni Gentekaki; Venkat Gopalan; Pattana Kakumyan; Dulanjalee

    Fungi are an understudied, biotechnologically valuable group of organisms. Due to the immense range of habitats that fungi inhabit, and the consequent need to compete against a diverse array of other fungi, bacteria, and animals, fungi have developed numerous survival mechanisms. The unique attributes of fungi thus herald great promise for their application in biotechnology and industry. Moreover,

  • Fungal diversity notes 1036–1150: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Kevin D. Hyde; Danushka S. Tennakoon; Rajesh Jeewon; D. Jayarama Bhat; Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura; Walter Rossi; Marco Leonardi; Hyang Burm Lee; Hye Yeon Mun; Jos Houbraken; Thuong T. T. Nguyen; Sun Jeong Jeon; Jens Christian Frisvad; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; Robert Lücking; André Aptroot; Marcela E. S. Cáceres; Samantha C. Karunarathna; Sinang Hongsanan; Rungtiwa Phookamsak; Nimali I. de Silva;

    This article is the tenth series of the Fungal Diversity Notes, where 114 taxa distributed in three phyla, ten classes, 30 orders and 53 families are described and illustrated. Taxa described in the present study include one new family (viz. Pseudoberkleasmiaceae in Dothideomycetes), five new genera (Caatingomyces, Cryptoschizotrema, Neoacladium, Paramassaria and Trochilispora) and 71 new species,

  • Taxonomy and the evolutionary history of Micropeltidaceae
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Xiang-Yu Zeng; Hai-Xia Wu; Sinang Hongsanan; Rajesh Jeewon; Ting-Chi Wen; Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura; Putarak Chomnunti; Kevin D. Hyde

    Micropeltidaceae species are flyspeck fungi which have been subjected to few systematic studies. We re-examined 27 genera which were accepted in the Micropeltidaceae and re-described them based on herbaria materials and protologues. Based on morphology and phylogenetic investigations, we transfer Micropeltidaceae to a new order, Micropeltidales (Lecanoromycetes). Genera with bluish or greenish upper

  • The unbearable lightness of sequenced-based identification
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-05-24
    Valérie Hofstetter; Bart Buyck; Guillaume Eyssartier; Sylvain Schnee; Katia Gindro

    Using the basic GenBank local alignment search tool program (BLAST) to identify fungi collected in a recently protected beech forest at Montricher (Switzerland), the number of ITS sequences associated to the wrong taxon name appears to be around 30%, even higher than previously estimated. Such results rely on the in-depth re-examination of BLAST results for the most interesting species that were collected

  • An online resource for marine fungi
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    E. B. Gareth Jones; Ka-Lai Pang; Mohamed A. Abdel-Wahab; Bettina Scholz; Kevin D. Hyde; Teun Boekhout; Rainer Ebel; Mostafa E. Rateb; Linda Henderson; Jariya Sakayaroj; Satinee Suetrong; Monika C. Dayarathne; Vinit Kumar; Seshagiri Raghukumar; K. R. Sridhar; Ali H. A. Bahkali; Frank H. Gleason; Chada Norphanphoun

    Index Fungorum, Species Fungorum and MycoBank are the key fungal nomenclature and taxonomic databases that can be sourced to find taxonomic details concerning fungi, while DNA sequence data can be sourced from the NCBI, EBI and UNITE databases. Nomenclature and ecological data on freshwater fungi can be accessed on http://fungi.life.illinois.edu/, while http://www.marinespecies.org/provides a comprehensive

  • Species diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny of Polyporaceae (Basidiomycota) in China
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Bao-Kai Cui; Hai-Jiao Li; Xing Ji; Jun-Liang Zhou; Jie Song; Jing Si; Zhu-Liang Yang; Yu-Cheng Dai

    Polyporaceae is one of the most important families of Basidiomycota. Investigations on the species diversity, taxonomy and phylogeny of Polyporaceae in China are carried out. So far 217 species belonging to 42 genera are reported from China. Two new genera: Amylosporia gen. nov. and Murinicarpus gen. nov., twelve new species: Coriolopsis dendriformis sp. nov., C. hainanensis sp. nov., Funalia cystidiata

  • Taxonomic revision of the genus Lactarius (Russulales, Basidiomycota) in Korea
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-05-10
    Hyun Lee; Komsit Wissitrassameewong; Myung Soo Park; Annemieke Verbeken; John Eimes; Young Woon Lim

    The genus Lactarius Pers. (Russulales) is a cosmopolitan group of Basidiomycota that forms ectomycorrhizal relationships primarily with both deciduous and coniferous trees. Although the genus has been well-studied in Europe and North America, only fragmentary researches have been carried out on Asian species. In particular, the distribution of Lactarius species in South Korea is poorly understood due

  • Fungal diversity notes 929–1035: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungi
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-05-01
    Rungtiwa Phookamsak; Kevin D. Hyde; Rajesh Jeewon; D. Jayarama Bhat; E. B. Gareth Jones; Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura; Olivier Raspé; Samantha C. Karunarathna; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; Sinang Hongsanan; Mingkwan Doilom; Danushka S. Tennakoon; Alexandre R. Machado; André L. Firmino; Aniket Ghosh; Anuruddha Karunarathna; Armin Mešić; Arun Kumar Dutta; Benjarong Thongbai; Bandarupalli Devadatha; Chada

    This article is the ninth in the series of Fungal Diversity Notes, where 107 taxa distributed in three phyla, nine classes, 31 orders and 57 families are described and illustrated. Taxa described in the present study include 12 new genera, 74 new species, three new combinations, two reference specimens, a re-circumscription of the epitype, and 15 records of sexual-asexual morph connections, new hosts

  • Divergence time calibrations for ancient lineages of Ascomycota classification based on a modern review of estimations
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-04-22
    Milan C. Samarakoon; Kevin D. Hyde; Sinang Hongsanan; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Hiran A. Ariyawansa; Itthayakorn Promputtha; Xiang-Yu Zeng; Qing Tian; Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu

    Inaccurate taxonomic placement of fossils can lead to the accumulation of errors in molecular clock studies and their generated evolutionary lineages. There are limited fossil data that can be used in divergence time estimations. Therefore, reliable morphological characterization and taxonomical identification of fossil fungi are extremely important. Most fossils of Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes

  • Fungicolous fungi: terminology, diversity, distribution, evolution, and species checklist
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-04-03
    Jing-Zu Sun; Xing-Zhong Liu; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Rajesh Jeewon; Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu; Xiao-Ling Zhang; Qi Zhao; Kevin D. Hyde

    Fungicolous fungi are a very large, diverse, ecological and trophic group of organisms that are associated with other fungi. This association occurs with species of different lineages across the fungal kingdom. They are recognized as symbionts, mycoparasites, saprotrophs, and even neutrals. Wherever fungi have been found, fungicolous taxa have also been found. Homogeneous environments favour the development

  • One stop shop II: taxonomic update with molecular phylogeny for important phytopathogenic genera: 26–50 (2019)
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Kevin D. Hyde; Rajesh Jeewon; Masoomeh Ghobad-Nejhad; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; NingGuo Liu; Alan J. L. Phillips; José Ribamar C. Oliveira-Filho; Gladstone A. da Silva; Tatiana B. Gibertoni; P. Abeywikrama; L. M. Carris; K. W. T. Chethana; A. J. Dissanayake; S. Hongsanan; S. C. Jayasiri; A. R. McTaggart; R. H. Perera; K. Phutthacharoen; K. G. Savchenko; R. G. Shivas; Naritsada

    This paper is the second in a series focused on providing a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi. It focuses on 25 phytopathogenic genera: Alternaria, Bipolaris, Boeremia, Botryosphaeria, Calonectria, Coniella, Corticiaceae, Curvularia, Elsinoe, Entyloma, Erythricium, Fomitiporia, Fulviformes, Laetisaria, Limonomyces, Neofabraea, Neofusicoccum, Phaeoacremonium, Phellinotus, Phyllosticta

  • Lichinodium is a new lichenized lineage in the Leotiomycetes
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-12-13
    Maria Prieto; Matthias Schultz; Ibai Olariaga; Mats Wedin

    Here, we show that Lichinodium (Lichinaceae, Lichinomycetes, Ascomycota) constitutes a formerly unrecognized lineage within the Leotiomycetes, thus being the first lichenized lineage recognized in the superclass Sordariomyceta (Leotiomycetes, Laboulbeniomycetes and Sordariomycetes). To infer the position of Lichinodium, we constructed two multilocus phylogenies based on six and five gene regions (nuLSU

  • Families in Botryosphaeriales : a phylogenetic, morphological and evolutionary perspective
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-11-23
    Alan J. L. Phillips; Kevin D. Hyde; Artur Alves; Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu

    Botryosphaeriales was introduced in 2006 for a single family Botryosphaeriaceae. Since then the number of families has increased as a result of the transfer of one family (Planistromellaceae) into the order, re-instatement of another (Phyllostictaceae), while others resulted from raising genera to family status (Aplosporellaceae, Endomelanconiopsisaceae, Melanopsaceae, Pseudofusicoccumaceae, Saccharataceae

  • Thailand’s amazing diversity: up to 96% of fungi in northern Thailand may be novel
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Kevin D. Hyde; Chada Norphanphoun; Jie Chen; Asha J. Dissanayake; Mingkwan Doilom; Sinang Hongsanan; Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Rajesh Jeewon; Rekhani H. Perera; Benjarong Thongbai; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; Komsit Wisitrassameewong; Saowaluck Tibpromma; Marc Stadler

    Fungi have been often neglected, despite the fact that they provided penicillin, lovastatin and many other important medicines. They are an understudied, but essential, fascinating and biotechnologically useful group of organisms. The study of fungi in northern Thailand has been carried out by us since 2005. These studies have been diverse, ranging from ecological aspects, phylogenetics with the incorportation

  • The world’s ten most feared fungi
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-11-10
    Kevin D. Hyde; Abdullah M. S. Al-Hatmi; Birgitte Andersen; Teun Boekhout; Walter Buzina; Thomas L. Dawson; Dan C. Eastwood; E. B. Gareth Jones; Sybren de Hoog; Yingqian Kang; Joyce E. Longcore; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Jacques F. Meis; Laetitia Pinson-Gadais; Achala R. Rathnayaka; Florence Richard-Forget; Marc Stadler; Bart Theelen; Benjarong Thongbai; Clement K. M. Tsui

    An account is provided of the world’s ten most feared fungi. Within areas of interest, we have organized the entries in the order of concern. We put four human pathogens first as this is of concern to most people. This is followed by fungi producing mycotoxins that are highly harmful for humans; Aspergillus flavus, the main producer of aflatoxins, was used as an example. Problems due to indoor air

  • Fungi between extremotolerance and opportunistic pathogenicity on humans
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-11-09
    Cene Gostinčar; Janja Zajc; Metka Lenassi; Ana Plemenitaš; Sybren de Hoog; Abdullah M. S. Al-Hatmi; Nina Gunde-Cimerman

    Numerous agents of infections in humans and other mammals are found among fungi that are able to survive extreme environmental conditions and to quickly adapt to novel habitats. Nevertheless, the relationship between opportunistic potential and polyextremotolerance was not yet studied systematically in fungi. Here, the link between polyextremotolerance and opportunistic pathogenicity is shown in a

  • Fungal diversity notes 840–928: micro-fungi associated with Pandanaceae
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Saowaluck Tibpromma; Kevin D. Hyde; Eric H. C. McKenzie; D. Jayarama Bhat; Alan J. L. Phillips; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; Milan C. Samarakoon; Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Asha J. Dissanayake; Danushka S. Tennakoon; Mingkwan Doilom; Rungtiwa Phookamsak; Alvin M. C. Tang; Jianchu Xu; Peter E. Mortimer; Itthayakorn Promputtha; Sajeewa S. N. Maharachchikumbura; Samiullah Khan; Samantha C. Karunarathna

    This paper provides illustrated descriptions of micro-fungi newly found on Pandanaceae in China and Thailand. The fungi are accommodated in 31 families. New taxa described include a new family, seven new genera, 65 new species, 16 previously known species. A new family: Malaysiascaceae (Glomerellales). New genera are Acremoniisimulans (Plectosphaerellaceae), Pandanaceomyces, Pseudoachroiostachy (Nectriaceae)

  • A taxonomic reassessment of Tubeufiales based on multi-locus phylogeny and morphology
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-09-24
    Yong-Zhong Lu; Jian-Kui (Jack) Liu; Kevin D. Hyde; Rajesh Jeewon; Ji-Chuan Kang; Cui Fan; Saranyaphat Boonmee; D. Jayarama Bhat; Zong-Long Luo; Chuan-Gen Lin; Prapassorn Damrongkool Eungwanichayapant

    This study deals with an extensive taxonomic reevaluation focusing on phylogenetic relationships and morphological characterization of Tubeufiales, especially those helicosporous hyphomycetes which are difficult to identify. Based on evidence from DNA sequence data and morphology, we introduce 13 new genera in the family Tubeufiaceae, viz. Acanthotubeufia, Dematiohelicoma, Dematiohelicomyces, Dematiohelicosporum

  • Taxonomic circumscription of Diaporthales based on multigene phylogeny and morphology
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Indunil C. Senanayake; Rajesh Jeewon; Putarak Chomnunti; Dhanushka N. Wanasinghe; Chada Norphanphoun; Anuruddha Karunarathna; Dhandevi Pem; Rekhani H. Perera; Erio Camporesi; Eric H. C. McKenzie; Kevin D. Hyde; Samantha C. Karunarathna

    Demarcation of family, genus and species boundaries in the Diaporthales has been tentative due to uninformative illustrations and descriptions, overlapping morphological characteristics, misplacement or poor condition of type specimens and shortage of molecular data from ex-type cultures. In this study, we obtained the type specimens or other authentic specimens of diaporthalean taxa from worldwide

  • Notes for genera: basal clades of Fungi (including Aphelidiomycota, Basidiobolomycota , Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomophthoromycota, Glomeromycota, Kickxellomycota, Monoblepharomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Olpidiomycota, Rozellomycota and Zoopagomycota )
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Nalin N. Wijayawardene; Julia Pawłowska; Peter M. Letcher; Paul M. Kirk; Richard A. Humber; Arthur Schüßler; Marta Wrzosek; Anna Muszewska; Alicja Okrasińska; Łukasz Istel; Aleksandra Gęsiorska; Paul Mungai; Adebola Azeez Lateef; Kunhiraman C. Rajeshkumar; Rajshree V. Singh; Renate Radek; Grit Walther; Lysett Wagner; Christopher Walker; D. Siril A. Wijesundara; Moslem Papizadeh; Somayeh Dolatabadi;

    Compared to the higher fungi (Dikarya), taxonomic and evolutionary studies on the basal clades of fungi are fewer in number. Thus, the generic boundaries and higher ranks in the basal clades of fungi are poorly known. Recent DNA based taxonomic studies have provided reliable and accurate information. It is therefore necessary to compile all available information since basal clades genera lack updated

  • Identification of fungal fossils and novel azaphilone pigments in ancient carbonised specimens of Hypoxylon fragiforme from forest soils of Châtillon-sur-Seine (Burgundy)
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Frank Surup; Abolfazl Narmani; Lucile Wendt; Sebastian Pfütze; Robin Kretz; Kevin Becker; Clément Menbrivès; Alain Giosa; Michelle Elliott; Christophe Petit; Manfred Rohde; Marc Stadler

    Fungal stromata were recently discovered in association with charcoal and burnt soil aggregates during an archaeological survey in the Châtillon-sur-Seine forest massif. The wood and soil in the samples were dated to the medieval period (between 738 and 1411 AD). Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that a few of the stromatal fragments still contained ascospores. Their macromorphological

  • Phylogenomic analysis of 2556 single-copy protein-coding genes resolves most evolutionary relationships for the major clades in the most diverse group of lichen-forming fungi
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-08-17
    David Pizarro; Pradeep K. Divakar; Felix Grewe; Steven D. Leavitt; Jen-Pan Huang; Francesco Dal Grande; Imke Schmitt; Mats Wedin; Ana Crespo; H. Thorsten Lumbsch

    Phylogenomic datasets continue to enhance our understanding of evolutionary relationships in many lineages of organisms. However, genome-scale data have not been widely implemented in reconstructing relationships in lichenized fungi. Here we generate a data set comprised of 2556 single-copy protein-coding genes to reconstruct previously unresolved relationships in the most diverse family of lichen-forming

  • The family Amanitaceae: molecular phylogeny, higher-rank taxonomy and the species in China
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Yang-Yang Cui; Qing Cai; Li-Ping Tang; Jian-Wei Liu; Zhu L. Yang

    Mushrooms in the basidiomycete family Amanitaceae are very important both economically and ecologically. However, the delimitation of the family is still controversial, in part due to limited taxon sampling and in part because of insufficient gene fragment employed for molecular phylogenetic analyses. Furthermore, species diversity in the family is likely to have been largely underestimated, due to

  • Can we use environmental DNA as holotypes?
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-07-12
    Sinang Hongsanan; Rajesh Jeewon; Witoon Purahong; Ning Xie; Jian-Kui Liu; Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Anusha H. Ekanayaka; Asha Dissanayake; Olivier Raspé; Kevin D. Hyde; Marc Stadler; Derek Peršoh

    The advantages and disadvantages of giving a valid name to a sequence of DNA detected from environmental specimens is presently a hot debate amongst the mycological community. The idea of using intracellular DNA (“mgDNA”) from environmental samples as holotypes seems at face value, to be a good idea, considering the expansion of knowledge among these ‘dark taxa’ or ‘dark matter fungi’ that it could

  • Phylogeny, ecology and taxonomy of systemic pathogens and their relatives in Ajellomycetaceae (Onygenales): Blastomyces , Emergomyces , Emmonsia , Emmonsiellopsis
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-06-05
    Yanping Jiang; Karolina Dukik; Jose F. Muñoz; Lynne Sigler; Ilan S. Schwartz; Nelesh P. Govender; Chris Kenyon; Peiying Feng; Bert Gerrits van den Ende; J. Benjamin Stielow; Alberto M. Stchigel; Hongguang Lu; Sybren de Hoog

    The family Ajellomycetaceae (Onygenales) includes mammal-associated pathogens within the genera Blastomyces, Emmonsia, Histoplasma and Paracoccidioides, as well as the recently described genera, Emergomyces that causes disease in immunocompromised hosts, and Emmonsiellopsis, known only from soil. To further assess the phylogenetic relationships among and between members of these genera and several

  • Taxonomy and phylogeny of operculate discomycetes: Pezizomycetes
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-05-26
    Anusha H. Ekanayaka; Kevin D. Hyde; E. B. Gareth Jones; Qi Zhao

    The class Pezizomycetes is monophyletic within the subdivision Pezizomycotina. The main distinguishing character of this class is operculate asci, although in some taxa this character has been lost. The circumscription of the families and generic level delimitation in Pezizomycetes is still controversial, although several molecular phylogenetic studies have been published on this group. This paper

  • High-level classification of the Fungi and a tool for evolutionary ecological analyses
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-05-16
    Leho Tedersoo; Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez; Urmas Kõljalg; Mohammad Bahram; Markus Döring; Dmitry Schigel; Tom May; Martin Ryberg; Kessy Abarenkov

    High-throughput sequencing studies generate vast amounts of taxonomic data. Evolutionary ecological hypotheses of the recovered taxa and Species Hypotheses are difficult to test due to problems with alignments and the lack of a phylogenetic backbone. We propose an updated phylum- and class-level fungal classification accounting for monophyly and divergence time so that the main taxonomic ranks are

  • Pseudoclitocybaceae fam. nov. (Agaricales, Tricholomatineae), a new arrangement at family, genus and species level
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Pablo Alvarado; Pierre-Arthur Moreau; Bálint Dima; Alfredo Vizzini; Giovanni Consiglio; Gabriel Moreno; Ledo Setti; Tapio Kekki; Seppo Huhtinen; Kare Liimatainen; Tuula Niskanen

    A new classification of several clitocyboid taxa is here proposed to accommodate results from multigenic phylogenetic inference. The analysis of ITS rDNA as well as a combined dataset including 18S and 28S rDNA, tef1 and rpb2 data, support significantly a shared monophyletic origin of the genera Pseudoclitocybe, Musumecia and Pogonoloma, and the species Clitocybe alexandri and C. harperi. The new family

  • Direct comparison of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular approaches reveal the diversity of fungal endophytic communities in stems of grapevine ( Vitis vinifera )
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-04-13
    Asha J. Dissanayake; Witoon Purahong; Tesfaye Wubet; Kevin D. Hyde; Wei Zhang; Haiying Xu; Guojun Zhang; Chunyuan Fu; Mei Liu; Qikai Xing; Xinghong Li; Jiye Yan

    Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) are colonized by ubiquitous microorganisms known as endophytes, which may have advantageous or neutral effects without causing disease symptoms. Certain endophytes are uncultivable, so culture-independent approaches such as next generation sequencing (NGS) can help for a better understanding of their ecology and distribution. To date, there are no studies which directly

  • Biodiversity of fungi on Vitis vinifera L. revealed by traditional and high-resolution culture-independent approaches
    Fungal Divers. (IF 15.386) Pub Date : 2018-03-14
    Ruvishika S. Jayawardena; Witoon Purahong; Wei Zhang; Tesfaye Wubet; XingHong Li; Mei Liu; Wensheng Zhao; Kevin D. Hyde; JianHua Liu; Jiye Yan

    This study is unique as it compares traditional and high-resolution culture-independent approaches using the same set of samples to study the saprotrophic fungi on Vitis vinifera. We identified the saprotrophic communities of table grape (Red Globe) and wine grape (Carbanate Gernischet) in China using both traditional and culture-independent techniques. The traditional approach used direct observations