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  •   Membrane fusion and immune evasion by the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-26
    Jun Zhang, Tianshu Xiao, Yongfei Cai, Christy L. Lavine, Hanqin Peng, Haisun Zhu, Krishna Anand, Pei Tong, Avneesh Gautam, Megan L. Mayer, Richard M. Walsh, Jr., Sophia Rits-Volloch, Duane R. Wesemann, Wei Yang, Michael S. Seaman, Jianming Lu, Bing Chen

    The Delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has outcompeted previously prevalent variants and become a dominant strain worldwide. We report the structure, function, and antigenicity of its full-length spike (S) trimer and those of the Gamma and Kappa variants and compare their characteristics with the G614, Alpha, and Beta variants. Delta S can fuse membranes more

  •   Socioeconomic impacts of marine heatwaves: Global issues and opportunities
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Kathryn E. Smith, Michael T. Burrows, Alistair J. Hobday, Alex Sen Gupta, Pippa J. Moore, Mads Thomsen, Thomas Wernberg, Dan A. Smale

    Extreme climatic events, including marine heatwaves (MHWs), are altering ecosystems globally, often with profound socioeconomic impacts. We examine how MHWs have affected the provision of ecosystem services and evaluate the socioeconomic consequences for human society. Ecological impacts range from harmful algal blooms and mass mortality events to reconfigurations of entire ecosystems, affecting provisioning

  •   Multidimensional phase singularities in nanophotonics
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Jincheng Ni, Can Huang, Lei-Ming Zhou, Min Gu, Qinghai Song, Yuri Kivshar, Cheng-Wei Qiu

    Rapid progress in miniaturizing vortex devices is driven by their integration with optical sensing, micromanipulation, and optical communications in both classical and quantum realms. Many such efforts are usually associated with on-chip micro- or nanoscale structures in real space and possess a static orbital angular momentum. Recently, a new branch of singular optics has emerged that seeks phase

  •   Lightweight, strong, moldable wood via cell wall engineering as a sustainable structural material
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Shaoliang Xiao, Chaoji Chen, Qinqin Xia, Yu Liu, Yuan Yao, Qiongyu Chen, Matt Hartsfield, Alexandra Brozena, Kunkun Tu, Stephen J. Eichhorn, Yonggang Yao, Jianguo Li, Wentao Gan, Sheldon Q. Shi, Vina W. Yang, Marco Lo Ricco, J.Y. Zhu, Ingo Burgert, Alan Luo, Teng Li, Liangbing Hu

    Wood is a sustainable structural material, but it cannot be easily shaped while maintaining its mechanical properties. We report a processing strategy that uses cell wall engineering to shape flat sheets of hardwood into versatile three-dimensional (3D) structures. After breaking down wood’s lignin component and closing the vessels and fibers by evaporating water, we partially re-swell the wood in

  •   Broadband electro-optic polarization conversion with atomically thin black phosphorus
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Souvik Biswas, Meir Y. Grajower, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Harry A. Atwater

    Active polarization control is highly desirable in photonic systems but has been limited mostly to discrete structures in bulky dielectric media and liquid crystal–based variable retarders. Here, we report electrically reconfigurable polarization conversion across telecommunication wavelengths (1410 to 1575 nanometers) in van der Waals layered materials using tri-layer black phosphorus (TLBP) integrated

  •   Sulfur-anchoring synthesis of platinum intermetallic nanoparticle catalysts for fuel cells
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Cheng-Long Yang, Li-Na Wang, Peng Yin, Jieyuan Liu, Ming-Xi Chen, Qiang-Qiang Yan, Zheng-Shu Wang, Shi-Long Xu, Sheng-Qi Chu, Chunhua Cui, Huanxin Ju, Junfa Zhu, Yue Lin, Jianglan Shui, Hai-Wei Liang

    Atomically ordered intermetallic nanoparticles are promising for catalytic applications but are difficult to produce because the high-temperature annealing required for atom ordering inevitably accelerates metal sintering that leads to larger crystallites. We prepared platinum intermetallics with an average particle size of <5 nanometers on porous sulfur-doped carbon supports, on which the strong interaction

  •   General method for iron-catalyzed multicomponent radical cascades–cross-couplings
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Lei Liu, Maria Camila Aguilera, Wes Lee, Cassandra R. Youshaw, Michael L. Neidig, Osvaldo Gutierrez

    Transition metal–catalyzed cross-coupling reactions are some of the most widely used methods in chemical synthesis. However, despite notable advantages of iron (Fe) as a potentially cheaper, more abundant, and less toxic transition metal catalyst, its practical application in multicomponent cross-couplings remains largely unsuccessful. We demonstrate 1,2-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane Fe–catalyzed

  •   In situ design of advanced titanium alloy with concentration modulations by additive manufacturing
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Tianlong Zhang, Zhenghua Huang, Tao Yang, Haojie Kong, Junhua Luan, Anding Wang, Dong Wang, Way Kuo, Yunzhi Wang, Chain-Tsuan Liu

    Additive manufacturing is a revolutionary technology that offers a different pathway for material processing and design. However, innovations in either new materials or new processing technologies can seldom be successful without a synergistic combination. We demonstrate an in situ design approach to make alloys spatially modulated in concentration by using laser-powder bed fusion. We show that the

  •   Evolution of water structures in metal-organic frameworks for improved atmospheric water harvesting
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Nikita Hanikel, Xiaokun Pei, Saumil Chheda, Hao Lyu, WooSeok Jeong, Joachim Sauer, Laura Gagliardi, Omar M. Yaghi

    Although the positions of water guests in porous crystals can be identified, determination of their filling sequence remains challenging. We deciphered the water-filling mechanism for the state-of-the-art water-harvesting metal-organic framework MOF-303 by performing an extensive series of single-crystal x-ray diffraction measurements and density functional theory calculations. The first water molecules

  •   Ivory poaching and the rapid evolution of tusklessness in African elephants
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Shane C. Campbell-Staton, Brian J. Arnold, Dominique Gonçalves, Petter Granli, Joyce Poole, Ryan A. Long, Robert M. Pringle

    Understanding the evolutionary consequences of wildlife exploitation is increasingly important as harvesting becomes more efficient. We examined the impacts of ivory poaching during the Mozambican Civil War (1977 to 1992) on the evolution of African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Gorongosa National Park. Poaching resulted in strong selection that favored tusklessness amid a rapid population

  •   Identification of a choroid plexus vascular barrier closing during intestinal inflammation
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Sara Carloni, Alice Bertocchi, Sara Mancinelli, Martina Bellini, Marco Erreni, Antonella Borreca, Daniele Braga, Silvia Giugliano, Alessandro M. Mozzarelli, Daria Manganaro, Daniel Fernandez Perez, Federico Colombo, Antonio Di Sabatino, Diego Pasini, Giuseppe Penna, Michela Matteoli, Simona Lodato, Maria Rescigno

    Up to 40% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease present with psychosocial disturbances. We previously identified a gut vascular barrier that controls the dissemination of bacteria from the intestine to the liver. Here, we describe a vascular barrier in the brain choroid plexus (PVB) that is modulated in response to intestinal inflammation through bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide. The inflammatory

  •   Social agent identity cells in the prefrontal cortex of interacting groups of primates
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Raymundo Báez-Mendoza, Emma P. Mastrobattista, Amy J. Wang, Ziv M. Williams

    The ability to interact effectively within social groups is essential to primate and human behavior. Yet understanding the neural processes that underlie the interactive behavior of groups or by which neurons solve the basic problem of coding for multiple agents has remained a challenge. By tracking the interindividual dynamics of groups of three interacting rhesus macaques, we discover detailed representations

  •   Rapid evolutionary turnover of mobile genetic elements drives bacterial resistance to phages
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Fatima Aysha Hussain, Javier Dubert, Joseph Elsherbini, Mikayla Murphy, David VanInsberghe, Philip Arevalo, Kathryn Kauffman, Bruno Kotska Rodino-Janeiro, Hannah Gavin, Annika Gomez, Anna Lopatina, Frédérique Le Roux, Martin F. Polz

    Although it is generally accepted that phages drive bacterial evolution, how these dynamics play out in the wild remains poorly understood. We found that susceptibility to viral killing in marine Vibrio is mediated by large and highly diverse mobile genetic elements. These phage defense elements display exceedingly fast evolutionary turnover, resulting in differential phage susceptibility among clonal

  •   Cortical representation of group social communication in bats
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-22
    Maimon C. Rose, Boaz Styr, Tobias A. Schmid, Julie E. Elie, Michael M. Yartsev

    Social interactions occur in group settings and are mediated by communication signals that are exchanged between individuals, often using vocalizations. The neural representation of group social communication remains largely unexplored. We conducted simultaneous wireless electrophysiological recordings from the frontal cortices of groups of Egyptian fruit bats engaged in both spontaneous and task-induced

  •   Protection against SARS-CoV-2 beta variant in mRNA-1273 vaccine–boosted nonhuman primates
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-21
    Kizzmekia S. Corbett, Matthew Gagne, Danielle A. Wagner, Sarah O’ Connell, Sandeep R. Narpala, Dillon R. Flebbe, Shayne F. Andrew, Rachel L. Davis, Barbara Flynn, Timothy S. Johnston, Christopher D. Stringham, Lilin Lai, Daniel Valentin, Alex Van Ry, Zackery Flinchbaugh, Anne P. Werner, Juan I. Moliva, Manjari Sriparna, Sijy O’Dell, Stephen D. Schmidt, Courtney Tucker, Angela Choi, Matthew Koch, Kevin

    Neutralizing antibody responses gradually wane against several variants of concern (VOC) after vaccination with the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine mRNA-1273. We evaluated the immune responses in nonhuman primates that received a primary vaccination series of mRNA-1273 and were boosted ~6 months later with either homologous mRNA-1273 or heterologous mRNA-1273.β, which encompasses the spike sequence of the B.1.351

  •   Impact of neurodegenerative diseases on human adult hippocampal neurogenesis
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-11-26
    J. Terreros-Roncal, E. P. Moreno-Jiménez, M. Flor-García, C. B. Rodríguez-Moreno, M. F. Trinchero, F. Cafini, A. Rábano, M. Llorens-Martín

    Disrupted hippocampal performance underlies psychiatric comorbidities and cognitive impairment in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. To understand the contribution of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) to Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Frontotemporal dementia, we studied post-mortem human samples. We found that adult-born

  •   Active mechanisorption driven by pumping cassettes
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-21
    Liang Feng, Yunyan Qiu, Qing-Hui Guo, Zhijie Chen, James S. W. Seale, Kun He, Huang Wu, Yuanning Feng, Omar K. Farha, R. Dean Astumian, J. Fraser Stoddart

    Over the past century, adsorption has been investigated extensively in equilibrium systems with a focus on the van der Waals interactions associated with physisorption and electronic interactions in the case of chemisorption. Here, we demonstrate mechanisorption, which results from nonequilibrium pumping to form mechanical bonds between the adsorbent and the adsorbate. This active mode of adsorption

  •   mRNA vaccines induce durable immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-14
    Rishi R. Goel, Mark M. Painter, Sokratis A. Apostolidis, Divij Mathew, Wenzhao Meng, Aaron M. Rosenfeld, Kendall A. Lundgreen, Arnold Reynaldi, David S. Khoury, Ajinkya Pattekar, Sigrid Gouma, Leticia Kuri-Cervantes, Philip Hicks, Sarah Dysinger, Amanda Hicks, Harsh Sharma, Sarah Herring, Scott Korte, Amy E. Baxter, Derek A. Oldridge, Josephine R. Giles, Madison E. Weirick, Christopher M. McAllister

    The durability of immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination remains unclear. Here, we longitudinally profiled vaccine responses in SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered individuals for 6 months after vaccination. Antibodies declined from peak levels but remained detectable in most subjects at 6 months. We found mRNA vaccines generated functional memory B cells that increased from 3-6 months post-vaccination

  •   Mapping the proteo-genomic convergence of human diseases
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-14
    Maik Pietzner, Eleanor Wheeler, Julia Carrasco-Zanini, Adrian Cortes, Mine Koprulu, Maria A. Wörheide, Erin Oerton, James Cook, Isobel D. Stewart, Nicola D. Kerrison, Jian’an Luan, Johannes Raffler, Matthias Arnold, Wiebke Arlt, Stephen O’Rahilly, Gabi Kastenmüller, Eric R. Gamazon, Aroon D. Hingorani, Robert A. Scott, Nicholas J. Wareham, Claudia Langenberg

    Characterization of the genetic regulation of proteins is essential for understanding disease etiology and developing therapies. We identified 10,674 genetic associations for 3,892 plasma proteins to create a cis-anchored gene-protein-disease map of 1,859 connections that highlights strong cross-disease biological convergence. This proteo-genomic map provides a framework to 1) connect etiologically

  •   Replication and single-cycle delivery of SARS-CoV-2 replicons
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-14
    Inna Ricardo-Lax, Joseph M. Luna, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Jérémie Le Pen, Yingpu Yu, H.-Heinrich Hoffmann, William M. Schneider, Brandon S. Razooky, Javier Fernandez-Martinez, Fabian Schmidt, Yiska Weisblum, Bettina Salome Trüeb, Inês Berenguer Veiga, Kimberly Schmied, Nadine Ebert, Eleftherios Michailidis, Avery Peace, Francisco J. Sánchez-Rivera, Scott W. Lowe, Michael P. Rout, Theodora Hatziioannou,

    Molecular virology tools are critical for basic studies of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and for developing new therapeutics. There remains a need for experimental systems that do not rely on viruses capable of spread that could potentially be used in lower containment settings. Here, we develop spike-deleted SARS-CoV-2 self-replicating RNAs using a yeast-based reverse

  •   Assessing mass incarceration’s effects on families
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Hedwig Lee, Christopher Wildeman

    In this Review, we assess how mass incarceration, a monumental American policy experiment, has affected families over the past five decades. We reach four conclusions. First, family member incarceration is now common for American families. Second, individuals who will eventually have a family member incarcerated are worse off than those who never will, even before the incarceration takes place. Third

  •   The predatory dimensions of criminal justice
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Joshua Page, Joe Soss

    Over the past 35 years, public and private actors have turned US criminal justice institutions into a vast network of revenue-generating operations. Today, practices such as fines, fees, forfeitures, prison charges, and bail premiums transfer billions of dollars from oppressed communities to governments and corporations. Guided by scholarship on racial capitalism, we argue that to understand how and

  •   Exclusion and exploitation: The incarceration of Black Americans from slavery to the present
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Christopher Muller

    Understanding long-run patterns in the incarceration of Black Americans requires integrating the study of racial inequality with the study of political economy. I offer a parsimonious framework describing how the Black incarceration rate has been affected by the dynamics of exploitation and exclusion over time and across space. This framework helps to explain otherwise puzzling facts, like why the

  •   Toward an understanding of structural racism: Implications for criminal justice
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Julian M. Rucker, Jennifer A. Richeson

    Racial inequality is a foundational feature of the criminal justice system in the United States. Here we offer a psychological account for how Americans have come to tolerate a system that is so at odds with their professed egalitarian values. We argue that beliefs about the nature of racism—as being solely due to prejudiced individuals rather than structural factors that disadvantage marginalized

  •   Univariate classification of phosphine ligation state and reactivity in cross-coupling catalysis
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Samuel H. Newman-Stonebraker, Sleight R. Smith, Julia E. Borowski, Ellyn Peters, Tobias Gensch, Heather C. Johnson, Matthew S. Sigman, Abigail G. Doyle

    Chemists often use statistical analysis of reaction data with molecular descriptors to identify structure-reactivity relationships, which can enable prediction and mechanistic understanding. In this study, we developed a broadly applicable and quantitative classification workflow that identifies reactivity cliffs in 11 Ni- and Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling datasets using monodentate phosphine ligands

  •   Electrically tunable Feshbach resonances in twisted bilayer semiconductors
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Ido Schwartz, Yuya Shimazaki, Clemens Kuhlenkamp, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Martin Kroner, Ataç Imamoğlu

    Moiré superlattices in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers provide a platform for exploring strong correlations with optical spectroscopy. Despite the observation of rich Mott-Wigner physics stemming from an interplay between the periodic potential and Coulomb interactions, the absence of tunnel coupling–induced hybridization of electronic states has ensured a classical layer degree of freedom

  •   The Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Current are synchronized
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Tsubasa Kohyama, Yoko Yamagami, Hiroaki Miura, Shoichiro Kido, Hiroaki Tatebe, Masahiro Watanabe

    Observations show that sea surface temperatures along the Gulf Stream and the Kuroshio Current tend to synchronize at decadal time scales. This synchronization, which we refer to as the boundary current synchronization (BCS), is reproduced in global climate models with high spatial resolution. Both in observations and model simulations, BCS is associated with meridional migrations of the atmospheric

  •   Astrocyte Ca2+-evoked ATP release regulates myelinated axon excitability and conduction speed
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Jonathan Lezmy, I. Lorena Arancibia-Cárcamo, Tania Quintela-López, Diane L. Sherman, Peter J. Brophy, David Attwell

    In the brain’s gray matter, astrocytes regulate synapse properties, but their role is unclear for the white matter, where myelinated axons rapidly transmit information between gray matter areas. We found that in rodents, neuronal activity raised the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in astrocyte processes located near action potential–generating sites in the axon initial segment (AIS) and

  •   Modulation of tactile feedback for the execution of dexterous movement
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    James M. Conner, Andrew Bohannon, Masakazu Igarashi, James Taniguchi, Nicholas Baltar, Eiman Azim

    Although dexterity relies on the constant transmission of sensory information, unchecked feedback can be disruptive. Yet how somatosensory feedback from the hands is regulated and whether this modulation influences movement remain unclear. We found that mouse tactile afferents recruit neurons in the brainstem cuneate nucleus, whose activity is modulated by distinct classes of local inhibitory neurons

  •   A compositional link between rocky exoplanets and their host stars
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Vardan Adibekyan, Caroline Dorn, Sérgio G. Sousa, Nuno C. Santos, Bertram Bitsch, Garik Israelian, Christoph Mordasini, Susana C. C. Barros, Elisa Delgado Mena, Olivier D. S. Demangeon, João P. Faria, Pedro Figueira, Artur A. Hakobyan, Mahmoudreza Oshagh, Bárbara M. T. B. Soares, Masanobu Kunitomo, Yoichi Takeda, Emiliano Jofré, Romina Petrucci, Eder Martioli

    Stars and planets both form by accreting material from a surrounding disk. Because they grow from the same material, theory predicts that there should be a relationship between their compositions. In this study, we search for a compositional link between rocky exoplanets and their host stars. We estimate the iron-mass fraction of rocky exoplanets from their masses and radii and compare it with the

  •   Physical disturbance by recovering sea otter populations increases eelgrass genetic diversity
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Erin Foster, Jane Watson, Matthew A. Lemay, M. Tim Tinker, James A. Estes, Rebecca Piercey, Lauren Henson, Carol Ritland, Allyson Miscampbell, Linda Nichol, Margot Hessing-Lewis, Anne K. Salomon, Chris T. Darimont

    Most knowledge regarding the role of predators is ecological in nature. Here, we report how disturbance generated by sea otters (Enhydra lutris) digging for infaunal prey in eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows increases genetic diversity by promoting conditions for sexual reproduction of plants. Eelgrass allelic richness and genotypic diversity were, respectively, 30 and 6% higher in areas where recovering

  •   Mitochondrial translation is required for sustained killing by cytotoxic T cells
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Miriam Lisci, Philippa R. Barton, Lyra O. Randzavola, Claire Y. Ma, Julia M. Marchingo, Doreen A. Cantrell, Vincent Paupe, Julien Prudent, Jane C. Stinchcombe, Gillian M. Griffiths

    T cell receptor activation of naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes initiates their maturation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which can kill cancer and virally infected cells. Although CTLs show an increased reliance on glycolysis upon acquisition of effector function, we found an essential requirement for mitochondria in target cell–killing. Acute mitochondrial depletion in USP30 (ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal

  •   Muscle repair after physiological damage relies on nuclear migration for cellular reconstruction
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    William Roman, Helena Pinheiro, Mafalda R. Pimentel, Jessica Segalés, Luis M. Oliveira, Esther García-Domínguez, Mari Carmen Gómez-Cabrera, Antonio L. Serrano, Edgar R. Gomes, Pura Muñoz-Cánoves

    Regeneration of skeletal muscle is a highly synchronized process that requires muscle stem cells (satellite cells). We found that localized injuries, as experienced through exercise, activate a myofiber self-repair mechanism that is independent of satellite cells in mice and humans. Mouse muscle injury triggers a signaling cascade involving calcium, Cdc42, and phosphokinase C that attracts myonuclei

  •   Heuristics in the delivery room
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Manasvini Singh

    Clinical decisions made in the delivery setting are often made under high pressure and great uncertainty, and have serious consequences for mother and baby. Theories of decision-making suggest that individuals in such settings may resort to using heuristics, or simplified decision rules, to aid complex decision-making. This study investigates whether physicians’ delivery mode decisions (i.e., when

  •   Bioelectric signaling and the control of cardiac cell identity in response to mechanical forces
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Hajime Fukui, Renee Wei-Yan Chow, Jing Xie, Yoke Yin Foo, Choon Hwai Yap, Nicolas Minc, Naoki Mochizuki, Julien Vermot

    Developing cardiovascular systems use mechanical forces to take shape, but how ubiquitous blood flow forces instruct local cardiac cell identity is still unclear. By manipulating mechanical forces in vivo, we show here that shear stress is necessary and sufficient to promote valvulogenesis. We found that valve formation is associated with the activation of an extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–dependent

  •   G1 cyclin–Cdk promotes cell cycle entry through localized phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-15
    Mardo Kõivomägi, Matthew P. Swaffer, Jonathan J. Turner, Georgi Marinov, Jan M. Skotheim

    Cell division is thought to be initiated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) inactivating key transcriptional inhibitors. In budding yeast, the G1 cyclin Cln3-Cdk1 complex is thought to directly phosphorylate the Whi5 protein, thereby releasing the transcription factor SBF and committing cells to division. We report that Whi5 is a poor substrate of Cln3-Cdk1, which instead phosphorylates the RNA polymerase

  •   Genomic characterization and epidemiology of an emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant in Delhi, India
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-14
    Mahesh S. Dhar, Robin Marwal, Radhakrishnan VS, Kalaiarasan Ponnusamy, Bani Jolly, Rahul C. Bhoyar, Viren Sardana, Salwa Naushin, Mercy Rophina, Thomas A. Mellan, Swapnil Mishra, Charles Whittaker, Saman Fatihi, Meena Datta, Priyanka Singh, Uma Sharma, Rajat Ujjainiya, Nitin Bhatheja, Mohit Kumar Divakar, Manoj K. Singh, Mohamed Imran, Vigneshwar Senthivel, Ranjeet Maurya, Neha Jha, Priyanka Mehta

    Delhi, the national capital of India, has experienced multiple SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in 2020 and reached population seropositivity of over 50% by 2021. During April 2021, the city became overwhelmed by COVID-19 cases and fatalities, as a new variant B.1.617.2 (Delta) replaced B.1.1.7 (Alpha). A Bayesian model explains the growth advantage of Delta through a combination of increased transmissibility

  •   Mechanism of siRNA production by a plant Dicer-RNA complex in dicing-competent conformation
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-14
    Qian Wang, Yan Xue, Laixing Zhang, Zhenhui Zhong, Suhua Feng, Changshi Wang, Lifan Xiao, Zhenlin Yang, C. Jake Harris, Zhe Wu, Jixian Zhai, Maojun Yang, Sisi Li, Steven E. Jacobsen, Jiamu Du

    In eukaryotes, small RNAs (sRNAs) play critical roles in multiple biological processes. Dicer endonucleases are central to sRNA biogenesis. In plants, DICER-LIKE PROTEIN 3 (DCL3) produces 24-nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that determine the specificity of the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Here, we determined structure of a DCL3-pre-siRNA complex in an active dicing-competent state

  •   CD4+ T cells contribute to neurodegeneration in Lewy body dementia
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-14
    David Gate, Emma Tapp, Olivia Leventhal, Marian Shahid, Tim J. Nonninger, Andrew C. Yang, Katharina Strempfl, Michael S. Unger, Tobias Fehlmann, Hamilton Oh, Divya Channappa, Victor W. Henderson, Andreas Keller, Ludwig Aigner, Douglas R. Galasko, Mark M. Davis, Kathleen L. Poston, Tony Wyss-Coray

    Recent studies indicate that the adaptive immune system plays a role in Lewy body dementia (LBD). However, the mechanism regulating T cell brain homing in LBD is unknown. Here, we observed T cells adjacent to Lewy bodies and dopaminergic neurons in post-mortem LBD brains. Single-cell RNA sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) identified up-regulated expression of C-X-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4)

  •   Evasion of tipping in complex systems through spatial pattern formation
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Max Rietkerk, Robbin Bastiaansen, Swarnendu Banerjee, Johan van de Koppel, Mara Baudena, Arjen Doelman

    The concept of tipping points and critical transitions helps inform our understanding of the catastrophic effects that global change may have on ecosystems, Earth system components, and the whole Earth system. The search for early warning indicators is ongoing, and spatial self-organization has been interpreted as one such signal. Here, we review how spatial self-organization can aid complex systems

  •   Levitodynamics: Levitation and control of microscopic objects in vacuum
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    C. Gonzalez-Ballestero, M. Aspelmeyer, L. Novotny, R. Quidant, O. Romero-Isart

    The control of levitated nano- and micro-objects in vacuum—which capitalizes on scientific achievements in the fields of atomic physics, control theory, and optomechanics—is of considerable interest. The ability to couple the motion of levitated systems to internal degrees of freedom, as well as to external forces and systems, provides opportunities for science and technology. Attractive research directions

  •   Solvation sheath reorganization enables divalent metal batteries with fast interfacial charge transfer kinetics
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Singyuk Hou, Xiao Ji, Karen Gaskell, Peng-fei Wang, Luning Wang, Jijian Xu, Ruimin Sun, Oleg Borodin, Chunsheng Wang

    Rechargeable magnesium and calcium metal batteries (RMBs and RCBs) are promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries because of the high crustal abundance and capacity of magnesium and calcium. Yet, they are plagued by sluggish kinetics and parasitic reactions. We found a family of methoxyethyl-amine chelants that greatly promote interfacial charge transfer kinetics and suppress side reactions on

  •   Microfluidic-like fabrication of metal ion–cured bioadhesives by mussels
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Tobias Priemel, Gurveer Palia, Frank Förste, Franziska Jehle, Sanja Sviben, Ioanna Mantouvalou, Paul Zaslansky, Luca Bertinetti, Matthew J. Harrington

    To anchor in seashore habitats, mussels fabricate adhesive byssus fibers that are mechanically reinforced by protein-metal coordination mediated by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). The mechanism by which metal ions are integrated during byssus formation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the byssus formation process in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, combining traditional and advanced

  •   Conformer-specific photochemistry imaged in real space and time
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    E. G. Champenois, D. M. Sanchez, J. Yang, J. P. Figueira Nunes, A. Attar, M. Centurion, R. Forbes, M. Gühr, K. Hegazy, F. Ji, S. K. Saha, Y. Liu, M.-F. Lin, D. Luo, B. Moore, X. Shen, M. R. Ware, X. J. Wang, T. J. Martínez, T. J. A. Wolf

    Conformational isomers (conformers) of molecules play a decisive role in biology and organic chemistry. However, experimental methods for investigating chemical reaction dynamics are typically not conformer-sensitive. We report on a gas-phase megaelectronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction investigation of α-phellandrene undergoing an electrocyclic ring-opening reaction. We directly imaged the evolution

  •   Topological phonon-polariton funneling in midinfrared metasurfaces
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    S. Guddala, F. Komissarenko, S. Kiriushechkina, A. Vakulenko, M. Li, V. M. Menon, A. Alù, A. B. Khanikaev

    Topological photonics offers enhanced control over electromagnetic fields by providing a platform for robust trapping and guiding of topological states of light. By combining the strong coupling between topological photons with phonons in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), we demonstrate a platform to control and guide hybrid states of light and lattice vibrations. The observed topological edge states

  •   Grain boundary velocity and curvature are not correlated in Ni polycrystals
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Aditi Bhattacharya, Yu-Feng Shen, Christopher M. Hefferan, Shiu Fai Li, Jonathan Lind, Robert M. Suter, Carl E. KrillIII, Gregory S. Rohrer

    Grain boundary velocity has been believed to be correlated to curvature, and this is an important relationship for modeling how polycrystalline materials coarsen during annealing. We determined the velocities and curvatures of approximately 52,000 grain boundaries in a nickel polycrystal using three-dimensional orientation maps measured by high-energy diffraction microscopy before and after annealing

  •   Population-specific neuromodulation prolongs therapeutic benefits of deep brain stimulation
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Teresa A. Spix, Shruti Nanivadekar, Noelle Toong, Irene M. Kaplow, Brian R. Isett, Yazel Goksen, Andreas R. Pfenning, Aryn H. Gittis

    Symptoms of neurological diseases emerge through the dysfunction of neural circuits whose diffuse and intertwined architectures pose serious challenges for delivering therapies. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves Parkinson’s disease symptoms acutely but does not differentiate between neuronal circuits, and its effects decay rapidly if stimulation is discontinued. Recent findings suggest that optogenetic

  •   Ten millennia of hepatitis B virus evolution
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Arthur Kocher, Luka Papac, Rodrigo Barquera, Felix M. Key, Maria A. Spyrou, Ron Hübler, Adam B. Rohrlach, Franziska Aron, Raphaela Stahl, Antje Wissgott, Florian van Bömmel, Maria Pfefferkorn, Alissa Mittnik, Vanessa Villalba-Mouco, Gunnar U. Neumann, Maïté Rivollat, Marieke S. van de Loosdrecht, Kerttu Majander, Rezeda I. Tukhbatova, Lyazzat Musralina, Ayshin Ghalichi, Sandra Penske, Susanna Sabin

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been infecting humans for millennia and remains a global health problem, but its past diversity and dispersal routes are largely unknown. We generated HBV genomic data from 137 Eurasians and Native Americans dated between ~10,500 and ~400 years ago. We date the most recent common ancestor of all HBV lineages to between ~20,000 and 12,000 years ago, with the virus present

  •   Fracture, fatigue, and friction of polymers in which entanglements greatly outnumber cross-links
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Junsoo Kim, Guogao Zhang, Meixuanzi Shi, Zhigang Suo

    In gels and elastomers, the role of entanglements on deformation has been studied, but their effects on fracture, fatigue, and friction are less well understood. In this study, we synthesized polymers in which entanglements greatly outnumber cross-links. The dense entanglements enable transmission of tension in a polymer chain along its length and to many other chains. The sparse cross-links prevent

  •   Toughening hydrogels through force-triggered chemical reactions that lengthen polymer strands
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Zi Wang, Xujun Zheng, Tetsu Ouchi, Tatiana B. Kouznetsova, Haley K. Beech, Sarah Av-Ron, Takahiro Matsuda, Brandon H. Bowser, Shu Wang, Jeremiah A. Johnson, Julia A. Kalow, Bradley D. Olsen, Jian Ping Gong, Michael Rubinstein, Stephen L. Craig

    The utility and lifetime of materials made from polymer networks, including hydrogels, depend on their capacity to stretch and resist tearing. In gels and elastomers, those mechanical properties are often limited by the covalent chemical structure of the polymer strands between cross-links, which is typically fixed during the material synthesis. We report polymer networks in which the constituent strands

  •   Commensal bacteria promote endocrine resistance in prostate cancer through androgen biosynthesis
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Nicolò Pernigoni, Elena Zagato, Arianna Calcinotto, Martina Troiani, Ricardo Pereira Mestre, Bianca Calì, Giuseppe Attanasio, Jacopo Troisi, Mirko Minini, Simone Mosole, Ajinkya Revandkar, Emiliano Pasquini, Angela Rita Elia, Daniela Bossi, Andrea Rinaldi, Pasquale Rescigno, Penny Flohr, Joanne Hunt, Antje Neeb, Lorenzo Buroni, Christina Guo, Jonathan Welti, Matteo Ferrari, Matteo Grioni, Josée Gauthier

    The microbiota comprises the microorganisms that live in close contact with the host, with mutual benefit for both counterparts. The contribution of the gut microbiota to the emergence of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has not yet been addressed. We found that androgen deprivation in mice and humans promotes the expansion of defined commensal microbiota that contributes to the onset of

  •   The G protein signaling regulator RGS3 enhances the GTPase activity of KRAS
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Chuanchuan Li, Alberto Vides, Dongsung Kim, Jenny Y. Xue, Yulei Zhao, Piro Lito

    Recently reported to be effective in patients with lung cancer, KRASG12C inhibitors bind to the inactive, or guanosine diphosphate (GDP)–bound, state of the oncoprotein and require guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis for inhibition. However, KRAS mutations prevent the catalytic arginine of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) from enhancing an otherwise slow hydrolysis rate. If KRAS mutants are indeed

  •   Reconstitution of an intact clock reveals mechanisms of circadian timekeeping
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-08
    Archana G. Chavan, Jeffrey A. Swan, Joel Heisler, Cigdem Sancar, Dustin C. Ernst, Mingxu Fang, Joseph G. Palacios, Rebecca K. Spangler, Clive R. Bagshaw, Sarvind Tripathi, Priya Crosby, Susan S. Golden, Carrie L. Partch, Andy LiWang

    Circadian clocks control gene expression to provide an internal representation of local time. We report reconstitution of a complete cyanobacterial circadian clock in vitro, including the central oscillator, signal transduction pathways, downstream transcription factor, and promoter DNA. The entire system oscillates autonomously and remains phase coherent for many days with a fluorescence-based readout

  •   Myelin: A gatekeeper of activity-dependent circuit plasticity?
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    Giulia Bonetto, David Belin, Ragnhildur Thóra Káradóttir

    The brain is responsive to an ever-changing environment, enabling the organism to learn and change behavior accordingly. Efforts to understand the underpinnings of this plasticity have almost exclusively focused on the functional and underlying structural changes that neurons undergo at neurochemical synapses. What has received comparatively little attention is the involvement of activity-dependent

  •   Monetary incentives increase COVID-19 vaccinations
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    Pol Campos-Mercade, Armando N. Meier, Florian H. Schneider, Stephan Meier, Devin Pope, Erik Wengström

    Stalling COVID-19 vaccination rates threaten public health. To increase vaccination rates, governments across the globe are considering using monetary incentives. We present evidence on the effect of guaranteed payments on COVID-19 vaccination uptake. We ran a large pre-registered randomized controlled trial (N = 8,286) in Sweden and linked the data to population-wide administrative vaccination records

  •   Age and composition of young basalts on the Moon, measured from samples returned by Chang’e-5
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    Xiaochao Che, Alexander Nemchin, Dunyi Liu, Tao Long, Chen Wang, Marc D. Norman, Katherine H. Joy, Romain Tartese, James Head, Bradley Jolliff, Joshua F. Snape, Clive R. Neal, Martin J. Whitehouse, Carolyn Crow, Gretchen Benedix, Fred Jourdan, Zhiqing Yang, Chun Yang, Jianhui Liu, Shiwen Xie, Zemin Bao, Runlong Fan, Dapeng Li, Zengsheng Li, Stuart G. Webb

    Orbital data indicate that the youngest volcanic units on the Moon are basalt lavas in Oceanus Procellarum, a region with high levels of the heat-producing elements potassium, thorium, and uranium. The Chang’e-5 mission collected samples of these young lunar basalts and returned them to Earth for laboratory analysis. We measure an age of 1963 ± 57 Ma for these lavas and determine their chemical and

  •   Perseverance rover reveals an ancient delta-lake system and flood deposits at Jezero crater, Mars
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    N. Mangold, S. Gupta, O. Gasnault, G. Dromart, J. D. Tarnas, S. F. Sholes, B. Horgan, C. Quantin-Nataf, A. J. Brown, S. Le Mouélic, R. A. Yingst, J. F. Bell, O. Beyssac, T. Bosak, F. CalefIII, B. L. Ehlmann, K. A. Farley, J. P. Grotzinger, K. Hickman-Lewis, S. Holm-Alwmark, L. C. Kah, J. Martinez-Frias, S. M. McLennan, S. Maurice, J. I. Nuñez, A. M. Ollila, P. Pilleri, J. W. RiceJr., M. Rice, J. I

    Observations from orbital spacecraft have shown that Jezero crater, Mars, contains a prominent fan-shaped body of sedimentary rock deposited at its western margin. The Perseverance rover landed in Jezero crater in February 2021. We analyze images taken by the rover in the three months after landing. The fan has outcrop faces that were invisible from orbit, which record the hydrological evolution of

  •   COVID-19 transmission dynamics underlying epidemic waves in Kenya
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    Samuel P. C. Brand, John Ojal, Rabia Aziza, Vincent Were, Emelda A. Okiro, Ivy K Kombe, Caroline Mburu, Morris Ogero, Ambrose Agweyu, George M. Warimwe, James Nyagwange, Henry Karanja, John N. Gitonga, Daisy Mugo, Sophie Uyoga, Ifedayo M. O. Adetifa, J. Anthony G. Scott, Edward Otieno, Nickson Murunga, Mark Otiende, Lynette I. Ochola-Oyier, Charles N. Agoti, George Githinji, Kadondi Kasera, Patrick

    Policy decisions on COVID-19 interventions should be informed by a local, regional and national understanding of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Epidemic waves may result when restrictions are lifted or poorly adhered to, variants with new phenotypic properties successfully invade, or when infection spreads to susceptible sub-populations. Three COVID-19 epidemic waves have been observed in Kenya. Using a

  •   The glial framework reveals white-matter fiber architecture in human and primate brains
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-07
    Roey Schurr, Aviv A. Mezer

    Uncovering the architecture of white-matter axons is fundamental to the study of brain networks. We developed a method for quantifying axonal orientations at ~15 micron resolution. This method is based on the common Nissl staining of postmortem histological slices. Nissl staining reveals the spatial organization of glial cells along axons. Using structure tensor analysis, we leveraged this patterned

  •   Mammalian in vitro gametogenesis
    Science (IF 47.728) Pub Date : 2021-10-01
    Mitinori Saitou, Katsuhiko Hayashi

    Germ cells differentiate into sexually dimorphic gametes, oocytes, and spermatozoa, which unite to form new individuals. Accordingly, germ cell development entails intricate regulations of genome functions for genetic and epigenetic inheritance. The past decade has seen considerable advances in in vitro gametogenesis (IVG), which aims to recreate germ cell development from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs)

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