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  • Accessing the development and heritability of the capacity of cognitive control
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Yu Chen; Caiqi Chen; Tingting Wu; Boyu Qiu; Wei Zhang; Jin Fan
    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Self-regulatory behavior change techniques in interventions to promote healthy eating, physical activity, or weight loss: A meta-review
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Bonnie Spring; Katrina Champion; Rebecca Acabchuk; Emily A. Hennessy

    Poor quality diet, physical inactivity, and obesity are prevalent, covariant risk factors for chronic disease, suggesting that behavior change techniques (BCTs) that effectively change one risk factor might also improve the others. To examine that question, registered meta-review CRD42019128444 synthesized evidence from 30 meta-analyses published between 2007 and 2017 aggregating data from 409,185 participants to evaluate whether inclusion of 14 self-regulatory BCTs in health promotion interventions was associated with greater improvements in outcomes. Study populations and review quality varied, with minimal overlap among summarized studies. AMSTAR-2 ratings averaged 37.31% (SD = 16.21%; range 8.33-75%). All BCTs were examined in at least one meta-analysis; goal setting and self-monitoring were evaluated in 18 and 20 reviews, respectively. No BCT was consistently related to improved outcomes. Although results might indicate that BCTs fail to benefit diet and activity self-regulation, we suggest that a Type 3 error occurred, whereby the meta-analytic research design implemented to analyze effects of multi-component intervention trials designed for a different purpose was mismatched to the question of how BCTs affect health outcomes. An understanding of independent and interactive effects of individual BCTs on different health outcomes and populations is needed urgently to ground a cumulative science of behavior change.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Social perception drives eye-movement related brain activity: Evidence from pro- and anti-saccades to faces
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    E. Salvia; M. Harvey; B. Nazarian; M.H. Grosbras

    Social stimuli such as faces attract and retain attention to a greater extent than other objects. Using fMRI, we investigated how the activity of oculomotor and visual brain regions is modulated when participants look towards or away from visual stimuli belonging to different categories (faces and cars). We identified a region within the superior frontal sulcus showing greater difference between anti- and pro-saccades to faces than to cars, and thereby supporting inhibitory control in a social context. In contrast, ventral occipito-temporal regions and the amygdala, which are associated with face perception, showed higher activity for pro-saccades than anti-saccades for faces, but the reverse for cars, suggesting that contextual, top-down mechanisms modulate the functional specialisation of areas involved in perception. In addition, during saccades in the presence of faces, we found increased functional connectivity between the frontal eye-fields and other cortical and subcortical oculomotor structures, namely the inferior frontal eye field, the posterior parietal cortex and the basal ganglia, possibly reflecting the higher demand put on the oculomotor system to inhibit responses to socially salient stimuli. For the first time, these data highlight neural bases for the different orienting responses towards or away from faces as compared to other objects.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Multiple identity tracking strategies vary by age: An ERP study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Didem Pehlivanoglu; Audrey Duarte; Paul Verhaeghen

    Top-down modulation underlies our ability to focus attention on task-relevant stimuli and ignore irrelevant distractions. Although age-related differences in neural correlates of top-down modulation have been investigated in multiple studies using variety of tasks (Gazzaley et al., 2005; Störmer et al., 2013), the effect of age on top-down modulation in a multiple identity tracking (MIT) task is still unknown. Thus, we investigated age-related differences in the MIT task by employing event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants tracked ten uniquely colored disks, two of which were randomly designated as targets at the beginning of each trial; the targets moved among four stationary distractors (serving as ERP baseline) and four moving distractors. Each type of stimulus was probed during the trial to capture differential patterns of brain activation. Tracking performance was similar across age groups. ERP data showed that younger adults performed the MIT task by enhancing the unique identities associated with targets relative to distractors through feature-based tracking. Older adults showed a pattern of distractor suppression engaging both location- and feature-based tracking strategies. Thus, our findings suggest that compared to younger adults, older adults engage greater levels of neural activity to achieve the same level of performance. These findings are discussed in light of theories of cognitive aging.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Age-variant and age-invariant features of functional brain organization in middle-aged and older autistic adults
    Mol. Autism (IF 5.712) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Joe Bathelt; P. Cédric Koolschijn; Hilde M. Geurts

    The majority of research effort into autism has been dedicated to understanding mechanisms during early development. As a consequence, research on the broader life course of an autism spectrum condition (ASC) has largely been neglected and almost nothing is known about ASC beyond middle age. Differences in brain connectivity that arise during early development may be maintained across the lifespan and may play protective or detrimental roles in older age. This study explored age-related differences in functional connectivity across middle and older age in clinically diagnosed autistic adults (n = 44, 30–73 years) and in an age-matched typical comparison group (n = 45). The results indicated parallel age-related associations in ASC and typical aging for the local efficiency and connection strength of the default mode network and for the segregation of the frontoparietal control network. In contrast, group differences in visual network connectivity are compatible with a safeguarding interpretation of less age-related decline in brain function in ASC. This divergence was mirrored in different associations between visual network connectivity and reaction time variability in the ASC and comparison group. The study is cross-sectional and may be affected by cohort effects. As all participants received their autism diagnosis in adulthood, this might hinder generalizability. These results highlight the complexity of aging in ASC with both parallel and divergent trajectories across different aspects of functional network organization.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Elke Vlemincx; Olivier Luminet

    Sighs have important physiological and psychological regulatory functions. These rewarding effects of a sigh potentially reinforce sighing in situations that require physiological and/or psychological regulation. The present study aimed to investigate whether sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning. In two studies, we manipulated the effect of spontaneous sighs in response to dyspnea relief, by either punishing a sigh by the onset of dyspnea, or not punishing a sigh by continued dyspnea relief. Results show that sigh rates in response to cues predicting the punishment of sighs are 1.20-1.28 times lower than sigh rates in response to cues predicting no punishment of sighs. These findings suggest that sighs can become learned behaviors via operant learning, contributing to both maladaptive sighing, potentially leading to respiratory dysregulation and respiratory complaints, and to adaptive sighing. Furthermore, these findings suggest new clinical practices to increase and decrease sigh rates during breathing training.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Electroencephalographic Evidence for a Reinforcement Learning Advantage: During Motor Skill Acquisition
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Francisco L. Colino; Matthew Heath; Cameron D. Hassall; Olave E. Krigolson

    The feedback that we receive shapes how we learn. Previous research has demonstrated that quantitative feedback results in better performance than qualitative feedback. However, the data supporting a quantitative feedback advantage are not conclusive and further little work has been done to examine the mechanistic neural differences that underlie the relative benefits of quantitative and qualitative feedback. To address these issues, participants learned a simple motor task in quantitative and qualitative feedback conditions while electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded. We found that participants were more accurate and had a larger neural response – the feedback related negativity - when qualitative feedback was provided. Our data suggest that qualitative feedback is more advantageous than quantitative feedback during the early stages of skill acquisition. Additionally, our findings support previous work suggesting that a reinforcement learning system within the human medial-frontal cortex plays a key role in motor skill acquisition.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Estimation of frequency difference at which stream segregation precedes temporal integration as reflected by omission mismatch negativity
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Masayuki Hikita; Tetsuya Shiga; Yusuke Osakabe; Yuhei Mori; Hirotoshi Hotsumi; Michinari Nozaki; Hiroshi Hoshino; Kazuko Kanno; Shuntaro Itagaki; Takashi Matsuoka; Hirooki Yabe

    Both stream segregation and temporal integration are considered important for auditory scene analysis in the brain. Several previous studies have indicated that stream segregation may precede temporal integration when both processes are required. In the present study, we utilized mismatch negativity (MMN)—which reflects automatic change detection—to systematically estimate the threshold of the frequency difference at which stream segregation occurs prior to temporal integration when these functions occur together during a state of inattention. Electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 22 healthy Japanese men presented with six blocks of alternating high pure tones (high tones) and low pure tones (low tones). Only high tones were omitted with 5% probability in all blocks. Our results indicated that stream segregation should cancel temporal integration of close sounds, as indicated by omission-MMN elicitation, when the frequency difference is 1000 Hz or larger.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Novel rewards occlude the reward positivity, and what to do about it
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Darin R. Brown; James F. Cavanagh

    Both the Reward Positivity (RewP) and the novelty N2 component appear within the same spatio-temporal window. This signal overlap impedes the assessment of the RewP evoked by complex novel rewards like affective or motivational imagery. Here we conducted a series of experiments which successfully isolated signals of reward and novelty through spectral decomposition as well as with experimental manipulations that systematically removed the influence of novelty on the reward-evoking image. Together, these findings help explain the nature of this component overlap and provide methodological and analytic techniques for isolating reward- and novelty-specific computations to complex stimuli.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Hemispheric differences in perceptual integration during language comprehension: An ERP study
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Alie G. Male; Bethanie Gouldthorp

    The left hemisphere (LH) is responsible for many fundamental aspects of language; however, converging evidence suggests the right hemisphere (RH) is critically involved in higher-level language comprehension. We examined the extent of each hemispheres' access to a meaningful mental representation of language by recording electroencephalography while participants (N = 44) completed a computer-based task where auditory sentences described individual elements of an image. If integrated successfully, this allowed the construction of a meaningful mental representation. If unsuccessful, the individual elements were in themselves meaningless. Participants saw a lateralised image that was either an integrated representation of the object described in the previous auditory passage (“integrated”), an unintegrated representation of each of the individual elements (“unintegrated”), or an integrated representation of an object that did not match the previous passage (“unrelated”). Evidenced by the trend in N300 amplitudes, we found that both hemispheres accessed a mental representation that embodied the elements described in the preceding passage. However, only the RH distinguished integrated versus unintegrated targets, suggesting that the RH accessed a mental representation that embodied the correct spatial relationships between elements (i.e., perceptual integration) as well as the individual imagined elements (i.e., perceptual elaboration). These results provide evidence of a clear RH contribution to the integration of perceptual information during language comprehension.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Semantic compensation and novel word learning in university students with dyslexia
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Maud Rasamimanana; Mylène Barbaroux; Pascale Colé; Mireille Besson

    The aim of this experiment was to use behavioral and electrophysiological methods to compare university students with dyslexia and matched skilled readers in a novel word learning experiment that included phonological categorization tasks, a word learning phase and a test phase with matching and semantic tasks. Specifically, we aimed at disentangling two hypotheses. If phonological processing drives novel word learning and if phonological processing is impaired in students with dyslexia, they should perform lower than skilled readers not only in the phonological categorization tasks but also in the matching and semantic tasks. By contrast, if students with dyslexia use semantic knowledge to compensate for their phonological deficits, should be able to reach the same level of performance and show similar enhancements of the N200 and N400 components than skilled readers in the matching and semantic tasks. Results at both behavioral and electrophysiological levels showed that the phonological deficits evidenced in the phonological tasks did not impede students with dyslexia to learn the meaning of novel words, possibly because they mobilized more frontal resources than skilled readers. These results are discussed within a general framework of semantic compensation in adults with dyslexia.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Forgetting in Alzheimer's disease: Is it fast? Is it affected by repeated retrieval?
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Andreea Stamate; Robert H. Logie; Alan Baddeley; Sergio Della Sala

    Objectives Whether people with Alzheimer's Disease present with accelerated long term forgetting compared to healthy controls is still debated. Typically, accelerated long term forgetting implies testing the same participants repeatedly over several delays. This testing method raises the issue of confounding repetition effects with forgetting rates. We used a novel procedure to disentangle the two effects. Methods Four short stories were presented during an initial in-person assessment of 40 patients with Alzheimer's Disease and 42 age-matched healthy controls. Our aim was for participants to reach a score of 70% correct (9 out of 13 questions) at encoding. If this criterion was not achieved after the first trial, the four stories were presented again (in a different order); participants took the 1 min filler task again and were then retested. We repeated this process until participants reached the 70% criterion or to a maximum of four trials. Cued recall memory tests were completed during follow-up telephone call(s) at different delay intervals. Study material was presented only at encoding, then probed with different question sets on all other delays. Each question set tested different sub-parts of the material. The experiment employed a mixed design. Participants were randomly allocated to either a condition without retrieval practice or a condition with retrieval practice. Participants in the condition without retrieval practice were only tested at two delays: post encoding filled delay and at one month. Participants in the condition with retrieval practice were tested at four delays: post encoding filled delay, one day, one week and one month. Our methodological design allowed us to separate the effects of retesting from the effects of delay. Results Alzheimer's Disease patients showed a significant encoding deficit reflected in the higher number of trials required to reach criterion. Using Linear Mixed Models, we found no group by delay interactions between the post encoding filled delay retrieval and one month delays, with Alzheimer's Disease groups having a similar decline in performance to healthy controls, irrespective of testing condition. Significant condition by delay interactions were found for both groups (Alzheimer's Disease and healthy controls), with better performance at one month in the condition with retrieval practice. Conclusions Our data showed that Alzheimer's Disease is not characterised by accelerated long term forgetting, patients in our sample forgot at the same rate as healthy controls. Given the additional trials required by Alzheimer's patients to reach the 70% correct criterion, their memory impairment appears to be one of encoding. Moreover, Alzheimer's Disease patients benefited from repeated testing to the same extent as healthy controls. Due to our methodological design, we were also able to show that performance improved under repeated testing conditions, even with partial testing (sampling different features from each narrative on every test session/delay) in both healthy controls and Alzheimer's Disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Recognition memory: Tulving's contributions and some new findings
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Henry L. Roediger; Eylul Tekin

    Endel Tulving has provided unparalleled contributions to the study of human memory. We consider here his contributions to the study recognition memory and celebrate his first article on recognition, a nearly forgotten but (we argue) essential paper from 1968. We next consider his distinction between remembering and knowing, its relation to confidence, and the implications of high levels of false remembering in the DRM paradigm for using phenomenal experiences as measures of memory. We next pivot to newer work, the use of confidence accuracy characteristic plots in analyzing standard recognition memory experiments. We argue they are quite useful in such research, as they are in eyewitness research. For example, we report that even with hundreds of items, high confidence in a response indicates high accuracy, just as it does in one-item eyewitness research. Finally, we argue that amnesia (rapid forgetting) occurs in all people (not just amnesic patients) for some of their experiences. We provide evidence from three experiments revealing that subjects who fail to recognize recently studied items (miss responses) do so with high confidence 15–20% of the time. Such high confidence misses constitute our definition of everyday amnesia that can occur even in college student populations.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Becoming an Organizational Scholar
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Denise M. Rousseau

    This article provides an overview of my career in industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology and organizational behavior (OB). I describe critical experiences shaping my development as a scholar, in particular, the contribution learning to think organizationally has made to my scholarship. I map my career experiences onto Boyer's scholarship framework, from an emphasis on basic and applied research, to practice and teaching.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Regulatory Focus and Fit Effects in Organizations
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    E. Tory Higgins; Federica Pinelli

    Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between two different value concerns: promotion concerns with advancement and growth, and prevention concerns with safety and security. Since its publication more than 20 years ago, regulatory focus theory has generated a substantial amount of research and it has been applied to numerous organizational contexts. We identified four main domains: decision making, messaging, people management (e.g., leadership, organizational development, wellness and employees’ productivity), and entrepreneurship. We selected significant findings in those domains based on individuals, teams, and organizations being motivated by promotion or prevention goals and on the consequences of the match between regulatory focus goal orientation and the manner in which the goal is pursued, as conceptualized by regulatory fit theory. We also highlighted whether the research was concerned with the individual or with a broader group within the organization (including the organization itself). We conclude by suggesting future avenues for research.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Implicit Leadership Theories, Implicit Followership Theories, and Dynamic Processing of Leadership Information
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Robert G. Lord; Olga Epitropaki; Roseanne J. Foti; Tiffany Keller Hansbrough

    We offer a comprehensive review of the theoretical underpinnings and existing empirical evidence in the implicit leadership and implicit followership theories domain. After briefly touching on the historical roots of information-processing approaches to leadership and leader categorization theory, we focus on current contextualized and dynamic perspectives. We specifically present neural network approaches and adaptive resonance processes that guide leadership perceptions. We further address measurement issues, emerging areas of study such as implicit leadership theories, and identity and cross-cultural issues. We offer specific avenues for future research in the form of a systematic list of unanswered research questions and further outline leadership development implications.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The Psychology of Workplace Mentoring Relationships
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lillian T. Eby; Melissa M. Robertson

    Workplace mentoring relationships have been advanced as critical to employee development. However, mentoring research has tended to find small to moderate effects of mentoring on protégé and mentor outcomes and considerable heterogeneity in effect sizes. These findings underscore the need to better understand the psychology of mentoring relationships in order to maximize the benefits of mentoring for mentors, protégés, and organizations. In this article, after briefly reviewing established research on workplace mentoring relationships, we introduce five relationship science theories from outside organizational psychology and organizational behavior that provide new insight into the psychology of workplace mentoring: attachment theory, interdependence theory, self-expansion theory, Rhodes’ model of formal youth mentoring, and the working alliance. We then discuss several unique features of workplace mentoring that should be considered when applying these relationship science theories and introduce provocative ideas for future research. We conclude by discussing practical implications for mentors, protégés, and organizations.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Perceived Organizational Support: Why Caring About Employees Counts
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Robert Eisenberger; Linda Rhoades Shanock; Xueqi Wen

    According to organizational support theory (OST), employees develop a general perception concerning the extent to which their work organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being (perceived organizational support, or POS). We explain OST and review empirical POS findings relevant to OST's main propositions, including new findings that suggest changes to OST. Major antecedents of POS include fairness, support from leaders, and human resource practices and work conditions, especially to the extent that employees perceive these as the discretionary choices of organizations. Among more recent findings, the average level of POS has modestly increased over the past three decades in the United States. Furthermore, POS appears to have stronger positive outcomes in Eastern cultures than Western cultures. Some additional promising recent areas of research on POS include trickle-down effects, POS of groups, and POS as relevant to creativity and innovation, positive emotional outcomes, and well-being.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Beyond Meta-Analysis: Secondary Uses of Meta-Analytic Data
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    In-Sue Oh

    Secondary uses of meta-analytic data (SUMAD) represent advanced analyses and applications of first-order meta-analytic results for theoretical (e.g., theory testing) and practical (e.g., evidence-based practice) purposes to produce novel knowledge that cannot be directly obtained from the input meta-analytic results. First-order meta-analytic results in the form of bivariate effect sizes have been used as input to such secondary analyses and applications. Given the increasing popularity of SUMAD in human resource management (HRM) and organizational behavior (OB), there is a need for a systematic review on this topic. This article has two primary goals. First, it reviews essential works regarding SUMAD in the fields of HRM/OB and provides taxonomies of SUMAD in theoretical and practical domains. Second, it introduces recent SUMAD and discusses future directions that encourage more innovative and rigorous research endeavors along this line.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The Integration of People and Networks
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Martin Kilduff; Jung Won Lee

    Social networks involve ties (and their absence) between people in social settings such as organizations. Yet much social network research, given its roots in sociology, ignores the individuality of people in emphasizing the constraints of the structural positions that people occupy. A recent movement to bring people back into social network research draws on the rich history of social psychological research to show that (a) personality (i.e., self-monitoring) is key to understanding individuals’ occupation of social network positions, (b) individuals’ perceptions of social networks relate to important outcomes, and (c) relational energy is transmitted through social network connections. Research at different levels of analysis includes the network around the individual (the ego network), dyadic ties, triadic structures, and whole networks of interacting individuals. We call for future research concerning personality and structure, social network change, perceptions of networks, and cross-cultural differences in how social network connections are understood.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Discharges, Poor-Performer Quits, and Layoffs as Valued Exits: Is It Really Addition by Subtraction?
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Charlie O. Trevor; Rakoon Piyanontalee

    We contend that a variety of types of employee exits from the firm are presumed to be a net positive and are thus valued by management, resulting in a potentially important new way to think about these leavers. For each of three valued exit (VE) types (discharges, poor-performer quits, and layoffs) we examine incidence, construct similarities and differences, and antecedents. We also summarize and critique the literature on VE consequences for the organization. In doing so we discuss how an underlying tension must accompany the analysis of VEs. Specifically, the intuitive notion of addition by subtraction must be considered relative to important contextual considerations and to evidence that the operational disruption created by VE departures may at times mitigate or even outweigh the VE benefits. Underlying our analysis is the stipulation that the formal consideration of VEs is in its infancy and is thus laden with conceptual and methodological challenges that scholars must address if we are to benefit from this new approach to employee exits from the firm.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Measurement Development and Evaluation
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Michael J. Zickar

    Psychological measurement is at the heart of organizational research. I review recent practices in the area of measurement development and evaluation, detailing best practice recommendations in both of these areas. Throughout the article, I stress that theory and discovery should guide scale development and that statistical tools, although they play a crucial role, should be chosen to best evaluate the theoretical underpinnings of scales as well as to best promote discovery. I review all stages of scale development and evaluation, ranging from construct specification and item writing, to scale revision. Different statistical frameworks are considered, including classical test theory, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and item response theory, and I encourage readers to consider how best to use each of these tools to capitalize on each approach's particular strengths.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Asian Conceptualizations of Leadership: Progresses and Challenges
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    R. Takeuchi; A.C. Wang; J.L. Farh

    By investigating broadly a contingency approach and implicit leadership theoretical perspectives with a multilevel lens as a starting point, this review highlights the potential for Asian conceptualizations of leadership. More specifically, by highlighting the important contingent role national culture plays in influencing leadership effectiveness, we review Asian conceptualizations of leadership that exist (e.g., paternalistic leadership style, paternalism, and guanxi in the leadership setting) in the literature and the findings that have been found in a relatively selective manner. This also allows us to advance the notion of a culturally contingent leadership perspective by developing the notion of hierarchical social exchange and various modalities associated with such a relationship. By so doing, this review enables us to underscore the advantages as well as challenges associated with Asian conceptualizations of leadership as well as future research directions that need to be undertaken to more firmly establish their utility to general leadership literature.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Modern Discrimination in Organizations
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mikki Hebl; Shannon K. Cheng; Linnea C. Ng

    This review describes the history, current state, and future of modern discrimination in organizations. First, we review development of discrimination from the early 1900s to the present day, specifically discussing various stigmatized identities, including gender, race, sexual orientation, religion, disability, weight, and age. Next, we describe both individual-level (e.g., identity management, allyship) and organization-level (e.g., training, norm setting) strategies for reducing and reacting to discrimination. Finally, we describe future research directions in the relationship between subtle and overt discrimination, intersectionality, the impact of social media, and cross-cultural considerations—areas that we suggest would help us gain a more comprehensive understanding of modern discrimination.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Can Teamwork Promote Safety in Organizations?
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Eduardo Salas; Tiffany M. Bisbey; Allison M. Traylor; Michael A. Rosen

    In this review, we conceptualize teamwork as the linchpin driving safety performance throughout an organization. Safety is promoted by teams through various mechanisms that interact in a complex and dynamic process. We press pause on this dynamic process to organize a discussion highlighting the critical role played by teamwork factors in the engagement of safe and unsafe behavior, identifying five team-level emergent states that enable effective teamwork and safety: psychological safety, team trust, collective efficacy, shared mental models, and situation awareness. Additionally, we consider foundational conditions that support team-driven safety, the development of safety culture, and the importance of team safety climate in shaping performance. We discuss leveraging teams to generate safety and identify directions for future research investigating the relationship between teamwork and safety. Overall, we submit that researchers and practitioners would benefit from taking a systems perspective of safety by integrating principles of team science to better understand and promote safety in organizations.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Job Seeking: The Process and Experience of Looking for a Job
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Connie R. Wanberg; Abdifatah A. Ali; Borbala Csillag

    This review distills available empirical research about the process and experience of looking for a job. Job search varies according to several dimensions, including intensity, content, and temporality/persistence. Our review examines how these dimensions relate to job search success, which involves job finding as well as job quality. Because social networking and interviewing behavior have attracted significant research attention, we describe findings with respect to these two job search methods in greater detail. We provide examples of the relevance of context to job search (i.e., the job seeker's geographical region, country, and culture; the economy; the job seeker's current or past employment situation; and employer behaviors and preferences) and review research on bias in the job search. Finally, we survey work on job search interventions and conclude with an overview of pressing job search issues in need of future research.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Assessing the Control Literature: Looking Back and Looking Forward
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Sim B. Sitkin; Chris P. Long; Laura B. Cardinal

    This review provides a comprehensive picture of the range of control influences in organizations. We begin by describing and labeling the various types of control mechanisms and control systems examined in the literature. We then identify several issues in the control literature that are currently compromising scholars’ capacities to develop a full, complete, and comprehensive knowledge base about control dynamics. Theorists have been constrained by frameworks that present important but relatively limited pictures of how individuals experience, comprehend, address, and attend to the potentially wide array of control influences they encounter. We use these observations to propose new directions for control research that will help scholars develop richer and more complete but also more nuanced understandings of how individuals experience and engage the various forms of control they encounter in organizational life.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Toward a Better Understanding of Behavioral Ethics in the Workplace
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    David De Cremer; Celia Moore

    The emerging field of behavioral ethics has attracted much attention from scholars across a range of different disciplines, including social psychology, management, behavioral economics, and law. However, how behavioral ethics is situated in relation to more traditional work on business ethics within organizational behavior (OB) has not really been discussed yet. Our primary objective is to bridge the different literatures on ethics within the broad field of OB, and we suggest a full-fledged approach that we refer to as behavioral business ethics. To do so, we review the foundations and research foci of business ethics and behavioral ethics. We structure our review on three levels: the intrapersonal level, interpersonal level, and organizational level. For each level, we provide relevant research examples and outline where more research efforts are needed. We conclude by recommending future research opportunities relevant to behavioral business ethics and discuss its practical implications.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Posttraumatic Growth at Work
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Sally Maitlis

    The phenomenon of posttraumatic growth—the transformative positive change that can occur as a result of a struggle with great adversity—has been a focus of interest for psychologists for more than two decades. Research on work-related posttraumatic growth has concentrated primarily on contexts that are inherently traumatic, either through direct exposure to trauma, such as in the military, or through secondary trauma, such as in professions that provide care for traumatized others. There is also an emerging literature on posttraumatic growth in “ordinary” work. Organized into seven sections, this review draws on the research on posttraumatic growth in response to both personal and work-based adversity to build a model of work-related posttraumatic growth. Later sections raise challenges in the study of posttraumatic growth at work and identify critical future research directions. Practical implications for organizations and their members are considered throughout the review and are summarized at the end.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Within-Person Job Performance Variability Over Short Timeframes: Theory, Empirical Research, and Practice
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Reeshad S. Dalal; Balca Alaybek; Filip Lievens

    We begin by charting the evolution of the dominant perspective on job performance from one that viewed performance as static to one that viewed it as dynamic over long timeframes (e.g., months, years, decades) to one that views it as dynamic over not just long but also short timeframes (e.g., minutes, hours, days, weeks)—and that accordingly emphasizes the within-person level of analysis. The remainder of the article is devoted to the newer, short-timeframe research on within-person variability in job performance. We emphasize personality states and affective states as motivational antecedents. We provide accessible reviews of relevant theories and highlight the convergence of theorizing across the personality and affect antecedent domains. We then focus on several major avenues for future research. Finally, we discuss the implications of these perspectives for personnel selection and performance management in organizations as well as for employees aiming to optimize their job performance.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Positive Emotions at Work
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Ed Diener; Stuti Thapa; Louis Tay

    Positive organizational scholarship has led to a growing interest in the critical role of positive emotions for the lives of both workers and organizations. We review and integrate the different perspectives on positive emotions (i.e., positive valence, positive emotion regulation strategies, and positive adaptive function) and the four main mechanisms (i.e., cognition, affect, behavior, and physiology) that lead to positive organizational outcomes. There is growing evidence that positive emotions influence variables vital for workplace success such as positive beliefs, creativity, work engagement, positive coping, health, teamwork and collaboration, customer satisfaction, leadership, and performance. We additionally review dynamic features of positive emotions (i.e., intraindividual variability, reactivity, inertia, cycles, feedback loops) and their relation to psychological and work outcomes. Finally, we discuss additional questions and future directions for consideration.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Multiteam Systems: An Integrated Review and Comparison of Different Forms
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Stephen J. Zaccaro; Samantha Dubrow; Elisa M. Torres; Lauren N.P. Campbell

    In this review, we examine the burgeoning body of research on multiteam systems (MTSs) since the introduction of the concept in 2001. MTSs refer to networks of interdependent teams that coordinate at some level to achieve proximal and distal goals. We summarize MTS findings around three core processes and states: within- and between-team coordination processes/structures, leadership structures/processes, and cognitive and affective/motivation emergent states. Furthermore, we explore how these processes and states vary according to MTS boundary status (internal or external), component team distance (geographic, functional, cultural, and discipline), and superordinate goal type (intellectual or physical). We identify several process and state similarities across levels of these attributes, as well as highlight some important differences. We conclude with a set of propositions and future directions prompted by our review, which can serve as a guide for future MTS research.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Big Data in Industrial-Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management: Forward Progress for Organizational Research and Practice
    Ann. Rev. Organ. Psych. Organ. Behav. (IF 7.179) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Frederick L. Oswald; Tara S. Behrend; Dan J. Putka; Evan Sinar

    Big data and artificial intelligence (AI) have become quite compelling—and relevant, ideally—to organizations and the consulting services that help manage them. Researchers and practitioners in industrial-organizational psychology (IOP) and human resource management (HRM) can add significant value to big data and AI by offering their substantive expertise in how workforce-relevant data are measured and analyzed and how big data results are professionally, legally, and ethically interpreted and implemented by organizational decision makers, employees, policymakers, and other stakeholders in the employment arena. This article provides a perspective and framework for big data relevant to IOP and HRM that include both micro issues (e.g., linking data sources, decisions about which data to include, big data analytics) and macro issues (e.g., changing nature of big data, developing big data teams, educating professionals and graduate students, ethical and legal considerations). Ultimately, we strongly believe that IOP and HRM researchers and practitioners will become increasingly valuable for their contributions to the substance, technologies, algorithms, and communities that address big data, AI, and machine learning problems and applications in organizations relevant to their expertise.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The Incredible Years Autism Spectrum and Language Delays Parent Program: A Pragmatic, Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Margiad E. Williams; Richard P. Hastings; Judy Hutchings

    Behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are common and particularly stressful for parents. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of delivering a parenting program in existing services, and the feasibility of conducting a future large‐scale Randomized Controlled Trial evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention. Parents of children aged 3–8 years with a diagnosis of ASD, or strongly suspected ASD were eligible to participate. A multicenter, pragmatic, feasibility randomized controlled trial was conducted in four specialist children's services in Wales. Families were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum and Language Delays (IY‐ASLD) parent program immediately or to a wait‐list, treatment as usual control condition. IY‐ASLD sessions were delivered once a week for 12 weeks. The primary outcomes related to feasibility (recruitment, retention, fidelity, and acceptability). Preliminary outcome analyses were conducted using covariance models controlling for study site and baseline scores. From October 5 to December 19, 2016, 58 families were randomized, 29 to IY‐ASLD and 29 to control. Three parents did not attend any sessions while 19 (73%) completed the program. Fidelity of delivery was high (88%), as was satisfaction with the program. Fifty‐three (91%) completed the follow‐up measures. All 95% CIs for effect sizes included zero in exploratory outcome analyses. This study supports the feasibility of delivering the IY‐ASLD in existing services with good levels of acceptability and fidelity evident. A larger randomized controlled trial is required to examine the effectiveness of the program. Autism Res 2019. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Generation of a Novel Rat Model of Angelman Syndrome with a Complete Ube3a Gene Deletion
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Andie Dodge; Melinda M. Peters; Hayden E. Greene; Clifton Dietrick; Robert Botelho; Diana Chung; Jonathan Willman; Austin W. Nenninger; Stephanie Ciarlone; Siddharth G. Kamath; Pavel Houdek; Alena Sumová; Anne E. Anderson; Scott V. Dindot; Elizabeth L. Berg; Henriette O'Geen; David J. Segal; Jill L. Silverman; Edwin J. Weeber; Kevin R. Nash

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability, seizures, lack of speech, and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was identified as Ube3a and it encodes for E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Currently, there is very little known about E6AP's mechanism of action in vivo or how the lack of this protein in neurons may contribute to the AS phenotype. Elucidating the mechanistic action of E6AP would enhance our understanding of AS and drive current research into new avenues that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches that target E6AP's various functions. To facilitate the study of AS, we have generated a novel rat model in which we deleted the rat Ube3a gene using CRISPR. The AS rat phenotypically mirrors human AS with loss of Ube3a expression in the brain and deficits in motor coordination as well as learning and memory. This model offers a new avenue for the study of AS. Autism Res 2019, 00: 1–12. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Known Knowns and Known Unknowns on Behavior Change Interventions and Mechanisms of Action
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Martin S. Hagger; Susette Moyers; Kaylyn McAnally; Lauren E. McKinley

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of research play an important role in summarizing current knowledge on the efficacy of the behavior change techniques and mechanisms of action that comprise behavioral interventions. The current reviews in the science of behavior change (SOBC) special issue represent a ‘step change’ in evaluating current evidence on behavior change interventions and mechanisms. This concluding article outlines the key findings and emerging issues identified in the reviews (‘known knowns’), and summarizes the evidence gaps highlighted by the reviews that need to be addressed in future research (‘known unknowns’). Specifically, findings of the reviews indicate that: tests of mechanisms of behavior change intervention are not routinely conducted by primary studies and research syntheses; intervention study quality is sub-optimal and reviews do not sufficiently account for study quality when assessing intervention effects and mechanisms; substantive variability exists in descriptions of intervention content and putative mediators implicated in their mechanisms of action; limited data is available on the efficacy of many behavior change techniques; and moderators of intervention effects and mechanisms are seldom taken into account. In terms of potential solutions to these issues, we advocate: testing isolated effects of behavior change techniques and associated mechanisms of action; routine evaluation of study quality in behavioral intervention research; development of an evidence base of links between behavior change techniques and theory-based constructs involved in mechanisms of action; adoption of fit-for-purpose methods for synthesizing behavioral intervention mechanisms of action; and routine testing of moderators in intervention research.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Commentary: National Institutes of Health (NIH) Science of Behavior Change (SOBC)
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Will M. Aklin; Luke Stoeckel; Paige Green; Chandra Keller; Jonathan W. King; Lisbeth Nielsen; Christine Hunter

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) Common Fund Program was established in 2010 by capitalizing on emerging basic behavioral science research and existing evidence-based interventions to improve the initiation, personalization, and maintenance of behavior change to optimize health. This commentary outlines the goals for the SOBC Program and principles that can foster sustained and systematic integration of basic behavioral and social science. Specifically, in the design and conduct of prevention and intervention development and evaluation efforts, including the early engagement of scientists across the basic, translational, and applied health science spectrum. Resources and recommendations also are provided to encourage research that will help improve the initiation, personalization, and maintenance of behavior change.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Integrating Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Processes: A Key Step in Advancing the Science of Behavior Change
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Alexander J. Rothman; Jeffry A. Simpson; Chloe O. Huelsnitz; Rachael E. Jones; Urte Scholz

    In the 21st century, efforts to reduce the prevalence of disease and to improve life expectancy are inextricably linked to modifying patterns of human behavior (Adams, Grandpre, Katz, & Shenson, 2019 Adams, M. L., Grandpre, J., Katz, D. L., & Shenson, D. (2019). The impact of key modifiable risk factors on chronic conditions. Preventive Medicine, 120, 113-118.[Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]; Bauer, Briss, Goodman, & Bowan, 2014). To achieve this goal, health professionals need a toolbox composed of intervention strategies that effectively and efficiently help people make and sustain changes in their behavior. The meta-reviews in this special issue provide an assessment of the current state of this toolbox with regard to enhancing people’s self-regulation. Viewed together, these reviews document the breadth and scale of investigative efforts to identify strategies that can help people regulate their health behavior (Hennessy et al., 2019 Hennessy, E. A., Johnson, B. T., Acabchuk, R. L., McCloskey, K., & Stewart-James, J. (2019). Self-regulation mechanisms in health behaviour change: A systematic meta-review of meta-analyses, 2006-2017. Health Psychology Review. doi:10.1080/17437199.2019.1679654[Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar]; Protogerou et al., 2019 Protogerou, C., McHugh, R., & Johnson, B. (2019). How best to reduce unhealthy risk-taking behaviours? A meta-review of evidence syntheses focused on self-regulation interventions. Health Psychology Review.[Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]; Suls et al., 2019 Suls, J., Mogavero, J. N., Falzon, L., Pescatello, L. S., Hennessy, E. A., & Davidson, K. W. (2019). Health behaviour change in cardiovascular disease prevention and management: Meta-review of behaviour change techniques to affect self-regulation. Health Psychology Review. doi:10.1080/17437199.2019.1691622[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]; Wilson et al., 2019 Wilson, T. E., Hennessy, E. A., Falzon, L., Boyd, R., Kronish, I. M., & Birk, J. L. (2019). Effectiveness of interventions targeting self-regulation to improve adherence to chronic disease medications: A meta-review of meta-analyses. Health Psychology Review.[Taylor & Francis Online] , [Google Scholar]). One key theme that cuts across these meta-reviews is that, despite an enormous amount of research activity, the experimental evidence currently available remains limited – and in many cases absent – regarding whether, when, and why intervention strategies enhance people’s ability to regulate their behavior.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Autonomic influences on heart rate during marital conflict: Associations with high frequency heart rate variability and cardiac pre-ejection period
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Matthew R. Cribbet; Timothy W. Smith; Bert N. Uchino; Brian R.W. Baucom; Jill B. Nealey-Moore

    Psychosocial factors predict the development and course of cardiovascular disease, perhaps through sympathetic and parasympathetic mechanisms. At rest, heart rate (HR) is under parasympathetic control, often measured as high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV). During stress, HR is influenced jointly by parasympathetic and sympathetic processes, the latter often quantified as pre-ejection period (PEP). In studies of cardiovascular risk factors that involve social interaction (e.g. marital conflict), HF-HRV might be altered by speech artifacts, weakening its validity as a measure of parasympathetic activity. To evaluate this possibility, we tested associations of HF-HRV and PEP with HR at rest and across periods of marital conflict interaction that varied in experimentally-manipulated degrees of speech in 104 couples. At rest, only HF-HRV was independently related to HR, for both husbands and wives. During speaking, listening, and recovery periods, husbands’ and wives’ HF-HRV and PEP change independently predicted HR change. These findings support interpretation of HF-HRV as a parasympathetic index during stressful social interactions that may confer risk for cardiovascular disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Neural substrates of Chinese lexical production: The role of domain-general cognitive functions
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lily Tao; Miaomiao Zhu; Qing Cai

    Verbal fluency test, a type of word generation task, is a commonly used neuropsychological assessment. Among the healthy population, it has been used to assess verbal ability, but also executive functions. In the clinical field, verbal fluency has been used to support the diagnoses of a number of neuropsychological disorders. However, existing evidence do not allow for clear conclusions on whether such nonlinguistic uses of verbal fluency test are justified. The present study therefore investigated the involvement of domain-general cognitive functions in word production using functional magnetic resonance imaging, assessing verbal fluency, response inhibition, and working memory updating brain activations in the same set of participants. Results showed that response inhibition and working memory updating do play a role in verbal-fluency-type word production tasks, although language-specific regions are also required. Furthermore, domain-general and language-specific areas are closely neighboring subregions within the same broad brain regions. Additionally, a neural network for Chinese lexical production was observed, which corroborate neural bases for production in alphabetic languages, indicating that there is a core network for lexical production, regardless of language, production mode, or cue stimulus type, with other additional areas involved under some production conditions. Given that most previous research only investigated alphabetic languages, these results help gain a better understanding of language production mechanisms across languages.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Neuropathology of a remarkable case of memory impairment informs human memory
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    A.F. Gao; J.L. Keith; F.Q. Gao; S.E. Black; M. Moscovitch; R.S. Rosenbaum

    Kent Cochrane (K.C.) has been investigated by researchers for nearly three decades after intracranial trauma from a motorcycle accident at age 30 resulted in a striking profile of amnesia. K.C. suffered severe anterograde amnesia in both verbal and non-verbal domains which was accompanied by selective retrograde amnesia for personal events experienced prior to the time of his injury (episodic memory), with relative preservation of memory for personal and world facts (semantic memory), and of implicit memory. This pattern of spared and impaired memory extended to spatial memory for large-scale environments and beyond memory to future imagining and decision-making. Post-mortem brain findings at age 62 included moderate diffuse atrophy, left orbitofrontal contusion, left posterior cerebral artery infarct, and left anterior frontal watershed infarct. Notably, there was severe neuronal loss and gliosis of the hippocampi bilaterally. The left hippocampus was severely affected anteriorly and posteriorly, but CA2, CA4, and the dentate gyrus (DG) were focally spared. There was associated degeneration of the left fornix. The right hippocampus showed near complete destruction anteriorly, with relative preservation posteriorly, mainly of CA4 and DG. Bilateral parahippocampal gyri and left anterior thalamus also showed neuron loss and gliosis. There was no evidence of co-existing neurodegenerative phenomena on beta-amyloid, phosphorylated tau, or TDP-43 immunostaining. The extent of damage to medial temporal lobe structures is in keeping with K.C.‘s profound anterograde and retrograde amnesia, with the exception of the unexpected finding of preserved CA2/CA4 and DG. K.C.‘s case demonstrates that relatively clean functional dissociations are still possible following widespread brain damage, with structurally compromised brain regions unlikely to be critical to cognitive functions found to be intact. In this way, the findings presented here add to K.C.‘s significant contributions to our understanding of clinical-anatomical relationships in memory.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Is bilingualism protective for adults with aphasia?
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Maria Dekhtyar; Swathi Kiran; Teresa Gray

    The bilingual advantage proposes that bilingual individuals have enhanced cognitive control compared to their monolingual counterparts. Bilingualism has also been shown to contribute to cognitive reserve by offsetting the behavioral presentation of brain injury or neural degeneration. However, this effect has not been closely examined in individuals with post-stroke or post-TBI aphasia. Because bilingualism has been suggested as a factor of cognitive reserve, it may provide protective mechanisms for adults with aphasia. In the current study, evidence for the bilingual advantage was examined in 13 Spanish-English bilingual healthy adults (BHA) compared to 13 English monolingual healthy adults (MHA). Additionally, evidence for cognitive reserve as defined by a bilingual advantage was examined in 18 Spanish-English bilingual adults with aphasia (BAA) compared to 18 English monolingual adults with aphasia (MAA) who were otherwise matched on their age, education, language impairment, and non-verbal executive functions. All participants completed a non-linguistic cognitive control task that included congruent and incongruent conditions. Results indicated no bilingual cognitive control advantage on reaction times in healthy adult groups; however, BAA were faster than MAA, suggesting that bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve in adults with aphasia. Thus, manipulating multiple languages throughout the lifetime may be protective after an acquired brain injury.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Behavioral deficits in left hemispatial neglect are related to a reduction of spontaneous neuronal activity in the right superior parietal lobule
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Björn Machner; Janina von der Gablentz; Martin Göttlich; Wolfgang Heide; Christoph Helmchen; Andreas Sprenger; Thomas F. Münte

    Focal brain lesions may induce dysfunctions in distant brain regions leading to behavioral impairments. Based on this concept of ‘diaschisis’, spatial neglect following stroke has been related to structural damage of the right-lateralized ventral attention network (VAN) and disrupted inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) in the bilateral dorsal attention network (DAN). We questioned whether neglect-related behavioral deficits may be determined by local dysfunction of a specific region within these brain networks. We investigated acute right-hemisphere stroke patients with left hemispatial neglect using resting-state functional MRI, neuropsychological tests of spatial attention and clinical assessment of neglect-related functional disability. In addition to conventional FC analyses between different cortical regions of interest (ROIs) in the DAN/VAN, we extracted the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from each ROI as a marker of regional spontaneous neuronal activity. Although DAN regions (as opposed to the VAN regions) were largely spared from structural brain damage, they exhibited a significant reduction of inter-hemispheric FC. However, significant fMRI-behavior correlations were revealed specifically for the fALFF of one DAN-ROI in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL): the smaller the fALFF in the right posterior intraparietal sulcus, the more severe the patient's pathological attention bias and neglect-related functional impairment. In line with ‘diaschisis’, our findings confirm a crucial role of the non-lesioned but dysfunctional right SPL for the emergence of spatial neglect and its behavioral consequences. They further support targeting the SPL dysfunction by non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Individually irrational pruning is essential for ecological rationality in a social context
    Cogn. Psychol. (IF 3.746) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Sareh Zendehrouh; Majid Nili Ahmadabadi

    Heuristics, commonly thought to violate the full rationality assumptions, are paradoxically indispensable parts of our decision-making and learning processes. To resolve this seemingly paradox, there have been several studies in the literature that aim at finding some broad daily life conditions and situations where employing heuristics are rational. However, these researches mainly focus on non-social conditions, whereas, for human beings, social and individual processes are interwoven and it would be better to study them jointly. Here, we study the role of pruning heuristic in individual reinforcement learning in a social context, where our simulated learning agents make many of their decisions relying on others’ knowledge. Our simulation results suggest that the seemingly irrational pruning heuristic leads to less cost in the social settings. That is, we have a meaningfully more social outcome in the presence of this heuristic in social contexts, and social learning helps the agents to learn better where the pruning heuristic is an obstacle in the way of finding the optimal solution in the individual setting. In sum, the synergy between the pruning behavior and social learning leads to ecological rationality.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Persistence and predictors of self-injurious behaviour in autism: a ten-year prospective cohort study
    Mol. Autism (IF 5.712) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Catherine Laverty; Chris Oliver; Jo Moss; Lisa Nelson; Caroline Richards

    Self-injurious behaviours, such as head banging, hair pulling, skin picking and scratching, are common in individuals with autism. Despite high prevalence rates, there is a paucity of longitudinal research to refine models of risk and mechanism and inform service planning. In this longitudinal study, we investigated self-injury in a cohort of individuals with autism over 10 years to identify behavioural and demographic characteristics associated with persistent self-injury. Carers of 67 individuals with autism completed questionnaires relating to the presence of self-injury and relevant risk markers at T1 (mean [SD] age in years 13.4 [7.7]) and T3 (mean [SD] age in years 23.9 [7.7]) 10 years later. Forty-six of these also took part at T2 (3 years after initial participation). Analysis assessed demographic and behavioural risk markers for self-injury, as well as the predictive value of items assessed at T1and T2. Self-injury was persistent in 44% of individuals over the 10-year period, with behavioural characteristics of impulsivity (p < .001) and overactivity (p = .002), identified as risk markers for persistence. A predictive model of self-injury was derived from LASSO analysis, with baseline impulsivity, interest and pleasure, stereotyped behaviour, social communication and adaptive functioning predicting self-injury over 10 years. In this unique longitudinal investigation into the persistence of self-injury in a non-clinical sample of individuals with autism over a 10 year period, we have identified a novel, robust and stable profile of behavioural characteristics associated with persistent self-injury. Findings support an early intervention strategy targeted towards individuals identified to be at a higher risk of developing self-injurious behaviour.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Autism Heterogeneity in a Densely Sampled U.S. Population: Results From the First 1,000 Participants in the RI‐CART Study
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Carolyn E. B. McCormick; Brian C. Kavanaugh; Danielle Sipsock; Giulia Righi; Lindsay M. Oberman; Daniel Moreno De Luca; Ece D. Gamsiz Uzun; Carrie R. Best; Beth A. Jerskey; Joanne G. Quinn; Susan B. Jewel; Pei‐Chi Wu; Rebecca L. McLean; Todd P. Levine; Hasmik Tokadjian; Kayla A. Perkins; Elaine B. Clarke; Brittany Dunn; Alan H. Gerber; Elena J. Tenenbaum; Thomas F. Anders; ; Stephen J. Sheinkopf; Eric M. Morrow

    The objective of this study was to establish a large, densely sampled, U.S. population‐based cohort of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Rhode Island Consortium for Autism Research and Treatment (RI‐CART) represents a unique public‐private‐academic collaboration involving all major points of service for families in Rhode Island affected by ASD. Diagnosis was based on direct behavioral observation via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition. For the first 1,000 participants, ages ranged from 21 months to 64 years. Using Geographic Information System and published prevalence rates, the overall cohort is estimated to represent between 20% and 49% of pediatric age persons in Rhode Island with ASD, with demographics representative of U.S. Census. We observed a high rate of co‐occurring medical and psychiatric conditions in affected individuals. Among the most prominent findings of immediate clinical importance, we found that females received a first diagnosis of ASD at a later age than males, potentially due to more advanced language abilities in females with ASD. In summary, this is the first analysis of a large, population‐based U.S. cohort with ASD. Given the depth of sampling, the RI‐CART study reflects an important new resource for studying ASD in a representative U.S. population. Psychiatric and medical comorbidities in ASD constitute a substantial burden and warrant adequate attention as part of overall treatment. Our study also suggests that new strategies for earlier diagnosis of ASD in females may be warranted.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Understanding and Predicting Health Behaviour Change: A Contemporary View Through the Lenses of Meta-Reviews
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Karina W. Davidson; Urte Scholz

    Understanding and Predicting Health Behaviour Change: A Contemporary View Through the Lenses of Meta-Reviews. Health Psychology Review. Accepted .

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Efficacy of Theory-Informed Workplace Physical Activity Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review with Meta-analyses
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Merilyn Lock; Dannielle Post; James Dollman; Gaynor Parfitt

    The aims of this review were to assess the overall efficacy of workplace physical activity interventions; compare the efficacy of those that are informed by behaviour change theory and non-theory informed interventions; and outline the effectiveness of different intervention components that have been used in the current literature. A search was undertaken in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Ovid Emcare (previously CINAHL) and SportDiscus. Randomised, non-randomised and cluster-controlled trials with objectively measured physical activity and/or measured or predicted maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) as outcomes were included in the review (83 papers from 79 trials). Random-effects meta-analyses were undertaken using the mean difference method. Meta-analysis of workplace physical activity programs demonstrated positive overall intervention effects for daily step counts (814.01 steps/day; CI: 446.36, 1181.67; p < 0.01; i2 = 88%) and measured VO2max (2.53 ml.kg-1.min-1; CI: 1.69, 3.36; p < 0.01; i2 – 0%) with no sub-group differences demonstrated between theory- and non-theory informed interventions. Significant sub-group differences were only present for predicted VO2max (p < 0.01). Non-theory informed studies demonstrated a significant positive intervention effect (2.11 ml.kg-1.min-1; CI: 1.20, 3.02; p < 0.01; i2 = 78%) and theory-informed studies did not (-0.63 ml.kg-1.min-1; CI: -1.55, 0.30; p = 0.18; i2 = 0%). Positive outcomes appeared to be maintained at follow-ups ranging from 24 weeks to 13 years, however due to the low number of studies and high levels of heterogeneity (i2 = 74% for daily steps and 71% for predicted VO2max), this was only significant for measured VO2max. (2.84 ml.kg-1.min-1; CI: 1.41, 4.27; p < 0.01; i2 = 0%). Effective intervention components included the combination of self-monitoring via a wearable device with a step or activity goal, and active interventions onsite or nearby. The current review does not support the hypothesis that theoretically-informed interventions have a larger effect than non-theory informed interventions; however this is limited by the number and quality of theory-informed studies presenting some outcomes, and the difficulties with identifying effective components of complex interventions. Researchers should consider more rigorous methods of testing outcomes of theory-informed workplace physical activity interventions. The findings of this review demonstrated a notable gap in the literature and future research should consider incorporating longer-term follow-ups into high quality randomised controlled trials.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Social Determinants as Moderators of the Effectiveness of Health Behaviour Change Interventions: Scientific Gaps and Opportunitiesvn
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Carmela Alcántara; Sarah Valentina Diaz; Luciana Giorgio Cosenzo; Eric B. Loucks; Frank J. Penedo; Natasha J. Williams

    Social determinants of health (SDOH) refer to the broad range of social, economic, political, and psychosocial factors that directly or indirectly shape health outcomes and contribute to health disparities. There is a growing and concerted effort to address SDOH worldwide. However, the application of SDOH to health behaviour change intervention research is unknown. We reviewed the synthesis literature on health behaviour change interventions targeting self-regulation to: (a) describe the sociodemographic characteristics, (b) determine which types of social determinants were tested as moderators of health behaviour change interventions, (c) evaluate the methodological quality of the meta-analytic evidence, and (d) discuss scientific gaps and opportunities. Thirty (45.4%) of 66 articles examined heterogeneity of treatment effects by SDOH. There was a lack of racial/ethnic, immigrant, sexual/gender minority, and lifecourse sample diversity. Overall, 73.5% of SDOH moderator analyses tested heterogeneity of treatment effects by gender, race/ethnicity, and intervention setting; none examined neighbourhood factors. Methodological quality was negatively correlated with number of SDOH analyses. Most SDOH moderator analyses were atheoretical and indicated statistically non-significant differences. We provide an integrated SDOH and science of behaviour change framework and discuss scientific opportunities for intervention research on health behaviour change to improve health equity.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Developmentally Informed Behaviour Change Techniques to Enhance Self-Regulation in a Health Promotion Context: A Conceptual Review
    Health Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.070) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Alison L. Miller; Sharon Lo; Katherine W. Bauer; Emily M. Fredericks

    Self-regulation (SR), or the ability to manage thoughts, emotions, and behaviours in order to achieve a desired goal, is seen as underlying positive health behaviours. In adults, behaviour change techniques (BCTs) are recommended to promote SR across health domains; although establishing healthy habits early in life is important, studies of SR and health in children are rare. This conceptual review provides guidance on developmental considerations for applying BCTs to enhance SR capacity in children and youth with the goal of fostering positive behavioural health trajectories early in the lifespan. Key considerations include the nature of developmental changes in SR and interaction among SR processes; temporal associations between SR and health behaviours; and relevance of health goals for children and youth. Building on a meta-review of BCT’s used to promote SR in adults and youth, this conceptual review highlights key SR milestones to consider in behaviour change-focused interventions from early childhood through adolescence and provides an overview of social-ecologic influences on SR development and associations between SR and health behaviours across these age periods. Implications for and examples of using developmentally-informed BCTs in interventions to enhance SR in children and youth are noted and suggestions for future research are discussed.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Becoming sexy: Contrapposto pose increases attractiveness ratings and modulates observers’ brain activity
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Farid Pazhoohi; Joana Arantes; Alan Kingstone; Diego Pinal

    Previous neurophysiological studies have revealed the neural correlates of human body form perception, as well as those related to the perception of attractive body sizes. In the current study we aimed to extend the neurophysiological studies regarding body perception by investigating the perception of human body posture to provide insights into the cognitive mechanisms responsive to bodily form, and the processing of its attractiveness. To achieve these aims, we used the contrapposto posture which creates an exaggeration of low waist to hip ratio (WHR), an indicator of women's attractiveness. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded while participants completed both (i) an oddball task presenting female body forms differing in pose (contrapposto vs. standing) and viewing angle (anterior vs. posterior), and (ii) a subsequent active attractiveness judgement task. Behavioral results showed that a contrapposto pose is considered more attractive than a neutral standing pose. Result at the neural level showed that body posture modulates the visual information processing in early ERP components, indicating attentional variations depending on human body posture; as well as in late components, indicating further differences in attention and attractiveness judgement of stimuli varying in body pose. Furthermore, the LORETA results identified the middle temporal gyrus as well as angular gyrus as the key brain regions activated in association with the perception and attractiveness judgment of females’ bodies with different body poses. Overall, the current paper suggests the evolutionary adaptive preference for lower WHRs as in the contrapposto pose activating brain regions associated with visual perception and attractiveness judgement.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Sex Differences in Emotional Concordance
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Julina A. Rattel; Iris B. Mauss; Michael Liedlgruber; Frank. H. Wilhelm

    Emotions involve response synchronization across experiential, physiological, and behavioral systems, referred to as concordance or coherence. Women are thought to be more emotionally aware and expressive than men and may therefore display stronger response concordance; however, research on this topic is scant. Using a random-order film-average design, we assessed concordance among experiential (arousal, valence), autonomic (electrodermal activity, heart rate, preejection-period, respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia), respiratory (respiratory-rate), and behavioral (corrugator and zygomatic electromyography) responses to 15 two-minute films varying in valence and arousal. We then calculated for each participant and pair of measures a within-subject correlation index using averages from the 15 films. Pronounced individual concordance of up to 0.9 was observed. Arousal-physiology and valence-behavior concordances were particularly pronounced. Women displayed higher concordance than men for almost all measures. Findings indicate stronger psychophysiological response coupling in women than men and provide novel insights into affective differences between the sexes.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Sympathetic Contributions to Habituation and Recovery of the Cardiac Defense Response
    Biol. Psychol. (IF 2.627) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Alba Garrido; Stefan Duschek; Javier Rodríguez Árbol; Isis González Usera; Jaime Vila; José Luis Mata

    The cardiac defense response (CDR) to intense auditory stimulation is characterized by two acceleration-deceleration heart rate (HR) components. This study investigated contributions of sympathetic cardiac control to habituation and recovery of the CDR. Fifty-six healthy subjects were presented with noise stimuli eliciting the CDR. Three stimuli were presented with short and long (2.5 min and 12.5 min) inter-trial intervals (ITIs). The pre-ejection period was recorded as an index of sympathetic cardiac control, in addition to HR. Repeated stimulation at short ITI was associated with marked habituation of the HR and sympathetic responses; both responses exhibited a degree of recovery with long ITI. Regarding the time course, the first acceleration-deceleration was accompanied by a decline and subsequent increase in sympathetic cardiac control. During the second acceleration-deceleration, the parameters exhibited parallel courses. These results suggest that the sympathetic contribution to the habituation and recovery is limited to the second HR component.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Testing the magnocellular-pathway advantage in facial expressions processing for consistency over time
    Neuropsychologia (IF 2.872) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Maor Zeev-Wolf; Yuri Rassovsky

    The ability to identify facial expressions rapidly and accurately is central to human evolution. Previous studies have demonstrated that this ability relies to a large extent on the magnocellular, rather than parvocellular, visual pathway, which is biased toward processing low spatial frequencies. Despite the generally consistent finding, no study to date has investigated the reliability of this effect over time. In the present study, 40 participants completed a facial emotion identification task (fearful, happy, or neutral faces) using facial images presented at three different spatial frequencies (low, high, or broad spatial frequency), at two time points separated by one year. Bayesian statistics revealed an advantage for the magnocellular pathway in processing facial expressions; however, no effect for time was found. Furthermore, participants’ RT patterns of results were highly stable over time. Our replication, together with the consistency of our measurements within subjects, underscores the robustness of this effect. This capacity, therefore, may be considered in a trait-like manner, suggesting that individuals may possess various ability levels for processing facial expressions that can be captured in behavioral measurements.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Maternal blood folate status during early pregnancy and occurrence of autism spectrum disorder in offspring: a study of 62 serum biomarkers
    Mol. Autism (IF 5.712) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Olga Egorova; Robin Myte; Jörn Schneede; Bruno Hägglöf; Sven Bölte; Erik Domellöf; Barbro Ivars A’roch; Fredrik Elgh; Per Magne Ueland; Sven-Arne Silfverdal

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) evolves from an interplay between genetic and environmental factors during prenatal development. Since identifying maternal biomarkers associated with ASD risk in offspring during early pregnancy might result in new strategies for intervention, we investigated maternal metabolic biomarkers in relation to occurrence of ASD in offspring using both univariate logistic regression and multivariate network analysis. Serum samples from 100 women with an offspring diagnosed with ASD and 100 matched control women with typically developing offspring were collected at week 14 of pregnancy. Concentrations of 62 metabolic biomarkers were determined, including amino acids, vitamins (A, B, D, E, and K), and biomarkers related to folate (vitamin B9) metabolism, lifestyle factors, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), the kynurenine-tryptophan ratio (KTR), and neopterin as markers of inflammation and immune activation. We found weak evidence for a positive association between higher maternal serum concentrations of folate and increased occurrence of ASD (OR per 1 SD increase: 1.70, 95% CI 1.22–2.37, FDR adjusted P = 0.07). Multivariate network analysis confirmed expected internal biochemical relations between the biomarkers. Neither inflammation markers nor vitamin D3 levels, all hypothesized to be involved in ASD etiology, displayed associations with ASD occurrence in the offspring. Our findings suggest that high maternal serum folate status during early pregnancy may be associated with the occurrence of ASD in offspring. No inference about physiological mechanisms behind this observation can be made at the present time because blood folate levels may have complex relations with nutritional intake, the cellular folate status and status of other B-vitamins. Therefore, further investigations, which may clarify the potential role and mechanisms of maternal blood folate status in ASD risk and the interplay with other potential risk factors, in larger materials are warranted.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Referee height influences decision making in British football leagues
    BMC Psychol. (IF 0) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Dane McCarrick; Gayle Brewer; Minna Lyons; Thomas V. Pollet; Nick Neave

    Male height is positively associated with social dominance, and more agonistic/competitive behaviours. However, the ‘Napoleon complex’ or ‘small man syndrome’ suggests that smaller males are more assertive and punitive to compensate for lack of height and social dominance. Here, we assess possible relationships between height and punitive behaviours in a real-world setting. Using a non-experimental correlational design, we analysed data on 61 male association football referees from four professional leagues in England, and explored relationships between their height and punitive behaviours in the form of yellow cards, red cards and penalties given during an entire season. Overall there was no effect of referee height on fouls awarded. However, there was a main effect of height on yellow cards awarded, with shorter referees issuing more yellow cards. The same effect was found for red cards and penalties, though this was moderated by league. In the lower leagues, more red cards and penalties were awarded by relatively shorter referees, but in the higher leagues more red cards and penalties were awarded by relatively taller referees. These findings from real-life public dominance encounters show that height is associated with punitive behaviours, but is sensitive to context.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Beyond linear mediation: Toward a dynamic network approach to study treatment processes
    Clin. Psychol. Rev. (IF 9.904) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Stefan G. Hofmann; Joshua E. Curtiss; Steven C. Hayes

    Few clinical scientists would disagree that more research is needed on the underlying mechanisms and processes of change in psychological therapies. In the dominant current approach, processes of change are studied through mediation. The study of mediation has been largely structured around a distinction between moderation and mediation first popularized by Baron and Kenny's (1986) seminal article, which is based on a nomothetic and cross-sectional framework. In this article, we argue that this approach is unable to adequately address change processes in psychological therapies, because it falsely assumes that treatment change is a linear, unidirectional, pauci-variate process and that the statistical assumptions are met to study processes of change in an individual using a nomothetic approach. In contrast, we propose that treatment is a dynamic process involving numerous variables that may form bi-directional and complex relationships that differ between individuals. Such relationships can best be studied using an individual dynamic network approach connected to nomothetic generalization methods that are based on a firm idiographic foundation. We argue that our proposal is available, viable, and can readily be integrated into existing research strategies. We further argue that adopting an individual dynamic network approach combined with experimental analyses will accelerate the study of treatment change processes, which is necessary as the field of evidence-based care moves toward a process-based model. We encourage future research to gather empirical evidence to examine this approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Processing of Real‐World, Dynamic Natural Stimuli in Autism is Linked to Corticobasal Function
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Paula J. Webster; Chris Frum; Amy Kurowski‐Burt; Christopher E. Bauer; Sijin Wen; Jad H. Ramadan; Kathryn A. Baker; James W. Lewis

    Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been shown to perceive everyday sensory information differently compared to peers without autism. Research examining these sensory differences has primarily utilized nonnatural stimuli or natural stimuli using static photos with few having utilized dynamic, real‐world nonverbal stimuli. Therefore, in this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to characterize brain activation of individuals with high‐functioning autism when viewing and listening to a video of a real‐world scene (a person bouncing a ball) and anticipating the bounce. We investigated both multisensory and unisensory processing and hypothesized that individuals with ASD would show differential activation in (a) primary auditory and visual sensory cortical and association areas, and in (b) cortical and subcortical regions where auditory and visual information is integrated (e.g. temporal‐parietal junction, pulvinar, superior colliculus). Contrary to our hypotheses, the whole‐brain analysis revealed similar activation between the groups in these brain regions. However, compared to controls the ASD group showed significant hypoactivation in the left intraparietal sulcus and left putamen/globus pallidus. We theorize that this hypoactivation reflected underconnectivity for mediating spatiotemporal processing of the visual biological motion stimuli with the task demands of anticipating the timing of the bounce event. The paradigm thus may have tapped into a specific left‐lateralized aberrant corticobasal circuit or loop involved in initiating or inhibiting motor responses. This was consistent with a dual “when versus where” psychophysical model of corticobasal function, which may reflect core differences in sensory processing of real‐world, nonverbal natural stimuli in ASD. Autism Res 2020. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Treatment of Adults with Autism and Major Depressive Disorder Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: An Open Label Pilot Study
    Autism Res. (IF 3.697) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    McLeod Frampton Gwynette; Danielle W. Lowe; Erin A. Henneberry; Gregory L. Sahlem; Melanie Gail Wiley; Hussam Alsarraf; Sarah Brice Russo; Jane E. Joseph; Philipp M. Summers; Laura Lohnes; Mark S. George

    Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), which can severely impair functioning and quality of life. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, which is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cleared for the treatment of MDD in adults. Despite demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of depression, there are limited data on the use of rTMS in patients with ASD and comorbid MDD. We hypothesized that a standard rTMS protocol for MDD would reduce depressive symptoms for adults with ASD and MDD. Secondarily, we investigated whether this treatment would also reduce core ASD symptoms. Participants of 18–65 years old with ASD and MDD without any medication changes in the last month were eligible for this open‐label trial. Participants underwent 25 sessions of rTMS (figure‐of‐eight coil, 100–120% resting motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 pulses per session) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Thirteen participants enrolled in the study, with two withdrawing due to tolerability, and one excluded from analysis. Overall, side effects were mild and rTMS was well tolerated. The Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM‐D17) improved 13.5 points (IQR 5–15), and 40% of participants achieved remission (HAM‐D17 ≤ 7) after rTMS treatment. Informant clinical scales of core symptoms of autism also suggested improvement with rTMS, though no change was observed by the participants themselves. Thus, this open‐label trial suggests that high‐frequency rTMS is well tolerated by adults with autism and MDD, with improvement in depressive symptoms and possible effects on core autism symptoms. Autism Res 2020. © 2020 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Pharmacotherapy for the Pseudobulbar Affect in Individuals Who Have Sustained a Traumatic Brain Injury: a Systematic Review
    Neuropsychol. Rev. (IF 5.739) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Amelia J. Hicks, Fiona J. Clay, Jennie L. Ponsford, Luke A. Perry, Mahesh Jayaram, Rachel Batty, Malcolm Hopwood

    Pseudobulbar affect is a debilitating condition that significantly reduces quality of life for many individuals following traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is characterized by embarrassing and often uncontrollable episodes of crying or laughter. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy as compared to all other comparators for the management of pseudobulbar affect in adults who have sustained TBI. Six databases were searched, with additional hand searching of journals, clinical trials registries and international drug regulators to identify published and unpublished studies in English up to June 2018. Studies were eligible for this review if they included adults who had sustained a medically confirmed TBI and presented with pseudobulbar affect. All pharmacotherapy and comparator interventions were considered for inclusion, and study design was not limited to randomised controlled trials. Evidence quality was assessed using Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Instruments. Two quasi-experimental studies examining the effectiveness of dextrometamorphan/quinidine (DM/Q) were identified. These studies reported that DM/Q was effective in reducing symptoms of pseudobulbar affect and had a positive safety profile, over follow-up periods of 3 months (n = 87) and 12 months (n = 23). However, both studies were limited by lack of a control group and a high dropout rate. The findings of twelve case reports examining the effectiveness of DM/Q (n = 6) and anti-depressants (n = 6) are also discussed. Further research is required to determine which pharmacological interventions provide the best outcomes for individuals with pseudobulbar affect following TBI, with consideration given to side effect profiles and financial costs.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
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