当前期刊: The American Journal of Sports Medicine Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Placing the Latarjet in Context
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Bruce Reider

    Nothing true or beautiful or good makes complete sense in any immediate context of history. —Reinhold Niebuhr; The Irony of American History (1952)

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Outcomes After Latarjet Procedure: Patients With First-Time Versus Recurrent Dislocations
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Alexandre Hardy; Vincent Sabatier; Pierre Laboudie; Bradley Schoch; Geoffroy Nourissat; Philippe Valenti; Jean Kany; Julien Deranlot; Nicolas Solignac; Philippe Hardy; Marie Vigan; Jean-David Werthel

    Background: The preoperative number of dislocations has been previously proved to be a major factor influencing the results after Bankart repair with more preoperative dislocations correlated with higher recurrence rates and more reoperations. This could possibly be because of the lower quality of the tissue repaired during the procedure after multiple dislocations. On the other hand, the Latarjet procedure does not “repair” but rather reconstructs and augments the anterior glenoid. Purpose/Hypothesis: The main objective was to report the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing a Latarjet procedure after 1 dislocation versus multiple (≥2) dislocations. The hypothesis was that the preoperative number of dislocations would not influence clinical results. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients older than 18 years who had undergone a primary Latarjet procedure for shoulder instability with at least 2 years of follow-up were included. Three different techniques were used: a mini-open technique using 2 screws, an arthroscopic technique using 2 screws, and an arthroscopic technique using 2 cortical buttons. Patients were evaluated and answered a questionnaire to assess the number of episodes of dislocation before surgery, the time between the first dislocation and surgery, recurrence of the dislocation, revision surgery, the Walch-Duplay score, the Simple Shoulder Test score, and the visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain. Results: A total of 308 patients were included for analysis with a mean follow-up of 3.4 ± 0.8 years. Of that, 83 patients were included in the first-time dislocation group and 225 in the recurrent dislocation group. At last follow-up, the rates of recurrence and reoperation were not significantly different between groups: 4.8% in the first-time dislocation group versus 3.65% in the recurrent dislocation group and 6.1% versus 4.0%, respectively. The overall Walch-Duplay scores at last follow-up were also comparable between the 2 groups, 67.3 ± 24.85 and 71.8 ± 25.1, even though the first-time dislocation group showed a lower pain subscore (15.0 ± 8.6 vs 18.0 ± 7.5; P = .003). The VAS for pain was also significantly higher in the first-time dislocation group compared with the recurrent dislocation group (1.8 ± 2.3 vs 1.2 ± 1.7; P = .03). Conclusion: The number of episodes of dislocation before surgery does not affect postoperative instability rates and reoperation rates after the Latarjet procedure. However, patients with first-time dislocations had more postoperative pain compared with patients with recurrent dislocations before surgery.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Outcomes of the Latarjet Procedure for the Treatment of Chronic Anterior Shoulder Instability: Patients With Prior Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Versus Primary Cases
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Jean-David Werthel; Vincent Sabatier; Bradley Schoch; Lior Amsallem; Geoffroy Nourissat; Philippe Valenti; Jean Kany; Julien Deranlot; Nicolas Solignac; Philippe Hardy; Marie Vigan; Alexandre Hardy

    Background: It remains unclear whether results differ between a Latarjet procedure performed after a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair and one performed as the primary operation. Purpose: To compare the postoperative outcomes of the Latarjet procedure when performed as primary surgery and as revision for a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A multicenter retrospective comparative case-cohort analysis was performed for all patients undergoing a Latarjet procedure for recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Patients were separated into 2 groups depending on if the Latarjet procedure was performed after a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair (group 1) or as the first operation (group 2). Outcome measures included recurrent instability, reoperation rates, complications, pain, Walch-Duplay scores, and Simple Shoulder Test. Results: A total of 308 patients were eligible for participation in the study; 72 (23.4%) did not answer and were considered lost to follow-up, leaving 236 patients available for analysis. Mean follow-up was 3.4 ± 0.8 years. There were 20 patients in group 1 and 216 in group 2. Despite similar rates of recurrent instability (5.0% in group 1 vs 2.3% in group 2; P = .5) and revision surgery (0% in group 1 vs 6.5% in group 2; P = .3), group 1 demonstrated significantly worse pain scores (2.56 ± 2.7 vs 1.2 ± 1.7; P = .01) and patient-reported outcomes (Walch-Duplay: 52 ± 25.1 vs 72.2 ± 25.0; P = .0007; Simple Shoulder Test: 9.3 ± 2.4 vs 10.7 ± 1.9; P = .001) when compared with those patients undergoing primary Latarjet procedures. Conclusion: Functional outcome scores and postoperative pain are significantly worse in patients undergoing a Latarjet procedure after a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair when compared with patients undergoing primary Latarjet. The assumption that a failed a Bankart repair can be revised by a Latarjet with a similar result to a primary Latarjet appears to be incorrect. Surgeons should consider these findings when deciding on the optimal surgical procedure for recurrent shoulder instability.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Peripheral-Track and Central-Track Hill-Sachs Lesions: A New Concept of Assessing an On-Track Lesion
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Nobuyuki Yamamoto; Kiyotsugu Shinagawa; Taku Hatta; Eiji Itoi

    Background: It has been demonstrated biomechanically that 25% is a critical size defect of the glenoid. However, a recent clinical study reported that a bone loss between 13.5% and 20% (subcritical bone loss) led to impairment of quality of life but not a recurrence of instability. Purpose: To clarify whether a subcritical bone loss exists in assessing a Hill-Sachs lesion via a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Fifty patients (mean age, 27 years) with <25% glenoid defect who were treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent anterior dislocation were assessed at a mean follow-up of 28 months. All had an on-track Hill-Sachs lesion. The Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) and Rowe scores were used for the clinical evaluation. The Hill-Sachs interval was measured on 3-dimensional computed tomography images and divided by the glenoid track width, defined as the Hill-Sachs occupancy (in percentages). The glenoid track was divided into 4 zones based on the percentage of the Hill-Sachs occupancy: zone 1, <25%; zone 2, 25% to <50%; zone 3, 50% to <75%; and zone 4, ≥75%. Results: The recurrence rate was 6% (3 of 50 shoulders). The Rowe score significantly improved from 45.2 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD) preoperatively to 92.3 ± 6.5 at the final follow-up (P < .05). The WOSI score also significantly increased from 46.6% ± 19.3% preoperatively to 72.3% ± 21.0% at the final follow-up (P < .001). The WOSI score of patients in zone 4 (peripheral-track lesion) (n = 10) was significantly lower than those in the other zones (central-track lesion) (P = .0379). Of the 10 patients with the peripheral-track lesion, 5 had a <40% WOSI score, similar to the preoperative WOSI score (46.6%). Conclusion: Patients with on-track lesions can be divided into 2 subgroups: those with the Hill-Sachs occupancy ≥75% (peripheral-track lesion) showed significantly worse WOSI score without recurrent instability events than those with the Hill-Sacks occupancy <75% (central-track lesion).

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Modified Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure: Suture-Button Fixation Achieves Excellent Remodeling at 3-Year Follow-up
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Jian Xu; Haifeng Liu; Wei Lu; Zhenhan Deng; Weimin Zhu; Liangquan Peng; Kan Ouyang; Hao Li; Daping Wang

    Background: Some studies have advocated the use of suture-button fixation during the Latarjet procedure to reduce complications associated with screw fixation. However, the sample size of these studies is relatively small, and their follow-up period is short. Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of the suture-button Latarjet procedure with at least 3 years of follow-up and remodeling of the coracoid graft. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 152 patients who underwent the suture-button Latarjet procedure between February 2013 and February 2016 were selected, and 128 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative clinical results were assessed. The position and healing condition of the coracoid graft and arthropathy of the glenoid and humeral head were also assessed using radiography and 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT). Results: The mean follow-up time was 40.3 ± 5.8 months. There were 102 patients included in this study. The mean visual analog scale score for pain during motion, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the Rowe score, and the Walch-Duplay score were improved considerably. A total of 100 grafts achieved bone union. The overall absorption rate was 12.6% ± 4.3%. Graft absorption mostly occurred on the edge and outside the “best-fit” circle of the glenoid. A vertical position was achieved in 98 grafts (96% of all cases) immediately postoperatively, with the mean graft midline center at the 4 o’clock position. In the axial view, CT showed that 89 grafts were flush to the glenoid, whereas 2 and 11 grafts were fixed medially and laterally, respectively. In all cases, the bone graft and glenoid tended to extend toward each other to form concentric circles during the remodeling process. During follow-up observations, the height of the 11 grafts that were positioned laterally (ie, above the glenoid level) exhibited a wave-curved change. No arthropathy was observed in any patient. Conclusion: Patient outcomes were satisfactory after the modified arthroscopic suture-button Latarjet technique. Graft absorption mostly occurred on the edge and outside the “best-fit” circle of the glenoid. The graft exhibited the phenomenon of ectatic growing when it fused with the glenoid and finally remodeled to a new concentric circle with the humeral head analogous to the original glenoid. Grafts positioned laterally did not cause arthropathy of the joints within the period of the study.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Postoperative Recurrence of Instability After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair for Shoulders With Primary Instability Compared With Recurrent Instability: Influence of Bipolar Bone Defect Size
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Shigeto Nakagawa; Takehito Hirose; Ryohei Uchida; Makoto Tanaka; Tatsuo Mae

    Background: In shoulders with traumatic anterior instability, a bipolar bone defect has recently been recognized as an important indicator of the prognosis. Purpose: To investigate the influence of bipolar bone defects on postoperative recurrence after arthroscopic Bankart repair performed at primary instability. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The study group consisted of 45 patients (45 shoulders) who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair at primary instability before recurrence and were followed for at least 2 years. The control group consisted of 95 patients (95 shoulders) with recurrent instability who underwent Bankart repair and were followed for at least 2 years. Glenoid defects and Hill-Sachs lesions were classified into 5 size categories on 3-dimensional computed tomography and were allocated scores ranging from 0 for no defect to 4 for the largest defect. The shoulders were classified according to the total score for both lesions (0-8 points). The postoperative recurrence rate was investigated for each score of bipolar bone defects and was compared between patients with primary instability and patients with recurrent instability. The same analysis was performed for the age at operation (<20 years, 20-29 years, or ≥30 years) and for the presence of an off-track Hill-Sachs lesion. Results: Bipolar bone defects were smaller in shoulders with primary instability (mean ± SD defect score, 1.4 ± 1.5 points) than in those with recurrent instability (3.6 ± 1.9 points) and were larger in older patients than in younger patients at the time of primary instability. The postoperative recurrence rate was low (6.7%) in shoulders with primary instability regardless of the size of the bipolar bone defect and the patient’s age, whereas the postoperative recurrence rate was high (23.2%) in shoulders with recurrent instability, especially among patients younger than 20 years with bipolar bone defects of 2 points or greater. An off-track Hill-Sachs lesion was found in only 1 patient in the oldest age group (2.2%) at primary instability, but it was found in 19 patients (20%) at recurrent instability, including 14 patients younger than 30 years. Among patients with an off-track lesion, the postoperative recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients younger than 20 years with recurrent instability (recurrence rates: <20 years, 71.4%; 20-29 years, 14.3%; ≥30 years, 0%). Conclusion: The recurrence rate was consistently low in patients with primary instability and was significantly influenced by bipolar bone defect size and patient age in patients with recurrent instability.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • An Age-Based Approach to Anterior Shoulder Instability in Patients Under 40 Years Old: Analysis of a US Population
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Devin P. Leland; Christopher D. Bernard; Lucas K. Keyt; Aaron J. Krych; Diane L. Dahm; Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo; Christopher L. Camp

    Background: While a large volume of literature has focused on risk factors for anterior shoulder instability, the rates of recurrence are inconsistent and require additional population-based epidemiologic data. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to report the effect of patient age on the number of instability events before physician consultation, rate of surgical stabilization, recurrent instability, and progression to osteoarthritis in patients <40 years old with anterior shoulder instability, utilizing an established US geographic population. We hypothesized that younger patients would be more likely to experience multiple episodes of instability before evaluation, undergo surgery, and experience recurrent instability after surgical intervention. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study. Methods: An established geographic database of more than 500,000 patients was used to identify patients <40 years of age with anterior shoulder instability between 1994 and 2016. Medical records were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics, history, imaging, surgical details, and outcomes. Patients were divided into 5 groups based on age (≤15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, and 31-40 years) at initial instability. Comparative analysis was performed to identify differences between groups. Results: The study population consisted of 654 patients with a mean follow-up of 11.1 years (range, 2.0-25.2 years). This resulted in 118 patients (18%) ≤15 years of age at initial instability; 250 (38%), 16 to 20 years; 110 (17%), 21 to 25 years; 80 (12%), 26 to 30 years; and 96 (15%), 31 to 40 years. Of patients ≤15 years old at initial instability 47% had 3+ instability events, compared with 12% of patients aged 31 to 40 years (P < .001). At 10 years of follow-up, patients ≤15 and 16 to 20 years old demonstrated the highest recurrent instability rates of 38.8% and 47.1% after nonoperative management, respectively. Patients 16 to 20 years old demonstrated the highest rates of both surgical intervention (40.4%) and recurrence after surgery (24.8%). Patients 31 to 40 years of age were significantly more likely to develop clinically symptomatic osteoarthritis (15.6%) than all other age groups. Conclusion: In a US epidemiologic population of patients <40 years old, the rate of recurrent anterior shoulder instability was roughly one-third after initial physician consultation. Younger patients, particularly those ≤15 and 16 to 20 years of age, were more likely to have experienced multiple instability events at the time of initial evaluation, require surgery, and experience recurrent instability compared with older patients. For every year of decrease in age at initial instability, the risk of recurrent instability or surgical intervention after physician consultation increased by 4.1% and 2.8%, respectively.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Effect of Graft Choice on Revision and Contralateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results From the New Zealand ACL Registry
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Richard Rahardja; Mark Zhu; Hamish Love; Mark G. Clatworthy; Andrew Paul Monk; Simon W. Young

    Background: The patellar tendon is often considered the “gold standard” graft for reducing the risk of graft rupture after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, its use may also be associated with an increased risk of injury to the contralateral ACL. Purpose: To clarify the association between graft choice and the risk of revision and contralateral ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Prospective data captured by the New Zealand ACL Registry between April 2014 and December 2018 were reviewed. All primary ACL reconstructions performed using either a hamstring tendon or patellar tendon autograft were included. Cox regression survival analysis adjusting for patient factors was performed to compare the risk of revision and contralateral ACL reconstruction between the hamstring tendon graft and the patellar tendon graft. Results: A total of 7155 primary ACL reconstructions were reviewed, of which 5563 (77.7%) were performed using a hamstring tendon graft and 1592 (22.3%) were performed using a patellar tendon graft. Patients with a hamstring tendon graft had a revision rate of 2.7% compared with 1.3% in patients with a patellar tendon graft (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.55-4.06; P < .001). The patellar tendon graft was associated with an increased risk of contralateral ACL reconstruction compared with the hamstring tendon graft (adjusted HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.15-3.16; P = .012). The number needed to treat (NNT) with a patellar tendon graft to prevent 1 revision was 73.6. However, the NNT with a hamstring tendon graft to prevent 1 contralateral reconstruction was 116.3. Conclusion: Use of a patellar tendon graft reduced the risk of graft rupture but was associated with an increased risk of injury to the contralateral ACL. Adequate rehabilitation and informed decision making on return to activity and injury prevention measures may be important in preventing subsequent injury to the healthy knee.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • How Much Time Is Needed Between Serial “Return to Play” Assessments to Achieve Clinically Important Strength Gains in Patients Recovering From Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Stephan G. Bodkin; Margaret H. Rutherford; David R. Diduch; Stephen F. Brockmeier; Joe M. Hart

    Background: Pass rates for return-to-play evaluations are alarmingly low for patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Since timing of return to play is a complicated decision, it is important that patients be given optimal time to realize meaningful improvements in strength that warrant additional testing. Purpose: To (1) compare outcomes among patients assessed at different time points after ACLR, (2) determine strength gains indicative of improvements in subjective function, and (3) determine the amount of time necessary to achieve meaningful strength gains. Study Design: Cross-sectional/case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 293 patients participated in the study after ACLR (mean ± SD, 23.2 ± 10.1 years old; n = 142 female participants; 6.4 ± 0.9 months after ACLR). Participants were stratified on the month of their evaluation after ACLR: 5 to 6 months (n = 122), 6 to 7 months (n = 102), 7 to 8 months (n = 43), and 8 to 9 months (n = 26). The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective form and knee extensor and flexor torque and symmetry, as assessed through an isokinetic dynamometer, were compared among groups. Forty patients (20 female participants, 20.4 ± 7.1 years old) were referred for subsequent testing (2.14 ± 0.78 months after initial visit). Subjective improvement between visits was defined as a ≥9-point change of the IKDC score. Thresholds of knee extensor torque and symmetry indicative of subjective improvement and the time between assessments needed to achieve these strength improvements were determined. Results: Patients between 5 and 6 months (IKDC, 79.7; interquartile range [IQR], 70.1-88.5) had lower subjective function compared to patients between 6 and 7 months (IKDC, 83.9; IQR, 74.5-92.0; P = .019) and 8 and 9 months after ACLR (IKDC, 89.1; IQR 75.8-92.3; P = .026). Patients between 5 and 6 months (1.41 N·m/kg; IQR, 1.16-1.73 N·m/kg]) had lower knee extensor torque compared to patients 6 and 7 months (1.59 N·m/kg; IQR, 1.23-1.95 N·m/kg; P = .013) and 7 and 8 months after ACLR (1.62 N·m/kg; IQR, 1.30-1.86 N·m/kg; P = .046). Patients between 5 and 6 months (66.4%; IQR, 54.2-78.6) had lower symmetry compared to patients between 6 and 7 months (71.8%; IQR,61.1-82.9; P = .019) and 8 and 9 months afterACLR (75.2%; IQR, 66.6-87.7; P = .014). Of the 40 patients that completed follow-up assessments, an increase in knee extensor torque of 0.22 N·m/kg and symmetry of 5.75% discriminated patients that achieved subjective improvement. A period of 1.97 months between assessments discriminated those that achieved the established symmetry threshold. Conclusion: Patients demonstrate increasing subjective and quadriceps function when tested at later time points from surgery; however, the observed values are low, suggesting that at 9 months patients are demonstrating deficits that may be improving. Approximately 2 months is needed to observe clinically meaningful improvements.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • No Relationship Between Strength and Power Scores and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Return to Sport After Injury Scale 9 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Richard F. O’Connor; Enda King; Chris Richter; Kate E. Webster; Éanna Cian Falvey

    Background: Psychological factors including self-reported readiness to return to sport (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) measured with the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Return to Sport After Injury (ACL-RSI) scale have been shown to correlate with RTS. Physical deficits have been shown to exist in the later stages after ACLR rehabilitation. No previous studies have investigated the relationship between self-reported readiness to RTS and objective physical measures of power and strength. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between ACL-RSI scores and measures of strength and power scores after ACLR. Study Design: Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This study recruited 452 male athletes who had undergone primary ACLR. Each athlete completed the ACL-RSI questionnaire, isokinetic strength testing, and jump testing approximately 9 months after surgery. Results: ACL-RSI scores showed a trivial or weak correlation with strength and power measures at 9 months after surgery (r = 0.06-0.16). Similar results were found for the relationship between ACL-RSI scores and limb symmetry index for strength and power measures (r = 0.04-0.15). Comparing the strength and power measures of athletes with higher (≥90) ACL-RSI scores (n = 93) versus athletes with lower (≤75) ACL-RSI scores (n = 92) showed no significant differences except for isokinetic hamstring strength, but with a trivial effect size (P = .040; effect size = 0.15). Conclusion: Self-reported readiness to RTS as measured by the ACL-RSI had little or no relationship with athletes’ strength and power measures, and there was no meaningful difference in strength and power between athletes with higher and lower ACL-RSI scores at 9 months after ACLR. The findings suggest that psychological recovery and physical recovery after ACLR are different constructs, and strategies to measure and address each construct separately may be necessary to ensure successful RTS after ACLR.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The Effect of Oral Contraceptive Hormones on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strength
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Jaclyn A. Konopka; Lauren Hsue; Wenteh Chang; Timothy Thio; Jason L. Dragoo

    Background: Women are 2 to 9 times more likely to experience an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than men. Various hormones including relaxin, progesterone, and estrogen influence ACL strength. Oral contraceptives (OCs) alter these hormone levels; however, studies have yet to comprehensively compare different OCs’ effects on the ACL. Hypothesis: OCs with increased progestin-to-estrogen ratios will (1) increase ACL collagen expression, (2) decrease ACL matrix metalloproteinase expression, and (3) increase ACL strength. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Untreated female rats were compared with rats treated with 1 of 5 clinically used OCs: norethindrone (NE) only, NE plus ethinylestradiol (EE), etynodiol diacetate (ED) plus EE, norgestimate (NG) plus EE, and drospirenone (DS) plus EE. Doses were scaled from human doses to account for differences in bioavailability and body weight, and OCs were administered daily via oral gavage for 4 rat estrous cycles (20 days). A total of 36 rats were then sacrificed (6 rats/group). ACLs underwent biomechanical testing to assess ACL strength, stiffness, and maximum load before failure. ACL specimens were also isolated for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis to assess collagen, matrix metalloproteinase, and relaxin receptor–1 expression. Results: While the primary structural property of interest (ACL maximum load before failure) was not significantly improved by OC treatment, the main material property of interest (ACL strength) in rats treated with NE only, DS + EE, ED + EE, and NE + EE was significantly increased compared with untreated controls (P = .001, P = .004, P = .004, and P = .04, respectively). The order from strongest to weakest ACLs, which was also the same order as the highest to lowest progestin-to-estrogen ratios, was groups treated with NE only, DS + EE, ED + EE, NE + EE, and lastly NG + EE. Higher ratio formulations also increased the expression of type I collagen (P = .02) and decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase–1 (P = .04). Conclusion: OC formulations with higher progestin-to-estrogen ratios may be more protective for the ACL than formulations with lower ratios. Clinical Relevance: OC formulations with high progestin-to-estrogen ratios may benefit female athletes by reducing their ACL injury risk by decreasing the effects of relaxin on the ACL.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Outcomes of Quadriceps Tendon With Patellar Bone Block Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Patients With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Alexia G. Gagliardi; Patrick M. Carry; Harin B. Parikh; Jay C. Albright

    Background: The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the adolescent population is increasing. The quadriceps tendon–patellar bone autograft (QPA) has been established as a reliable graft choice for ACL reconstruction in the adult population. Purpose: To investigate graft failure, ability to return to sport, patient-reported functional outcomes, joint laxity, and subsequent injury among adolescent patients >2 years after primary ACL reconstruction with the QPA. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent QPA ACL reconstruction performed by a single surgeon were identified from an existing database. Information available in the database included demographics, concomitant/subsequent injuries, surgical procedures, graft failure, return to sport, and Lachman examination collected by medical record review. Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKDC) and Lysholm scores were collected by telephone or during a clinic visit >2 years postoperatively. Results: The final cohort included 81 of 104 consecutive adolescent patients aged 10 to 18 years (mean ± SD, 15.9 ± 1.7 years at the time of surgery) for whom follow-up information was collected at >2 years after surgery. The cumulative incidence of graft failure within the 36-month follow-up period was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.1%-11.4%). The rate of ipsilateral non-ACL injuries was similar (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.2%-7.6%). Contralateral ACL and non-ACL injuries requiring surgical intervention were documented in 9.8% (95% CI, 4.9%-19.5%). The median Pedi-IKDC score was 94 (interquartile range, 89-98). The median Lysholm score was 99.5 (interquartile range, 89.0-100.0). At 36 months after surgery, 87.9% (95% CI, 81.4%-94.9%) of individuals had returned to play. Conclusion: The quadriceps tendon–patellar autograft is a novel graft that demonstrates excellent stability and favorable patient-reported outcomes. Based on these results, the QPA is a reliable choice for primary ACL reconstruction in adolescent patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Graft Size and Orientation Within the Femoral Notch Affect Graft Healing at 1 Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Takeshi Oshima; Sven Putnis; Samuel Grasso; Antonio Klasan; David Anthony Parker

    Background: The combined influence of anatomic and operative factors affecting graft healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction within the femoral notch is not well understood. Purpose: To determine the influence of graft size and orientation in relation to femoral notch anatomy, with the signal/noise quotient (SNQ) of the graft used as a measure of graft healing after primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 98 patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up after primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts were included. Graft healing was evaluated at 1 year on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan as the mean SNQ measured from 3 regions situated at sites at the proximal, middle, and distal graft. Patient characteristics, chondropenia severity score, tunnel sizes, tunnel locations, graft bending angle (GBA), graft sagittal angle, posterior tibial slope (PTS), graft length, graft volume, femoral notch volume, and graft-notch volume ratio (measured using postoperative 3-T high-resolution MRI) were evaluated to determine any association with 1-year graft healing. The correlation between 1-year graft healing and clinical outcome at minimum 2 years was also assessed. Results: There was no significant difference in mean SNQ between male and female patients (P > .05). Univariate regression analysis showed that a low femoral tunnel (P = .005), lateral tibial tunnel (P = .009), large femoral tunnel (P = .011), large tibial tunnel (P < .001), steep lateral PTS (P = .010), steep medial PTS (P = .004), acute graft sagittal angle (P < .001), acute GBA (P < .001), large graft volume (P = .003), and high graft-notch volume ratio (P < .001) were all associated with higher graft SNQ values. A multivariate regression analysis showed 2 significant factors: a large graft-notch volume ratio (P = .001) and an acute GBA (P = .004). The 1-year SNQ had a weak correlation with 2-year Tegner Activity Scale score (r = 0.227; P = .026) but no other clinical findings, such as International Knee Documentation Committee subjective and Lysholm scores and anterior tibial translation side-to-side difference. Conclusion: The 1-year SNQ value had a significant positive association with graft-notch volume ratio and GBA. Both graft size and graft orientation appeared to have a significant influence on graft healing as assessed on 1-year high-resolution MRI scan.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Engagement of the Secondary Ligamentous and Meniscal Restraints Relative to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Predicts Anterior Knee Laxity
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Robert N. Kent; Carl W. Imhauser; Ran Thein; Niv Marom; Thomas L. Wickiewicz; Danyal H. Nawabi; Andrew D. Pearle

    Background: Patients with high-grade preoperative side-to-side differences in anterior laxity as assessed via the Lachman test after unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture are at heightened risk of early ACL graft failure. Biomechanical factors that predict preoperative side-to-side differences in anterior laxity are poorly understood. Purpose: To assess, in a cadaveric model, whether the increase in anterior laxity caused by sectioning the ACL (a surrogate for preoperative side-to-side differences in anterior laxity) during a simulated Lachman test is associated with two biomechanical factors: (1) the tibial translation at which the secondary anterior stabilizers, including the remaining ligaments and the menisci, begin to carry force, or engage, relative to that of the ACL or (2) the forces carried by the ACL and secondary stabilizers at the peak applied anterior load. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Seventeen fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees underwent Lachman tests simulated through a robotic manipulator with the ACL intact and sectioned. The net forces carried by the ACL and secondary soft tissue stabilizers (the medial meniscus and all remaining ligaments, measured as a whole) were characterized as a function of anterior tibial translation. The engagement points of the ACL (with the ACL intact) and each secondary stabilizer (with the ACL sectioned) were defined as the anterior translation at which they began to carry force, or engaged, during a simulated Lachman test. Then, the relative engagement point of each secondary stabilizer was defined as the difference between the engagement point of each secondary stabilizer and that of the ACL. Linear regressions were performed to test each association (P < .05). Results: The increase in anterior laxity caused by ACL sectioning was associated with increased relative engagement points of both the secondary ligaments (β = 0.87; P < .001; R2 = 0.75) and the medial meniscus (β = 0.66; P < .001; R2 = 0.58). Smaller changes in anterior laxity were also associated with increased in situ medial meniscal force at the peak applied load when the ACL was intact (β = −0.06; P < .001; R2 = 0.53). Conclusion: The secondary ligaments and the medial meniscus require greater anterior tibial translation to engage (ie, begin to carry force) relative to the ACL in knees with greater changes in anterior laxity after ACL sectioning. Moreover, with the ACL intact, the medial meniscus carries more force in knees with smaller changes in anterior laxity after ACL sectioning. Clinical Relevance: Relative tissue engagement is a new biomechanical measure to characterize in situ function of the ligaments and menisci. This measure may aid in developing more personalized surgical approaches to reduce high rates of ACL graft revision in patients with high-grade laxity.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • A High-Grade J Sign Is More Likely to Yield Higher Postoperative Patellar Laxity and Residual Maltracking in Patients With Recurrent Patellar Dislocation Treated With Derotational Distal Femoral Osteotomy
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    ZhiJun Zhang; Hui Zhang; GuanYang Song; XueSong Wang; Jin Zhang; Tong Zheng; QianKun Ni; Hua Feng

    Background: It has been speculated that the patellar J sign may have a negative effect on the clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent patellar dislocation (RPD). Purpose: To (1) evaluate clinical outcomes, postoperative patellar stability, and patellar maltracking correction in patients with RPD treated with derotational distal femoral osteotomy (DDFO) and combined procedures and (2) investigate the influence of J sign severity on the clinical outcomes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Between January 2015 and December 2016, a total of 78 patients (81 knees) with RPD, a positive J sign, and an excessive femoral anteversion angle (FAA; ≥30°) were surgically treated with DDFO and combined procedures. J sign severity was graded according to a previously described classification system (grades 1-3). Routine radiography and computed tomography were performed on every patient to evaluate the patellar height, trochlear dysplasia, genu valgum, tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove distance, patellar lateral tilt angle, and patella–trochlear groove distance. The patellar lateral shift distance during stress radiography was measured preoperatively and postoperatively to quantify medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) graft laxity under anesthesia, and “MPFL residual graft laxity” was defined as the patellar ridge surpassing the apex of the lateral femoral trochlea. Patients were evaluated using the Kujala, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Lysholm scores preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients were allocated into 3 subgroups in terms of the severity of the J sign: low-grade group 1 (grade 1; n = 19), low-grade group 2 (grade 2; n = 16), and high-grade group (grade 3; n = 12). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the influence of a high-grade J sign on the clinical outcomes. Results: Among the 78 patients (81 knees), 47 patients (47 knees) met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up time was 26.1 ± 1.7 months. The mean preoperative and postoperative FAAs were 36.2°± 5.3° and 10.0°± 2.1°, respectively, with a mean correction angle of 26.2°± 5.9°. At the final follow-up, all patient-reported outcomes improved significantly, and subgroup analyses showed that the high-grade group had significantly lower Kujala scores (75.6 vs 85.3 for low-grade group 1 [P < .001] and 83.4 for low-grade group 2 [P = .001]), Lysholm scores (77.6 vs 84.6 for low-grade group 1 [P = .003]), and IKDC scores (78.6 vs 87.3 for low-grade group 1 [P = .001] and 84.3 for low-grade group 2 [P = .033]) than the low-grade groups. The total rate of MPFL residual graft laxity was 8.5% (4/47), and the prevalence of the postoperative residual J sign was 38.3% (18/47). Subgroup analyses showed significant differences between the high-grade group and the 2 low-grade groups with regard to the MPFL residual graft laxity rate (33.3% vs 0.0% for low-grade group 1 [P = .016] and 0.0% for low-grade group 2 [P = .024]), residual J sign rate (91.7% vs 15.8% for low-grade group 1 [P < .001] and 25.0% for low-grade group 2 [P < .001]), and patellar lateral shift distance (14.2 vs 8.1 mm for low-grade group 1 [P = .002] and 8.7 mm for low-grade group 2 [P = .007]). Conclusion: In a group of patients treated for RPD with a positive preoperative J sign and increased FAA (≥30°), patients with a preoperative high-grade J sign had inferior clinical outcomes, more MPFL residual graft laxity, and greater residual patellar maltracking.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear Treatment: A Matched Cohort Comparison of Nonoperative Management, Partial Meniscectomy, and Repair
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Christopher D. Bernard; Nicholas I. Kennedy; Adam J. Tagliero; Christopher L. Camp; Daniel B.F. Saris; Bruce A. Levy; Michael J. Stuart; Aaron J. Krych

    Background: There are limited data comparing the outcomes of similarly matched patients with a medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) treated with nonoperative management, partial meniscectomy, or repair. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to compare treatment failure, clinical outcome scores, and radiographic findings for a matched cohort of patients who underwent either nonoperative management, partial meniscectomy, or transtibial pull-through repair for an MMPRT. We hypothesized that patients who underwent meniscus root repair will have lower rates of progression to arthroplasty than patients who were treated with nonoperative management or partial meniscectomy. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients who underwent transtibial medial meniscus posterior horn root repair were matched by meniscal laterality, age, sex, and Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grades to patients treated nonoperatively or with a partial meniscectomy. Progression to arthroplasty rates, International Knee Documentation Committee and Tegner scores, and radiographic outcomes were analyzed between groups. Results: Forty-five patients were included in this study (15 nonoperative, 15 partial meniscectomy, 15 root repair). Progression to arthroplasty demonstrated significant differences among treatment groups at a mean of 74 months (nonoperative, 4/15; partial meniscectomy, 9/15; meniscal repair, 0/15; P = .0003). The meniscus root repair group had significantly less arthritic progression, as measured by change in K-L grade from pre- to postoperatively (nonoperative, 1.0; partial meniscectomy, 1.1; meniscal repair, 0.1; P = .001). Conclusion: Meniscus root repair leads to significantly less arthritis progression and subsequent knee arthroplasty compared with nonoperative management and partial meniscectomy in a matched cohort based on patient characteristics.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Minimum 10-Year Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating 2 Different Approaches to Full Weightbearing After Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Jay R. Ebert; Michael Fallon; Timothy R. Ackland; Gregory C. Janes; David J. Wood

    Background: Longer term outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are lacking, while early postoperative weightbearing (WB) management has traditionally been conservative. Purpose: To investigate the longer term clinical and radiological outcomes after an 8-week (vs 12-week) WB protocol after MACI. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: A randomized study design allocated 70 patients to an 8- (n = 34) or 12-week (n = 36) approach to full WB after MACI of the medial or lateral femoral condyle. Patients were evaluated preoperatively; at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery; and at 5 and 10 years after surgery. At 10 years (range, 10.5-11.5 years), 60 patients (85.7%; 8 weeks: n = 29; 12 weeks: n = 31) were available for review. Clinical outcomes included patient-reported outcomes, maximal isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength, and functional hop capacity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken to assess the quality and quantity of repair tissue per the MOCART (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue) system. A combined MRI composite score was also evaluated. Results: Clinical and MRI-based scores for the full cohort significantly improved (P < .05) over the 10-year period. Apart from the Tegner activity score, which improved (P = .041), as well as tissue structure (P = .030), which deteriorated, there were no further statistically significant changes (P > .05) from 5 to 10 years. There were no 10-year differences between the 2 WB rehabilitation groups. At 10 years, 81.5% and 82.8% of patients in the 8- and 12-week groups, respectively, demonstrated good-excellent tissue infill. Graft failure was observed on MRI at 10 years in 7 patients overall, which included 4 located on 10-year MRI (8 weeks: n = 1; 12 weeks: n = 3) and a further 3 patients (8 weeks: n = 1; 12 weeks: n = 2) not included in the current analysis who proceeded to total knee arthroplasty. At 10 years, 93.3% of patients were satisfied with MACI for relieving their pain, with 83.3% satisfied with their ability to participate in sport. Conclusion: MACI provided high satisfaction levels and tissue durability beyond 10 years. The outcomes of this randomized trial demonstrate a safe 8-week WB rehabilitation protocol without jeopardizing longer term outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition With Doxycycline Affects the Progression of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: Evaluation in a New Nonsurgical Murine ACL Rupture Model
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Xueying Zhang; Xiang-Hua Deng; Zhe Song; Brett Croen; Camila B. Carballo; Zoe Album; Ying Zhang; Reyna Bhandari; Scott A. Rodeo

    Background: Doxycycline has broad-spectrum activity as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor and thus could reduce the progression of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Hypothesis: Doxycycline would inhibit progression of PTOA in a murine ACL rupture model. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: For the in vitro study, cadaveric C57BL/6 male mice knees (N = 108) were used for the development of a nonsurgical ACL rupture model. For the in vivo study, 24 C57BL/6 male mice then underwent ACL rupture with our manual procedure and were divided into 4 groups: untreated control; doxycycline, 10 mg/kg/d; doxycycline, 50 mg/kg/d; and doxycycline, 100 mg/kg/d. Doxycycline was administered in drinking water beginning immediately after ACL rupture. Radiographic imaging and paw prints were evaluated at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. The foot length and toe spread were analyzed as measures of function. Histology and MMP-13 immunohistochemistry were done at 4 weeks. Results: Radiographs demonstrated anterior tibial subluxation and meniscal extrusion after ACL rupture, confirming knee joint instability without fractures. Statistically significant differences in gait were found between the intact and experimental groups. Histologic examination demonstrated cartilage damage, meniscal tears, and mild osteoarthritis after ACL rupture, similar to what occurs in human patients. Hypertrophy of the posterior horn of the medial and lateral meniscus was found, and tears of the posterior horn of the menisci were common. All doxycycline groups had a lower score than the untreated control group, indicating less cartilage damage. The posterior tibia of the untreated group had the most cartilage damage as compared with the 3 doxycycline groups, with a significant difference between the untreated and 50-mg/kg/d doxycycline groups, suggesting that the latter dose may protect against proteoglycan loss and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. The nondoxycycline group had the highest synovial inflammation score among all groups, indicating that doxycycline has an inhibitory effect on synovitis. There was significantly lower MMP-13 expression on the tibia in the doxycycline-treated groups, with a positive correlation between doxycycline concentration and MMP-13 inhibition. Conclusion: Modulation of MMP-13 activity by doxycycline treatment may offer a novel biological pathway to decrease the progression of PTOA after ACL rupture. Clinical Relevance: Doxycycline is an approved, readily available drug with infrequent side effects of photosensitivity and gastrointestinal symptoms. Future clinical trials could evaluate doxycycline to reduce or prevent progressive cartilage damage after ACL rupture.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Arthroscopic Microfracture for Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus: Functional Outcomes at a Mean of 6.7 Years in 165 Consecutive Ankles
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Seung-Won Choi; Gun-Woo Lee; Keun-Bae Lee

    Background: Arthroscopic microfracture for osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) has shown good functional outcomes. However, some studies have reported that functional outcomes deteriorate over time after surgery. Purpose: To use various functional scoring systems to evaluate functional outcomes in a large sample of patients with OLT treated by arthroscopic microfracture. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The study cohort consisted of 165 ankles (156 patients) that underwent arthroscopic microfracture for small to mid-sized OLT. The mean lesion size was 73 mm2 (range, 17-146 mm2), and the mean follow-up period was 6.7 years (range, 2.0-13.6 years). The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were used to compare the functional outcomes between the preoperative and final follow-up assessments. Results: The mean FAOS significantly improved in regard to all subscores (P < .001). The AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale showed an improvement from 71.0 points (range, 47.0-84.0) preoperatively to 89.5 points (range, 63.0-100) at the final follow-up (P < .001). The VAS score showed an improvement from 6.2 points (range, 4.0-9.0) preoperatively to 1.7 points (range, 0-6.0) at the final follow-up (P < .001). The mean SF-36 score improved from 62.4 points (range, 27.4-76.6) preoperatively to 76.2 points (range, 42.1-98.0) at the final follow-up (P < .001). Among 165 ankles, 22 ankles (13.3%) underwent repeat arthroscopic surgery for evaluation of repaired cartilage status. Conclusion: Arthroscopic microfracture showed good functional outcomes and improved quality of life with maintenance of satisfactory outcomes at a mean follow-up of 6.7 years. Therefore, arthroscopic microfracture seems to be reliable as a first-line treatment for OLT at an intermediate-term follow-up.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Comparing Outcomes of Competitive Athletes Versus Nonathletes Undergoing Hip Arthroscopy for Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Ian M. Clapp; Benedict U. Nwachukwu; Edward C. Beck; Kyleen Jan; Anirudh K. Gowd; Shane J. Nho

    Background: A growing number of studies have examined return to sport in competitive athletes after undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS); however, few have evaluated the rate of achieving meaningful clinical outcomes in this group. Purpose: To determine if competitive athletes (professional, semiprofessional, or collegiate) have better 2-year patient-reported outcomes and achieve the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and substantial clinical benefit at higher rates when compared with nonathletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients who identified as either a competitive athlete or a nonathlete and had undergone hip arthroscopy for FAIS by a single fellowship-trained surgeon between January 2012 and April 2017. Patients in the 2 groups were matched 1:2 by age, sex, and body mass index. Baseline and clinical outcomes, including the Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living, Hip Outcome Score–Sports Subscale (HOS-SS), modified Harris Hip Score, and international Hip Outcome Tool-12, were collected preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively and compared between the groups. The MCID and substantial clinical benefit were calculated for each group separately and compared using chi-square analysis. Results: A total of 59 competitive athletes and 118 nonathletes were included in the final analysis. Most of the competitive athletes were soccer players (23.7%), followed by softball players (10.2%) and runners (10.2%). Postoperative score comparison between competitive athletes and nonathletes demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the HOS-SS (mean ± SD, 84.5 ± 19.0 vs 76.1 ± 23.8; P = .02). Meaningful outcome analysis demonstrated that competitive athletes had a higher rate of achieving the HOS-SS threshold for the MCID (97.4% vs 82.5%; P = .021). There was no other difference in frequency of achieving the threshold for any other meaningful clinical outcome between the groups. Conclusion: Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS in competitive athletes and nonathletes produced clinically meaningful outcomes in both patient groups. However, competitive athletes achieved the MCID on the HOS-SS at higher rates than nonathletes and had significantly higher scores at 2 years postoperatively on the HOS-SS.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Atypical Hip Pain in Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison of Outcomes Based on Primary Hip Pain Location
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Mathew J. Hamula; Michael K. Ryan; Samuel L. Baron; David A. Bloom; Thomas Youm

    Background: Patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) typically have anterior groin pain. However, a subset of these patients may have pain located laterally, posteriorly, or in a combination of locations around the hip. Purpose: To report and compare outcomes of hip arthroscopy for patients with FAI and atypical hip pain versus classic anterior groin pain. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI between August 2011 and March 2013 were identified. A total of 258 patients were identified as having symptomatic FAI based on clinical, radiographic, and advanced imaging diagnosis of FAI. Exclusion criteria included isolated thigh, knee, or low back pain. We also excluded patients with hip abductor pathology and trochanteric bursitis. Of the 226 patients ultimately included, 159 (70.4%) reported anterior groin pain, while 67 (29.6%) reported isolated lateral or posterior hip pain or a combination of locations. Patients were categorized into 4 groups: isolated anterior groin pain, lateral hip pain, posterior hip pain, and multiple primary hip pain locations (combined). These patients were followed prospectively with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patient characteristics, surgical characteristics, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Non-arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), revision hip arthroscopy, and conversions to total hip arthroplasty (THA) were recorded. Results: All 226 patients were included at final follow-up. Hip arthroscopy was performed by a single sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon. Preoperative patient characteristics and baseline functional outcome scores did not significantly differ among groups. All 4 groups showed statistically significant improvements in mHHS and NAHS from baseline to final follow-up of a mean 2.63 years (range, 2.01-3.23 years). Functional outcome scores and rates of revision hip arthroscopy or conversion to THA did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusion: Hip arthroscopy can effectively improve patient outcomes in atypical hip pain. A careful history and physical examination should identify this clinically meaningful subset of patients with FAI who can benefit from surgical intervention while identifying patients with concomitant posterior extra-articular hip or spine pathology that should be addressed appropriately.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Radiographic and Demographic Factors Can Predict the Need for Primary Labral Reconstruction in Hip Arthroscopic Surgery: A Predictive Model Using 1398 Hips
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    David R. Maldonado; Jeffrey W. Chen; Rafael Walker-Santiago; Philip J. Rosinsky; Jacob Shapira; Ajay C. Lall; Cynthia Kyin; Benjamin G. Domb

    Background: Labral tears are the most common findings in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The restoration of labral function is critical, and labral reconstruction has been proposed as an alternative for irreparable tears. Purpose: To compare preoperative radiographic measurements and demographics of patients who underwent primary arthroscopic labral reconstruction versus primary labral repair and to identify factors that are predictive of the need for reconstruction. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients who underwent their index hip arthroscopic procedure between October 2010 and November 2018 and underwent either labral reconstruction or repair were included in the study. A total of 18 variables (14 radiographic and 4 demographic) were assessed in a bivariate comparison and analyzed in a multivariate logistic model. Results: A total of 251 primary reconstruction and 1147 primary repair procedures were included. The logistic model selected age, body mass index (BMI), Tönnis grade, lateral center-edge angle (LCEA), and alpha angle. The odds of reconstruction were 2.52 times higher in patients with Tönnis grade 1 than 0 (odds ratio [OR], 2.52 [95% CI, 1.82-3.49]). Each additional degree in the LCEA was associated with a 6% increase in the odds of reconstruction (OR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.04-1.09]) and 4% for each additional degree in the alpha angle (OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.03-1.05]). Higher age (per log 10 unit) and BMI also increased the likelihood of reconstruction (OR, 11.29 [95% CI, 4.23-30.10] and OR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.00-1.06], respectively). Conclusion: In a multivariate analysis, factors identified as preoperative predictors for primary arthroscopic labral reconstruction in the setting of FAI and labral tears were Tönnis grade, LCEA, age, and BMI. These predictive factors may be useful for the clinician in determining the preoperative likelihood of primary labral reconstruction.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Spinopelvic Characteristics in Acetabular Retroversion: Does Pelvic Tilt Change After Periacetabular Osteotomy?
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    George Grammatopoulos; Saif Salih; Paul E. Beaule; Johan Witt

    Background: Acetabular retroversion may lead to impingement and pain, which can be treated with an anteverting periacetabular osteotomy (aPAO). Pelvic tilt influences acetabular orientation; as pelvic tilt angle reduces, acetabular version reduces. Thus, acetabular retroversion may be a deformity secondary to abnormal pelvic tilt (functional retroversion) or an anatomic deformity of the acetabulum and the innominate bone (pelvic ring). Purpose: To (1) measure the spinopelvic morphology in patients with acetabular retroversion and (2) assess whether pelvic tilt changes after successful anteverting PAO (aPAO), thus testing whether preoperative pelvic tilt was compensatory. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 48 hips (42 patients; 30 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with acetabular retroversion that underwent successful aPAO was studied. Spinopelvic morphology (pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, anterior pelvic plane, and sacral slope) was measured from computed tomography scans including the sacral end plate in 21 patients, with adequate images. In addition, the change in pelvic tilt with aPAO was measured via the sacrofemoral-pubic angle with supine pelvic radiographs at an interval of 2.5 ± 2 years. Results: The spinopelvic characteristics included a pelvic tilt of 4° ± 4°, a sacral slope of 39° ± 9°, an anterior pelvic plane angle of 11° ± 5°, and a pelvic incidence of 42° ± 10°. Preoperative pelvic tilt was 4° ± 4° and did not change postoperatively (4° ± 4°) (P = .676). Conclusion: Pelvic tilt in acetabular retroversion was within normal parameters, illustrating “normal” sagittal pelvic balance and values similar to those reported in the literature in healthy subjects. In addition, it did not change after aPAO. Thus, acetabular retroversion was not secondary to a maladaptive pelvic tilt (functional retroversion). Further work is required to assess whether retroversion is a reflection of a pelvic morphological abnormality rather than an isolated acetabular abnormality. Treatment of acetabular retroversion should focus on correcting the deformity rather than attempting to change the functional pelvic position.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Acetabular Morphologic Characteristics Predict Early Conversion to Arthroplasty After Isolated Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Brian D. Giordano; Benjamin D. Kuhns; Itay Perets; Leslie Yuen; Benjamin G. Domb

    Background: Hip arthroscopy in the setting of dysplasia and borderline dysplasia is controversial. Dysplasia severity is most often defined by the lateral center edge angle (LCEA) but can also be evaluated radiographically by the acetabular inclination (AI). Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to determine the effect of AI on outcomes after isolated hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). We hypothesized that patients with dysplasia would have higher rates of arthroplasty as well as inferior clinical and functional outcomes compared with patients who did not have dysplasia. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A hip arthroscopy registry was reviewed for participants undergoing arthroscopic correction of FAI from February 28, 2008, to June 10, 2013. Participants required a clinical diagnosis and isolated arthroscopic correction of FAI with preoperative imaging and intraoperative cartilage status recorded. AI dysplasia was defined as an AI greater than 10°, LCEA dysplasia as LCEA less than 18°, and borderline LCEA dysplasia as LCEA 18° to 25°. Patients without an acetabular deformity (LCEA 25°-40°; AI <10°) served as a control population. Postoperative variables included patient-reported outcome surveys with conversion to arthroplasty as the primary endpoint. Minimum 5-year outcome scores were obtained for 337 of 419 patients (80.4%) with an average follow-up of 75.2 ± 12.7 months. Results: This study included 419 patients: 9 (2%) with LCEA dysplasia, 42 (10%) with AI dysplasia, and 51 (12%) with borderline dysplasia. The AI but not LCEA was significantly correlated with lower outcome scores on the modified Harris Hip Score (r = 0.13; P = .01), Non-Arthritic Hip Score (r = 0.10; P = .04), and Hip Outcome Score–Sports Subscale (r = 0.11; P = .04). A total of 58 patients (14%) underwent arthroplasty at 31 ± 20 months postoperatively. Patients with LCEA dysplasia had an arthroplasty rate of 56% (odds ratio, 8.4), whereas patients with AI dysplasia had an arthroplasty rate of 31% (odds ratio, 3.3), which was significantly greater than the rate for the nondysplastic cohort (13.5%; P < .0001). Patients with borderline LCEA dysplasia did not have increased rates of arthroplasty. A multivariate analysis found increasing age, increasing AI, Tönnis grade higher than 1, and femoral Outerbridge grade higher than 2 to be most predictive of conversion to arthroplasty. Conclusion: We found that an elevated AI, along with increasing age, Tönnis grade, and femoral Outerbridge grade significantly predict early conversion to arthroplasty after isolated hip arthroscopy. We recommend using the AI, in addition to the LCEA, in evaluating hip dysplasia before hip arthroscopy.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Differential Effects of Platelets Selectively Activated by Protease-Activated Receptors on Meniscal Cells
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Hongyao Xu; Xiangjie Zou; Pengcheng Xia; Mohammad Ahmad Kamal Aboudi; Ran Chen; He Huang

    Background: Meniscal injury is very common, and injured meniscal tissue has a limited healing ability because of poor vascularity. Platelets contain both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, which can be released by platelet selective activation. Hypothesis: Platelets release a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) when they are activated by protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), whereas the platelets release endostatin when they are activated by protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4). The PAR1-treated platelets enhance the proliferation of meniscal cells in vitro and promote in vivo healing of wounded meniscal tissue. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Method: Platelets were isolated from human blood and activated with different reagents. The released growth factors from the activated platelets were determined by immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of the platelets with different treatments on meniscal cells were tested by an in vitro model of cell culture and an in vivo model of wounded meniscal healing. Results: The results indicated that platelets contained both pro- and antiangiogenic factors including VEGF and endostatin. In unactivated platelets, VEGF and endostatin were contained inside of the platelets. Both VEGF and endostatin were released from the platelets when they were activated by thrombin. However, only VEGF was released from the platelets when they were activated by PAR1, and only endostatin was released from the platelets when they were activated by PAR4. The rat meniscal cells grew much faster in the medium that contained PAR1-activated platelets than in the medium that contained either PAR4-activated platelets or unactivated platelets. The wounds treated with PAR1-activated platelets healed faster than those treated with either PAR4-activated platelets or unactivated platelets. Many blood vessel–like structures were found in the wounded menisci treated with PAR1-activated platelets. Conclusion: The PAR1-activated platelets released high levels of VEGF, which increased the proliferation of rat meniscal cells in vitro, enhanced the vascularization of menisci in vivo, and promoted healing of wounded menisci. Clinical Relevance: Our results suggested that selective activated platelets can be used clinically to enhance healing of wounded meniscal tissue.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Articular Joint-Simulating Mechanical Load Activates Endogenous TGF-β in a Highly Cellularized Bioadhesive Hydrogel for Cartilage Repair
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Peter Behrendt; Yann Ladner; Martin James Stoddart; Sebastian Lippross; Mauro Alini; David Eglin; Angela Rita Armiento

    Background: The treatment of osteochondral defects (OCDs) constitutes a major problem for orthopaedic surgeons. The altered mechanics and the cell types, with associated soluble factors derived from the exposed subchondral bone, are likely responsible for the mechanically and structurally inferior articular cartilage subsequently obtained as a repair tissue. There is therefore an unmet clinical need for bioresponsive biomaterials that allow cell delivery, reduce cell infiltration from the bone marrow, and support chondrogenesis in the presence of joint mechanical loading. Purpose: To develop a cell-laden injectable biomaterial, with bioadhesive properties, low cell invasion, and good mechanoresilience, in which simulated joint loading could induce tissue maturation through the production and activation of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells were encapsulated in tyramine-modified hyaluronic acid (HA-Tyr) hydrogels, with crosslinking initiated by the addition of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 0.3-2 mM). Cytocompatibility and biomechanical and adhesive properties were analyzed by live/dead staining, rheology, and push-out test, respectively. For multiaxial loading, cell-laden hydrogels were subjected to 10% compression superimposed onto a 0.5-N preload and shear loading (±25°) at 1 Hz for 1 hour per day and 5 times a week for 4 weeks. TGF-β1 production and activation were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The viscoelastic properties of the cell-laden HA-Tyr hydrogels, as crosslinked with different ratios of HRP and H2O2, were demonstrated for a range of cell densities and HRP/H2O2 concentrations. In the absence of serum supplementation, cell invasion into HA-Tyr hydrogels was minimal to absent. The bonding strength of HA-Tyr to articular cartilage compared favorably with clinically used fibrin gel. Conclusion: HA-Tyr hydrogels can be mechanically conditioned to induce activation of endogenous TGF-b1 produced by the embedded cells. HA-Tyr hydrogels function as cell carriers supporting biomechanically induced production and activation of TGF-β1 and as bioadhesive materials with low cell invasion, suggesting that they hold promise as a novel biomaterial for OCD repair strategies. Clinical Relevance: Leveraging physiological joint mechanics to support chondrogenic graft maturation in an optimized mechanosensitive hydrogel in the absence of exogenous growth factors is of highest interest for OCD repair.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • High Prevalence of Connective Tissue Gene Variants in Professional Ballet
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Angelina M. Vera; Leif E. Peterson; David Dong; Varan Haghshenas; Thomas R. Yetter; Domenica A. Delgado; Patrick C. McCulloch; Kevin E. Varner; Joshua D. Harris

    Background: There is a high prevalence of hypermobility spectrum disorder (HSD) in dancers. While there is no known genetic variant for HSD, hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a genetic disorder that exists within HSD. There are many connective tissue disorders (CTDs) with known (and unknown) genes associated with hypermobility. Hypermobility has distinct advantages for participation in flexibility sports, including ballet. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of gene variants associated with hypermobility in a large professional ballet company. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: In this cross-sectional investigation, 51 professional male and female dancers from a large metropolitan ballet company were eligible and offered participation after an oral and written informed consent process. Whole blood was obtained from peripheral venipuncture, and DNA was isolated. Isolated DNA was subsequently enriched for the coding exons of 60 genes associated with CTD that included hypermobility as a phenotype, including Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, and others. Genes were targeted with hybrid capture technology. Prepared DNA libraries were then sequenced with next-generation sequencing technology. Genetic database search tools (Human Gene Mutation Database and e!Ensembl, http://useast.ensembl.org/) were used to query specific variants. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: Of 51 dancers, 32 (63%) agreed to participate in DNA analysis (mean ± SD age, 24.3 ± 4.4 years; 18 men, 14 women). Twenty-eight dancers had at least 1 variant in the 60 genes tested, for an 88% prevalence. A total of 80 variants were found. A variant in 26 of the 60 genes was found in at least 1 dancer. Among the 28 dancers with variants, 16 were found in the TTN gene; 10 in ZNF469; 5 in RYR1; 4 in COL12A1; 3 in ABCC6 and COL6A2; 2 in ADAMTS2, CBS, COL1A2, COL6A3, SLC2A10, TNC, and TNXB; and 1 in ATP6V0A2, B4GALT7, BMP1, COL11A1, COL5A2, COL6A1, DSE, FBN1, FBN2, NOTCH1, PRDM5, SMAD3, and TGFBR1. Nine variants found in this population have never been reported. No identified variant was identical to any other variant. No identified variant was known to be disease causing. In the general population, the prevalence of each variant ranges from never reported to 0.33%. In the study population, the prevalence of each variant was 3.13%. There was no association between hypermobility scores and genetic variants. Conclusion: Genetic variants in CTD-associated genes are highly prevalent (88%) in professional ballet dancers. This may significantly account for the high degree of motion in this population.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Current Workload Recommendations in Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    Neil K. Bakshi; Paul M. Inclan; Jacob M. Kirsch; Asheesh Bedi; Cristine Agresta; Michael T. Freehill

    Background: Several recommendations have been made regarding pitch counts and workload for baseball players of different levels, including Little League, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball. However, little consensus is found in the literature regarding the scientific basis for many of these recommendations. Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding immediate and long-term musculoskeletal responses to increasing pitching workload in baseball pitchers of all levels. A secondary purpose of this review was to evaluate the extent to which workload influences injury and/or performance in baseball pitchers. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: We performed a systematic search in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for studies addressing physiologic and/or pathologic musculoskeletal changes in response to a quantifiable pitching workload. We included studies examining the effects of pitching workload on performance, injury rate, and musculoskeletal changes in Little League, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players. Results: We identified 28 studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria: 16 studies regarding Little League and high school pitchers and 12 studies regarding collegiate and professional pitchers. The current evidence presented suggests that increased pitching workload may be associated with an increased risk of pain, injury, and arm fatigue in Little League and high school pitchers. However, little consensus was found in the literature regarding the association between pitching workload and physiologic or pathologic changes in collegiate and professional pitchers. Conclusion: Evidence, although limited, suggests the use of pitch counts to decrease injury rates and pain in Little League and high school baseball pitchers. However, further research must be performed to determine the appropriate number of pitches (or throws) for players of different ages. This systematic review reported conflicting evidence regarding the use of pitch counts in college and professional baseball. Future high-quality research is required to determine the role, if any, of pitch counts for collegiate and professional pitchers.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Cost-efficacy of Knee Cartilage Defect Treatments in the United States
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-04-30
    Joshua S. Everhart; Andrew B. Campbell; Moneer M. Abouljoud; J. Caid Kirven; David C. Flanigan

    Background: Multiple knee cartilage defect treatments are available in the United States, although the cost-efficacy of these therapies in various clinical scenarios is not well understood. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to determine cost-efficacy of cartilage therapies in the United States with available mid- or long-term outcomes data. The authors hypothesized that cartilage treatment strategies currently approved for commercial use in the United States will be cost-effective, as defined by a cost <$50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year over 10 years. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: A systematic search was performed for prospective cartilage treatment outcome studies of therapies commercially available in the United States with minimum 5-year follow-up and report of pre- and posttreatment International Knee Documentation Committee subjective scores. Cost-efficacy over 10 years was determined with Markov modeling and consideration of early reoperation or revision surgery for treatment failure. Results: Twenty-two studies were included, with available outcomes data on microfracture, osteochondral autograft, osteochondral allograft (OCA), autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), and matrix-induced ACI. Mean improvement in International Knee Documentation Committee subjective scores at final follow-up ranged from 17.7 for microfracture of defects >3 cm2 to 36.0 for OCA of bipolar lesions. Failure rates ranged from <5% for osteochondral autograft for defects requiring 1 or 2 plugs to 46% for OCA of bipolar defects. All treatments were cost-effective over 10 years in the baseline model if costs were increased 50% or if failure rates were increased an additional 15%. However, if efficacy was decreased by a minimum clinically important amount, then ACI (periosteal cover) of femoral condylar lesions ($51,379 per quality-adjusted life-year), OCA of bipolar lesions ($66,255) or the patella ($66,975), and microfracture of defects >3 cm2 ($127,782) became cost-ineffective over 10 years. Conclusion: Currently employed treatments for knee cartilage defects in the United States are cost-effective in most clinically acceptable applications. Microfracture is not a cost-effective initial treatment of defects >3 cm2. OCA transplantation of the patella or bipolar lesions is potentially cost-ineffective and should be used judiciously.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Return to Sport After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Is There a Difference Between the Recreational and the Competitive Athlete?
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Burak Altintas; Nicole Anderson; Grant J. Dornan; Robert E. Boykin; Catherine Logan; Peter J. Millett

    Background: Return to sport (RTS) remains an important challenge and measure of success for athletes undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). Purpose: To determine the rate of RTS after RCR and to analyze predictive factors associated with a lower rate of return. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The electronic databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were used for the literature search. Study quality was evaluated according to the Coleman Methodology Score. Studies in English evaluating RTS after arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears among athletes of all levels, ages, and sports were included. Random effects meta-analysis and metaregression were performed to investigate RTS activity rate after arthroscopic RCR and to explore study heterogeneity, respectively. Results: Fifteen studies were reviewed, including 486 patients (499 shoulders) who were treated with arthroscopic RCR and who had a mean follow-up of 40.1 months (range, 18-74.4 months). Eighteen patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 468 patients with outcome data; 347 identified themselves as athletes (81 competitive, 266 recreational). The most commonly included sports were baseball (n = 45), golf (n = 38), football (n = 23), and tennis (n = 18). RTS specific to the type of athlete was reported for 299 of 347 athletes. According to the meta-analysis, the overall rate of RTS at a similar level of play or higher was 70.2%, with 73.3% of recreational athletes and 61.5% of competitive athletes able to return. A subset of 43 baseball and softball players across 4 studies yielded a 79% rate of RTS; however, only 38% returned to the same level of play or higher. Subgroup meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in the rate of RTS between competitive and recreational athletes. Metaregression analysis revealed that the mean follow-up time and mean age at surgery were not significantly associated with RTS rate. Conclusion: Most athletes (70.2%) were able to return to a preinjury level of play after arthroscopic RCR. While recreational sports participation (73.3%) was associated with higher return, competitive sports (61.5%) and overhead sports (38%) were associated with lower return. Exactly why all athletes do not return remains uncertain and likely multifactorial.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Out of Control
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Braden C. Fleming

    The eye sees only what the mind is prepared to comprehend. —Robertson Davies, Tempest-Tost, 1951

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Association Between Tibial Slope and Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Patients ≤21 Years Old: A Matched Case-Control Study Including 317 Revisions
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Joseph D. Cooper; Wei Wang; Heather A. Prentice; Tadashi T. Funahashi; Gregory B. Maletis

    Background: There is evidence that tibial slope may play a role in revision risk after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR); however, prior studies are inconsistent. Purpose: To determine (1) whether there is a difference in lateral tibial posterior slope (LTPS) or medial tibial posterior slope (MTPS) between patients undergoing revised ACLR and those not requiring revision and (2) whether the medial-to-lateral slope difference is different between these 2 groups. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We conducted a matched case-control study (2006-2015). Cases were patients aged ≤21 years who underwent revision surgery after primary unilateral ACLR; controls were patients aged ≤21 years without revision who were identified from the same source population. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, body mass index, race, graft type, femoral fixation device, and post-ACLR follow-up time. Tibial slope measurements were made by a single blinded reviewer using magnetic resonance imaging. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and McNemar test were used for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Results: No difference was observed between revised and nonrevised ACLR groups for LTPS (median: 6° vs 6°, P = .973) or MTPS (median: 4° vs 5°, P = .281). Furthermore, no difference was found for medial-to-lateral slope difference (median: −1 vs −1, P = .289). A greater proportion of patients with revised ACLR had an LTPS ≥12° (7.6% vs 3.8%) and ≥13° (4.7% vs 1.3%); however, this was not statistically significant after accounting for multiple testing. Conclusion: We failed to observe an association between revision ACLR surgery and LTPS, MTPS, or medial-to-lateral slope difference. However, there was a greater proportion of patients in the revision ACLR group with an LTPS ≥12°, suggesting that a minority of patients who have more extreme values of LTPS have a higher revision risk after primary ACLR. A future cohort study evaluating the angle that best differentiates patients at highest risk for revision is needed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Return to Play and Long-term Participation in Pivoting Sports After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Line Lindanger; Torbjørn Strand; Anders Odd Mølster; Eirik Solheim; Eivind Inderhaug

    Background: Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common and feared injury among athletes because of its potential effect on further sports participation. Reported rates of return to pivoting sports after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) vary in the literature, and the long-term consequences of returning have rarely been studied. Purpose: To examine the rate and level of return to pivoting sports after ACLR, the duration of sports participation, and long-term consequences of returning to pivoting sports. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: All primary ACLRs with a bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft between 1987 and 1994 (N = 234) in athletes participating in team handball, basketball, or soccer before injury were selected from a single-center quality database. A long-term evaluation (median, 25 years; range, 22-30 years) was performed using a questionnaire focusing on return to pivoting sports, the duration of sports activity after surgery, later contralateral ACL injuries, revision surgery, and knee replacement surgery. Participants were stratified into 2 groups depending on the time between injury and surgery (early, <24 months; late, ≥24 months). Results: A total of 93% of patients (n = 217) responded to the questionnaire. Although 83% of patients returned to pivoting sports after early ACLR, only 53% returned to preinjury level. Similar return-to-sport rates were observed in males and females (P > .05), but males had longer sports careers (median, 10 years; range, 1-23 years) than females (median, 4 years; range, 1-25 years; P < .001). The incidence of contralateral ACL injuries was 28% among athletes who returned to sports versus 4% among athletes who did not return (P = .017) after early ACLR. The pooled reinjury rate after return to preinjury level of sports was 41% (30%, contralateral injuries; 11%, revision surgery). The incidence of contralateral ACL injuries was 32% among females versus 23% among males (P > .05) and, for revision surgery, was 12% among females versus 7% among males (P > .05) after returning to sports. Having a late ACLR was associated with an increased risk of knee replacement surgery (9% vs 3%; P = .049) when compared with having an early ACLR. Conclusion: ACLR does not necessarily enable a return to preinjury sports participation. By returning to pivoting sports after ACLR, athletes are also facing a high risk of contralateral ACL injuries. Long-term evaluations in risk assessments after ACLR are important, as a significant number of subsequent ACL injuries occur later than the routine follow-up.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Risk Factors Associated With a Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury to the Contralateral Knee After Unilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in High School and College Female Athletes: A Prospective Study
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Annabelle P. Davey; Pamela M. Vacek; Ryan A. Caldwell; James R. Slauterbeck; Mack G. Gardner-Morse; Timothy W. Tourville; Bruce D. Beynnon

    Background: The incidence of contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (CACL) injuries after recovery from a first-time anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption is high in women; however, little is known about the risk factors associated with this trauma. Hypothesis: Patient characteristics, strength, anatomic alignment, and neuromuscular characteristics of the contralateral uninjured leg at the time of the first ACL trauma are associated with risk of subsequent CACL injury, and these risk factors are distinct from those for a first-time ACL injury. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Sixty-one women who suffered a first-time noncontact ACL injury while participating in high school or college sports and underwent measurement of potential risk factors on their contralateral limb soon after the initial ACL injury and before reconstruction were followed until either a CACL injury or an ACL graft injury occurred, or until the last date of contact. Results: Follow-up information was available for 55 (90.0%) of the 61 athletes and 11 (20.0%) suffered a CACL injury. Younger age, decreased participation in sport before the first ACL disruption, decreased anterior stiffness of the contralateral knee, and increased hip anteversion were associated with increases in the risk of suffering a CACL injury. Conclusion: A portion of CACL injury risk factors were modifiable (time spent participating in sport and increasing anterior knee stiffness with bracing), while others were nonmodifiable (younger age and increased hip anteversion). The relationship between younger age at the time of an initial ACL injury and increased risk of subsequent CACL trauma may be explained by younger athletes having more years available to be exposed to at-risk activities compared with older athletes. A decrease of anterior stiffness of the knee is linked to decreased material properties and width of the ACL, and this may explain why some women are predisposed to bilateral ACL trauma while others only suffer the index injury. The risk factors for CACL injury are unique to women who suffer bilateral ACL trauma compared with those who suffer unilateral ACL trauma. This information is important for the identification of athletes who may benefit from risk reduction interventions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Combined Transphyseal and Lateral Extra-articular Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Novel Technique to Reduce ACL Reinjury While Allowing for Growth
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Philip L. Wilson; Charles W. Wyatt; K. John Wagner, III; Nathan Boes; Meagan J. Sabatino; Henry B. Ellis, Jr

    Background: Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the adolescent population continues to be complicated by an unacceptably high rate of secondary ACL injury. Purpose: To describe the failure rate and outcomes after a hybrid pediatric ACL reconstruction (ACLR) employing transphyseal hamstring (TPH) autograft combined with an extra-articular technique using an iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing combined TPH-ITB ACLR between January 2012 and April 2017 with a minimum 2-year follow-up were reviewed. With the goal of decreasing ACL graft injury in this high-risk group, this technique employed anteromedial portal drilling for TPH with an extraosseous femoral ITB technique and intra-articular TPH-ITB grafts fixed within the tibial bone tunnel. Demographics, bone age, standing alignment radiograph for growth and mechanical axis grade, return to sport, graft failure, and patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed. Results: A total of 61 knees in 60 adolescents underwent the combined TPH-ITB ACLR, with 57 knees (93.4%) meeting inclusion criteria with a mean follow-up of 38.5 months (range, 24-78 months). Only 3 of 57 knees (5.3%) sustained ACL reinjury. The mean age was 13.0 years (range, 11-16 years) with 36 male patients (mean bone age, 14.2 years) and 21 female patients (mean bone age, 13.3 years), and 91% of patients (52 of 57) returned to sport. Participants demonstrated a high functional level at final follow-up, with a mean score of 91.2 (range, 46.7-100) on the Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and mean score of 22.4 (range, 4-30) on the Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (Pedi-FABS). To critically assess growth, a cohort with ≥18 months of growth remaining at surgery was evaluated at maturity. No difference was seen in mean operative and nonoperative leg growth (49.7 mm and 49.8 mm). Although no family reported cosmetic or functional alignment or length concerns, 1 of 18 (5.5%) had a final limb length discrepancy >10 mm (12 mm) and a perioperative alignment difference (0-Grade II valgus). Conclusion: Combined TPH-ITB ACLR in adolescents resulted in high activity levels (Pedi-FABS, 22.4; median, 25) and a low (5.3%) graft failure rate at a mean 38.5 months.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Femoral Footprint Position of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Might Be a Predisposing Factor to a Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Dimitris Dimitriou; Zhongzheng Wang; Diyang Zou; Tsung-Yuan Tsai; Naeder Helmy

    Background: Although the femoral tunnel position is crucial to anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the recommendations for the ideal femoral footprint position are mostly based on cadaveric studies with small sample sizes, elderly patients with unknown ACL status, and 2-dimensional techniques. Furthermore, a potential difference in the femoral ACL footprint position and ACL orientation between ACL-ruptured and ACL-intact knees has not been reported in the literature. Hypothesis: The femoral ACL footprint position and ACL orientation vary significantly between ACL-ruptured and matched control ACL-intact knees. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 90 patients with an ACL rupture and 90 matched control participants who had a noncontact knee injury without an ACL rupture were used to create 3-dimensional models of the femur and tibia. The ACL footprints were outlined on each model, and their positions (normalized to the lateral condyle width) as well as ACL orientations were measured with an anatomic coordinate system. Results: The femoral ACL footprint in patients with an ACL rupture was located at 36.6% posterior and 11.2% distal to the flexion-extension axis (FEA). The ACL orientation was 46.9° in the sagittal plane, 70.3° in the coronal plane, and 20.8° in the transverse plane. The ACL-ruptured group demonstrated a femoral ACL footprint position that was 11.0% more posterior and 7.7% more proximal than that of the control group (all P < .01). The same patients also exhibited 5.7° lower sagittal elevation, 3.1° higher coronal plane elevation, and 7.9° lower transverse plane deviation (all P < .01). The optimal cutoff value of the femoral ACL footprint position to prevent an ACL rupture was at 30% posterior and 12% distal to the FEA. Conclusion: The ACL femoral footprint position might be a predisposing factor to an ACL rupture. Patients with a >30% posterior and <12% distal position of the femoral ACL footprint from the FEA might have a 51.2-times increased risk of an ACL rupture.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Biomechanical Effects of Additional Anterolateral Structure Reconstruction With Different Femoral Attachment Sites on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Mai Katakura; Hideyuki Koga; Tomomasa Nakamura; Daisuke Araki; Kanto Nagai; Kyohei Nishida; Ryosuke Kuroda; Takeshi Muneta

    Background: Recently reported anterolateral structure reconstructions (ALSRs) to augment intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) use various femoral attachment sites, and their biomechanical effects are still unknown. Hypothesis: ALSR concomitant with ACLR would control anterolateral rotational instability better than ACLR alone, and if ALSR had different femoral attachment sites, there would be different effects on its control of anterolateral rotational instability. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen hemipelvis lower limbs were included. Anterior tibial translation during the Lachman test and tibial acceleration during the pivot-shift test were measured with a 3-dimensional electromagnetic measurement system in situations with the (1) ACL and ALS intact, (2) ACL and ALS cut, (3) ALSR without ACLR (ALSR alone), (4) ACLR without ALSR (ACLR alone), and (5) ALSR with ACLR. Three femoral attachment sites were used for ALSR: F1, 2 mm anterior and 2 mm distal to the lateral epicondyle; F2, 4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle; and F3, over-the-top position for the lateral extra-articular tenodesis. The Steel test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Anterior tibial translation during the Lachman test in the ACL and ALS–cut state was significantly larger than it was in the ACL and ALS–intact state, while its difference disappeared after ACLR. As for the pivot-shift test, additional ALSR with F2 to ACLR significantly decreased the acceleration (P = .046), although additional ALSR with F1 and F3 showed no significant effect. Conclusion: ALSR with the femoral attachment site 4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle in addition to ACLR played a role in reducing anterolateral rotational instability the most effectively among the measured attachment sites. Clinical Relevance: The present data will contribute to determine the appropriate femoral attachment site for ALSR to better control anterolateral rotational instability after ACL reconstruction.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Anterolateral Structure of the Knee Does Not Affect Anterior and Dynamic Rotatory Stability in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Quantitative Evaluation With the Electromagnetic Measurement System
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Daisuke Araki; Takehiko Matsushita; Yuichi Hoshino; Kanto Nagai; Kyohei Nishida; Hideyuki Koga; Tomomasa Nakamura; Mai Katakura; Takeshi Muneta; Ryosuke Kuroda

    Background: The biomechanical function of the anterolateral structure (ALS), which includes the anterolateral joint capsule and anterolateral ligament (ALL), remains a topic of debate. Hypothesis: The ALS contributes to knee joint stability during the Lachman test and the pivot-shift test in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–deficient knees. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen fresh-frozen hemipelvis lower limbs were used. For 7 specimens, the anterior one-third of the ALS and the residual ALS were cut intra-articularly with a radiofrequency device. Subsequently, the ACL was cut arthroscopically. For the other 7 specimens, the ACL was cut first, followed by the anterior one-third of the ALS and the residual ALS intra-articularly. During the procedures, the iliotibial band (ITB) was kept intact. At each condition, the anterior tibial translation (ATT) during the manual Lachman test and the acceleration of posterior tibial translation (APT) and the posterior tibial translation (PTT) during the manual pivot-shift test were measured quantitatively with an electromagnetic measurement system. The mean values of those parameters were compared among 6 groups (ACL intact, one-third ALS cut, all ALS cut, ACL cut, ACL/one-third ALS cut, and ACL/all ALS cut). Results: The mean ATTs during the Lachman test and the mean APTs and PTTs in the ACL-cut conditions (ACL cut, ACL/one-third ALS cut, and ACL/all ALS cut) were significantly larger than those under the ACL-intact conditions (ACL intact, one-third ALS cut, all ALS cut) (P < .01). However, no statistically significant differences were observed among the intact, one-third ALS–cut, and all ALS–cut conditions, within the ACL-intact or ACL-cut conditions. Conclusion: Intra-articular dissection of the ALS did not increase the ATT during the Lachman test or the APT and PTT during the pivot-shift test under the intact condition of the ITB, regardless of the integrity of the ACL. When the ITB is intact, the ALS does not have a significant role in either anterior or dynamic rotatory knee stability, while the ACL does. Clinical Relevance: Recent growing interest about ALL reconstruction or ALS augmentation may not have a large role in controlling either anterior or dynamic rotatory knee instability in isolated ACL-deficient knees.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Incidence and Healing Rates of Meniscal Tears in Patients Undergoing Repair During the First Stage of 2-Stage Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Nicholas N. DePhillipo; Travis J. Dekker; Zachary S. Aman; David Bernholt; W. Jeffrey Grantham; Robert F. LaPrade

    Background: Meniscal tears, including tears at the root attachment, have been associated with tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in both primary and revision settings. However, there is a paucity of literature reporting the healing rates of meniscal repair during 2-stage revision ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose: To evaluate the healing rates of meniscal repairs performed during 2-stage revision ACLR in ACL-deficient knees and to report the incidence of meniscus root tears in patients undergoing primary ACLR as compared with revision ACLR. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Patients who underwent primary and revision ACLR by a single surgeon were retrospectively identified. Revision ACLRs were grouped according to 1- or 2-stage ACLR. Meniscal tears were grouped according to laterality (medial, lateral) and location of tears. Meniscal repair technique was recorded, including transtibial or inside-out. Meniscal repair healing was assessed via second-look arthroscopy at the time of second-stage revision ACLR. Results: There were 1168 patients identified who underwent ACLR: 851 primary and 317 revision procedures. Sixty-four patients underwent meniscal repair during first-stage bone grafting in ACL-deficient knees, with an overall healing rate of 86%. The healing rates were 82.3% for meniscus root tears via the transtibial repair technique and 92.4% for meniscal peripheral tears via the inside-out repair technique. Meniscus root tears had overall incidences of 15.5% and 26.2% in primary and revision ACLRs, respectively. The incidence of lateral meniscus posterior root tears was approximately 4 times higher than of medial meniscus posterior root tears in both primary (12.2% vs 3.2%) and revision (20.5% vs 5.6%) ACLRs. Conclusion: A high incidence of meniscus root tears was found in patients undergoing revision ACLRs as compared with primary ACLRs. Meniscal repairs have a high rate of healing and success when performed during the first stage of revision ACLR in ACL-deficient knees.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Point-of-Care Procedure for Enhancement of Meniscal Healing in a Goat Model Utilizing Infrapatellar Fat Pad–Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells Seeded in Photocrosslinkable Hydrogel
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Benjamin B. Rothrauff; Hiroshi Sasaki; Shinsuke Kihara; Kalon J. Overholt; Riccardo Gottardi; Hang Lin; Freddie H. Fu; Rocky S. Tuan; Peter G. Alexander

    Background: Large radial tears of the meniscus involving the avascular region can compromise meniscal function and result in poor healing and subsequent osteochondral degeneration. Augmentation of surgical repairs with adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains mesenchymal stromal cells, may improve meniscal healing and preserve function (ie, chondroprotection). Purposes: (1) To develop a goat model of a radial meniscal tear with resulting osteoarthritis and (2) to explore the efficacy of a 1-step procedure utilizing infrapatellar fat pad–derived SVF cells seeded in a photocrosslinkable hydrogel to enhance meniscal healing and mitigate osteochondral degeneration. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A full-thickness radial tear spanning 90% of the medial meniscal width was made at the junction of the anterior and middle bodies of the goat stifle joint. Tears received 1 of 3 interventions (n = 4 per group): untreated, repair, or repair augmented with photocrosslinkable methacrylated gelatin hydrogel containing 2.0 × 106 SVF cells/mL and 2.0 µg/mL of transforming growth factor β3. The contralateral (left) joint served as a healthy control. At 6 months, meniscal healing and joint health were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assessed by histological and macroscopic scoring. The Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score and the presence of a residual tear, as evaluated with T2 MRI sequences, were determined by a single blinded orthopaedic surgeon. Results: When compared with tears left untreated or repaired with suture alone, augmented repairs demonstrated increased tissue formation in the meniscal tear site, as seen on MRI and macroscopically. Likewise, the neotissue of augmented repairs possessed a histological appearance more similar, although still inferior, to healthy meniscus. Osteochondral degeneration in the medial compartment, as evaluated by the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score and Inoue (macroscopic) scale, revealed increased degeneration in the untreated and repair groups, which was mitigated in the augmented repair group. Histological evaluation with a modified Mankin score showed a similar trend. In all measures of osteochondral degeneration, the augmented repair group did not differ significantly from the uninjured control. Conclusion: A radial tear spanning 90% of the medial meniscal width in a goat stifle joint showed poor healing potential and resulted in osteochondral degeneration by 6 months, even if suture repair was performed. Augmentation of the repair with a photocrosslinkable hydrogel containing transforming growth factor β3 and SVF cells, isolated intraoperatively by rapid enzymatic digestion, improved meniscal healing and mitigated osteoarthritic changes. Clinical Relevance: Repair augmentation with an SVF cell–seeded hydrogel may support successful repair of meniscal tears previously considered irreparable.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A 10% Increase in Step Rate Improves Running Kinematics and Clinical Outcomes in Runners With Patellofemoral Pain at 4 Weeks and 3 Months
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Christopher Bramah; Stephen J. Preece; Niamh Gill; Lee Herrington

    Recreational running is an increasingly popular method of physical activity, with participation rates growing annually. Although running offers several health benefits, it also poses a considerable risk of injury to the musculoskeletal system. Overall injury incidence rates are reported to range between 19% and 78% among recreational runners,37 with recurrence rates in 20% to 70% of all cases.38 Of all running injuries, patellofemoral pain (PFP) is considered the most common running-related knee injury,36 with incidence and prevalence rates as high as 20.8% and 22.7%, respectively.34

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Does Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Protect Against Early Cartilage Injury Seen After Marathon Running? A Randomized Controlled Trial Utilizing High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Amit Nathani; Garry E. Gold; Uchechukwuka Monu; Brian Hargreaves; Andrea K. Finlay; Elka B. Rubin; Marc R. Safran

    Background: Previous studies have shown that runners demonstrate elevated T2 and T1ρ values on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after running a marathon, with the greatest changes in the patellofemoral and medial compartment, which can persist after 3 months of reduced activity. Additionally, marathon running has been shown to increase serum inflammatory markers. Hyaluronic acid (HA) purportedly improves viscoelasticity of synovial fluid, serving as a lubricant while also having chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to investigate whether intra-articular HA injection can protect articular cartilage from injury attributed to marathon running. The hypothesis was that the addition of intra-articular HA 1 week before running a marathon would reduce the magnitude of early cartilage breakdown measured by MRI. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: After institutional review board approval, 20 runners were randomized into receiving an intra-articular injection of HA or normal saline (NS) 1 week before running a marathon. Exclusionary criteria included any prior knee injury or surgery and having run >3 prior marathons. Baseline 3-T knee MRI was obtained within 48 hours before the marathon (approximately 5 days after injection). Follow-up 3-T MRI scans of the same knee were obtained 48 to 72 hours and 3 months after the marathon. The T2 and T1ρ relaxation times of articular cartilage were measured in 8 locations—the medial and lateral compartments (including 2 areas of each femoral condyle) and the patellofemoral joint. The statistical analysis compared changes in T2 and T1ρ relaxation times (ms) from baseline to immediate and 3-month postmarathon scans between the HA and NS groups with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Fifteen runners completed the study: 6 women and 2 men in the HA group (mean age, 31 years; range, 23-50 years) and 6 women and 1 man in the NS group (mean age, 27 years; range, 20-49 years). There were no gross morphologic MRI changes after running the marathon. Postmarathon studies revealed no statistically significant changes between the HA and NS groups in all articular cartilage areas of the knee on both T2 and T1ρ relaxation times. Conclusion: Increased T2 and T1ρ relaxation times have been observed in marathon runners, suggesting early cartilage injury. The addition of intra-articular HA did not significantly affect relaxation times in all areas of the knee when compared with an NS control.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Single-Leg Squat Performance and Its Relationship to Extensor Mechanism Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Lachlan M. Batty; Julian A. Feller; Taylor Hartwig; Brian M. Devitt; Kate E. Webster

    Background: Performance in strength and functional testing is important when considering return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Both knee extensor strength and the single-leg squat (SLS) have been used in this context. Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between knee extensor strength and SLS performance after primary ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A prospective cohort of 100 patients was assessed 6 and 12 months after primary ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft. Knee extensor peak torque was measured. Three sequential SLSs were performed, and the maximum flexion angle identified from frame-by-frame video analysis was used as the measure of squat performance. A limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated and satisfactory performance defined as ≥90%. Results: Extensor mechanism strength deficits were seen in 75% of patients at 6 months and 57% at 12 months postoperatively. Mean extensor mechanism strength showed a large improvement between 6 and 12 months (123.6 vs 147.8 N·m, respectively; P < .001; Cohen d = 1.10), and while there was also a statistically significant improvement in the mean maximum flexion angle, the change was small (66.1° vs 68.1°, respectively; P = .011; Cohen d = 0.26). There was a weak positive correlation between knee extensor strength and the SLS maximum flexion angle at 6 months (r = 0.342; P < .001) and 12 months (r = 0.245; P = .014). An SLS LSI <90% was 80% specific and 35% sensitive for extensor mechanism weakness at 6 months and 79% specific and 18% sensitive at 12 months. Conclusion: Extensor mechanism strength deficits are common after ACL reconstruction but reduce between 6 and 12 months. The SLS maximum flexion angle has a weak linear relationship to knee extensor strength. SLS performance has high specificity but low sensitivity in identifying extensor mechanism strength deficits. The SLS maximum flexion angle is therefore a suboptimal surrogate test to identify extensor mechanism strength deficits as diagnosed by isokinetic dynamometric testing. However, unsatisfactory SLS performance indicates a very high chance of underlying extensor mechanism weakness.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Autologous Osteochondral Transplantation for Large Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Is a Viable Option in an Athletic Population
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Anthony Nguyen; Arul Ramasamy; Melanie Walsh; Louise McMenemy; James D.F. Calder

    Background: Autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) has been shown to be a viable treatment option for large osteochondral lesions of the talus. However, there are limited data regarding the management of large lesions in an athletic population, notably with regard to return to sport. Our investigation focused on assessing both qualitative and quantitative outcomes in the high-demand athlete with large (>150 mm2) lesions. Hypothesis: AOT is a viable option in athletes with large osteochondral lesions and can allow them to return to sport at their preinjury level. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The study population was limited to professional and amateur athletes (Tegner score, >6) with a talar osteochondral lesion size of 150 mm2 or greater. The surgical intervention was AOT with a donor site from the lateral femoral condyle. Clinical outcomes at a minimum of 24 months included return to sport, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain score, and Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). In addition, graft incorporation was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using MOCART (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue) scores at 12 months after surgery. Results: A total of 38 athletes, including 11 professional athletes, were assessed. The mean follow-up was 45 months. The mean lesion size was 249 mm2. Thirty-three patients returned to sport at their previous level, 4 returned at a lower level compared with preinjury, and 1 did not return to sport (mean return to play, 8.2 months). The VAS improved from 4.53 preoperatively to 0.63 postoperatively (P = .002). FAOSs improved significantly in all domains (P < .001). Two patients developed knee donor site pain, and both had 3 osteochondral plugs harvested. Univariant analysis demonstrated no association between preoperative patient or lesion characteristics and ability to return to sport. However, there was a strong correlation between MOCART scores and ability to return to sport. The area under receiver operating characteristic of the MOCART score and return to play was 0.891 (P = .005), with a MOCART score of 52.50 representing a sensitivity of 0.85 and specificity of 0.80 in determining ability to return to one’s previous level of activity. Conclusion: Our study suggests that AOT is a viable option in the management of large osteochondral talar defects in an athletic population, with favorable return to sport level, patient satisfaction, and FAOS/VAS scores. The ability to return to sport is predicated upon good graft incorporation, and further research is required to optimize this technique. Our data also suggest that patients should be aware of the increased risk of developing knee donor site pain when 3 osteochondral plugs are harvested.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Functional Results and Outcomes After Repair of Partial Proximal Hamstring Avulsions at Midterm Follow-up
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Justin W. Arner; Halle Freiman; Craig S. Mauro; James P. Bradley

    Background: Partial avulsions of the proximal hamstring origin remain a challenging problem with nonoperative treatments frequently providing limited success. The literature is limited regarding the outcomes of operative management in the active and athletic population. Hypothesis: Surgical fixation of proximal hamstring ruptures will have favorable outcomes at midterm follow-up. Study design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A total of 64 patients with partial avulsions of the proximal hamstring origin treated with surgical fixation by a single surgeon were reviewed at a 2-year minimum follow-up. All patients had initially undergone failed nonoperative treatment. Patient-reported outcome scores on the Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS), Marx Activity Rating Scale, custom LEFS and Marx scales, and total proximal hamstring score were evaluated. Data on patient-perceived strength, return to sport, and satisfaction were also collected. Results: The cohort included 27 male and 37 female (N = 64) patients with a mean age of 47.3 years (range, 16-65 years), and all were reviewed at a mean 6.5-year (range, 2-12.5 years) follow-up. The average postoperative LEFS was 96% (range, 68%-100%), with the custom LEFS being 90% (range, 39%-100%). The mean Marx score was 12.4 (range, 4-16). The Marx custom score demonstrated no disability with activities of daily living. The mean total proximal hamstring score was 94% (range, 69%-100%). No differences in any outcome measures were seen when comparing acute versus chronic repairs. Three patients underwent further hamstring surgery. No patients reported symptoms of numbness in the operative extremity at rest, while 3 patients had a superficial stitch abscess treated with antibiotics alone. The most commonly reported difficulty was with prolonged sitting. Ninety-seven percent were satisfied with surgery, 92% reported they could participate in strenuous activity, and 97% estimated their strength to be >75%, while 64% estimated it to be 100% of their contralateral side. Patients returned to sport at an average of 11.1 months, and all that returned were satisfied with their performance. Conclusion: Both early and delayed anatomic surgical repair of partial proximal hamstring avulsions leads to successful functional outcomes, a high rate of return to athletic activity, and low complication rates at the 6.5-year follow-up. Nonoperative treatments should first be attempted.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Rate of Return to Sport and Functional Outcomes After Bilateral Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Athletes
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Philip J. Rosinsky; Cynthia Kyin; Ajay C. Lall; Jacob Shapira; David R. Maldonado; Benjamin G. Domb

    Background: Bilateral hip symptoms are common in athletes, and athletes may require treatment with bilateral hip arthroscopy. Return-to-sport (RTS) rates in competitive athletes after unilateral procedures have been reported at 74% to 93%; however, RTS rates after bilateral hip arthroscopy are still unknown. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to determine rate of RTS in competitive athletes undergoing bilateral hip arthroscopy and report minimum 1-year patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for this cohort. We hypothesized that after bilateral hip arthroscopy, the RTS rate would be similar to the square of the probability of returning after unilateral hip arthroscopy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Data were prospectively collected on patients undergoing hip arthroscopy at our institution from November 2011 to July 2018. Patients were included if they underwent bilateral hip arthroscopy and were a high school, collegiate, or professional athlete before their first surgery. A patient’s RTS was defined as return to competitive participation in one’s sport at a level the same as or higher than the preoperative level. Additionally, minimum 1-year PROs, including modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), nonarthritic hip score, and Hip Outcome Score–Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), as well as complication rates and future surgery were compared for all patients. Rates of reaching the minimal clinically importance difference (MCID) and patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) for the mHHS (8 and 74, respectively) and HOS-SSS (6 and 75, respectively) were also recorded. Results: A total of 87 patients met inclusion criteria, for which follow-up was available for 82 (94.3%). At latest follow-up, 100% of professional athletes had returned to their sport, while 53.7% of the entire cohort returned to their sport, with 75.8% of male patients returning versus 38.8% of female patients (P < .001). Of patients returning, 56% did so at the same ability or higher. The most common reason for not returning was graduation or lifestyle change (47.4%). Patients returning to sport had significantly higher PROs at latest follow-up relative to those who did not return, including mHHS (93.7 vs 87.5), nonarthritic hip score (94.4 vs 88.2), and HOS-SSS (90.9 vs 78.2) (P < .05). Rates of achieving the PASS and MCID for the mHHS were not significantly different. However, for the HOS-SSS, patients who returned had significantly higher rates of achieving the MCID and PASS thresholds. Conclusion: The rate of RTS among competitive athletes after bilateral hip arthroscopy was similar to the square of published RTS rates after unilateral hip arthroscopy. Both those who returned to play and those who did not showed significant improvement in PROs after surgery. However, those who returned to sports achieved significantly higher scores in all outcome measures. Additionally, patients returning to sports showed a significantly higher rate of attaining the MCID and PASS scores for the HOS-SSS.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Activity Level Maintenance at Midterm Follow-up Among Active Patients Undergoing Periacetabular Osteotomy
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Ugochi C. Okoroafor; Cecilia Pascual-Garrido; Maria T. Schwabe; Jeffrey J. Nepple; Perry L. Schoenecker; John C. Clohisy

    Background: For active patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), returning to and maintaining a high level of activity postoperatively is a priority. Purpose: To evaluate the maintenance of activity levels at midterm follow-up in active patients treated with PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Patients who underwent PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia between June 2006 and August 2013 were identified by a retrospective review of our prospective longitudinal institutional Hip Preservation Database. All patients with a preoperative University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score of ≥7 and a potential minimum 5 years of follow-up were included in the study. Functional outcome measures were the UCLA score, modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The maintenance of high activity levels was defined as a UCLA score of ≥7 at final follow-up. Radiographic parameters were measured. Statistical significance was defined as a P value <.05. Results: A total of 66 hips (58 patients) were included. The mean age was 25.3 years (range, 14-47 years), the mean body mass index was 23.9 kg/m2 (range, 19-32 kg/m2), and 72% were female. The mean follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 5-11 years). There were 67% of patients who maintained a UCLA score of ≥7. Patient-reported outcomes improved postoperatively from preoperatively for the mHHS (88 ± 14 vs 67 ± 17, respectively; P < .001) and WOMAC (89 ± 15 vs 73 ± 20, respectively; P < .001). The lateral center-edge angle, anterior center-edge angle, and acetabular inclination were significantly improved at final follow-up (P < .001). Only 4 patients (7%) cited postoperative activity limitations as being caused by hip pain. There were no conversions to total hip arthroplasty. Conclusion: The majority (67%) of active patients returned to preoperative or higher activity levels after PAO at midterm follow-up.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Evaluation of Osseous Morphology of the Hip Using Zero Echo Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Ryan E. Breighner; Eric A. Bogner; Susan C. Lee; Matthew F. Koff; Hollis G. Potter

    Background: Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is a common disorder of the hip resulting in groin pain and ultimately osteoarthritis. Radiologic assessment of FAI morphologies, which may present with overlapping radiologic features of hip dysplasia, often requires the use of computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of osseous abnormality, owing to the difficulty of direct visualization of cortical and subchondral bone with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The use of a zero echo time (ZTE) MRI pulse sequence may obviate the need for CT by rendering bone directly from MRI. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to explore the application of ZTE MRI to the assessment of osseous FAI and dysplasia morphologies of the hip. It was hypothesized that angular measurements from ZTE images would show significant agreement with measurements obtained from CT images. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Thirty-eight hips from 23 patients were imaged with ZTE MRI and CT. Clinically relevant angular measurements of hip morphology were made in both modalities and compared to assess agreement. Measurements included coronal and sagittal center-edge angles, femoral neck-shaft angle, acetabular version (at 1-, 2-, and 3-o’clock positions), Tönnis angle, alpha angle, and modified-beta angle. Interrater agreement was assessed for a subset of 10 hips by 2 raters. Intermodal agreement was assessed on the complete cohort and a single rater. Results: Interrater agreement was demonstrated in both CT and ZTE, with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.636 to 0.990 for ZTE and 0.747 to 0.983 for CT, indicating “good” to “excellent” agreement. Intermodal agreement was also shown to be significant, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.618 to 0.904. Conclusion: Significant agreement of angular measurements for hip morphology exists between ZTE MRI and CT imaging. ZTE MRI may be an effective method to quantitatively evaluate osseous hip morphology.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Video Analysis of Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby: Insights Into the Dislocating Mechanisms
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Connor Montgomery; David E. O’Briain; Eoghan T. Hurley; Leo Pauzenberger; Hannan Mullett; Cathal J. Moran

    Background: Mechanisms previously described for traumatic shoulder injuries in rugby may not adequately describe all the mechanisms that result in shoulder dislocations. Purpose: To investigate the mechanism of shoulder dislocation events in professional rugby players through use of systematic video analysis. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: In our series, 39 cases of shoulder dislocations from games played in top professional leagues and international matches across a 2-year period were available for video analysis. All cases were independently assessed by 2 analysts to identify the sequence of events occurring during shoulder dislocation. This included injury circumstance such as contact with another player or the ground, game scenario, injury timing, and the movements and force vectors involved in the dislocation mechanism. Results: We identified 4 distinct injury mechanisms. The previously described mechanisms “try scorer,”“tackler,” and “direct impact” were identified in 67% of cases. We describe a new injury mechanism occurring in the “poach position,” accounting for 18% of all shoulder dislocations studied. The remaining 15% could not be categorized. Shoulder dislocations occurred to a ball carrier in 15% of cases (n = 6) and a non–ball carrier in 85% of cases (n = 33). The injury most commonly occurred during a tackle (49%; n = 19) followed by ruck/maul (26%; n = 10). Time of injury showed that 36% (n = 14) of cases occurred in the last quarter of the game. Conclusion: Shoulder dislocations have now been shown to occur predominantly as a result of 1 of 4 distinct mechanisms, most frequently in the second half of the game. A new mechanism for shoulder dislocation has been described in this series, termed the poach position.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear by Itself Does Not Cause Shoulder Pain or Muscle Weakness in Baseball Players
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Teruhisa Mihata; Rei Morikura; Akihiko Hasegawa; Kunimoto Fukunishi; Takeshi Kawakami; Yukitaka Fujisawa; Mutsumi Ohue; Masashi Neo

    Background: Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears are common shoulder injuries in baseball players. For some tears, the symptoms can be relieved through physical therapy or debridement without rotator cuff repair. Purpose: To assess whether partial-thickness rotator cuff tear by itself causes shoulder pain and muscle weakness in baseball players. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We studied 87 university baseball players (age, 19.5 ± 0.8 years; baseball career, 11.5 ± 1.6 years). All data were obtained during a full-participation annual medical check in 1 team. Rotator cuff tendons were examined ultrasonographically and allocated to 4 groups: (1) no tear, (2) supraspinatus tendon tear, (3) infraspinatus tendon tear, and (4) both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon tears. Current shoulder pain and shoulder muscle strength (dominant/nondominant) in abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation were compared by using chi-square and t tests. All players could play baseball with or without shoulder pain in this study. Results: Of the 87 players, 41 (47%) had articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears diagnosed on ultrasonography; the remaining 46 athletes were tear-free. Of the 41 affected patients, 19 had tears in the supraspinatus, 13 in the infraspinatus, and 9 in both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons. Tear depth (mean ± SD) was 4.6 ± 2.3 mm in the supraspinatus and 6.2 ± 3.6 mm in the infraspinatus. Neither the rate of shoulder pain nor muscle strength differed significantly among the 4 groups (P = .96 and P = .15-.70, respectively). Conclusion: Articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear—by itself—did not cause shoulder pain and muscle weakness in university baseball players. Most so-called articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears may not be pathologic tendon tears.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • All-Suture Anchor Settling After Arthroscopic Repair of Small and Medium Rotator Cuff Tears
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Kyunghan Ro; Sung-Min Rhee; Jung Youn Kim; Myung Seo Kim; Jong Dae Kim; Hojin Lee; Yong Girl Rhee

    Background: All-suture anchors are increasingly being used in rotator cuff repair. However, there are debates on the micromotion of all-suture anchors. Purpose: To perform rotator cuff repair on patients with rotator cuff tears and different shoulder bone mineral densities (BMDs) and investigate (1) where the anchor is located under the cortex, (2) if there is any anchor migration settling during follow-up, and (3) if structural outcome differs according to shoulder BMD. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We retrospectively investigated 88 patients who underwent arthroscopic single-row repair for small- to medium-sized rotator cuff tears (age [mean ± SD], 58.8 ± 7.1 years) from 712 cases of rotator cuff tendon repair between November 2015 and February 2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: use of an all-suture anchor; preoperative shoulder BMD; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted preoperatively, 2 days after surgery, and 10 months after surgery. Patients were excluded from the study if they underwent open rotator cuff repair (n = 118), got surgery with a double-row technique (n = 178), underwent surgery with anchors other than the all-suture type (n = 273), received anchor insertion in sites other than the greater tuberosity owing to concomitant procedures such as biceps tenodesis and subscapularis repair (n = 29), did not take preoperative shoulder BMD (n = 15), had more than a large-size tear (n = 6), and were lost to follow-up (n = 5). After compression of the all-suture anchor during surgery, the strands were pulled multiple times to ensure that the anchor was fixed onto the bone with appropriate tension. BMD was measured before surgery. Depth to anchor (DA), anchor settling, and repaired rotator cuff integrity were measured with MRI. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: group A (BMD, <0.4 g/cm2; n = 31), group B (BMD, 0.4-0.6 g/cm2; n = 32), and group C (BMD, >0.6 g/cm2; n = 25). A total of 65 patients had follow-up MRI. On the basis of rotator cuff tendon integrity, patients were categorized into either a sufficient thickness group (group S, Sugaya classification grade II or lower; n = 44) or an insufficient thickness group (group I, Sugaya classification grade III or higher; n = 21). Results: On time-zero MRI, the DA differed significantly among groups (group A, 3.62 ± 2.02 mm; group B, 5.18 ± 2.13 mm; group C, 6.30 ± 3.34 mm) (P = .001). The DA was deeper in patients with a higher BMD at time zero (r = 0.374; P = .001), but the DA did not differ at follow-up MRI (mean, 10.3 months after surgery). On follow-up MRI, anchor settling tended to increase with deeper time-zero DA (r = 0.769; P < .001). Anchor settling was significantly different among groups (group A, 1.33 ± 1.08 mm; group B, 2.78 ± 1.99 mm; group C, 3.81 ± 2.19 mm) (P = .001). The proportion of patients with sufficient thickness in each group did not show a statistical difference (group A, 70.8%; group B, 72.7%; group C, 57.9%) (P = .550). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study confirmed that the postoperative site of anchor insertion in arthroscopic single-row rotator cuff repair with all-suture anchors was located farther from the cortex in patients with higher shoulder BMD and closer to the subcortical bone in patients with lower BMD. On follow-up MRI, no further settling occurred past a certain distance from the cortex, and there was no significant difference in anchor depth or integrity of the rotator cuff tendon based on shoulder BMD. Therefore, minimal settling in the all-suture anchor did not show clinical significance.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Anatomic and Biomechanical Evaluation of Ulnar Tunnel Position in Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Pascual H. Dutton; Michael B. Banffy; Trevor J. Nelson; Melodie F. Metzger

    Background: Although numerous techniques of reconstruction of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (mUCL) have been described, limited evidence exists on the biomechanical implication of changing the ulnar tunnel position despite the fact that more recent literature has clarified that the ulnar footprint extends more distally than was appreciated in the past. Purpose: To evaluate the size and location of the native ulnar footprint and assess valgus stability of the medial elbow after UCL reconstruction at 3 ulnar tunnel locations. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows were dissected to expose the mUCL. The anatomic footprint of the ulnar attachment of the mUCL was measured with a digitizing probe. The area of the ulnar footprint and midpoint relative to the joint line were determined. Medial elbow stability was tested with the mUCL in an intact, deficient, and reconstructed state after the docking technique, with ulnar tunnels placed at 5, 10, or 15 mm from the ulnotrochlear joint line. A 3-N·m valgus torque was applied to the elbow, and valgus rotation of the ulna was recorded via motion-tracking cameras as the elbow was cycled through a full range of motion. After kinematic testing, specimens were loaded to failure at 70° of elbow flexion. Results: The mean ± SD length of the mUCL ulnar footprint was 27.4 ± 3.3 mm. The midpoint of the anatomic footprint was located between the 10- and 15-mm tunnels across all specimens at a mean 13.6 mm from the joint line. Sectioning of the mUCL increased elbow valgus rotation throughout all flexion angles and was statistically significant from 30° to 100° of flexion as compared with the intact elbow (P < .05). mUCL reconstruction at all 3 tunnel locations restored stability to near intact levels with no significant differences among the 3 ulnar tunnel locations at any flexion angle. Conclusion: Positioning the ulnar graft fixation site up to 15 mm from the ulnotrochlear joint line does not significantly increase valgus rotation in the elbow. Clinical Relevance: A more distal ulnar tunnel may be a viable option to accommodate individual variation in morphology of the proximal ulna or in a revision setting.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Do American Youth Football Players Intentionally Use Their Heads for High-Magnitude Impacts?
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Jaclyn Alois; Srinidhi Bellamkonda; Eamon T. Campolettano; Ryan A. Gellner; Amaris Genemaras; Jonathan G. Beckwith; Richard M. Greenwald; Eric Smith; Steven Rowson; Stefan M. Duma; Joseph J. Crisco

    Background: Concern for head injuries is widespread and has been reported by the media to be the number one cause of decreased participation in football among the American youth population. Identifying player mechanisms associated with intentional, or purposeful, head impacts should provide critical data for rule modifications, educational programs, and equipment design. Purpose: To investigate the frequency of intentional and unintentional head impacts and to examine the player mechanisms associated with intentional high-magnitude head impacts by comparing the impact mechanism distributions among session type, player position, and ball possession. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Head impact sensors and video footage of 68 players were used to analyze and classify 1319 high-magnitude impacts recorded over 1 season of youth football. Results: In total, 80% of the high-magnitude head impacts were classified as being caused by intentional use of the head. Head-to-head impact was the primary impact mechanism (n = 868; 82.7%) within the 1050 intentional high-magnitude impacts, with classifiable mechanisms, followed by head-to-body (n = 139; 13.2%), head-to-ground (n = 34; 3.2%), and head-to-equipment (n = 9; 0.9%). Head-to-head impacts also accounted for a greater proportion of impacts during practices (n = 625; 88.9%) than games, for linemen (n = 585; 90.3%) than perimeters and backs, and for ball carriers (n = 72; 79.1%) than tacklers. Conclusion: Overall, the majority of high-magnitude head impacts were intentional and resulted from head-to-head contact. The proportion of head-to-head contact was significantly higher for practices than games, linemen than backs and perimeter players, and ball carriers than tacklers.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Use of the Progressive Return to Activity Guidelines May Expedite Symptom Resolution After Concussion for Active Duty Military
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Jason M. Bailie; Rosemay A. Remigio-Baker; Wesley R. Cole; Karen L. McCulloch; Mark L. Ettenhofer; Therese West; Angelica Ahrens; CDR Paul Sargent; Amy Cecchini; Saafan Malik; CDR Lynita Mullins; Keith Stuessi; Felicia M. Qashu; Emma Gregory

    Background: Clinical recommendations for concussion management encourage reduced cognitive and physical activities immediately after injury, with graded increases in activity as symptoms resolve. Empirical support for the effectiveness of such recommendations is needed. Purpose: To examine whether training medical providers on the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center’s Progressive Return to Activity Clinical Recommendation (PRA-CR) for acute concussion improves patient outcomes. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: This study was conducted from 2016 to 2018 and compared patient outcomes before and after medical providers received an educational intervention (ie, provider training). Patients, recruited either before or after intervention, were assessed at ≤72 hours, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after a concussion. The participant population included 38 military medical providers and 106 military servicemembers with a diagnosed concussion and treated by one of the military medical providers: 58 patient participants received care before the intervention (ie, provider training) and 48 received care after intervention. The primary outcome measure was the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory. Results: The patients seen before and after the intervention were predominantly male (89.7% and 93.8%, respectively) of military age (mean ± SD, 26.62 ± 6.29 years and 25.08 ± 6.85 years, respectively) and a mean ± SD of 1.92 ± 0.88 days from injury. Compared with patients receiving care before intervention, patients receiving care after intervention had smaller increases in physical activities (difference in mean change; 95% CI, 0.39 to 6.79) and vestibular/balance activities (95% CI, 0.79 to 7.5) during the first week of recovery. Although groups did not differ in symptoms at ≤72 hours of injury (d = 0.22; 95% CI, –2.21 to 8.07), the postintervention group reported fewer symptoms at 1 week (d = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52 to 10.92). Postintervention patients who completed the 6-month study had improved recovery both at 1 month (d = 1.55; 95% CI, 5.33 to 15.39) and 3 months after injury (d = 1.10; 95% CI, 2.36 to 11.55), but not at 6 months (d = 0.35; 95% CI, 5.34 to 7.59). Conclusion: Training medical providers on the PRA-CR for management of concussion resulted in expedited recovery of patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Effect of Sport-Related Concussion Injuries on Concussion Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life in Male and Female Adolescent Athletes: A Prospective Study
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Timothy A. McGuine; Adam Pfaller; Stephanie Kliethermes; Allison Schwarz; Scott Hetzel; Erin Hammer; Steven Broglio

    Background: Sport-related concussions (SRCs) are associated with short-term disablement, characterized as increased concussion symptoms and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, there are limited longitudinal data detailing how an SRC affects disablement beyond short-term injury recovery. Purpose: To longitudinally assess the effect of SRCs on symptoms and HRQoL in high school athletes through the 12 months after injury. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: The 125 participants included high school athletes who sustained an SRC (female patients, 36%; mean ± SD age, 15.9 ± 1.1 years). The Post-concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) from the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool–3 and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL) were completed at enrollment and repeated at 24 to 72 hours (onset) and at 7 days (D7) after the SRC; on the date of return to play (RTP); and at 3, 6, and 12 months (M12) after the SRC. Scores at each time point were compared with the athletes’ own baseline via linear mixed models for repeated measures, controlling for age, sex, and history of previous SRC and with patient as a random effect. Results: Relative to baseline, female patients reported higher PCSS symptom and severity scores at onset (P < .001) and D7 (P < .001), while scores were not higher (P > .05) for RTP through M12. As compared with baseline, male patients reported higher PCSS scores at onset (P < .001) and D7 (P = .003) and severity scores at onset (P < .001) and D7 (P = .016), while the symptom and severity scores were not higher (P > .05) at RTP through M12. Female participants reported lower PedsQL physical scores at onset (P = .006), while scores were not lower (P > .05) from D7 through M12. Female psychosocial scores were not lower (P > .05) at any time after the SRC, while the total PedsQL score was lower at onset (P = .05) but not from D7 through M12. Male physical scores were lower at onset (P < .001) and D7 (P = .001) but not lower (P > .05) from RTP through M12. Male psychosocial and PedsQL scores were unchanged (P > .05) from baseline at onset through M12. Conclusion: After an SRC, high school athletes reported initial disablement (increased symptoms and lower HRQoL) through their RTP. However, after RTP, no similar disablement was detected through 12 months after injury.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Native-Osteoarthritic Joint Resident Stem and Progenitor Cells for Cartilage Cell-Based Therapies: A Quantitative Comparison With Respect to Concentration and Biological Performance
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Venkata P. Mantripragada; Wes A. Bova; Nicolas S. Piuzzi; Cynthia Boehm; Nancy A. Obuchowski; Ronald J. Midura; George F. Muschler

    Background: Cell-based therapy for cartilage repair is a promising approach and is becoming an established technique. Yet, there is no consensus on the optimal cell source. Purpose: To provide a donor-matched quantitative comparison of the connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) derived from cartilage (Outerbridge grade 1-3 [G1-2-3]), bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMC), infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP), synovium, and periosteum with respect to (1) cell concentration ([Cell], cells/mL), (2) CTP prevalence (PCTP, colonies per million cells), and (3) biological performance based on in vitro proliferation potential (cells per colony) colony density, and differentiation potential (expression of negatively charged extracellular matrix: glycosaminoglycan-rich extra cellular matrix [GAG-ECM]). Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Tissues were obtained from 10 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (mean age, 59 years; women, n = 6). Automated quantitative colony-forming unit analysis was used to compare [Cell], PCTP, and CTP biological performance across tissue sources. Results: [Cell] was highest in grade 3 cartilage (P = .002) and BMC (P = .001). Median PCTP was highest in IPFP (P = .001), synovium (P = .003), and G1-2 cartilage (P = .02). Proliferation was highest in synovium-derived CTPs (P < .001). Median colony density was highest in G1-2-3 (P < .001). Median GAG-ECM was highest in G1-2-3 (P < .001). Within each patient, CTPs derived from all tissues were highly heterogeneous in biological performance as determined by cells per colony, density, and GAG-ECM. Conclusion: Tissue sources differ in [Cell], PCTP, and biological attributes. The data presented in this study suggest that cartilage (G1-2-3) is the preferred tissue source for cartilage repair based on PCTP and GAG-ECM, followed by synovium, IPFP, BMC, and periosteum. However, due to the heterogeneous mixture of CTPs within each tissue source, there exists a subset of CTPs with biological performance similar to G1-2-3 cartilage, particularly in synovium and IPFP. Performance-based clonal selection and expansion of preferred CTPs and their progeny will potentially lead to improved cell population with predictive future. Clinical Relevance: Optimal tissue regeneration strategies will require informed decisions regarding which of the available tissue sources to use. Optimizing cell sourcing in any tissue may require separation of CTPs with preferred attributes from those with less desirable attributes. The heterogeneity manifest in the early stage of colony formation represents an opportunity for performance-based clone selection for clinical cell processing and manufacturing.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Outcomes for Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Versus Bone–Patellar Tendon–Bone and Hamstring-Tendon Autografts
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-02-21
    Dany Mouarbes; Jacques Menetrey; Vincent Marot; Louis Courtot; Emilie Berard; Etienne Cavaignac

    Background: Comprehensive studies evaluating quadriceps tendon (QT) autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are lacking. The optimal choice of graft between bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB), hamstring tendon (HT), and QT is still debatable. Hypothesis: The current literature supports the use of QT as a strong autograft with good outcomes when used in ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Ovid databases to identify published articles on clinical studies relevant to ACL reconstruction with QT autograft and studies comparing QT autograft versus BPTB and HT autografts. The results of the eligible studies were analyzed in terms of instrumented laxity measurements, Lachman test, pivot-shift test, Lysholm score, objective and subjective International Knee Documentation committee (IKDC) scores, donor-site pain, and graft failure. Results: Twenty-seven clinical studies including 2856 patients with ACL reconstruction met the inclusion criteria. Comparison of 581 QT versus 514 BPTB autografts showed no significant differences in terms of instrumented mean side-to-side difference (P = .45), Lachman test (P = .76), pivot-shift test grade 0 (P = .23), pivot-shift test grade 0 or 1 (P = .85), mean Lysholm score (P = .1), mean subjective IKDC score (P = .36), or graft failure (P = .50). However, outcomes in favor of QT were found in terms of less donor-site pain (risk ratio for QT vs BPTB groups, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.18-0.36; P < .00001). Comparison of 181 QT versus 176 HT autografts showed no significant differences in terms of instrumented mean side-to-side difference (P = .75), Lachman test (P = .41), pivot-shift test grade 0 (P = .53), Lysholm score less than 84 (P = .53), mean subjective IKDC score (P = .13), donor-site pain (P = .40), or graft failure (P = .46). However, outcomes in favor of QT were found in terms of mean Lysholm score (mean difference between QT and HT groups, 3.81; 95% CI, 0.45-7.17; P = .03). Conclusion: QT autograft had comparable clinical and functional outcomes and graft survival rate compared with BPTB and HT autografts. However, QT autograft showed significantly less harvest site pain compared with BPTB autograft and better functional outcome scores compared with HT autograft.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Midshaft Clavicle Fractures: Surgery Provides Better Results as Compared With Nonoperative Treatment: A Meta-analysis
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-03-05
    Enrico Guerra; Davide Previtali; Simone Tamborini; Giuseppe Filardo; Stefano Zaffagnini; Christian Candrian

    Background: There is no agreement on the best treatment for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures (MCFs), which are currently addressed by nonoperative or surgical approaches. Purpose: To compare fracture healing and functional outcome after surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of MCFs, to help specialists in deciding between these different strategies by providing a synthesis of the best literature evidence. Study Design: Meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic research of the literature was performed in different online databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and grey literature. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used. The risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration’s “risk of bias” tool, and the quality of evidence was graded according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Randomized controlled trials investigating differences between surgery and nonoperative treatment for displaced MCFs were included. The primary outcome was the nonunion rate. Other outcomes analyzed were time to union and to return to activities, Constant score, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) index. Patients’ satisfaction, secondary operations, and complications were also recorded. Results: Out of 832 records found, 14 randomized controlled trials with 1546 patients were included. A significantly lower risk ratio was found for nonunion (10%; 95% CI, 6%-18%, P < .001) favoring surgery. Time to union was 5.1 weeks shorter with surgery (P = .007). The complication rate (including the number of reinterventions) was higher in the surgical group (31.3% vs 20.5%, P < .001). Shoulder function at short-term follow-up was significantly better in the surgical group (DASH index mean difference = 4.0 points), while no statistical difference was found in the Constant score and in the DASH index at midterm follow-up (P = .41 and .80, respectively). At long-term follow-up, both shoulder functional scores were significantly better in the surgery group: the overall Constant score mean difference was 5.3 points (95% CI, 2.3-8.4 points; P < .001), and the DASH index mean difference was 4.3 points (95% CI, 0.2-8.4 points; P = .04). Conclusion: Surgical treatment of MCFs significantly reduces the nonunion rate and shortens the time to union as compared with the nonoperative approach and, despite a slightly higher incidence of complications, leads to better shoulder functional scores at short- and long-term follow-up. Further studies should address the clinical significance of the documented improvement.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Efficacy of Pharmacological Therapies for Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    Dimitrios Kitridis; Konstantinos Tsikopoulos; Ilias Bisbinas; Paraskevi Papaioannidou; Panagiotis Givissis

    Background: Several pharmacological interventions are used for the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, although the optimal treatment has yet to be defined. Purpose: To conduct a network meta-analysis to compare the effects of different pharmacological interventions for adhesive capsulitis, administered either alone or after distension of the shoulder capsule. Study Design: Network meta-analysis. Methods: The authors searched Scopus, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to April 22, 2018, for completed studies. They enrolled trials that assessed the results of different pharmacological treatments for the primary management of adhesive capsulitis. The primary outcome was pain relief as measured by self-administered questionnaires. The secondary outcome included the assessment of composite instruments that evaluated, at a minimum, pain and function. The authors clinically interpreted the results after back-transforming the standardized mean differences into mean differences in simple instruments and assessed the quality of the source studies using the Cochrane “risk of bias” tool. Results: The authors considered 30 trials with a total of 2010 participants in this systematic review. For pain relief, there was a significant difference in favor of intra-articular corticosteroids and distension of the shoulder capsule with steroids as compared with control in the short term (mean difference in visual analog scale (VAS): –1.4 [95% CI, −2.5 to −0.4] and −1.7 [95% CI, −3.2 to −0.1], respectively). Furthermore, rotator-interval injections were found to be superior to placebo (mean difference in VAS: –7.2; 95% CI, −10.1 to −4.4), although the intervention was considered in only 1 trial. Finally, there was a statistically significant difference in favor of multiple-site corticosteroid injections compared to placebo in both the short- (mean difference in Shoulder Pain and Disability Index [SPADI]: −86.7; 95% CI, −133.6 to −40) and intermediate-term assessment (mean difference in SPADI: −102.9; 95% CI, −163.9 to −41.8). Conclusion: Intra-articular corticosteroid intervention, administered either alone or after distension of the shoulder capsule, provided clinically meaningful improvements in the short term. Likewise, rotator-interval corticosteroid injections yielded promising results in terms of pain relief. However, these short-term benefits of steroids dissipated over time. Multiple-site corticosteroid injections showed clinical advantage over placebo for short- and intermediate-term composite outcome assessments.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The Critical Reader—Confounding
    Am. J. Sports Med. (IF 6.093) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    James L. Carey

    Imagine that you have recently been offered 2 jobs. The actual jobs seem to be nearly identical. However, 1 job is in Florida, and 1 job is in Utah. Both jobs require a substantial move to an unfamiliar area. You begin to investigate these regions. You wish for your family to be safe and healthy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
2020新春特辑
限时免费阅读临床医学内容
ACS材料视界
科学报告最新纳米科学与技术研究
清华大学化学系段昊泓
自然科研论文编辑服务
中国科学院大学楚甲祥
上海纽约大学William Glover
中国科学院化学研究所
课题组网站
X-MOL
北京大学分子工程苏南研究院
华东师范大学分子机器及功能材料
中山大学化学工程与技术学院
试剂库存
天合科研
down
wechat
bug