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  • An update on the CNS manifestations of brain tumor polyposis syndromes
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Byungjin Kim, Uri Tabori, Cynthia Hawkins

    Abstract Cancer predisposition syndromes are associated with an increased risk of developing primary malignancies. Here we discuss those which are associated with an increased risk of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These can be grouped into those in which the CNS tumors predominate versus those in which the GI cancers predominate. The former include constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), and Cowden syndrome (CS) while the latter include familial adenomatosis polyposis 1 (FAP1), Lynch syndrome and polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis syndrome (PPAP). Tumor specificity does exist as medulloblastoma occur in FAP, LFS and CMMRD while glioma are most commonly seen in all replication repair-deficient genes and LFS. Choroid plexus carcinoma is strictly observed in LFS while Cowden syndrome patients develop Lhermitte Duclos disease or meningioma. In each syndrome, specific types of low-grade and high-grade gastrointestinal cancers can occur, but these will be discussed elsewhere. Underlying cancer predisposition syndromes are important to consider when faced with brain tumors, particularly in the pediatric and young adult age groups, as identification of an underlying germ line mutation may change the upfront management of the patient and has implications for future cancer surveillance for both the patient and potentially affected family members. Considerations of family history, presence of skin lesions and consanguinity provide valuable information in identifying patients at potential increased risk.

  • Correction to: A nonsynonymous mutation in PLCG2 reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, and increases the likelihood of longevity
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Sven J. van der Lee, Olivia J. Conway, Iris Jansen, Minerva M. Carrasquillo, Luca Kleineidam, Erik van den Akker, Isabel Hernández, Kristel R. van Eijk, Najada Stringa, Jason A. Chen, Anna Zettergren, Till F. M. Andlauer, Monica Diez-Fairen, Javier Simon-Sanchez, Alberto Lleó, Henrik Zetterberg, Marianne Nygaard, Cornelis Blauwendraat, Jeanne E. Savage, Jonas Mengel-From, Sonia Moreno-Grau, Michael Wagner, Juan Fortea, Michael J. Keogh, Kaj Blennow, Ingmar Skoog, Manuel A. Friese, Olga Pletnikova, Miren Zulaica, Carmen Lage, Itziar de Rojas, Steffi Riedel-Heller, Ignacio Illán-Gala, Wei Wei, Bernard Jeune, Adelina Orellana, Florian Then Bergh, Xue Wang, Marc Hulsman, Nina Beker, Niccolo Tesi, Christopher M. Morris, Begoña Indakoetxea, Lyduine E. Collij, Martin Scherer, Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez, James W. Ironside, Bart N. M. van Berckel, Daniel Alcolea, Heinz Wiendl, Samantha L. Strickland, Pau Pastor, Eloy Rodríguez Rodríguez, Bradley F. Boeve, Ronald C. Petersen, Tanis J. Ferman, Jay A. van Gerpen, Marcel J. T. Reinders, Ryan J. Uitti, Lluís Tárraga, Wolfgang Maier, Oriol Dols-Icardo, Amit Kawalia, Maria Carolina Dalmasso, Mercè Boada, Uwe K. Zettl, Natasja M. van Schoor, Marian Beekman, Mariet Allen, Eliezer Masliah, Adolfo López de Munain, Alexander Pantelyat, Zbigniew K. Wszolek, Owen A. Ross, Dennis W. Dickson, Neill R. Graff-Radford, David Knopman, Rosa Rademakers, Afina W. Lemstra, Yolande A. L. Pijnenburg, Philip Scheltens, Thomas Gasser, Patrick F Chinnery, Bernhard Hemmer, Martijn A. Huisman, Juan Troncoso, Fermin Moreno, Ellen A. Nohr, Thorkild I. A. Sørensen, Peter Heutink, Pascual Sánchez-Juan, Danielle Posthuma, Jordi Clarimón, Kaare Christensen, Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner, Sonja W. Scholz, Alfredo Ramirez, Agustín Ruiz, Eline Slagboom, Wiesje M. van der Flier, Henne Holstege

    The IPDGC (The International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium) and EADB (Alzheimer Disease European DNA biobank) are listed correctly as an author to the article, however, they were incorrectly listed more than once.

  • Antibody signatures in patients with histopathologically defined multiple sclerosis patterns
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Lidia Stork, David Ellenberger, Klemens Ruprecht, Markus Reindl, Tim Beißbarth, Tim Friede, Tania Kümpfel, Lisa A. Gerdes, Mareike Gloth, Thomas Liman, Friedemann Paul, Wolfgang Brück, Imke Metz

    Abstract Early active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions can be classified histologically into three main immunopathological patterns of demyelination (patterns I–III), which suggest pathogenic heterogeneity and may predict therapy response. Patterns I and II show signs of immune-mediated demyelination, but only pattern II is associated with antibody/complement deposition. In pattern III lesions, which include Baló’s concentric sclerosis, primary oligodendrocyte damage was proposed. Serum antibody reactivities could reflect disease pathogenesis and thus distinguish histopathologically defined MS patterns. We established a customized microarray with more than 700 peptides that represent human and viral antigens potentially relevant for inflammatory demyelinating CNS diseases, and tested sera from 66 patients (pattern I n = 12; II n = 29; III n = 25, including 8 with Baló’s), healthy controls, patients with Sjögren’s syndrome and stroke patients. Cell-based assays were performed for aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP4 antibody detection. No single peptide showed differential binding among study cohorts. Because antibodies can react with different peptides from one protein, we also analyzed groups of peptides. Patients with pattern II showed significantly higher reactivities to Nogo-A peptides as compared to patterns I (p = 0.02) and III (p = 0.02). Pattern III patients showed higher reactivities to AQP1 (compared to pattern I p = 0.002, pattern II p = 0.001) and varicella zoster virus (VZV, compared to pattern II p = 0.05). In patients with Baló’s, AQP1 reactivity was also significantly higher compared to patients without Baló’s (p = 0.04), and the former revealed distinct antibody signatures. Histologically, Baló’s patients showed loss of AQP1 and AQP4 in demyelinating lesions, but no antibodies binding conformational AQP1 or AQP4 were detected. In summary, higher reactivities to Nogo-A peptides in pattern II patients could be relevant for enhanced axonal repair and remyelination. Higher reactivities to AQP1 peptides in pattern III patients and its subgroup of Baló’s patients possibly reflect astrocytic damage. Finally, latent VZV infection may cause peripheral immune activation.

  • Fulminant corticobasal degeneration: a distinct variant with predominant neuronal tau aggregates
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Helen Ling, Ellen Gelpi, Karen Davey, Zane Jaunmuktane, Kin Y. Mok, Edwin Jabbari, Roberto Simone, Lea R’Bibo, Sebastian Brandner, Matthew J. Ellis, Johannes Attems, David Mann, Glenda M. Halliday, S. Al-Sarraj, J. Hedreen, James W. Ironside, Gabor G. Kovacs, E. Kovari, S. Love, Jean Paul G. Vonsattel, Kieren S. J. Allinson, Daniela Hansen, Teisha Bradshaw, Núria Setó-Salvia, Selina Wray, Rohan de Silva, Huw R. Morris, Thomas T. Warner, John Hardy, Janice L. Holton, Tamas Revesz

    Abstract Corticobasal degeneration typically progresses gradually over 5–7 years from onset till death. Fulminant corticobasal degeneration cases with a rapidly progressive course were rarely reported (RP-CBD). This study aimed to investigate their neuropathological characteristics. Of the 124 autopsy-confirmed corticobasal degeneration cases collected from 14 centres, we identified 6 RP-CBD cases (4.8%) who died of advanced disease within 3 years of onset. These RP-CBD cases had different clinical phenotypes including rapid global cognitive decline (N = 2), corticobasal syndrome (N = 2) and Richardson’s syndrome (N = 2). We also studied four corticobasal degeneration cases with an average disease duration of 3 years or less, who died of another unrelated illness (Intermediate-CBD). Finally, we selected 12 age-matched corticobasal degeneration cases out of a cohort of 110, who had a typical gradually progressive course and reached advanced clinical stage (End-stage-CBD). Quantitative analysis showed high overall tau burden (p = 0.2) and severe nigral cell loss (p = 0.47) in both the RP-CBD and End-stage-CBD groups consistent with advanced pathological changes, while the Intermediate-CBD group (mean disease duration = 3 years) had milder changes than End-stage-CBD (p < 0.05). These findings indicated that RP-CBD cases had already developed advanced pathological changes as those observed in End-stage-CBD cases (mean disease duration = 6.7 years), but within a significantly shorter duration (2.5 years; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis was performed to investigate the cellular patterns of tau aggregates in the anterior frontal cortex and caudate by comparing neuronal-to-astrocytic plaque ratios between six RP-CBD cases, four Intermediate-CBD and 12 age-matched End-stage-CBD. Neuronal-to-astrocytic plaque ratios of Intermediate-CBD and End-stage-CBD, but not RP-CBD, positively correlated with disease duration in both the anterior frontal cortex and caudate (p = 0.02). In contrast to the predominance of astrocytic plaques we previously reported in preclinical asymptomatic corticobasal degeneration cases, neuronal tau aggregates predominated in RP-CBD exceeding those in Intermediate-CBD (anterior frontal cortex: p < 0.001, caudate: p = 0.001) and End-stage-CBD (anterior frontal cortex: p = 0.03, caudate: p = 0.01) as demonstrated by its higher neuronal-to-astrocytic plaque ratios in both anterior frontal cortex and caudate. We did not identify any difference in age at onset, any pathogenic tau mutation or concomitant pathologies that could have contributed to the rapid progression of these RP-CBD cases. Mild TDP-43 pathology was observed in three RP-CBD cases. All RP-CBD cases were men. The MAPT H2 haplotype, known to be protective, was identified in one RP-CBD case (17%) and 8 of the matched End-stage-CBD cases (67%). We conclude that RP-CBD is a distinct aggressive variant of corticobasal degeneration with characteristic neuropathological substrates resulting in a fulminant disease process as evident both clinically and pathologically. Biological factors such as genetic modifiers likely play a pivotal role in the RP-CBD variant and should be the subject of future research.

  • Picalm reduction exacerbates tau pathology in a murine tauopathy model
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Kunie Ando, Robert De Decker, Cristina Vergara, Zehra Yilmaz, Salwa Mansour, Valérie Suain, Kristel Sleegers, Marie-Ange de Fisenne, Sarah Houben, Marie-Claude Potier, Charles Duyckaerts, Toshio Watanabe, Luc Buée, Karelle Leroy, Jean-Pierre Brion

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified PICALM as one of the most significant susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) after APOE and BIN1. PICALM is a clathrin-adaptor protein and plays critical roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and in autophagy. PICALM modulates brain amyloid ß (Aß) pathology and tau accumulation. We have previously reported that soluble PICALM protein level is reduced in correlation with abnormalities of autophagy markers in the affected brain areas of neurodegenerative diseases including AD, sporadic tauopathies and familial cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau-immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-tau) with mutations in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. It remains unclarified whether in vivo PICALM reduction could either trigger or influence tau pathology progression in the brain. In this study, we confirmed a significant reduction of soluble PICALM protein and autophagy deficits in the post-mortem human brains of FTLD-tau-MAPT (P301L, S364S and L266V). We generated a novel transgenic mouse line named Tg30xPicalm+/− by crossing Tg30 tau transgenic mice with Picalm-haploinsufficient mice to test whether Picalm reduction may modulate tau pathology. While Picalm haploinsufficiency did not lead to any motor phenotype or detectable tau pathology in mouse brains, Tg30xPicalm+/− mice developed markedly more severe motor deficits than Tg30 by the age of 9 months. Tg30xPicalm+/− had significantly higher pathological tau levels in the brain, an increased density of neurofibrillary tangles compared to Tg30 mice and increased abnormalities of autophagy markers. Our results demonstrate that Picalm haploinsufficiency in transgenic Tg30 mice significantly aggravated tau pathologies and tau-mediated neurodegeneration, supporting a role for changes in Picalm expression as a risk/sensitizing factor for development of tau pathology and as a mechanism underlying the AD risk associated to PICALM.

  • Familial globular glial tauopathy linked to MAPT mutations: molecular neuropathology and seeding capacity of a prototypical mixed neuronal and glial tauopathy
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Isidro Ferrer, Pol Andrés-Benito, Maria Victoria Zelaya, Maria Elena Erro Aguirre, Margarita Carmona, Karina Ausín, Mercedes Lachén-Montes, Joaquín Fernández-Irigoyen, Enrique Santamaría, José Antonio del Rio

    Globular glial tauopathy (GGT) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving the grey matter and white matter (WM) and characterized by neuronal deposition of hyper-phosphorylated, abnormally conformed, truncated, oligomeric 4Rtau in neurons and in glial cells forming typical globular astrocyte and oligodendrocyte inclusions (GAIs and GOIs, respectively) and coiled bodies. Present studies centre on four genetic GGT cases from two unrelated families bearing the P301T mutation in MAPT and one case of sporadic GGT (sGGT) and one case of GGT linked to MAPT K317M mutation, for comparative purposes. Clinical and neuropathological manifestations and biochemical profiles of phospho-tau are subjected to individual variations in patients carrying the same mutation, even in carriers of the same family, independently of the age of onset, gender, and duration of the disease. Immunohistochemistry, western blotting, transcriptomic, proteomics and phosphoproteomics, and intra-cerebral inoculation of brain homogenates to wild-type (WT) mice were the methods employed. In GGT cases linked to MAPT P301T mutation, astrocyte markers GFAP, ALDH1L1, YKL40 mRNA and protein, GJA1 mRNA, and AQ4 protein are significantly increased; glutamate transporter GLT1 (EAAT2) and glucose transporter (SLC2A1) decreased; mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) increased, and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 5 (UCP5) almost absent in GAIs in frontal cortex (FC). Expression of oligodendrocyte markers OLIG1 and OLIG2mRNA, and myelin-related genes MBP, PLP1, CNP, MAG, MAL, MOG, and MOBP are significantly decreased in WM; CNPase, PLP1, and MBP antibodies reveal reduction and disruption of myelinated fibres; and SMI31 antibodies mark axonal damage in the WM. Altered expression of AQ4, GLUC-t, and GLT-1 is also observed in sGGT and in GGT linked to MAPT K317M mutation. These alterations point to primary astrogliopathy and oligodendrogliopathy in GGT. In addition, GGT linked to MAPT P301T mutation proteotypes unveil a proteostatic imbalance due to widespread (phospho)proteomic dearrangement in the FC and WM, triggering a disruption of neuron projection morphogenesis and synaptic transmission. Identification of hyper-phosphorylation of variegated proteins calls into question the concept of phospho-tau-only alteration in the pathogenesis of GGT. Finally, unilateral inoculation of sarkosyl-insoluble fractions of GGT homogenates from GGT linked to MAPT P301T, sGGT, and GGT linked to MAPT K317M mutation in the hippocampus, corpus callosum, or caudate/putamen in wild-type mice produces seeding, and time- and region-dependent spreading of phosphorylated, non-oligomeric, and non-truncated 4Rtau and 3Rtau, without GAIs and GOIs but only of coiled bodies. These experiments prove that host tau strains are important in the modulation of cellular vulnerability and phenotypes of phospho-tau aggregates.

  • POGLUT1 biallelic mutations cause myopathy with reduced satellite cells, α-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation and a distinctive radiological pattern
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    E. Servián-Morilla, M. Cabrera-Serrano, K. Johnson, A. Pandey, A. Ito, E. Rivas, T. Chamova, N. Muelas, T. Mongini, S. Nafissi, K. G. Claeys, R. P. Grewal, M. Takeuchi, H. Hao, C. Bönnemann, O. Lopes Abath Neto, L. Medne, J. Brandsema, A. Töpf, A. Taneva, J. J. Vilchez, I. Tournev, R. S. Haltiwanger, H. Takeuchi, H. Jafar-Nejad, V. Straub, Carmen Paradas

    Abstract Protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1) activity is critical for the Notch signaling pathway, being one of the main enzymes responsible for the glycosylation of the extracellular domain of Notch receptors. A biallelic mutation in the POGLUT1 gene has been reported in one family as the cause of an adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD R21; OMIM# 617232). As the result of a collaborative international effort, we have identified the first cohort of 15 patients with LGMD R21, from nine unrelated families coming from different countries, providing a reliable phenotype–genotype and mechanistic insight. Patients carrying novel mutations in POGLUT1 all displayed a clinical picture of limb-girdle muscle weakness. However, the age at onset was broadened from adult to congenital and infantile onset. Moreover, we now report that the unique muscle imaging pattern of “inside-to-outside” fatty degeneration observed in the original cases is indeed a defining feature of POGLUT1 muscular dystrophy. Experiments on muscle biopsies from patients revealed a remarkable and consistent decrease in the level of the NOTCH1 intracellular domain, reduction of the pool of satellite cells (SC), and evidence of α-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation. In vitro biochemical and cell-based assays suggested a pathogenic role of the novel POGLUT1 mutations, leading to reduced enzymatic activity and/or protein stability. The association between the POGLUT1 variants and the muscular phenotype was established by in vivo experiments analyzing the indirect flight muscle development in transgenic Drosophila, showing that the human POGLUT1 mutations reduced its myogenic activity. In line with the well-known role of the Notch pathway in the homeostasis of SC and muscle regeneration, SC-derived myoblasts from patients’ muscle samples showed decreased proliferation and facilitated differentiation. Together, these observations suggest that alterations in SC biology caused by reduced Notch1 signaling result in muscular dystrophy in LGMD R21 patients, likely with additional contribution from α-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation. This study settles the muscular clinical phenotype linked to POGLUT1 mutations and establishes the pathogenic mechanism underlying this muscle disorder. The description of a specific imaging pattern of fatty degeneration and muscle pathology with a decrease of α-dystroglycan glycosylation provides excellent tools which will help diagnose and follow up LGMD R21 patients.

  • Correction to: Risk-adapted therapy and biological heterogeneity in pineoblastoma: integrated clinico-pathological analysis from the prospective, multi-center SJMB03 and SJYC07 trials
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Anthony P. Y. Liu, Brian Gudenas, Tong Lin, Brent A. Orr, Paul Klimo, Rahul Kumar, Eric Bouffet, Sridharan Gururangan, John R. Crawford, Stewart J. Kellie, Murali Chintagumpala, Michael J. Fisher, Daniel C. Bowers, Tim Hassall, Daniel J. Indelicato, Arzu Onar-Thomas, David W. Ellison, Frederick A. Boop, Thomas E. Merchant, Giles W. Robinson, Paul A. Northcott, Amar Gajjar

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a typesetting error in Fig 3c. The corrected Fig. 3 is given in the following page.

  • PrP is a central player in toxicity mediated by soluble aggregates of neurodegeneration-causing proteins
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Grant T. Corbett, Zemin Wang, Wei Hong, Marti Colom-Cadena, Jamie Rose, Meichen Liao, Adhana Asfaw, Tia C. Hall, Lai Ding, Alexandra DeSousa, Matthew P. Frosch, John Collinge, David A. Harris, Michael S. Perkinton, Tara L. Spires-Jones, Tracy L. Young-Pearse, Andrew Billinton, Dominic M. Walsh

    Neurodegenerative diseases are an enormous public health problem, affecting tens of millions of people worldwide. Nearly all of these diseases are characterized by oligomerization and fibrillization of neuronal proteins, and there is great interest in therapeutic targeting of these aggregates. Here, we show that soluble aggregates of α-synuclein and tau bind to plate-immobilized PrP in vitro and on mouse cortical neurons, and that this binding requires at least one of the same N-terminal sites at which soluble Aβ aggregates bind. Moreover, soluble aggregates of tau, α-synuclein and Aβ cause both functional (impairment of LTP) and structural (neuritic dystrophy) compromise and these deficits are absent when PrP is ablated, knocked-down, or when neurons are pre-treated with anti-PrP blocking antibodies. Using an all-human experimental paradigm involving: (1) isogenic iPSC-derived neurons expressing or lacking PRNP, and (2) aqueous extracts from brains of individuals who died with Alzheimer’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Pick’s disease, we demonstrate that Aβ, α-synuclein and tau are toxic to neurons in a manner that requires PrPC. These results indicate that PrP is likely to play an important role in a variety of late-life neurodegenerative diseases and that therapeutic targeting of PrP, rather than individual disease proteins, may have more benefit for conditions which involve the aggregation of more than one protein.

  • Macrophage-tumor cell interaction promotes ATRT progression and chemoresistance
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Viktoria Melcher, Monika Graf, Marta Interlandi, Natalia Moreno, Flavia W. de Faria, Su Na Kim, Dennis Kastrati, Sonja Korbanka, Amelie Alfert, Joachim Gerß, Gerd Meyer zu Hörste, Wolfgang Hartmann, Michael C. Frühwald, Martin Dugas, Ulrich Schüller, Martin Hasselblatt, Thomas K. Albert, Kornelius Kerl

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are known for their heterogeneity concerning pathophysiology and outcome. However, predictive factors within distinct subgroups still need to be uncovered. Using multiplex immunofluorescent staining and single-cell RNA sequencing we unraveled distinct compositions of the immunological tumor microenvironment (TME) across ATRT subgroups. CD68+ cells predominantly infiltrate ATRT-SHH and ATRT-MYC and are a negative prognostic factor for patients’ survival. Within the murine ATRT-MYC and ATRT-SHH TME, Cd68+ macrophages are core to intercellular communication with tumor cells. In ATRT-MYC distinct tumor cell phenotypes express macrophage marker genes. These cells are involved in the acquisition of chemotherapy resistance in our relapse xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, the tumor cell-macrophage interaction contributes to ATRT-MYC heterogeneity and potentially to tumor recurrence.

  • Overlapping genetic architecture between Parkinson disease and melanoma
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Umber Dube, Laura Ibanez, John P. Budde, Bruno A. Benitez, Albert A. Davis, Oscar Harari, Mark M. Iles, Matthew H. Law, Kevin M. Brown, 23andMe Research Team, Melanoma-Meta-analysis Consortium, Carlos Cruchaga

    Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding an association between Parkinson disease (PD) and cutaneous melanoma (melanoma). Identifying shared genetic architecture between these diseases can support epidemiologic findings and identify common risk genes and biological pathways. Here, we apply polygenic, linkage disequilibrium-informed methods to the largest available case–control, genome-wide association study summary statistic data for melanoma and PD. We identify positive and significant genetic correlation (correlation: 0.17, 95% CI 0.10–0.24; P = 4.09 × 10−06) between melanoma and PD. We further demonstrate melanoma and PD-inferred gene expression to overlap across tissues (correlation: 0.14, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.22; P = 7.87 × 10−04) and highlight seven genes including PIEZO1, TRAPPC2L, and SOX6 as potential mediators of the genetic correlation between melanoma and PD. These findings demonstrate specific, shared genetic architecture between PD and melanoma that manifests at the level of gene expression.

  • Human subiculo-fornico-mamillary system in Alzheimer’s disease: Tau seeding by the pillar of the fornix
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Manon Thierry, Susana Boluda, Benoît Delatour, Serge Marty, Danielle Seilhean, Brainbank Neuro-CEB Neuropathology Network, Marie-Claude Potier, Charles Duyckaerts

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Tau and Aβ aggregates involve sequentially connected regions, sometimes distantly separated. These alterations were studied in the pillar of the fornix (PoF), an axonal tract, to analyse the role of axons in their propagation. The PoF axons mainly originate from the subicular neurons and project to the mamillary body. Forty-seven post-mortem cases at various Braak stages (Tau) and Thal phases (Aβ) were analysed by immunohistochemistry. The distribution of the lesions showed that the subiculum was affected before the mamillary body, but neither Tau aggregation nor Aβ deposition was consistently first. The subiculum and the mamillary body contained Gallyas positive neurofibrillary tangles, immunolabelled by AT8, TG3, PHF1, Alz50 and C3 Tau antibodies. In the PoF, only thin and fragmented threads were observed, exclusively in the cases with neurofibrillary tangles in the subiculum. The threads were made of Gallyas negative, AT8 and TG3 positive Tau. They were intra-axonal and devoid of paired helical filaments at electron microscopy. We tested PoF homogenates containing Tau AT8 positive axons in a Tau P301S biosensor HEK cell line and found a seeding activity. There was no Aβ immunoreactivity detected in the PoF. We could follow microcryodissected AT8 positive axons entering the mamillary body; contacts between Tau positive endings and Aβ positive diffuse or focal deposits were observed in CLARITY-cleared mamillary body. In conclusion, we show that non-fibrillary, hyperphosphorylated Tau is transported by the axons of the PoF from the subiculum to the mamillary body and has a seeding activity. Either Tau aggregation or Aβ accumulation may occur first in this system: this inconstant order is incompatible with a cause-and-effects relationship. However, both pathologies were correlated and intimately associated, indicating an interaction of the two processes, once initiated.

  • Loss of UGP2 in brain leads to a severe epileptic encephalopathy, emphasizing that bi-allelic isoform-specific start-loss mutations of essential genes can cause genetic diseases
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Elena Perenthaler, Anita Nikoncuk, Soheil Yousefi, Woutje M. Berdowski, Maysoon Alsagob, Ivan Capo, Herma C. van der Linde, Paul van den Berg, Edwin H. Jacobs, Darija Putar, Mehrnaz Ghazvini, Eleonora Aronica, Wilfred F. J. van IJcken, Walter G. de Valk, Evita Medici-van den Herik, Marjon van Slegtenhorst, Lauren Brick, Mariya Kozenko, Jennefer N. Kohler, Jonathan A. Bernstein, Kristin G. Monaghan, Amber Begtrup, Rebecca Torene, Amna Al Futaisi, Fathiya Al Murshedi, Renjith Mani, Faisal Al Azri, Erik-Jan Kamsteeg, Majid Mojarrad, Atieh Eslahi, Zaynab Khazaei, Fateme Massinaei Darmiyan, Mohammad Doosti, Ehsan Ghayoor Karimiani, Jana Vandrovcova, Faisal Zafar, Nuzhat Rana, Krishna K. Kandaswamy, Jozef Hertecant, Peter Bauer, Mohammed A. AlMuhaizea, Mustafa A. Salih, Mazhor Aldosary, Rawan Almass, Laila Al-Quait, Wafa Qubbaj, Serdar Coskun, Khaled O. Alahmadi, Muddathir H. A. Hamad, Salem Alwadaee, Khalid Awartani, Anas M. Dababo, Futwan Almohanna, Dilek Colak, Mohammadreza Dehghani, Mohammad Yahya Vahidi Mehrjardi, Murat Gunel, A. Gulhan Ercan-Sencicek, Gouri Rao Passi, Huma Arshad Cheema, Stephanie Efthymiou, Henry Houlden, Aida M. Bertoli-Avella, Alice S. Brooks, Kyle Retterer, Reza Maroofian, Namik Kaya, Tjakko J. van Ham, Tahsin Stefan Barakat

    Developmental and/or epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are a group of devastating genetic disorders, resulting in early-onset, therapy-resistant seizures and developmental delay. Here we report on 22 individuals from 15 families presenting with a severe form of intractable epilepsy, severe developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, visual disturbance and similar minor dysmorphisms. Whole exome sequencing identified a recurrent, homozygous variant (chr2:64083454A > G) in the essential UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP2) gene in all probands. This rare variant results in a tolerable Met12Val missense change of the longer UGP2 protein isoform but causes a disruption of the start codon of the shorter isoform, which is predominant in brain. We show that the absence of the shorter isoform leads to a reduction of functional UGP2 enzyme in neural stem cells, leading to altered glycogen metabolism, upregulated unfolded protein response and premature neuronal differentiation, as modeled during pluripotent stem cell differentiation in vitro. In contrast, the complete lack of all UGP2 isoforms leads to differentiation defects in multiple lineages in human cells. Reduced expression of Ugp2a/Ugp2b in vivo in zebrafish mimics visual disturbance and mutant animals show a behavioral phenotype. Our study identifies a recurrent start codon mutation in UGP2 as a cause of a novel autosomal recessive DEE syndrome. Importantly, it also shows that isoform-specific start-loss mutations causing expression loss of a tissue-relevant isoform of an essential protein can cause a genetic disease, even when an organism-wide protein absence is incompatible with life. We provide additional examples where a similar disease mechanism applies.

  • Pineoblastoma segregates into molecular sub-groups with distinct clinico-pathologic features: a Rare Brain Tumor Consortium registry study
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Bryan K. Li, Alexandre Vasiljevic, Christelle Dufour, Fupan Yao, Ben L. B. Ho, Mei Lu, Eugene I. Hwang, Sridharan Gururangan, Jordan R. Hansford, Maryam Fouladi, Sumihito Nobusawa, Annie Laquerriere, Marie-Bernadette Delisle, Jason Fangusaro, Fabien Forest, Helen Toledano, Palma Solano-Paez, Sarah Leary, Diane Birks, Lindsey M. Hoffman, Alexandru Szathmari, Cécile Faure-Conter, Xing Fan, Daniel Catchpoole, Li Zhou, Kris Ann P. Schultz, Koichi Ichimura, Guillaume Gauchotte, Nada Jabado, Chris Jones, Delphine Loussouarn, Karima Mokhtari, Audrey Rousseau, David S. Ziegler, Shinya Tanaka, Scott L. Pomeroy, Amar Gajjar, Vijay Ramaswamy, Cynthia Hawkins, Richard G. Grundy, D. Ashley Hill, Eric Bouffet, Annie Huang, Anne Jouvet

    Pineoblastomas (PBs) are rare, aggressive pediatric brain tumors of the pineal gland with modest overall survival despite intensive therapy. We sought to define the clinical and molecular spectra of PB to inform new treatment approaches for this orphan cancer. Tumor, blood, and clinical data from 91 patients with PB or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNETs/CNS-PNETs), and 2 pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) were collected from 29 centres in the Rare Brain Tumor Consortium. We used global DNA methylation profiling to define a core group of PB from 72/93 cases, which were delineated into five molecular sub-groups. Copy number, whole exome and targeted sequencing, and miRNA expression analyses were used to evaluate the clinico-pathologic significance of each sub-group. Tumors designated as group 1 and 2 almost exclusively exhibited deleterious homozygous loss-of-function alterations in miRNA biogenesis genes (DICER1, DROSHA, and DGCR8) in 62 and 100% of group 1 and 2 tumors, respectively. Recurrent alterations of the oncogenic MYC-miR-17/92-RB1 pathway were observed in the RB and MYC sub-group, respectively, characterized by RB1 loss with gain of miR-17/92, and recurrent gain or amplification of MYC. PB sub-groups exhibited distinct clinical features: group 1–3 arose in older children (median ages 5.2–14.0 years) and had intermediate to excellent survival (5-year OS of 68.0–100%), while Group RB and MYC PB patients were much younger (median age 1.3–1.4 years) with dismal survival (5-year OS 37.5% and 28.6%, respectively). We identified age < 3 years at diagnosis, metastatic disease, omission of upfront radiation, and chr 16q loss as significant negative prognostic factors across all PBs. Our findings demonstrate that PB exhibits substantial molecular heterogeneity with sub-group-associated clinical phenotypes and survival. In addition to revealing novel biology and therapeutics, molecular sub-grouping of PB can be exploited to reduce treatment intensity for patients with favorable biology tumors.

  • Necrosome complex detected in granulovacuolar degeneration is associated with neuronal loss in Alzheimer’s disease
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Marta J. Koper, Evelien Van Schoor, Simona Ospitalieri, Rik Vandenberghe, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Christine A. F. von Arnim, Thomas Tousseyn, Sriram Balusu, Bart De Strooper, Dietmar Rudolf Thal

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a specific pattern of neuropathological changes, including extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) deposits, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD) representing cytoplasmic vacuolar lesions, synapse dysfunction and neuronal loss. Necroptosis, a programmed form of necrosis characterized by the assembly of the necrosome complex composed of phosphorylated proteins, i.e. receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 and 3 (pRIPK1 and pRIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (pMLKL), has recently been shown to be involved in AD. However, it is not yet clear whether necrosome assembly takes place in brain regions showing AD-related neuronal loss and whether it is associated with AD-related neuropathological changes. Here, we analyzed brains of AD, pathologically defined preclinical AD (p-preAD) and non-AD control cases to determine the neuropathological characteristics and distribution pattern of the necrosome components. We demonstrated that all three activated necrosome components can be detected in GVD lesions (GVDn+, i.e. GVD with activated necrosome) in neurons, that they colocalize with classical GVD markers, such as pTDP-43 and CK1δ, and similarly to these markers detect GVD lesions. GVDn + neurons inversely correlated with neuronal density in the early affected CA1 region of the hippocampus and in the late affected frontal cortex layer III. Additionally, AD-related GVD lesions were associated with AD-defining parameters, showing the strongest correlation and partial colocalization with NFT pathology. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of the necrosome in GVD plays a role in AD, possibly by representing an AD-specific form of necroptosis-related neuron death. Hence, necroptosis-related neuron loss could be an interesting therapeutic target for treating AD.

  • Risk-adapted therapy and biological heterogeneity in pineoblastoma: integrated clinico-pathological analysis from the prospective, multi-center SJMB03 and SJYC07 trials
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Anthony P. Y. Liu, Brian Gudenas, Tong Lin, Brent A. Orr, Paul Klimo, Rahul Kumar, Eric Bouffet, Sridharan Gururangan, John R. Crawford, Stewart J. Kellie, Murali Chintagumpala, Michael J. Fisher, Daniel C. Bowers, Tim Hassall, Daniel J. Indelicato, Arzu Onar-Thomas, David W. Ellison, Frederick A. Boop, Thomas E. Merchant, Giles W. Robinson, Paul A. Northcott, Amar Gajjar

    Pineoblastoma is a rare embryonal tumor of childhood that is conventionally treated with high-dose craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Multi-dimensional molecular evaluation of pineoblastoma and associated intertumoral heterogeneity is lacking. Herein, we report outcomes and molecular features of children with pineoblastoma from two multi-center, risk-adapted trials (SJMB03 for patients ≥ 3 years; SJYC07 for patients < 3 years) complemented by a non-protocol institutional cohort. The clinical cohort consisted of 58 patients with histologically diagnosed pineoblastoma (SJMB03 = 30, SJYC07 = 12, non-protocol = 16, including 12 managed with SJMB03-like therapy). The SJMB03 protocol comprised risk-adapted CSI (average-risk = 23.4 Gy, high-risk = 36 Gy) with radiation boost to the primary site and adjuvant chemotherapy. The SJYC07 protocol consisted of induction chemotherapy, consolidation with focal radiation (intermediate-risk) or chemotherapy (high-risk), and metronomic maintenance therapy. The molecular cohort comprised 43 pineal parenchymal tumors profiled by DNA methylation array (n = 43), whole-exome sequencing (n = 26), and RNA-sequencing (n = 16). Respective 5-year progression-free survival rates for patients with average-risk or high-risk disease on SJMB03 or SJMB03-like therapy were 100% and 56.5 ± 10.3% (P = 0.007); respective 2-year progression-free survival rates for those with intermediate-risk or high-risk disease on SJYC07 were 14.3 ± 13.2% and 0% (P = 0.375). Of patients with average-risk disease treated with SJMB03/SJMB03-like therapy, 17/18 survived without progression. DNA-methylation analysis revealed four clinically relevant pineoblastoma subgroups: PB-A, PB-B, PB-B–like, and PB-FOXR2. Pineoblastoma subgroups differed in age at diagnosis, propensity for metastasis, cytogenetics, and clinical outcomes. Alterations in the miRNA-processing pathway genes DICER1, DROSHA, and DGCR8 were recurrent and mutually exclusive in PB-B and PB-B–like subgroups; PB-FOXR2 samples universally overexpressed the FOXR2 proto-oncogene. Our findings suggest superior outcome amongst older children with average-risk pineoblastoma treated with reduced-dose CSI. The identification of biologically and clinically distinct pineoblastoma subgroups warrants consideration of future molecularly-driven treatment protocols for this rare pediatric brain tumor entity.

  • Transcriptional profiling of medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) reveals two clinically relevant tumor subsets with VSNL1 as potent prognostic marker
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Andrey Korshunov, Konstantin Okonechnikov, Felix Sahm, Marina Ryzhova, Damian Stichel, Daniel Schrimpf, David R. Ghasemi, Kristian W. Pajtler, Manila Antonelli, Vittoria Donofrio, Angela Mastronuzzi, Sabrina Rossi, Francesca Diomedi Camassei, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Christine Haberler, Irene Slavc, Sonika Dahiya, Belen Casalini, Philipp Sievers, Jochen Meyer, Ella Kumirova, Olga Zheludkova, Andrey Golanov, David T. W. Jones, Stefan M. Pfister, Marcel Kool, Andreas von Deimling

    Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) is one of the few central nervous system (CNS) tumor entities occurring in infants which is traditionally associated with good to excellent prognosis. Some MBEN, however, have been reported with an unfavorable clinical course. We performed an integrated DNA/RNA-based molecular analysis of a multi-institutional MBEN cohort (n = 41) to identify molecular events which might be responsible for variability in patients’ clinical outcomes. RNA sequencing analysis of this MBEN cohort disclosed two clear transcriptome clusters (TCL) of these CNS tumors: “TCL1 MBEN” and “TCL2 MBEN” which were associated with various gene expression signatures, mutational landscapes and, importantly, prognosis. Thus, the clinically unfavorable “TCL1 MBEN” subset revealed transcriptome signatures composed of cancer-associated signaling pathways and disclosed a high frequency of clinically relevant germline PTCH1/SUFU alterations. In contrast, gene expression profiles of tumors from the clinically favorable “TCL2 MBEN” subgroup were associated with activation of various neurometabolic and neurotransmission signaling pathways, and germline SHH-pathway gene mutations were extremely rare in this transcriptome cluster. “TCL2 MBEN” also revealed strong and ubiquitous expression of VSNL1 (visinin-like protein 1) both at the mRNA and protein level, which was correlated with a favorable clinical course. Thus, combining mutational and epigenetic profiling with transcriptome analysis including VSNL1 immunohistochemistry, MBEN patients could be stratified into clinical risk groups of potential value for subsequent treatment planning.

  • Molecular subgrouping of primary pineal parenchymal tumors reveals distinct subtypes correlated with clinical parameters and genetic alterations
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Elke Pfaff, Christian Aichmüller, Martin Sill, Damian Stichel, Matija Snuderl, Matthias A. Karajannis, Martin U. Schuhmann, Jens Schittenhelm, Martin Hasselblatt, Christian Thomas, Andrey Korshunov, Marina Rhizova, Andrea Wittmann, Anna Kaufhold, Murat Iskar, Petra Ketteler, Dietmar Lohmann, Brent A. Orr, David W. Ellison, Katja von Hoff, Martin Mynarek, Stefan Rutkowski, Felix Sahm, Andreas von Deimling, Peter Lichter, Marcel Kool, Marc Zapatka, Stefan M. Pfister, David T. W. Jones

    Tumors of the pineal region comprise several different entities with distinct clinical and histopathological features. Whereas some entities predominantly affect adults, pineoblastoma (PB) constitutes a highly aggressive malignancy of childhood with a poor outcome. PBs mainly arise sporadically, but may also occur in the context of cancer predisposition syndromes including DICER1 and RB1 germline mutation. With this study, we investigate clinico-pathological subgroups of pineal tumors and further characterize their biological features. We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 195 tumors of the pineal region and 20 normal pineal gland controls. Copy-number profiles were obtained from DNA methylation data; gene panel sequencing was added for 93 tumors and analysis was further complemented by miRNA sequencing for 22 tumor samples. Unsupervised clustering based on DNA methylation profiling separated known subgroups, like pineocytoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, papillary tumor of the pineal region and PB, and further distinct subtypes within these groups, including three subtypes within the core PB subgroup. The novel molecular subgroup Pin-RB includes cases of trilateral retinoblastoma as well as sporadic pineal tumors with RB1 alterations, and displays similarities with retinoblastoma. Distinct clinical associations discriminate the second novel molecular subgroup PB-MYC from other PB cases. Alterations within the miRNA processing pathway (affecting DROSHA, DGCR8 or DICER1) are found in about two thirds of cases in the three core PB subtypes. Methylation profiling revealed biologically distinct groups of pineal tumors with specific clinical and molecular features. Our findings provide a foundation for further clinical as well as molecular and functional characterization of PB and other pineal tumors, including the role of miRNA processing defects in oncogenesis.

  • Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein precedes Lewy pathology in Parkinson’s disease
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Yi Tan, Carmelo Sgobio, Thomas Arzberger, Felix Machleid, Qilin Tang, Elisabeth Findeis, Jorg Tost, Tasnim Chakroun, Pan Gao, Mathias Höllerhage, Kai Bötzel, Jochen Herms, Günter Höglinger, Thomas Koeglsperger

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the gradual appearance of α-synuclein (α-syn)-containing neuronal protein aggregates. Although the exact mechanism of α-syn-mediated cell death remains elusive, recent research suggests that α-syn-induced alterations in neuronal excitability contribute to cell death in PD. Because the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) controls the expression and function of numerous neuronal genes related to neuronal excitability and synaptic function, we here investigated the role of FMRP in α-syn-associated pathological changes in cell culture and mouse models of PD as well as in post-mortem human brain tissue from PD patients. We found FMRP to be decreased in cultured DA neurons and in the mouse brain in response to α-syn overexpression. FMRP was, furthermore, lost in the SNc of PD patients and in patients with early stages of incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD). Unlike fragile X syndrome (FXS), FMR1 expression in response to α-syn was regulated by a mechanism involving Protein Kinase C (PKC) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Reminiscent of FXS neurons, α-syn-overexpressing cells exhibited an increase in membrane N-type calcium channels, increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, eIF4E and S6, increased overall protein synthesis, and increased expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). FMRP affected neuronal function in a PD animal model, because FMRP-KO mice were resistant to the effect of α-syn on striatal dopamine release. In summary, our results thus reveal a new role of FMRP in PD and support the examination of FMRP-regulated genes in PD disease progression.

  • Correction to: 4-Repeat tau seeds and templating subtypes as brain and CSF biomarkers of frontotemporal lobar degeneration
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Eri Saijo, Michael A. Metrick, Shunsuke Koga, Piero Parchi, Irene Litvan, Salvatore Spina, Adam Boxer, Julio C. Rojas, Douglas Galasko, Allison Kraus, Marcello Rossi, Kathy Newell, Gianluigi Zanusso, Lea T. Grinberg, William W. Seeley, Bernardino Ghetti, Dennis W. Dickson, Byron Caughey

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The Panel A in the published figure 5 is incorrect. The corrected Figure 5 is placed in the following page.

  • Detrimental and protective action of microglial extracellular vesicles on myelin lesions: astrocyte involvement in remyelination failure
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Marta Lombardi, Roberta Parolisi, Federica Scaroni, Elisabetta Bonfanti, Alice Gualerzi, Martina Gabrielli, Nicole Kerlero de Rosbo, Antonio Uccelli, Paola Giussani, Paola Viani, Cecilia Garlanda, Maria P. Abbracchio, Linda Chaabane, Annalisa Buffo, Marta Fumagalli, Claudia Verderio

    Microglia are highly plastic immune cells which exist in a continuum of activation states. By shaping the function of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), the brain cells which differentiate to myelin-forming cells, microglia participate in both myelin injury and remyelination during multiple sclerosis. However, the mode(s) of action of microglia in supporting or inhibiting myelin repair is still largely unclear. Here, we analysed the effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced in vitro by either pro-inflammatory or pro-regenerative microglia on OPCs at demyelinated lesions caused by lysolecithin injection in the mouse corpus callosum. Immunolabelling for myelin proteins and electron microscopy showed that EVs released by pro-inflammatory microglia blocked remyelination, whereas EVs produced by microglia co-cultured with immunosuppressive mesenchymal stem cells promoted OPC recruitment and myelin repair. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the harmful and beneficial EV actions were dissected in primary OPC cultures. By exposing OPCs, cultured either alone or with astrocytes, to inflammatory EVs, we observed a blockade of OPC maturation only in the presence of astrocytes, implicating these cells in remyelination failure. Biochemical fractionation revealed that astrocytes may be converted into harmful cells by the inflammatory EV cargo, as indicated by immunohistochemical and qPCR analyses, whereas surface lipid components of EVs promote OPC migration and/or differentiation, linking EV lipids to myelin repair. Although the mechanisms through which the lipid species enhance OPC maturation still remain to be fully defined, we provide the first demonstration that vesicular sphingosine 1 phosphate stimulates OPC migration, the first fundamental step in myelin repair. From this study, microglial EVs emerge as multimodal and multitarget signalling mediators able to influence both OPCs and astrocytes around myelin lesions, which may be exploited to develop novel approaches for myelin repair not only in multiple sclerosis, but also in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases characterized by demyelination.

  • Desmoplastic myxoid tumor, SMARCB1-mutant: clinical, histopathological and molecular characterization of a pineal region tumor encountered in adolescents and adults
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Christian Thomas, Annika Wefers, Susanne Bens, Karolina Nemes, Abbas Agaimy, Florian Oyen, Silke Vogelgesang, Fausto J. Rodriguez, Francesca M. Brett, Roger McLendon, Istvan Bodi, Fanny Burel-Vandenbos, Kathy Keyvani, Stefan Tippelt, Frantz R. Poulsen, Eric S. Lipp, Caterina Giannini, Guido Reifenberger, Klaus Kuchelmeister, Torsten Pietsch, Uwe Kordes, Reiner Siebert, Michael C. Frühwald, Pascal D. Johann, Martin Sill, Marcel Kool, Andreas von Deimling, Werner Paulus, Martin Hasselblatt

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a highly malignant brain tumor predominantly occurring in infants. Mutations of the SMARCB1 gene are the characteristic genetic lesion. SMARCB1-mutant tumors in adolescents and adults are rare and may show uncommon histopathological and clinical features. Here we report seven SMARCB1-deficient intracranial tumors sharing distinct clinical, histopathological and molecular features. Median age of the four females and three males was 40 years (range 15–61 years). All tumors were located in the pineal region. Histopathologically, these tumors displayed spindled and epithelioid cells embedded in a desmoplastic stroma alternating with a variable extent of a loose myxoid matrix. All cases showed loss of nuclear SMARCB1/INI1 protein expression, expression of EMA and CD34 was frequent and the Ki67/MIB1 proliferation index was low in the majority of cases (median 3%). Three cases displayed heterozygous SMARCB1 deletions and two cases a homozygous SMARCB1 deletion. On sequencing, one tumor showed a 2 bp deletion in exon 4 (c.369_370del) and one a short duplication in exon 3 (c.237_276dup) both resulting in frameshift mutations. Most DNA methylation profiles were not classifiable using the Heidelberg Brain Tumor Classifier (version v11b4). By unsupervised t-SNE analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, however, all tumors grouped closely together and showed similarities with ATRT-MYC. After a median observation period of 48 months, three patients were alive with stable disease, whereas one patient experienced tumor progression and three patients had succumbed to disease. In conclusion, our series represents an entity with distinct clinical, histopathological and molecular features showing epigenetic similarities with ATRT-MYC. We propose the designation desmoplastic myxoid tumor (DMT), SMARCB1-mutant, for these tumors.

  • Proteomics in cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord suggests UCHL1, MAP2 and GPNMB as biomarkers and underpins importance of transcriptional pathways in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Patrick Oeckl, Patrick Weydt, Dietmar R. Thal, Jochen H. Weishaupt, Albert C. Ludolph, Markus Otto

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and the proteins and pathways involved in the pathophysiology are not fully understood. Even less is known about the preclinical disease phase. To uncover new ALS-related proteins and pathways, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of asymptomatic (n = 14) and symptomatic (n = 14) ALS mutation carriers and sporadic ALS patients (n = 12) as well as post-mortem human spinal cord tissue (controls: n = 7, ALS, n = 8). Using a CSF-optimized proteomic workflow, we identified novel (e.g., UCHL1, MAP2, CAPG, GPNMB, HIST1H4A, HIST1H2B) and well-described (e.g., NEFL, NEFH, NEFM, CHIT1, CHI3L1) protein level changes in CSF of sporadic and genetic ALS patients with enrichment of proteins related to transcription, cell cycle and lipoprotein remodeling (total protein IDs: 2303). No significant alteration was observed in asymptomatic ALS mutation carriers representing the prodromal disease phase. We confirmed UCHL1, MAP2, CAPG and GPNMB as novel biomarker candidates for ALS in an independent validation cohort of patients (n = 117) using multiple reaction monitoring. In spinal cord tissue, 292 out of 6810 identified proteins were significantly changed in ALS with enrichment of proteins involved in mRNA splicing and of the neurofilament compartment. In conclusion, our proteomic data in asymptomatic ALS mutation carriers support the hypothesis of a sudden disease onset instead of a long preclinical phase. Both CSF and tissue proteomic data indicate transcriptional pathways to be amongst the most affected. UCHL1, MAP2 and GPNMB are promising ALS biomarker candidates which might provide additional value to the established neurofilaments in patient follow-up and clinical trials.

  • Structural and functional conservation of non-lumenized lymphatic endothelial cells in the mammalian leptomeninges
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Shannon Shibata-Germanos, James R. Goodman, Alan Grieg, Chintan A. Trivedi, Bridget C. Benson, Sandrine C. Foti, Ana Faro, Raphael F. P. Castellan, Rosa Maria Correra, Melissa Barber, Christiana Ruhrberg, Roy O. Weller, Tammaryn Lashley, Jeffrey J. Iliff, Thomas A. Hawkins, Jason Rihel

    The vertebrate CNS is surrounded by the meninges, a protective barrier comprised of the outer dura mater and the inner leptomeninges, which includes the arachnoid and pial layers. While the dura mater contains lymphatic vessels, no conventional lymphatics have been found within the brain or leptomeninges. However, non-lumenized cells called Brain/Mural Lymphatic Endothelial Cells or Fluorescent Granule Perithelial cells (muLECs/BLECs/FGPs) that share a developmental program and gene expression with peripheral lymphatic vessels have been described in the meninges of zebrafish. Here we identify a structurally and functionally similar cell type in the mammalian leptomeninges that we name Leptomeningeal Lymphatic Endothelial Cells (LLEC). As in zebrafish, LLECs express multiple lymphatic markers, containing very large, spherical inclusions, and develop independently from the meningeal macrophage lineage. Mouse LLECs also internalize macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid, including Amyloid-β, the toxic driver of Alzheimer’s disease progression. Finally, we identify morphologically similar cells co-expressing LLEC markers in human post-mortem leptomeninges. Given that LLECs share molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics with both lymphatics and macrophages, we propose they represent a novel, evolutionary conserved cell type with potential roles in homeostasis and immune organization of the meninges.

  • From the prion-like propagation hypothesis to therapeutic strategies of anti-tau immunotherapy
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Morvane Colin, Simon Dujardin, Susanna Schraen-Maschke, Guy Meno-Tetang, Charles Duyckaerts, Jean-Philippe Courade, Luc Buée

    The term “propagon” is used to define proteins that may transmit misfolding in vitro, in tissues or in organisms. Among propagons, misfolded tau is thought to be involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of various “tauopathies” that include Alzheimer's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and argyrophilic grain disease. Here, we review the available data in the literature and point out how the prion-like tau propagation has been extended from Alzheimer's disease to tauopathies. First, in Alzheimer’s disease, the progression of tau aggregation follows stereotypical anatomical stages which may be considered as spreading. The mechanisms of the propagation are now subject to intensive and controversial research. It has been shown that tau may be secreted in the interstitial fluid in an active manner as reflected by high and constant concentration of extracellular tau during Alzheimer’s pathology. Animal and cell models have been devised to mimic tau seeding and propagation, and despite their limitations, they have further supported to the prion-like propagation hypothesis. Finally, such new ways of thinking have led to different therapeutic strategies in anti-tau immunotherapy among tauopathies and have stimulated new clinical trials. However, it appears that the prion-like propagation hypothesis mainly relies on data obtained in Alzheimer’s disease. From this review, it appears that further studies are needed (1) to characterize extracellular tau species, (2) to find the right pathological tau species to target, (3) to follow in vivo tau pathology by brain imaging and biomarkers and (4) to interpret current clinical trial results aimed at reducing the progression of these pathologies. Such inputs will be essential to have a comprehensive view of these promising therapeutic strategies in tauopathies.

  • Molecular characterization of histopathological ependymoma variants
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Julia E. Neumann, Michael Spohn, Denise Obrecht, Martin Mynarek, Christian Thomas, Martin Hasselblatt, Mario M. Dorostkar, Annika K. Wefers, Stephan Frank, Camelia-Maria Monoranu, Arend Koch, Hendrik Witt, Marcel Kool, Kristian W. Pajtler, Stefan Rutkowski, Markus Glatzel, Ulrich Schüller

    According to the WHO classification, ependymal tumors are classified as subependymomas, myxopapillary ependymomas, classic ependymomas, anaplastic ependymomas, and RELA-fusion-positive ependymomas (RELA-EPN). Among classic ependymomas, the WHO defines rare histological variants, i.e., the clear cell, papillary, and tanycytic ependymoma. In parallel, global DNA methylation patterns distinguish nine molecular groups, some of which tightly overlap with histopathological subgroups. However, the match of the aforementioned histological variants to DNA methylation classes remains unclear. We analyzed histomorphology, clinical parameters, and global DNA methylation of tumors with the initial histological diagnoses of tanycytic (n = 12), clear cell (n = 14), or papillary ependymoma (n = 19). Forty percent of these tumors did not match to the epigenetic profile of ependymomas, using a previously published DNA methylation-based classifier for brain tumors. Instead, they were classified as low-grade glioma (n = 3), plexus tumor (n = 2), CNS high-grade neuroepithelial tumor with MN1 alteration (n = 2), papillary tumor of the pineal region (n = 2), neurocytoma (n = 1), or did not match to any known brain tumor methylation class (n = 8). Overall, integrated diagnosis had to be changed in 35.6% of cases as compared to the initial diagnosis. Among the tumors molecularly classified as ependymoma (27/45 cases), tanycytic ependymomas were mostly located in the spine (5/7 cases) and matched to spinal or myxopapillary ependymoma. 6/8 clear cell ependymomas were found supratentorially and fell into the methylation class of RELA-EPN. Papillary ependymomas with a positive ependymoma match (12/19 cases) showed either a “papillary” (n = 5), a “trabecular” (n = 1), or a “pseudo-papillary” (n = 6) growth pattern. The papillary growth pattern was strongly associated with the methylation class B of posterior fossa ependymoma (PFB, 5/5 cases) and tumors displayed DNA methylation sites that were significantly different when compared to PFB ependymomas without papillary growth. Tumors with pseudo-papillary histology matched to the methylation class of myxopapillary ependymoma (4/6 cases), whereas the trabecular case was anatomically and molecularly a spinal ependymoma. Our results show that the diagnosis of histological ependymoma variants is challenging and epigenetic profiles may improve diagnostic accuracy of these cases. Whereas clear cell and papillary ependymomas display correlations between localization, histology, and methylation, tanycytic ependymoma does not represent a molecularly distinct subgroup.

  • The histomolecular criteria established for adult anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma are not applicable to the pediatric population
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Albane Gareton, Arnault Tauziède-Espariat, Volodia Dangouloff-Ros, Alexandre Roux, Raphaël Saffroy, David Castel, Thomas Kergrohen, Fréderic Fina, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Mélanie Pagès, Franck Bourdeaut, François Doz, Stéphanie Puget, Christelle Dufour, Emmanuèle Lechapt, Fabrice Chrétien, Jacques Grill, Pascale Varlet

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric glioma, arising from a single driver MAPK pathway alteration. Classified as a grade I tumor according to the 2016 WHO classification, prognosis is excellent with a 10-year survival rate > 95% after surgery. However, rare cases present with anaplastic features, including an unexpected high mitotic/proliferative index, thus posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Based on small histomolecular series and case reports, such tumors arising at the time of diagnosis or recurrence have been designated by many names including pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (PAAF). Recent DNA methylation-profiling studies performed mainly on adult cases have revealed that PAAF exhibit a specific methylation signature, thus constituting a distinct methylation class from typical PA [methylation class anaplastic astrocytoma with piloid features—(MC-AAP)]. However, the diagnostic and prognostic significance of MC-AAP remains to be determined in children. We performed an integrative work on the largest pediatric cohort of PAAF, defined according to strict criteria: morphology compatible with the diagnosis of PA, with or without necrosis, ≥ 4 mitoses for 2.3 mm2, and MAPK pathway alteration. We subjected 31 tumors to clinical, imaging, morphological and molecular analyses, including DNA methylation profiling. We identified only one tumor belonging to the MC-AAP (3%), the others exhibiting a methylation profile typical for PA (77%), IDH-wild-type glioblastoma (7%), and diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (3%), while three cases (10%) did not match to a known DNA methylation class. No significant outcome differences were observed between PAAF with necrosis versus no necrosis (p = 0.07), or with 4–6 mitoses versus 7 or more mitoses (p = 0.857). Our findings argue that the diagnostic histomolecular criteria established for anaplasia in adult PA are not of diagnostic or prognostic value in a pediatric setting. Further extensive and comprehensive integrative studies are necessary to accurately define this exceptional entity in children.

  • Shortening heparan sulfate chains prolongs survival and reduces parenchymal plaques in prion disease caused by mobile, ADAM10-cleaved prions
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Patricia Aguilar-Calvo, Alejandro M. Sevillano, Jaidev Bapat, Katrin Soldau, Daniel R. Sandoval, Hermann C. Altmeppen, Luise Linsenmeier, Donald P. Pizzo, Michael D. Geschwind, Henry Sanchez, Brian S. Appleby, Mark L. Cohen, Jiri G. Safar, Steven D. Edland, Markus Glatzel, K. Peter R. Nilsson, Jeffrey D. Esko, Christina J. Sigurdson

    Cofactors are essential for driving recombinant prion protein into pathogenic conformers. Polyanions promote prion aggregation in vitro, yet the cofactors that modulate prion assembly in vivo remain largely unknown. Here we report that the endogenous glycosaminoglycan, heparan sulfate (HS), impacts prion propagation kinetics and deposition sites in the brain. Exostosin-1 haploinsufficient (Ext1+/−) mice, which produce short HS chains, show a prolonged survival and a redistribution of plaques from the parenchyma to vessels when infected with fibrillar prions, and a modest delay when infected with subfibrillar prions. Notably, the fibrillar, plaque-forming prions are composed of ADAM10-cleaved prion protein lacking a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, indicating that these prions are mobile and assemble extracellularly. By analyzing the prion-bound HS using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), we identified the disaccharide signature of HS differentially bound to fibrillar compared to subfibrillar prions, and found approximately 20-fold more HS bound to the fibrils. Finally, LC–MS of prion-bound HS from human patients with familial and sporadic prion disease also showed distinct HS signatures and higher HS levels associated with fibrillar prions. This study provides the first in vivo evidence of an endogenous cofactor that accelerates prion disease progression and enhances parenchymal deposition of ADAM10-cleaved, mobile prions.

  • Lewy body pathology is more prevalent in older individuals with mitochondrial disease than controls.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : null
    Daniel Erskine,Amy K Reeve,Tuomo Polvikoski,Andrew M Schaefer,Robert W Taylor,Nichola Z Lax,Omar El-Agnaf,Johannes Attems,Gráinne S Gorman,Doug M Turnbull,Yi Shau Ng

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuroglial stem cell-derived inflammatory pseudotumor (n-SCIPT): clinicopathologic characterization of a novel lesion of the lumbosacral spinal cord and nerve roots following intrathecal allogeneic stem cell intervention.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Emily A Sloan,Paul J Sampognaro,Jacqueline C Junn,Cynthia Chin,Line Jacques,Prashanth S Ramachandran,Joseph L DeRisi,Michael R Wilson,Arnold R Kriegstein,Andrew W Bollen,David A Solomon,Marta Margeta,John W Engstrom

  • C9orf72-specific phenomena associated with frontotemporal dementia and gastrointestinal symptoms in the absence of TDP-43 aggregation.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Paul J Sampognaro,Sarat C Vatsavayai,Celica G Cosme,Ji-Hye L Hwang,Amber Nolan,Eric J Huang,William W Seeley,Mary G De May

  • Erratum to: Antibody-mediated neutralization of myelin-associated EphrinB3 accelerates CNS remyelination.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2017-05-10
    Yasir A Syed,Chao Zhao,Don Mahad,Wiebke Möbius,Friedrich Altmann,Franziska Foss,G A González,Aycan Sentürk,Amparo Acker-Palmer,Gert Lubec,Kathryn Lilley,Robin J M Franklin,Klaus-A Nave,Mark R N Kotter

  • YAP1-fusions in pediatric NF2-wildtype meningioma.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Philipp Sievers,Jason Chiang,Daniel Schrimpf,Damian Stichel,Nagarajan Paramasivam,Martin Sill,Tenzin Gayden,Belen Casalini,David E Reuss,James Dalton,Kristian W Pajtler,Daniel Hänggi,Christel Herold-Mende,Elisabeth Rushing,Andrey Korshunov,Christian Mawrin,Michael Weller,Matthias Schlesner,Wolfgang Wick,Nada Jabado,David T W Jones,Stefan M Pfister,Andreas von Deimling,David W Ellison,Felix Sahm

  • Inside out: the role of nucleocytoplasmic transport in ALS and FTLD.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-06-09
    Steven Boeynaems,Elke Bogaert,Philip Van Damme,Ludo Van Den Bosch

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the presence of protein inclusions with a different protein content depending on the type of disease. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are no exceptions to this common theme. In most ALS and FTLD cases, the predominant pathological species are RNA-binding proteins. Interestingly, these proteins are both depleted from their normal nuclear localization and aggregated in the cytoplasm. This key pathological feature has suggested a potential dual mechanism with both nuclear loss of function and cytoplasmic gain of function being at play. Yet, why and how this pathological cascade is initiated in most patients, and especially sporadic cases, is currently unresolved. Recent breakthroughs in C9orf72 ALS/FTLD disease models point at a pivotal role for the nuclear transport system in toxicity. To address whether defects in nuclear transport are indeed implicated in the disease, we reviewed two decades of ALS/FTLD literature and combined this with bioinformatic analyses. We find that both RNA-binding proteins and nuclear transport factors are key players in ALS/FTLD pathology. Moreover, our analyses suggest that disturbances in nucleocytoplasmic transport play a crucial initiating role in the disease, by bridging both nuclear loss and cytoplasmic gain of functions. These findings highlight this process as a novel and promising therapeutic target for ALS and FTLD.

  • Significant association of cadaveric dura mater grafting with subpial Aβ deposition and meningeal amyloid angiopathy.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-06-18
    Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi,Yu Taniguchi,Kenji Sakai,Tetsuyuki Kitamoto,Masaki Takao,Shigeo Murayama,Yasushi Iwasaki,Mari Yoshida,Hiroshi Shimizu,Akiyoshi Kakita,Hitoshi Takahashi,Hiroyoshi Suzuki,Hironobu Naiki,Nobuo Sanjo,Hidehiro Mizusawa,Masahito Yamada

  • A rapidly progressive dementia case with pathological diagnosis of FTLD-UPS.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-06-09
    Abeer Z Tabbarah,W Robert Bell,Mingkuan Sun,Elise Gelwan,Olga Pletnikova,Argye E Hillis,Juan C Troncoso,Ming-Tseh Lin,Liam Chen

  • The importance of nerve microenvironment for schwannoma development.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-05-30
    Alexander Schulz,Robert Büttner,Christian Hagel,Stephan L Baader,Lan Kluwe,Johannes Salamon,Victor-Felix Mautner,Thomas Mindos,David B Parkinson,Jeffrey R Gehlhausen,D Wade Clapp,Helen Morrison

    Schwannomas are predominantly benign nerve sheath neoplasms caused by Nf2 gene inactivation. Presently, treatment options are mainly limited to surgical tumor resection due to the lack of effective pharmacological drugs. Although the mechanistic understanding of Nf2 gene function has advanced, it has so far been primarily restricted to Schwann cell-intrinsic events. Extracellular cues determining Schwann cell behavior with regard to schwannoma development remain unknown. Here we show pro-tumourigenic microenvironmental effects on Schwann cells where an altered axonal microenvironment in cooperation with injury signals contribute to a persistent regenerative Schwann cell response promoting schwannoma development. Specifically in genetically engineered mice following crush injuries on sciatic nerves, we found macroscopic nerve swellings in mice with homozygous nf2 gene deletion in Schwann cells and in animals with heterozygous nf2 knockout in both Schwann cells and axons. However, patient-mimicking schwannomas could only be provoked in animals with combined heterozygous nf2 knockout in Schwann cells and axons. We identified a severe re-myelination defect and sustained macrophage presence in the tumor tissue as major abnormalities. Strikingly, treatment of tumor-developing mice after nerve crush injury with medium-dose aspirin significantly decreased schwannoma progression in this disease model. Our results suggest a multifactorial concept for schwannoma formation-emphasizing axonal factors and mechanical nerve irritation as predilection site for schwannoma development. Furthermore, we provide evidence supporting the potential efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of schwannomas.

  • Impact of sex and APOE4 on cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-05-18
    Mitsuru Shinohara,Melissa E Murray,Ryan D Frank,Motoko Shinohara,Michael DeTure,Yu Yamazaki,Masaya Tachibana,Yuka Atagi,Mary D Davis,Chia-Chen Liu,Na Zhao,Meghan M Painter,Ronald C Petersen,John D Fryer,Julia E Crook,Dennis W Dickson,Guojun Bu,Takahisa Kanekiyo

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) often coexists with Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOE4 is a strong genetic risk factor for both AD and CAA. Sex-dependent differences have been shown in AD as well as in cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, we examined the effects of APOE4, sex, and pathological components on CAA in AD subjects. A total of 428 autopsied brain samples from pathologically confirmed AD cases were analyzed. CAA severity was histologically scored in inferior parietal, middle frontal, motor, superior temporal and visual cortexes. In addition, subgroups with severe CAA (n = 60) or without CAA (n = 39) were subjected to biochemical analysis of amyloid-β (Aβ) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) by ELISA in the temporal cortex. After adjusting for age, Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage and Thal amyloid phase, we found that overall CAA scores were higher in males than females. Furthermore, carrying one or more APOE4 alleles was associated with higher overall CAA scores. Biochemical analysis revealed that the levels of detergent-soluble and detergent-insoluble Aβ40, and insoluble apoE were significantly elevated in individuals with severe CAA or APOE4. The ratio of Aβ40/Aβ42 in insoluble fractions was also increased in the presence of CAA or APOE4, although it was negatively associated with male sex. Levels of insoluble Aβ40 were positively associated with those of insoluble apoE, which were strongly influenced by CAA status. Pertaining to insoluble Aβ42, the levels of apoE correlated regardless of CAA status. Our results indicate that sex and APOE genotypes differentially influence the presence and severity of CAA in AD, likely by affecting interaction and aggregation of Aβ40 and apoE.

  • Comparative interactomics analysis of different ALS-associated proteins identifies converging molecular pathways.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-05-12
    Anna M Blokhuis,Max Koppers,Ewout J N Groen,Dianne M A van den Heuvel,Stefano Dini Modigliani,Jasper J Anink,Katsumi Fumoto,Femke van Diggelen,Anne Snelting,Peter Sodaar,Bert M Verheijen,Jeroen A A Demmers,Jan H Veldink,Eleonora Aronica,Irene Bozzoni,Jeroen den Hertog,Leonard H van den Berg,R Jeroen Pasterkamp

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurological disease with no effective treatment available. An increasing number of genetic causes of ALS are being identified, but how these genetic defects lead to motor neuron degeneration and to which extent they affect common cellular pathways remains incompletely understood. To address these questions, we performed an interactomic analysis to identify binding partners of wild-type (WT) and ALS-associated mutant versions of ATXN2, C9orf72, FUS, OPTN, TDP-43 and UBQLN2 in neuronal cells. This analysis identified several known but also many novel binding partners of these proteins. Interactomes of WT and mutant ALS proteins were very similar except for OPTN and UBQLN2, in which mutations caused loss or gain of protein interactions. Several of the identified interactomes showed a high degree of overlap: shared binding partners of ATXN2, FUS and TDP-43 had roles in RNA metabolism; OPTN- and UBQLN2-interacting proteins were related to protein degradation and protein transport, and C9orf72 interactors function in mitochondria. To confirm that this overlap is important for ALS pathogenesis, we studied fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), one of the common interactors of ATXN2, FUS and TDP-43, in more detail in in vitro and in vivo model systems for FUS ALS. FMRP localized to mutant FUS-containing aggregates in spinal motor neurons and bound endogenous FUS in a direct and RNA-sensitive manner. Furthermore, defects in synaptic FMRP mRNA target expression, neuromuscular junction integrity, and motor behavior caused by mutant FUS in zebrafish embryos, could be rescued by exogenous FMRP expression. Together, these results show that interactomics analysis can provide crucial insight into ALS disease mechanisms and they link FMRP to motor neuron dysfunction caused by FUS mutations.

  • Intraneuronal aggregation of the β-CTF fragment of APP (C99) induces Aβ-independent lysosomal-autophagic pathology.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-05-04
    Inger Lauritzen,Raphaëlle Pardossi-Piquard,Alexandre Bourgeois,Sophie Pagnotta,Maria-Grazia Biferi,Martine Barkats,Pascale Lacor,William Klein,Charlotte Bauer,Frederic Checler

    Endosomal-autophagic-lysosomal (EAL) dysfunction is an early and prominent neuropathological feature of Alzheimers's disease, yet the exact molecular mechanisms contributing to this pathology remain undefined. By combined biochemical, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural approaches, we demonstrate a link between EAL pathology and the intraneuronal accumulation of the β-secretase-derived βAPP fragment (C99) in two in vivo models, 3xTgAD mice and adeno-associated viral-mediated C99-infected mice. We present a pathological loop in which the accumulation of C99 is both the effect and causality of impaired lysosomal-autophagic function. The deleterious effect of C99 was found to be linked to its aggregation within EAL-vesicle membranes leading to disrupted lysosomal proteolysis and autophagic impairment. This effect was Aβ independent and was even exacerbated when γ-secretase was pharmacologically inhibited. No effect was observed in inhibitor-treated wild-type animals suggesting that lysosomal dysfunction was indeed directly linked to C99 accumulation. In some brain areas, strong C99 expression also led to inflammatory responses and synaptic dysfunction. Taken together, this work demonstrates a toxic effect of C99 which could underlie some of the early-stage anatomical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Our work also proposes molecular mechanisms likely explaining some of the unfavorable side-effects associated with γ-secretase inhibitor-directed therapies.

  • Gene expression, methylation and neuropathology correlations at progressive supranuclear palsy risk loci.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-04-27
    Mariet Allen,Jeremy D Burgess,Travis Ballard,Daniel Serie,Xue Wang,Curtis S Younkin,Zhifu Sun,Naomi Kouri,Saurabh Baheti,Chen Wang,Minerva M Carrasquillo,Thuy Nguyen,Sarah Lincoln,Kimberly Malphrus,Melissa Murray,Todd E Golde,Nathan D Price,Steven G Younkin,Gerard D Schellenberg,Yan Asmann,Tamas Ordog,Julia Crook,Dennis Dickson,Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner

    To determine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in a genome-wide association study of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), we tested their association with brain gene expression, CpG methylation and neuropathology. In 175 autopsied PSP subjects, we performed associations between seven PSP risk variants and temporal cortex levels of 20 genes in-cis, within ±100 kb. Methylation measures were collected using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in 43 PSP brains. To determine whether SNP/expression associations are due to epigenetic modifications, CpG methylation levels of associated genes were tested against relevant variants. Quantitative neuropathology endophenotypes were tested for SNP associations in 422 PSP subjects. Brain levels of LRRC37A4 and ARL17B were associated with rs8070723; MOBP with rs1768208 and both ARL17A and ARL17B with rs242557. Expression associations for LRRC37A4 and MOBP were available in an additional 100 PSP subjects. Meta-analysis revealed highly significant associations for PSP risk alleles of rs8070723 and rs1768208 with higher LRRC37A4 and MOBP brain levels, respectively. Methylation levels of one CpG in the 3' region of ARL17B associated with rs242557 and rs8070723. Additionally, methylation levels of an intronic ARL17A CpG associated with rs242557 and that of an intronic MOBP CpG with rs1768208. MAPT and MOBP region risk alleles also associated with higher levels of neuropathology. Strongest associations were observed for rs242557/coiled bodies and tufted astrocytes; and for rs1768208/coiled bodies and tau threads. These findings suggest that PSP variants at MAPT and MOBP loci may confer PSP risk via influencing gene expression and tau neuropathology. MOBP, LRRC37A4, ARL17A and ARL17B warrant further assessment as candidate PSP risk genes. Our findings have implications for the mechanism of action of variants at some of the top PSP risk loci.

  • A comprehensive study of the genetic impact of rare variants in SORL1 in European early-onset Alzheimer's disease.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-03-31
    Jan Verheijen,Tobi Van den Bossche,Julie van der Zee,Sebastiaan Engelborghs,Raquel Sanchez-Valle,Albert Lladó,Caroline Graff,Håkan Thonberg,Pau Pastor,Sara Ortega-Cubero,Maria A Pastor,Luisa Benussi,Roberta Ghidoni,Giuliano Binetti,Jordi Clarimon,Alberto Lleó,Juan Fortea,Alexandre de Mendonça,Madalena Martins,Oriol Grau-Rivera,Ellen Gelpi,Karolien Bettens,Ligia Mateiu,Lubina Dillen,Patrick Cras,Peter P De Deyn,Christine Van Broeckhoven,Kristel Sleegers

    The sortilin-related receptor 1 (SORL1) gene has been associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Rare genetic variants in the SORL1 gene have also been implicated in autosomal dominant early-onset AD (EOAD). Here we report a large-scale investigation of the contribution of genetic variability in SORL1 to EOAD in a European EOAD cohort. We performed massive parallel amplicon-based re-sequencing of the full coding region of SORL1 in 1255 EOAD patients and 1938 age- and origin-matched control individuals in the context of the European Early-Onset Dementia (EOD) consortium, originating from Belgium, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Sweden, Germany, and Czech Republic. We identified six frameshift variants and two nonsense variants that were exclusively present in patients. These mutations are predicted to result in haploinsufficiency through nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, which could be confirmed experimentally for SORL1 p.Gly447Argfs*22 observed in a Belgian EOAD patient. We observed a 1.5-fold enrichment of rare non-synonymous variants in patients (carrier frequency 8.8 %; SkatOMeta p value 0.0001). Of the 84 non-synonymous rare variants detected in the full patient/control cohort, 36 were only detected in patients. Our findings underscore a role of rare SORL1 variants in EOAD, but also show a non-negligible frequency of these variants in healthy individuals, necessitating the need for pathogenicity assays. Premature stop codons due to frameshift and nonsense variants, have so far exclusively been found in patients, and their predicted mode of action corresponds with evidence from in vitro functional studies of SORL1 in AD.

  • Presynaptic dystrophic neurites surrounding amyloid plaques are sites of microtubule disruption, BACE1 elevation, and increased Aβ generation in Alzheimer's disease.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-03-20
    Katherine R Sadleir,Patty C Kandalepas,Virginie Buggia-Prévot,Daniel A Nicholson,Gopal Thinakaran,Robert Vassar

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques composed of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide surrounded by swollen presynaptic dystrophic neurites consisting of dysfunctional axons and terminals that accumulate the β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) required for Aβ generation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern presynaptic dystrophic neurite formation are unclear, and elucidating these processes may lead to novel AD therapeutic strategies. Previous studies suggest Aβ may disrupt microtubules, which we hypothesize have a critical role in the development of presynaptic dystrophies. To investigate this further, here we have assessed the effects of Aβ, particularly neurotoxic Aβ42, on microtubules during the formation of presynaptic dystrophic neurites in vitro and in vivo. Live-cell imaging of primary neurons revealed that exposure to Aβ42 oligomers caused varicose and beaded neurites with extensive microtubule disruption, and inhibited anterograde and retrograde trafficking. In brain sections from AD patients and the 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of amyloid pathology, dystrophic neurite halos with BACE1 elevation around amyloid plaques exhibited aberrant tubulin accumulations or voids. At the ultrastructural level, peri-plaque dystrophies were strikingly devoid of microtubules and replete with multi-lamellar vesicles resembling autophagic intermediates. Proteins of the microtubule motors, kinesin and dynein, and other neuronal proteins were aberrantly localized in peri-plaque dystrophies. Inactive pro-cathepsin D also accumulated in peri-plaque dystrophies, indicating reduced lysosomal function. Most importantly, BACE1 accumulation in peri-plaque dystrophies caused increased BACE1 cleavage of APP and Aβ generation. Our study supports the hypothesis that Aβ induces microtubule disruption in presynaptic dystrophic neurites that surround plaques, thus impairing axonal transport and leading to accumulation of BACE1 and exacerbation of amyloid pathology in AD.

  • Neuropathological signs of inflammation correlate with mitochondrial DNA deletions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2016-03-20
    Elisa Volmering,Pitt Niehusmann,Viktoriya Peeva,Alexander Grote,Gábor Zsurka,Janine Altmüller,Peter Nürnberg,Albert J Becker,Susanne Schoch,Christian E Elger,Wolfram S Kunz

    Accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions has been proposed to be responsible for the presence of respiratory-deficient neurons in several CNS diseases. Deletions are thought to originate from double-strand breaks due to attack of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of putative inflammatory origin. In epileptogenesis, emerging evidence points to chronic inflammation as an important feature. Here we aimed to analyze the potential association of inflammation and mtDNA deletions in the hippocampal tissue of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Hippocampal and parahippocampal tissue samples from 74 patients with drug-refractory mTLE served for mtDNA analysis by multiplex PCR as well as long-range PCR, single-molecule PCR and ultra-deep sequencing of mtDNA in selected samples. Patients were sub-classified according to neuropathological findings. Semi-quantitative assessment of neuronal cell loss was performed in the hippocampal regions CA1-CA4. Inflammatory infiltrates were quantified by cell counts in the CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions from well preserved hippocampal samples (n = 33). Samples with HS showed a significantly increased frequency of a 7436-bp mtDNA deletion (p < 0.0001) and a higher proportion of somatic G>T transversions compared to mTLE patients with different histopathology. Interestingly, the number of T-lymphocytes in the hippocampal CA1, CA3 and CA4 regions was, similar to the 7436-bp mtDNA deletion, significantly increased in samples with HS compared to other subgroups. Our findings show a coincidence of HS, increased somatic G>T transversions, the presence of a specific mtDNA deletion, and increased inflammatory infiltrates. These results support the hypothesis that chronic inflammation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction by ROS-mediated mtDNA mutagenesis which promotes epileptogenesis and neuronal cell loss in patients with mTLE and HS.

  • Posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytomas with oligodendroglial features show frequent FGFR1 activation via fusion or mutation.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : null
    Philipp Sievers,Daniel Schrimpf,Damian Stichel,David E Reuss,Martin Hasselblatt,Christian Hagel,Ori Staszewski,Jürgen Hench,Stephan Frank,Sebastian Brandner,Andrey Korshunov,Wolfgang Wick,Stefan M Pfister,Guido Reifenberger,Andreas von Deimling,Felix Sahm,David T W Jones

  • Production of poly(GA) in C9ORF72 patient motor neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Sandra Almeida,Gopinath Krishnan,Mia Rushe,Yuanzheng Gu,Mark W Kankel,Fen-Biao Gao

  • A single-center study of the clinicopathologic correlates of gliomas with a MYB or MYBL1 alteration.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Jason Chiang,Julie H Harreld,Christopher L Tinkle,Daniel C Moreira,Xiaoyu Li,Sahaja Acharya,Ibrahim Qaddoumi,David W Ellison

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hypertension-induced peripheral neuropathy and the combined effects of hypertension and diabetes on nerve structure and function in rats.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2012-07-14
    Joshua A Gregory,Corinne G Jolivalt,Jared Goor,Andrew P Mizisin,Nigel A Calcutt

    Diabetic neuropathy includes damage to neurons, Schwann cells and blood vessels. Rodent models of diabetes do not adequately replicate all pathological features of diabetic neuropathy, particularly Schwann cell damage. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that combining hypertension, a risk factor for neuropathy in diabetic patients, with insulin-deficient diabetes produces a more pertinent model of peripheral neuropathy. Behavioral, physiological and structural indices of neuropathy were measured for up to 6 months in spontaneously hypertensive and age-matched normotensive rats with or without concurrent streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Hypertensive rats developed nerve ischemia, thermal hyperalgesia, nerve conduction slowing and axonal atrophy. Thinly myelinated fibers with supernumerary Schwann cells indicative of cycles of demyelination and remyelination were also identified along with reduced nerve levels of myelin basic protein. Similar disorders were noted in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, except that thinly myelinated fibers were not observed and expression of myelin basic protein was normal. Superimposing diabetes on hypertension compounded disorders of nerve blood flow, conduction slowing and axonal atrophy and increased the incidence of thinly myelinated fibers. Rats with combined insulinopenia, hyperglycemia and hypertension provide a model for diabetic neuropathy that offers an opportunity to study mechanisms of Schwann cell pathology and suggests that hypertension may contribute to the etiology of diabetic neuropathy.

  • Neurotoxicity of pesticides.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Jason R Richardson,Vanessa Fitsanakis,Remco H S Westerink,Anumantha G Kanthasamy

    Pesticides are unique environmental contaminants that are specifically introduced into the environment to control pests, often by killing them. Although pesticide application serves many important purposes, including protection against crop loss and against vector-borne diseases, there are significant concerns over the potential toxic effects of pesticides to non-target organisms, including humans. In many cases, the molecular target of a pesticide is shared by non-target species, leading to the potential for untoward effects. Here, we review the history of pesticide usage and the neurotoxicity of selected classes of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, to humans and experimental animals. Specific emphasis is given to linkages between exposure to pesticides and risk of neurological disease and dysfunction in humans coupled with mechanistic findings in humans and animal models. Finally, we discuss emerging techniques and strategies to improve translation from animal models to humans.

  • Recurrent non-canonical histone H3 mutations in spinal cord diffuse gliomas.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Emily A Sloan,Tabitha Cooney,Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush,Robin Buerki,Jennie Taylor,Jennifer L Clarke,Joseph Torkildson,Cassie Kline,Alyssa Reddy,Sabine Mueller,Anu Banerjee,Nicholas Butowski,Susan Chang,Praveen V Mummaneni,Dean Chou,Lee Tan,Philip Theodosopoulos,Michael McDermott,Mitchel Berger,Corey Raffel,Nalin Gupta,Peter P Sun,Yi Li,Vinil Shah,Soonmee Cha,Steve Braunstein,David R Raleigh,David Samuel,David Scharnhorst,Cynthia Fata,Hua Guo,Gregory Moes,John Y H Kim,Carl Koschmann,Jessica Van Ziffle,Courtney Onodera,Patrick Devine,James P Grenert,Julieann C Lee,Melike Pekmezci,Joanna J Phillips,Tarik Tihan,Andrew W Bollen,Arie Perry,David A Solomon

  • Rebuttal to Drs. Grinberg and Heinsen.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2018-10-05
    Sarah K Kaufman,Kelly Del Tredici,Heiko Braak,Marc I Diamond

  • cIMPACT-NOW update 3: recommended diagnostic criteria for "Diffuse astrocytic glioma, IDH-wildtype, with molecular features of glioblastoma, WHO grade IV".
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2018-09-28
    Daniel J Brat,Kenneth Aldape,Howard Colman,Eric C Holland,David N Louis,Robert B Jenkins,B K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters,Arie Perry,Guido Reifenberger,Roger Stupp,Andreas von Deimling,Michael Weller

  • Methylome analysis and whole-exome sequencing reveal that brain tumors associated with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis are midline pilocytic astrocytomas.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2018-08-26
    Elvis Terci Valera,Melissa K McConechy,Tenzin Gayden,Barbara Rivera,David T W Jones,Andrea Wittmann,HyeRim Han,Eric Bareke,Hamid Nikbakht,Leonie Mikael,Rosane Gomes Queiroz,Veridiana Kiill Suazo,Ji Hoon Phi,Seung-Ki Kim,Sung-Hye Park,Raita Fukaya,Mi-Sun Yum,Tae-Sung Ko,Ricardo Santos de Oliveira,Helio Rubens Machado,María Sol Brassesco,Antonio Carlos do Santos,Gustavo Novelino Simão,Leandra Náira Zambelli Ramalho,Luciano Neder,Carlos Alberto Scrideli,Luiz Gonzaga Tone,Jacek Majewski,Nada Jabado

  • Physiological clearance of tau in the periphery and its therapeutic potential for tauopathies.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2018-08-04
    Jun Wang,Wang-Sheng Jin,Xian-Le Bu,Fan Zeng,Zhi-Lin Huang,Wei-Wei Li,Lin-Lin Shen,Zhen-Qian Zhuang,Yuqiang Fang,Bin-Lu Sun,Jie Zhu,Xiu-Qing Yao,Gui-Hua Zeng,Zhi-Fang Dong,Jin-Tai Yu,Zhian Hu,Weihong Song,Hua-Dong Zhou,Jian-Xin Jiang,Yu-Hui Liu,Yan-Jiang Wang

    Accumulation of pathological tau is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies and is closely correlated with cognitive decline. Clearance of pathological tau from the brain is a major therapeutic strategy for tauopathies. The physiological capacity of the periphery to clear brain-derived tau and its therapeutic potential remain largely unknown. Here, we found that cisterna magna injected 131I-labelled synthetic tau dynamically effluxed from the brain and was mainly cleared from the kidney, blood, and liver in mice; we also found that plasma tau levels in inferior vena cava were lower than those in femoral artery in humans. These findings suggest that tau proteins can efflux out of the brain and be cleared in the periphery under physiological conditions. Next, we showed that lowering blood tau levels via peritoneal dialysis could reduce interstitial fluid (ISF) tau levels in the brain, and tau levels in the blood and ISF were dynamically correlated; furthermore, tau efflux from the brain was accelerated after the addition of another set of peripheral system in a parabiosis model. Finally, we established parabiosis mouse models using tau transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates and found that brain tau levels and related pathologies in parabiotic transgenic mice were significantly reduced after parabiosis, suggesting that chronic enhancement of peripheral tau clearance alleviates pathological tau accumulation and neurodegeneration in the brain. Our study provides the first evidence of physiological clearance of brain-derived pathological tau in the periphery, suggesting that enhancing peripheral tau clearance is a potential therapeutic strategy for tauopathies.

  • Increased expression of connective tissue growth factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis human spinal cord.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2003-08-14
    Wim G M Spliet,Eleonora Aronica,Marja Ramkema,Jan Aten,Dirk Troost

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted protein involved in a variety of cellular events such as survival, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. Recent studies suggest a role for this protein also in the repair processes of the central nervous system. The distribution and significance of CTGF in human brain is, however, poorly understood, particularly under pathological conditions. In the present study the expression of CTGF protein was investigated in the spinal cord of control and both sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS and fALS) patients. Western blot analysis showed a consistent increase in CTGF expression in six sALS patients compared with controls. Immunoreactivity signal for CTGF was equally present in blood vessels of control and ALS spinal cord, but was dramatically increased in reactive astrocytes of the ventral horn and white matter in both sALS and fALS. Increased expression was also observed in the cytoplasm of motor neurons of sALS and fALS patients with long duration of the disease. Our data indicate a role for CTGF in the complex reactive process that is associated with the progression of ALS spinal cord damage. The up-regulation in reactive astrocytes supports a role for CTGF in the molecular mechanisms underlying astrogliosis. However, the altered CTGF expression observed in neurons might represent an additional mechanism involved in motor neuron dysfunction and changes in glial-neuronal communication in the course of the neurodegenerative process.

  • Alpha-synuclein: prion or prion-like?
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-08-14
    Rehana K Leak,Matthew P Frosch,Thomas G Beach,Glenda M Halliday

  • Dipeptide repeat (DPR) pathology in the skeletal muscle of ALS patients with C9ORF72 repeat expansion.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2019-08-04
    Matthew D Cykowski,Dennis W Dickson,Suzanne Z Powell,Anithachristy S Arumanayagam,Andreana L Rivera,Stanley H Appel

  • Enteric alpha-synuclein expression is increased in Crohn's disease.
    Acta Neuropathol. (IF 18.174) Pub Date : 2018-12-07
    Alice Prigent,Arthur Lionnet,Emilie Durieu,Guillaume Chapelet,Arnaud Bourreille,Michel Neunlist,Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen,Pascal Derkinderen

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上海纽约大学William Glover