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  • Recommendations for Successful Transition of Adolescents With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases to Adult Care
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Jordan M. Shapiro; Hashem B. El-Serag; Cassandra Gandle; Cynthia Peacock; Lee A. Denson; Laurie N. Fishman; Ruben Hernaez; Jason K. Hou

    Adolescents and young adults diagnosed with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in pediatric care are vulnerable during their transition to adult care. There are 6 core elements of transition from pediatric to adult IBD care. We identified gaps in this transition and make recommendations for clinical practice and research. There have been few studies of transition policy (core element 1) or studies that tracked and monitored patients through the transition (core element 2). Several studies have assessed transition readiness (core element 3), but instruments for assessment were not validated using important outcomes such as disease control, health care use, adherence, quality of life, or continuity of care. There have been no studies of best practices for transition planning (core element 4), including how to best educate patients and facilitate gradual shifts in responsibility. A small number of longitudinal studies have investigated transfer of care (core element 5), but these were conducted outside of the United States; these studies found mixed results in short- and intermediate-term outcomes after transition completion (core element 6). We discuss what is known about the transition from pediatric to adult care for IBD, make recommendations to improve this process, and identify areas for additional research.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Progression of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Throughout Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Paulo Gustavo Kotze; Fox E. Underwood; Aderson Omar Mourão Cintra Damião; Jose Geraldo P. Ferraz; Rogerio Saad-Hossne; Martin Toro; Beatriz Iade; Francisco Bosques-Padilla; Fábio Vieira Teixeira; Fabian Juliao-Banos; Daniela Simian; Subrata Ghosh; Remo Panaccione; Siew C. Ng; Gilaad G. Kaplan

    Background & Aims The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is increasing in Latin America. We performed a systematic review to identify clinical and epidemiologic features of IBD in Latin America (including Mexico, Central America, and South America) and the Caribbean. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SciELO databases for clinical or epidemiologic studies of Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) from Latin American and Caribbean countries and territories that reported incidence, prevalence, ratio of UC:CD, IBD phenotype, and treatment, through September 12, 2018. Data were extracted from 61 articles for analysis. Results The incidence and prevalence of IBD have been steadily increasing in Latin America and the Caribbean. The incidence of CD in Brazil increased from 0.08 per 100,000 person-years in 1988 to 0.68 per 100,000 person-years in 1991–1995 to 5.5 per 100,000 person-years in 2015. The highest reported prevalence of IBD was in Argentina, in 2007, at 15 and 82 per 100,000 person-years for CD and UC, respectively. The ratio of UC:CD exceeded 1 in all regions throughout Latin America and the Caribbean with the exception of Brazil. Treatment with tumor necrosis factor antagonists increased steadily for patients with CD (43.4% of all patients in Brazil were treated in 2014) but less so for patients with UC (4.5% of all patients were treated in 2014). Surgery for IBD decreased with time. In Chile, surgeries were performed on 57.0% of patients with CD and 18.0% of patients with UC during the period of 1990–2002; these values decreased to 38.0% and 5.0%, respectively, during the period of 2012–2015. In Peru, 6.9% of patients with UC received colectomies in the period of 2001–2003 and 6.2% in 2004–2014. Conclusions In a systematic review, we found the incidence of IBD to be increasing throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Population-based epidemiology studies are needed to evaluate the increase in IBD in these regions, which differ from other global regions in climate, culture, demographics, diet, healthcare delivery and infrastructure, and socioeconomic status.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Lowering Portal Pressure Improves Outcomes of Patients With Cirrhosis, With or Without Ascites: A Meta-Analysis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Laura Turco; Candid Villanueva; Vincenzo La Mura; Juan Carlos García-Pagán; Thomas Reiberger; Joan Genescà; Roberto J. Groszmann; Barjesh C. Sharma; Carlo Merkel; Christophe Bureau; Edilmar Alvarado; Juan Gonzalez Abraldes; Agustin Albillos; Rafael Bañares; Markus Peck-Radosavljevic; Salvador Augustin; Shiv K. Sarin; Jaime Bosch; Guadalupe García-Tsao

    Background & Aims In unselected patients with cirrhosis, those with reductions in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) to below a defined threshold (responders) have a reduced risk of variceal hemorrhage (VH) and death. We performed a meta-analysis to compare this effect in patients with vs without ascites. Methods We collected data from 15 studies of primary or secondary prophylaxis of VH that reported data on VH and death in responders vs nonresponders. We included studies in which data on ascites at baseline and on other relevant outcomes during follow-up evaluation were available. We performed separate meta-analyses for patients with vs without ascites. Results Of the 1113 patients included in the studies, 968 patients (87%) had been treated with nonselective β-blockers. In 993 patients (89%), HVPG response was defined as a decrease of more than 20% from baseline (>10% in 11% of patients) or to less than 12 mm Hg. In the 661 patients without ascites, responders (n = 329; 50%) had significantly lower odds of events (ascites, VH, or encephalopathy) than nonresponders (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22–0.56). Odds of death or liver transplantation were also significantly lower among responders than nonresponders (OR, 0.50, 95% CI, 0.32–0.78). In the 452 patients with ascites, responders (n = 188; 42%) had significantly lower odds of events (VH, refractory ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or hepatorenal syndrome) than nonresponders (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16–0.43). Overall, odds of death or liver transplantation were lower among responders (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29–0.75). No heterogeneity was observed among studies. Conclusions In a meta-analysis of clinical trials, we found that patients with cirrhosis with and without ascites who respond to treatment with nonselective β-blockers (based on reductions in HVPG) have a reduced risk of events, death, or liver transplantation.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Efficacy of Epicutaneous Immunotherapy in Children With Milk-Induced Eosinophilic Esophagitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Jonathan M. Spergel; Okan U. Elci; Amanda B. Muir; Chris A. Liacouras; Benjamin J. Wilkins; Deirdre Burke; Megan O. Lewis; Terri Brown-Whitehorn; Antonella Cianferoni

    Background & Aims Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is caused by an immune response to specific food allergens. There are no approved therapies beyond avoidance of the allergen(s) or treatment of inflammation. Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) reduces features of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease in mice and pigs. We performed randomized, placebo-controlled study to determine the safety and efficacy of EPIT with Viaskin milk in children with milk-induced EoE. Methods In a double-blind study, 20 children (4–17 years old) with milk-induced EoE were randomly assigned to groups given EPIT with Viaskin milk (n = 15) or placebo (n = 5) for 9 months during a milk-free period, followed by milk-containing diet for 2 months with EPIT. Then, subjects underwent upper endoscopy analysis, biopsies were collected, and maximum esophageal eosinophil counts were determined and was the primary endpoint. After upper endoscopy, patients were given open-label EPIT for 11 months (open-label phase). The subjects were allowed to consume milk if they had maximum values of fewer than 10 eosinophils/high-power field (eos/hpf); otherwise, they remained on a milk-free diet until the last 2 months of the open-label phase. Results In the intent to treat population, there was no significant difference between the Viaskin milk group in mean eos/hpf (50.1 ± 43.97 eos/hpf) vs the placebo group (48.20 ± 56.98 eos/hpf). However, in the per-protocol population (7 patients given Viaskin milk and 2 patients given placebo), patients given Viaskin milk patients had a significantly lower mean eos/hpf count (25.57 ± 31.19) than patients given placebo (95.00 ± 63.64) (p = .038). At the end of the open-label phase, 9 of 19 evaluable subjects had mean values of fewer than 15 eos/hpf (47% response). The number of adverse events did not differ significantly between the Viaskin milk and placebo groups; there was 1 serious adverse event in the placebo group. Conclusions In a pilot study of pediatric patients with EoE given EPIT with Viaskin milk or placebo for 11 months, we found no significant difference between groups for the maximum eosinophil count at the end of the study. However, findings from a per-protocol analysis indicate that Viaskin milk can reduce eos/hpf. At study completion, 47% of patients who continued open-label Viaskin milk for an additional 11 months had mean values of fewer than 15 eos/hpf. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02579876

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Increased Incidence and Mortality of Gastric Cancer in Immigrant Populations from High to Low Regions of Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Baldeep S. Pabla; Shailja C. Shah; Juan E. Corral; Douglas R. Morgan

    Background & Aims Gastric cancer is the leading cause of infection-related cancer death and the third-leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The effect of immigration on gastric cancer risk is not well-defined but might be helpful for screening or surveillance endeavors. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to define the risk of gastric cancer in immigrants from high-incidence regions to low-incidence regions (including Western Europe, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Israel, and the United States). Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, from January 1980 to January 2019, for studies that identified immigrants from high-incidence regions of gastric cancer, provided clear definitions of immigrant and reference populations, and provided sufficient data to calculate gastric cancer incidence and gastric cancer-related mortality. We performed meta-analyses of standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for first-generation immigrants from high- to low-incidence regions, stratified by immigrant generation, sex, and anatomic and histologic subtype, when data were available. Results We identified 38 cohort studies that met our inclusion criteria. All 13 studies of 21 distinct populations reported significantly increased SIRs for gastric cancer in first-generation foreign-born immigrants (men SIR range, 1.24–4.50 and women SIR range, 1.27–5.05). The pooled SIR for immigrants with all types of gastric cancer was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.52–1.80) for men and 1.83 (95% CI, 1.69–1.98) for women. Nine studies from 2 high-incidence populations (the former Soviet Union and Japan) reported an increased gastric cancer standardized mortality ratio in first-generation immigrants who migrated to regions of low incidence (former Soviet Union immigrants, 1.44–1.91 for men and 1.40–2.56 for women). Conclusions Immigrants from regions with a high incidence of gastric cancer to regions of low incidence maintain a higher risk of gastric cancer and related mortality, based on a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis. Assessment of immigrant generation along with other risk factors might help identify high-risk populations for prevention and therapeutic interventions.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding Increases With Combinations of Antithrombotic Agents and Patient Age
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-18
    Neena S. Abraham; Peter A. Noseworthy; Jonathan Inselman; Jeph Herrin; Xiaoxi Yao; Lindsey R. Sangaralingham; Gabriella Cornish; Che Ngufor; Nilay D. Shah

    Background & Aims The safety of different antithrombotic strategies for patients with 1 or more indication for antithrombotic drugs has not been determined. We investigated the risk and time frame for gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) in patients prescribed different antithrombotic regimens. We proposed that risk would increase over time and with combination regimens, especially among elderly patients. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of nationwide claims data from privately insured and Medicare Advantage enrollees who received anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet agents from October 1, 2010, through May 31, 2017. Patients were stratified by their prescriptions (anticoagulant alone, antiplatelet alone, or a combination) and by their primary diagnosis (atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, or venous thromboembolism). The 1-year GIB risk was estimated using parametric time-to-event survival models and expressed as annualized risk and number needed to harm (NNH). Results Our final analysis included 311,211 patients (mean ages, 67 years for monotherapy and 69.8 years for combination antithrombotic therapy). There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients with bleeding after anticoagulant or antiplatelet monotherapy (∼3.5%/year). Combination antithrombotic therapy increased GIB risk compared with anticoagulant (NNH, 29) or antiplatelet (NNH, 31) monotherapy, regardless of the patients’ diagnosis or time point analyzed. Advancing age was associated with increasing 1-year probability of GIB. Patients prescribed combination therapy were at the greatest risk for GIB, especially after the age of 75 years (GIB occurred in 10%–17.5% of patients/y). Conclusions In an analysis of nationwide insurance and Medicare claims data, we found GIB to occur in a higher proportion of patients prescribed combinations of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents compared with monotherapy. Among all drug exposure categories and cardiovascular conditions, the risk of GIB increased with age, especially among patients older than 75 years.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Abdominal Pain in Children Develops With Age and Increases With Psychosocial Factors
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Michael P. Jones; Åshild Faresjö; Alissa Beath; Tomas Faresjö; Johnny Ludvigsson

    Background & Aims Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent, cause significant suffering, and are costly to society. Pain is a central feature of 2 of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders: irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. Although these disorders have been well studied in adults, their etiology is poorly understood. We sought to identify early life factors associated with the development of abdominal pain in children (age, 2–12 y). Methods We collected data from the All Babies in Southeast Sweden study of 1781 children, born from October 1, 1997, through October 31, 1999, whose families answered questions about abdominal pain and risk factors at birth, 1 year, 2.5 years, 5 years, 8 years, and 10 to 12 years. We used latent growth curve models to evaluate risk factors for development of abdominal pain. The primary outcomes were prevalence of abdominal pain and associated factors. Results The prevalence of abdominal pain increased linearly with age in the study cohort, increasing by approximately 6% per year. Psychosocial variables associated with slope of the growth curve included lower emotional control at age 2 years (P = .005), parental concern for the child at age 2 years (P = .02), and measures of parental stress (P = .004). Nonvaginal birth was associated with a reduced slope of the growth curve (P = .03). Conclusions In a study of children in Sweden, we found early psychosocial environment and mode of delivery at birth was associated with development of childhood abdominal pain. Factors associated with development of the early immune system, identified in previous recall-based research, were not supported by data from this study. These findings have important implications for the prevention of abdominal pain in children and later in life.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Clinical and Pathological Characterization of Lynch-Like Syndrome
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-17
    María Dolores Picó; Adela Castillejo; Óscar Murcia; Mar Giner-Calabuig; Miren Alustiza; Ariadna Sánchez; Leticia Moreira; María Pellise; Antoni Castells; Marta Carrillo-Palau; Teresa Ramon y Cajal; Alexandra Gisbert-Beamud; Gemma Llort; Carmen Yagüe; Adriá López-Fernández; Cristina Alvarez-Urturi; Joaquin Cubiella; Laura Rivas; Rodrigo Jover

    Background & Aims Lynch syndrome is characterized by DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Some patients with suspected Lynch syndrome have DNA MMR deficiencies but no detectable mutations in genes that encode MMR proteins—this is called Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). There is no consensus on management of patients with LLS. We collected data from a large series of patients with LLS to identify clinical and pathology features. Methods We collected data from a nationwide-registry of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Spain. We identified patients whose colorectal tumors had loss of MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, or MLH1 (based on immunohistochemistry), without the mutation encoding V600E in BRAF (detected by real-time PCR), and/or no methylation at MLH1 (determined by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), and no pathogenic mutations in MMR genes, BRAF, or EPCAM (determined by DNA sequencing). These patients were considered to have LLS. We collected data on demographic, clinical, and pathology features and family history of neoplasms. The χ2 test was used to analyze the association between qualitative variables, followed by the Fisher exact test and the Student t test or the Mann-Whitney test for quantitative variables. Results We identified 160 patients with LLS; their mean age at diagnosis of CRC was 55 years and 66 patients were female (41%). The Amsterdam I and II criteria for Lynch syndrome were fulfilled by 11% of cases and the revised Bethesda guideline criteria by 65% of cases. Of the patients with LLS, 24% were identified in universal screening. There were no proportional differences in sex, indication for colonoscopy, immunohistochemistry, pathology findings, or personal history of CRC or other Lynch syndrome-related tumors between patients who met the Amsterdam and/or Bethesda criteria for Lynch syndrome and patients identified in universal screening for Lynch syndrome, without a family history of CRC. Conclusions Patients with LLS have homogeneous clinical, demographic, and pathology characteristics, regardless of family history of CRC.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Fecal Incontinence Diagnosed by the Rome IV Criteria in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    William E. Whitehead; Magnus Simren; Jan Busby-Whitehead; Steve Heymen; Miranda A.L. van Tilburg; Ami D. Sperber; Olafur S. Palsson

    Background & Aims The diagnostic criteria for fecal incontinence (FI) were made more restrictive in the Rome IV revision. We aimed to determine the characteristics of FI patients defined by the Rome IV criteria, assess how FI frequency and amount affect quality of life, identify risk factors, and compare prevalence values among countries. Methods We performed an internet-based survey of 5931 subjects in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom, from September to December 2015. Subjects were stratified by country, sex, and age. Responders answered questions about diagnosis, health care use, and risk factors. We performed multivariate linear regression analysis to identify risk factors for FI. Results FI was reported by 957 subjects (16.1%) but only 196 (3.3%) fulfilled the Rome IV criteria. Frequency of FI was less than twice a month for 672/957 subjects (70.2%) and duration was less than 6 months for 285/957 subjects (29.8%). Quality of life was significantly impaired in all subjects with FI compared to subjects with fecal continence. The strongest risk factors for FI were diarrhea, urgency to defecate, and abdominal pain. FI was more prevalent in the United States than in the United Kingdom. Between-country differences were due to less diarrhea and urgency in the United Kingdom. Conclusions Rome IV FI prevalence is lower than previous estimates because the new criteria exclude many individuals with less frequent or short duration FI. These excluded patients have impaired quality of life. It might be appropriate to make a diagnosis of FI for all patients with FI ≥2 times in 3 months and to provide additional information on frequency, duration, and amount of stool lost to assist clinicians in treatment selection.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Increased Gut Permeability in First-degree Relatives of Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Functional Abdominal Pain
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Mark McOmber; Danny Rafati; Kevin Cain; Sridevi Devaraj; Erica M. Weidler; Margaret Heitkemper; Robert J. Shulman

    Background & Aims Increased gut permeability might contribute to the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome or functional abdominal pain (IBS or FAP). We investigated whether siblings and parents of children with IBS or FAP have increased gut permeability. Methods We performed permeability tests (using sucrose, lactulose, mannitol, and sucralose) on 29 siblings and 43 parents of children with IBS or FAP, and 43 children (controls) and 42 parents of controls, from primary and secondary care. Permeability studies were repeated in 7 siblings and 37 parents of children with IBS or FAP and 23 controls and 36 parents of controls following ingestion of 400 mg of ibuprofen. Percent recovery of sucrose was calculated based on analyses of urine collected overnight; the lactulose/mannitol ratio and percent recovery of sucralose were based on analyses of urine samples collected over a 24-hour period. Results When we controlled for age, sex, and family membership, siblings of children with IBS or FAP had increased small bowel permeability (urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio) vs controls (P = .004). There was no difference in gastroduodenal (percent sucrose recovery) or colonic (percent sucralose recovery) permeability between groups. Similarly, parents of children with IBS or FAP also had increased small bowel permeability, compared with parents of controls (P = .015), with no differences in gastric or colonic permeability. After administration of ibuprofen, gastroduodenal and small bowel permeability tended to be greater in IBS or FAP siblings (P = .08) and gastroduodenal permeability tended to be greater in IBS or FAP parents (P = .086). Conclusions Siblings and parents of children with IBS or FAP have increased baseline small intestinal permeability compared with control children and their parents. These results indicate that there are familial influences on gastrointestinal permeability in patients with IBS or FAP.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Epidemiological, Clinical, and Psychological Characteristics of Individuals with Self-reported Irritable Bowel Syndrome Based on the Rome IV vs Rome III Criteria
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Christopher J. Black; Yan Yiannakou; Lesley A. Houghton; Alexander C. Ford

    Objectives Few studies have examined the effects of applying the Rome IV criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) vs the previous standard, the Rome III criteria. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of individuals who self-identify as having IBS to examine this issue. Methods We collected complete demographic, symptom, mood, and psychological health data from 1375 adults who self-identified as having IBS, but were not recruited from a referral population. We applied the Rome III and the Rome IV criteria simultaneously to examine what proportion met each of these diagnostic criteria for IBS. We measured the level of agreement between the Rome III and Rome IV criteria, and assessed for presence of an alternative functional bowel disorder in individuals who no longer met diagnostic criteria for IBS with the more restrictive Rome IV criteria. Finally, we compared characteristics of individuals who met only Rome III criteria with those who met Rome IV criteria. Results In total, 1080 of 1368 individuals (78.9%) with IBS met the Rome III criteria. In contrast, 811 of 1373 individuals (59.1%) with IBS met the Rome IV criteria. Agreement between the criteria was only moderate (Kappa = 0.50). Among those who no longer had IBS according to the Rome IV criteria, 33 (11.5%) met Rome IV criteria for functional constipation, 118 (41.3%) for functional diarrhea, 68 (23.8%) for functional abdominal bloating or distension, and 67 (23.4%) for an unspecified functional bowel disorder. Individuals with Rome IV-defined IBS had more severe symptoms, and a higher proportion had a mood disorder and evidence of poor psychological health, compared with individuals who only met the Rome III criteria for IBS (P < .001). Conclusions The characteristics of people who believe they have IBS differ between those who meet criteria as defined by Rome IV vs Rome III, including the spectrum of disease severity. Studies are needed to determine how these changes will affect outcomes of clinical trials.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Variation Among Patients With Crohn’s Disease in Benefit vs Risk Preferences and Remission Time Equivalents
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Meenakshi Bewtra; Shelby D. Reed; F. Reed Johnson; Frank I. Scott; Erin Gilroy; Robert S. Sandler; Wenli Chen; James D. Lewis

    Background & Aims Patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) must make decisions about their treatment. We aimed to quantify patients’ preferences for different treatment outcomes and adverse events. We also evaluated the effects of latent class heterogeneity on these preferences. Methods An online stated-preference survey was completed by 812 individuals with CD in the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation Partners cohort (IBD Partners). Patients were given information on symptoms and severity of active disease; duration of therapy with corticosteroids; and risks of serious infection, cancer and surgery. Patients were asked to assume that their treatment was not working and to choose an alternative therapy. The primary outcome was remission-time equivalents (RTE) of a given duration of symptom severity or treatment-related risk. Latent class choice models identified groups of patients with dominant treatment-outcome preferences and associated patient characteristics with these groups. Results Latent class analysis demonstrated 3 distinct groups of survey responders whose choices were strongly influenced by avoidance of active symptoms (61%), avoidance of corticosteroid use (25%), or avoidance of risks of cancer, infection or surgery (14%) when choosing a therapy. Class membership was correlated with age, sex, mean short CD activity index score and corticosteroid avoidance. RTEs in each latent class differed significantly from the mean RTEs for the overall sample, although the symptom-avoidant class most closely approximated the overall sample. Conclusions In an online survey of patients with CD, we found substantial heterogeneity in preference for medication efficacy and risk of harm. Physicians and regulators should therefore not assume that all patients have mean-value preferences—this could result in significant differences in health-technology assessment models.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Supplementary Anal Imaging by Magnetic Resonance Enterography in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Not Suspected of Having Perianal Fistulas
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Pyeong Hwa Kim; Seong Ho Park; Kiok Jin; Byong Duk Ye; Yong Sik Yoon; Jong Seok Lee; Hyun Jin Kim; Ah Young Kim; Chang Sik Yu; Suk-Kyun Yang

    Background & Aims Few data are available to guide the use of anal imaging for patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who are not suspected of having perianal fistulas. We aimed to evaluate the role of anal imaging supplementary to magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) in these patients. Methods In a prospective study, we added a round of anal MR imaging (MRI), collecting axial images alone, to MRE evaluation of 451 consecutive adults who were diagnosed with or suspected of having CD but not believed to have perianal fistulas. Images were examined for perianal tracts; if present, colorectal surgeons reexamined patients to identify external openings or perianal inflammation or abscess. Patients were followed and data were collected on dedicated treatment for perianal fistulas or abscess. We calculated the diagnostic yield for anal MRI, associated factors, and outcomes of MRI-detected asymptomatic perianal tracts. Results A total of 440 patients (mean age, 29.6±8.9 years) met the inclusion criteria. Anal MRI revealed perianal tracts in 53 patients (12%; 95% CI, 9.3%–15.4%). Surgeons however did not identify any lesions that required treatment. The asymptomatic tracts were mostly single unbranched (83%), inter-sphincteric (72%), or had a linear dark signal at the tract margin (79%). Younger age at MRE, female sex, and CD activity index scores of 220–450 were independently associated with detection of perianal tracts. MRI detection of asymptomatic tracts was independently associated with later development of perianal fistulas or abscess that required treatment: 17.8% cumulative incidence at 37 months and an adjusted hazard ratio of 3.06 (95% CI, 1.01–9.27; P = .048). Conclusions In a prospective study of patients with CD, we found that adding anal MRI evaluation to MRE resulted in early identification of patients at risk for perianal complications.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Increases Accuracy of Differentiation of Pancreatic Cystic Lesions
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Somashekar G. Krishna; Phil A. Hart; Ahmad Malli; Andrew J. Kruger; Sean T. McCarthy; Samer El-Dika; Jon P. Walker; Mary E. Dillhoff; Andrei Manilchuk; Carl R. Schmidt; Timothy M. Pawlik; Kyle Porter; Christina A. Arnold; Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate; Darwin L. Conwell

    Background & Aims Imaging patterns from endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE) have been associated with specific pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). We compared the accuracy of EUS with nCLE in differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous PCLs with that of measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytology analysis. Methods We performed a prospective study of 144 consecutive patients with a suspected PCL (≥20 mm) who underwent EUS with fine-needle aspiration of pancreatic cysts from June 2015 through December 2018 at a single center; 65 patients underwent surgical resection. Surgical samples were analyzed by histology (reference standard). During EUS, the needle with the miniprobe was placed in the cyst, which was analyzed by nCLE. Fluid was aspirated and analyzed for level of CEA and by cytology. We compared the accuracy of nCLE in differentiating mucinous from nonmucinous lesions with that of measurement of CEA and cytology analysis. Results The mean size of dominant cysts was 36.4 ± 15.7 mm and the mean duration of nCLE imaging was 7.3 ± 2.8 min. Among the 65 subjects with surgically resected cysts analyzed histologically, 86.1% had at least 1 worrisome feature based on the 2012 Fukuoka criteria. Measurement of CEA and cytology analysis identified mucinous PCLs with 74% sensitivity, 61% specificity, and 71% accuracy. EUS with nCLE identified mucinous PCLs with 98% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 97% accuracy. nCLE was more accurate in classifying mucinous vs nonmucinous cysts than the standard method (P < .001). The overall incidence of postprocedure acute pancreatitis was 3.5% (5 of 144); all episodes were mild, based on the revised Atlanta criteria. Conclusions In a prospective study, we found that analysis of cysts by nCLE identified mucinous cysts with greater accuracy than measurement of CEA and cytology analysis. EUS with nCLE can be used to differentiate mucinous from nonmucinous PCLs. ClincialTrials.gov no: NCT02516488.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Comparative Efficacy and Speed of Onset of Action of Infliximab vs Golimumab in Ulcerative Colitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-18
    Siddharth Singh; James A. Proudfoot; Parambir S. Dulai; Ronghui Xu; Brian G. Feagan; William J. Sandborn; Vipul Jairath

    Background & Aims With several options available for patients with moderate–severe ulcerative colitis (UC), rapidity of symptom resolution could be an important differentiator. We compared the efficacy and speed of onset of action of infliximab vs golimumab induction therapy using patient-level data from phase 3 trials (ACT-1, ACT-2, and PURSUIT-SC). Methods We compared differences in proportions of patients who achieved the composite outcome of a rectal bleeding score=0 and stool frequency score ≤1 (patient-reported outcome 2 remission) at weeks 2 and 6 of treatment with standard-dose infliximab vs golimumab using logistic generalized estimating equation. Overall efficacy for inducing clinical remission (Mayo clinic score <3) was compared using logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for sex, disease extent, baseline clinical and endoscopic severity, C-reactive protein, albumin, body weight and concomitant medications (immunomosuppressives, corticosteroids, and 5-aminsalicylates). Results Trial populations were similar and no differences were observed among the placebo groups in the studies. A significantly higher proportion patients treated with infliximab than golimumab achieved patient-reported outcome 2 remission at week 2 (35% vs 30%; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15–2.55) and at week 6 (50.0% vs 38.9%; adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.40–2.94). Infliximab-treated patients were also significantly more likely to achieve clinical remission than golimumab-treated patients (adjusted OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.95–4.70), with consistent findings in patients with moderate or severe UC. Conclusions Based on a patient-level analysis of data from phase 3 trials, infliximab resolves symptoms more rapidly and has greater efficacy for inducing remission than golimumab in patients with moderate-to-severe UC.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Optimizing Outcomes of Single-Operator Cholangioscopy–Guided Biopsies Based on a Randomized Trial
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Ji Young Bang; Udayakumar Navaneethan; Muhammad Hasan; Bryce Sutton; Robert Hawes; Shyam Varadarajulu

    Background & Aims Although single-operator cholangioscopy is considered to be the most sensitive method for tissue acquisition in patients with indeterminate bile duct strictures (IBDS), methods are needed to optimize the specimen collection and processing techniques. We aimed to determine the optimal method for specimen processing and identify the number of biopsies required to establish a definitive diagnosis. Methods Patients with IBDS were randomly assigned to groups that underwent specimen processing using the onsite (n = 32) or offsite (n = 30) method. The primary outcome was to compare operating characteristics of onsite vs offsite specimen processing techniques. The secondary outcome was number of biopsies needed to establish definitive diagnosis. A final diagnosis was established at surgery or after a minimum clinical follow-up period of 18 months Results The final diagnosis was benign disease in 33 patients and malignancy in 29 patients. There were no significant differences between the offsite and onsite groups in diagnostic accuracy (90% vs 87.5%; P=.99), sensitivity (76.9% vs 75%; P=.99), specificity (100% vs 100%; P=.99), positive predictive value (100% vs 100%; P=.99), or negative predictive value (85% vs 80%; P=.99). Although diagnoses were established by analysis of a median of 1 biopsy in the onsite cohort (interquartile range, 1–1.5), the diagnostic accuracy was identical (90%) in each group, regardless of whether 3 or 4 biopsies were collected from each patient in the offsite cohort. Conclusions In a prospective comparative study, we found that centers without onsite cytopathology support that analyze 3 single-operator cholangioscopy-guided biopsies of a biliary stricture and process the specimens offsite make the correct diagnosis for 90% of cases. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT01815619.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Outcomes of Long-term Treatment of Chronic HBV Infection With Entecavir or Other Agents From a Randomized Trial in 24 Countries
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Jin-Lin Hou; Wei Zhao; Changhyeong Lee; Hie-Won Hann; Cheng-Yuan Peng; Tawesak Tanwandee; Viacheslav Morozov; Hartwig Klinker; Jose D. Sollano; Adrian Streinu-Cercel; Hugo Cheinquer; Qing Xie; Yu-Ming Wang; Lai Wei; Ji-Dong Jia; Guozhong Gong; Kwang-Hyub Han; Wukui Cao; Seng-Gee Lim

    Background & Aims Treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with entecavir suppresses virus replication and reduces disease progression, but could require life-long therapy. To investigate clinical outcome events and safety associated with long-term treatment with entecavir, we followed up patients treated with entecavir or another standard-of-care HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue for up to 10 years. We assessed long-term outcomes and relationships with virologic response. Methods Patients with chronic HBV infection at 299 centers in Asia, Europe, and North and South America were assigned randomly to groups that received entecavir (n = 6216) or an investigator-selected nonentecavir HBV nucleos(t)ide analogue (n = 6162). Study participants were followed up for up to 10 years in hospital-based or community clinics. Key end points were time to adjudicated clinical outcome events and serious adverse events. In a substudy, we examined relationships between these events and virologic response. Results There were no significant differences between groups in time to event assessments for primary end points including malignant neoplasms, liver-related HBV disease progression, and death. There were no differences between groups in the secondary end points of nonhepatocellular carcinoma malignant neoplasms and hepatocellular carcinoma. In a substudy of 5305 patients in China, virologic response, regardless of treatment group, was associated with a reduced risk of liver-related HBV disease progression (hazard ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.038–0.221) and hepatocellular carcinoma (hazard ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.009–0.113). Twelve patients given entecavir (0.2%) and 50 patients given nonentecavir drugs (0.8%) reported treatment-related serious adverse events. Conclusions In a randomized controlled trial of patients with chronic HBV infection, we associated entecavir therapy with a low rate of adverse events over 10 years of follow-up evaluation. Patients receiving entecavir vs another nucleos(t)ide analogue had comparable rates of liver- and non–liver-related clinical outcome events. Participants in a China cohort who maintained a virologic response, regardless of treatment group, had a reduced risk of HBV-related outcome events including hepatocellular carcinoma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no: NCT00388674.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Among Patients with Undetectable Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Hepatocellular Carcinoma, a High Proportion Has Integration of HBV DNA into Hepatocyte DNA and No Cirrhosis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Danny Ka-Ho Wong; Serene Ching Yan Cheng; Loey Lung-Yi Mak; Elvis Wai-Pan To; Regina Cheuk-Lam Lo; Tan-To Cheung; Wai-Kay Seto; James Fung; Kwan Man; Ching-Lung Lai; Man-Fung Yuen

    Background & Aims In some individuals with undetectable serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA can still be detected in serum or hepatocytes and HBV replicates at low levels—this is called occult HBV infection (OBI). OBI has been associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the incidence of OBI in patients with HCC and other liver diseases. We also investigated whether, in patients with OBI and HCC, HBV DNA has integrated into the DNA of hepatocytes. Methods We collected clinical information and liver tissues from 110 HBsAg-negative patients (90 with HCC and 20 without HCC; median ages at surgical resection and biopsy collection, 64.1 and 48.6 years, respectively) who underwent liver resection or liver biopsy from November 2002 through July 2017 in Hong Kong. HBV DNA and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were analyzed and quantified by PCR in liver tissues. Integration of HBV DNA into the DNA of liver cells was detected by Alu-PCR. Results Of the 90 HBsAg-negative patients with HCC, 18 had alcoholic liver disease (20%), 14 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or steatohepatitis (16%), 2 had primary biliary cholangitis, 2 had recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, 1 had autoimmune hepatitis, and 53 had none of these (59%). Among the 20 patients without HCC, 7 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or steatohepatitis, 7 had primary biliary cholangitis, and 6 had autoimmune hepatitis. OBI was detected in 62/90 patients with HCC (69%) and 3/20 patients without HCC (15%) (P < .0001). cccDNA was detectable in liver cells of 29 patients with HCC and OBI (47%) and HBV DNA had integrated into DNA of liver cells of 43 patients with HCC and OBI (69%); cccDNA and integrated HBV DNA were not detected in the 3 patients who had OBI without HCC. There were 29 patients with integration of HBV DNA among 33 patients with undetectable cccDNA in liver tissues (88%) and 14 patients with integration of HBV DNA among the 29 patients with cccDNA in liver tissues (48%) (P = .001). HBV DNA was found to integrate near genes associated with hepatocarcinogenesis, such as those encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase, lysine methyltransferase 2B, and cyclin A2. Among the 43 patients with integration of HBV DNA, 39 (91%) did not have cirrhosis. Conclusions In an analysis of clinical data and liver tissues from 90 HBsAg-negative patients with HCC, we found that almost 70% had OBI, of whom 70% had integration of HBV DNA into liver cell DNA; 90% of these patients did not have cirrhosis. HBV DNA integrated near hepatic oncogenes; these integrations might promote development of liver cancer.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Alcohol Rehabilitation Within 30 Days of Hospital Discharge Is Associated With Reduced Readmission, Relapse, and Death in Patients With Alcoholic Hepatitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-28
    Thoetchai (Bee) Peeraphatdit; Patrick S. Kamath; Victor M. Karpyak; Brian Davis; Vivek Desai; Suthat Liangpunsakul; Arun Sanyal; Naga Chalasani; Vijay H. Shah; Douglas A. Simonetto

    Background & Aims Patients admitted to the hospital for alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are at increased risk of readmission and death. We aimed to identify factors associated with readmission, alcohol relapse, and mortality. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients admitted with AH to a tertiary care hospital from 1999 through 2016 (test cohort, n = 135). We validated our findings in a prospective analysis of patients in a multi-center AH research consortium from 2013 through 2017 (validation cohort, n = 159). Alcohol relapse was defined as any amount of alcohol consumption within 30 days after hospital discharge. Early alcohol rehabilitation was defined as residential or outpatient addiction treatment or mutual support group participation within 30 days after hospital discharge. Results Thirty-day readmission rates were 30% in both cohorts. Alcohol relapse rates were 37% in the test and 34% in the validation cohort. Following hospital discharge, 27 patients (20%) in the test cohort and 19 patients (16%) in the validation cohort attended early alcohol rehabilitation. There were 53 deaths (39%) in a median follow-up time of 2.8 years and 42 deaths (26%) in a median follow-up time of 1.3 years, respectively. In the test cohort, early alcohol rehabilitation reduced odds for 30-day readmission (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 0.16; 95% CI, 0.04–0.65; P = .01), 30-day alcohol relapse (AOR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02–0.53; P < .001), and death (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.20; 95% CI, 0.05–0.56; P = .001). In the validation cohort early alcohol rehabilitation reduced odds for 30-day readmission (AOR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.09–0.98; P = .04), 30-day alcohol relapse (AOR 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01–0.73; P = .02), and death (AHR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.01–0.94; P = .04). A model combining alcohol rehabilitation and bilirubin identified patients with readmission to the hospital within 30 days with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. Conclusions In an analysis from two cohorts of patients admitted with AH, early alcohol rehabilitation can reduce risk of hospital readmission, alcohol relapse, and death and should be considered as a quality indicator in AH hospitalization treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Long-term Liver-related Outcomes of Patients With Chronic Liver Diseases in Australia
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-07-15
    Yi Huang; John Joseph; W. Bastiaan de Boer; Wendy Cheng; Leon A. Adams; Gerry MacQuillan; George Garas; Spiro Raftopoulos; Gary P. Jeffrey

    Background & Aims Chronic liver disease is a major health burden that produces significant liver-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate liver-related outcomes of patients with different causes of chronic liver disease in Australia. Methods We collected data from 10,933 patients with chronic liver disease assessed by Hepascore (a serum fibrosis model) in Western Australia from 2004 through 2015. We obtained records of liver-related death, transplantation, decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma from WA Data Linkage Unit databases. Competing risk analysis was used to calculate the cumulative risk of each clinical endpoint, and risks for clinical endpoints were compared among all causes of chronic liver disease. Results In our final cohort for analysis, 5566 patients had hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 1989 had HBV infection, 119 were infected with HBV and HCV, 955 had alcohol-associated liver disease, 1597 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 123 had alcohol-associated liver disease and metabolic risk factors, 561 had autoimmune liver disease without overlap syndrome, and 23 autoimmune overlap syndrome. Significant differences among chronic liver diseases were observed in risk of all-cause death (P < .001), liver-related death (P < .001), liver transplantation (P < .001), and decompensation (P < .001) but not hepatocellular carcinoma (P=.095). Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease had the highest 5-year cumulative risk of liver-related death (17.1%) and the second-highest 5-year cumulative risk of decompensation (29.2%). Multivariate analysis found patients with alcohol-associated liver disease had significantly higher risks of liver-related death and decompensation than patients with HCV infection with hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.39 (95% CI, 1.88–3.03) and 3.42 (95% CI, 2.74–4.27), respectively. Patients with NAFLD had a significantly lower risk of liver related death and decompensation than patients with HCV infection, with HRs of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48–0.95) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.52–0.94) respectively. Conclusions In an analysis of patients in Western Australia, we found patients with alcohol-associated liver disease to have significantly higher risk of decompensation and liver-related death than patients with HCV infection, whereas patients with NAFLD have significantly lower risks of either outcome.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Heparin-like Effect Associated With Risk of Bleeding, Sepsis, and Death in Patients With Severe Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Madhumita Premkumar; Chhagan Bihari; Priyanka Saxena; Devaraja Rangegowda Devurgowda; Tanmay Vyas; Roshni Mirza; Priyanka Jain; Guresh Kumar; Puja Bhatia; Sukriti Baweja; Ashok Choudhury; Shiv Kumar Sarin

    Background & Aims Endogenous heparinoids or heparin-like effects (HLEs) can cause coagulation failure in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis. We performed a prospective study of the association between HLE and bleeding events, sepsis, and outcomes of patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis. Methods Our final analysis comprised 78 patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis (44.3 ± 11.7 years; all male; discriminant function >32) who presented without sepsis at a single center in India from August 2015 through August 2016. Blood samples were collected at days 0, 3, and 7 after presentation and assessed by a global coagulation assay; by SONOCLOT (global and heparinase treated); and in assays for factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, protein C, and antithrombin. Patients were followed for sepsis, bleeding and outcome. The primary outcome was association of HLE with survival 28 days after presentation. Results HLEs were observed in 32 patients (41%) at day 0, 27 patients (34.6%) at day 3, and 28 patients (35.9%) patients at day 7. Factors associated with mortality at day 0 were factor VIII activity >160% (hazard ratio [HR], 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4–9.5; P = .026), level of protein C <34% (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5–0.8; P = .037), antithrombin activity <28% (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3–1.1; P = .008) and international normalized ratio >2.6 (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.8–9.7; P = .010). In multivariate analyses, only factor VIII activity (HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–7.8; P = .046), international normalized ratio (1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–4.3; P = .039), level of protein C (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7–1.1; P = .052) and model for end-stage liver disease score (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9–10.2; P = .042) were associated with mortality. Episodes of epistaxis, hemorrhoid bleeding, hemoperitoneum, and pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 10.2%, 12.3%, 3.4%, and 4.5% of patients respectively. The presence of HLE at day 0 increased the risk of sepsis (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 2.2–4.3; P = .002), bleeding (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2–5.3; P = .004) and death (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.4–1.7; P = .044). Conclusions In a prospective study of patients with severe alcohol-associated hepatitis, we associated HLE with coagulation abnormalities, risk of sepsis, and mortality. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02307409.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • First- and Second-line Pharmacotherapies for Patients with Moderate to Severely Active Ulcerative Colitis: An Updated Network Meta-Analysis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Siddharth Singh; Mohammad Hassan Murad; Mathurin Fumery; Parambir S. Dulai; William J. Sandborn

    Background & Aims We compared the efficacy and safety of different first-line (biologic-naïve) and second-line (prior exposure to tumor necrosis factor [TNF] antagonists) agents for treatment of moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis in a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Methods We searched publication databases through September 30, 2019 for randomized trials of adults with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis treated with TNF antagonists, vedolizumab, tofacitinib, or ustekinumab, as first-line or second-line agents, compared with placebo or another active agent. Efficacy outcomes were induction and maintenance of remission and endoscopic improvement; safety outcomes were serious adverse events and infections. We performed fixed-effects network meta-analysis using frequentist approach, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values. Agents were ranked using surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities. Results In biologic-naïve patients, infliximab was ranked highest for induction of clinical remission (OR vs placebo, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.67–6.21; SUCRA,0.95) and endoscopic improvement (SUCRA, 0.95) (moderate confidence in estimates [CE]). In patients with prior exposure to TNF antagonists, ustekinumab (SUCRA,0.87) and tofacitinib (SUCRA,0.87) were ranked highest for induction of clinical remission and were superior to vedolizumab (OR vs ustekinumab, 5.99; 95% CI, 1.13–31.76 and OR vs tofacitinib, 6.18; 95% CI, 1.003–8.00; moderate CE) and adalimumab (OR vs ustekinumab, 10.71; 95% CI, 2.01–57.20 and OR vs tofacitinib, 11.05; 95% CI, 1.79–68.41; moderate CE). Vedolizumab had lowest risk of infections (SUCRA, 0.81), followed by ustekinumab (SUCRA, 0.63) in maintenance trials. Conclusions In a systematic review and network meta-analysis, we found infliximab to be ranked highest in biologic-naïve patients, and ustekinumab and tofacitinib were ranked highest in patients with prior exposure to TNF antagonists, for induction of remission and endoscopic improvement in patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. More trials of direct comparisons are needed to inform clinical decision-making with greater confidence.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • A Model to Identify Heavy Drinkers at High Risk for Liver Disease Progression
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Claire Delacôte; Pierre Bauvin; Alexandre Louvet; Flavien Dautrecque; Line Carolle Ntandja Wandji; Guillaume Lassailly; Cosmin Voican; Gabriel Perlemuter; Sylvie Naveau; Philippe Mathurin; Sylvie Deuffic-Burban

    Background & Aims Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) causes chronic liver disease. We investigated how information on patients’ drinking history and amount, stage of liver disease, and demographic feature can be used to determine risk of disease progression. Methods We collected data from 2334 heavy drinkers (50 g/day or more) with persistently abnormal results from liver tests who had been admitted to a hepato-gastroenterology unit in France from January 1982 through December 1997; patients with a recorded duration of alcohol abuse were assigned to the development cohort (n=1599; 75% men) or the validation cohort (n=735; 75% men), based on presence of a liver biopsy. We collected data from both cohorts on patient history and disease stage at the time of hospitalization. For the development cohort, severity of the disease was scored by the METAVIR (due to the availability of liver histology reports); in the validation cohort only the presence of liver complications was assessed. We developed a model of ALD progression and occurrence of liver complications (hepatocellular carcinoma and/or liver decompensation) in association with exposure to alcohol, age at the onset of heavy drinking, amount of alcohol intake, sex and body mass index. The model was fitted to the development cohort and then evaluated in the validation cohort. We then tested the ability of the model to predict disease progression for any patient profile (baseline evaluation). Patients with a 5-y weighted risk of liver complications greater than 5% were considered at high risk for disease progression. Results Model results are given for the following patient profiles: men and women, 40 y old, who started drinking at an age of 25 y, drank 150 g/day, and had a body mass index of 22 kg/m2 according to the disease severity at baseline evaluation. For men with baseline F0–F2 fibrosis, the model estimated the probabilities of normal liver, steatosis, or steatohepatitis at baseline to be 31.8%, 61.5% and 6.7%, respectively. The 5-y weighted risk of liver complications was 1.9%, ranging from 0.2% for men with normal liver at baseline evaluation to 10.3% for patients with steatohepatitis at baseline. For women with baseline F0–F2 fibrosis, probabilities of normal liver, steatosis, or steatohepatitis at baseline were 25.1%, 66.5% and 8.4%, respectively; the 5-y weighted risk of liver complications was 3.2%, ranging from 0.5% for women with normal liver at baseline to 14.7% for patients with steatohepatitis at baseline. Based on the model, men with F3–F4 fibrosis at baseline have a 24.5% 5-y weighted risk of complications (ranging from 20.2% to 34.5%) and women have a 30.1% 5-y weighted risk of complications (ranging from 24.7% to 41.0%). Conclusions We developed a Markov model that integrates data on level and duration of alcohol use to identify patients at high risk of liver disease progression. This model might be used to adapt patient care pathways.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • A Scoring System to Determine Patients’ Risk of Colectomy Within 1 y After Hospital Admission for Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    G. Le Baut; J. Kirchgesner; A. Amiot; J.H. Lefevre; N. Chafai; C. Landman; I. Nion; A. Bourrier; C. Delattre; C. Martineau; H. Sokol; P. Seksik; Y. Nguyen; Y. Marion; G. Lebreton; F. Carbonnel; S. Viennot; L. Beaugerie

    Background & Aims There is consensus on the criteria used to define acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC) and on patient management, but it has been a challenge to identify patients at risk for colectomy based on data collected at hospital admission. We aimed to develop a system to determine patients’ risk of colectomy within 1 y of hospital admission for ASUC based on clinical, biomarker, and endoscopy data. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with ASUC treated with corticosteroids, ciclosporin, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists and admitted to 2 hospitals in France from 2002 through 2017. Patients were followed until colectomy or loss of follow up. A total of 270 patients with ASUC were included in the final analysis, with a median follow-up time of 30 months (derivation cohort). Independent risk factors identified by Cox multivariate analysis were used to develop a system to identify patients at risk for colectomy 1 y after ASUC. We developed a scoring system based on these 4 factors (1 point for each item) identify high-risk (score 3 or 4) vs low-risk (score 0) patients. We validated this system using data from an independent cohort of 185 patients with ASUC treated from 2006 through 2017 at 2 centers in France. Results In the derivation cohort, the cumulative risk of colectomy was 12.3% (95% CI, 8.6–16.8). Based on multivariate analysis, previous treatment with TNF antagonists or thiopurines (hazard ratio [HR], 3.86; 95% CI, 1.82–8.18), Clostridioides difficile infection (HR, 3.73; 95% CI, 1.11–12.55), serum level of C-reactive protein above 30 mg/L (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.11–8.43), and serum level of albumin below 30 g/L (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.20–5.92) were associated with increased risk of colectomy. In the derivation cohort, the cumulative risks of colectomy within 1 y in patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 were 0.0%, 9.4% (95% CI, 4.3%–16.7%), 10.6% (95% CI, 5.6%–17.4%), 51.2% (95% CI, 26.6%–71.3%), and 100%. Negative predictive values ranged from 87% (95% CI, 82%–91%) to 92% (95% CI, 88%–95.0%). Findings from the validation cohort were consistent with findings from the derivation cohort. Conclusions We developed a scoring system to identify patients at low-risk vs high-risk for colectomy within 1 y of hospitalization for ASUC, based on previous treatment with TNF antagonists or thiopurines, C difficile infection, and serum levels of CRP and albumin. The system was validated in an external cohort.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • High Dietary Intake of Vegetable or Polyunsaturated Fats is Associated With Reduced Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Wanshui Yang; Jing Sui; Yanan Ma; Tracey G. Simon; Jessica L. Petrick; Michelle Lai; Katherine A. McGlynn; Peter T. Campbell; Edward L. Giovannucci; Andrew T. Chan; Xuehong Zhang

    Background & Aims We investigated associations of intake of total fats, specific dietary fats, and fats from different food sources with risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). Methods We analyzed data from a total of 138,483 women and men who participated in the NHS or HPFS. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was sent to NHS participants in 1980, 1984, 1986, and every 4 years thereafter; dietary information was collected from participants in the HPFS in 1986 and every 4 years thereafter. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results After an average follow-up time of 26.6 years, 160 incident HCC cases were documented. Although there was a non-significant association between total fat intake and HCC, intake of vegetable fats reduced risk of HCC (HR for the highest vs lowest quartile, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39–0.96; Ptrend=.02), but not animal or dairy fats. Replacing animal or dairy fats with an equivalent amount of vegetable fats was associated with a lower risk of HCC (HR per 1 standard deviation, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.97). Among fat subtypes, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including n-3 (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41–0.96; Ptrend=.14) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34–0.86; Ptrend=.02), were inversely associated with risk of HCC. Higher ratios of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat were inversely associated with HCC risk (all Ptrend≤.02). In addition, when replacing saturated fats with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, the HR per 1 standard deviation was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.64–0.92). Conclusions In an analysis of data from 2 large cohort studies, we found higher intake of vegetable fats and polyunsaturated fats to be associated with lower risk of HCC. Replacing animal or dairy fats with vegetable fats, or replacing saturated fats with monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, was associated with reduced risk of HCC.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Coordination of Care Associated With Survival and Healthcare Utilization in a Population-based Study of Patients With Cirrhosis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg; Akbar K. Waljee; Brooke C. Kenney; Elliot B. Tapper

    Background & Aims Improving care coordination for patients with high-intensity specialty care needs, such as cirrhosis, can increase quality of healthcare and reduce utilization. We examined the relationship between care concentration and risk of hospitalization for patients with cirrhosis. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of 26,006 Medicare enrollees with cirrhosis with more than 4 outpatient visits over 180 days. We collected data on 2 validated measures of care concentration: the usual provider of care (UPC) index, a measure of the proportion of a patient’s total visits that is with their most regularly seen provider, and the continuity of care (COC) index, a measure of care density and dispersion. Both use a scale of 0 to 1. Time to death or liver transplantation was evaluated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Hospital days and 30-day readmissions per person-year were evaluated in negative binomial models. Results The median COC score was 0.40 (interquartile range, 0.26–0.60) and the median UPC was 0.60 (interquartile range, 0.50–0.80). Increasing care concentration (based on COC and UPC index scores) were associated with increased mortality and hospitalization. The highest 25th percentile of COC and UPC scores were associated with adjusted hazard ratios for mortality of 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10–1.31) and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.06–1.24), adjusted incidence rate ratios for hospital days of 1.12 (95% CI, 1.02–1.23) and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.01–1.20), and adjusted incidence rate ratios for readmissions of 1.19 (95% CI, 1.06–1.34) and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.00–1.25), respectively. Conclusions Based on a study of Medicare enrollees, care concentration is low among patients with cirrhosis. However, increased concentration is associated with increased mortality and increased healthcare utilization. These data indicate that, to optimize outcomes for persons with cirrhosis, team-based care might be necessary.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Inpatient Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Related Complications
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Manreet Kaur; Robin L. Dalal; Seth Shaffer; David A. Schwartz; David T. Rubin

    Despite advances in therapeutic options, a sizeable proportion of patients with inflammatory bowel disease require hospitalization or surgery during their lifetime. While current treatment guidelines for the management of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease cover the spectrum of disease severity and behavior, management of acute complications of inflammatory bowel disease can present unique challenges that are not always addressed in these guidelines. In this review, the authors provide a comprehensive summary of the existing literature focused on management of patients hospitalized with complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Proposed management algorithms are provided to guide clinicians through common scenarios to determine the most appropriate interventions – escalation of medical therapies, non-surgical therapeutic interventions (drainage of intra-abdominal abscess or endoscopic balloon dilation) or surgery. Prevention of complications is proposed through a multi-disciplinary approach that involves surgeons, dieticians, radiologists, pathologists and infectious disease consultants.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Effects of Apremilast, an Oral Inhibitor of Phosphodiesterase 4, in a Randomized Trial of Patients With Active Ulcerative Colitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Silvio Danese; Markus F. Neurath; Adam Kopoń; Salam F. Zakko; Timothy C. Simmons; Ronald Fogel; Corey A. Siegel; Remo Panaccione; Xiaojiang Zhan; Keith Usiskin; Denesh Chitkara

    Background & Aims New oral therapeutic agents are needed for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who are unresponsive or intolerant to conventional therapy. Methods We performed a double-blind, phase 2 trial of adults with active UC for 3 months or more who were naïve to biologic therapy or had been failed by, could not tolerate, or had contraindications to conventional therapies. The study was performed at 61 sites in 14 countries (screening from January 2015 through May 2017). Patients were randomly assigned to groups given apremilast 30 mg (n=57), apremilast 40 mg (n=55), or placebo (n=58), twice daily for 12 weeks; patients were then randomly assigned to groups that received apremilast, 30 or 40 mg twice daily, for an additional 40 weeks. Endoscopies were performed and biopsies were collected during the screening phase, at week 12, and at week 52. Blood and fecal samples were also collected and analyzed throughout the study. The primary endpoint was clinical remission at week 12, defined as a total Mayo score of 2 or less, with no individual subscore above 1. Results Clinical remission was achieved at week 12 by 31.6% of patients in the 30 mg apremilast group and 12.1% of patients in the placebo group (P=.01). However, only 21.8% of patients in the 40 mg apremilast group achieved clinical remission at week 12 (P=.27 compared with placebo). Differences in clinical remission between the 30 mg and 40 mg apremilast groups associated with differences in endoscopic improvement. Both apremilast groups had similar improvements from baseline in Mayo score components (stool frequency score, rectal bleeding score, physician’s global assessment). The 30 mg and 40 mg apremilast groups had greater median percent reductions in C-reactive protein (measured by a high-sensitivity blood test) and fecal calprotectin through week 12 than the placebo group. At week 52, clinical remission was achieved by 40.4% of patients initially assigned to the apremilast 30 mg group and 32.7% of patients initially assigned to the apremilast 40 mg group. The most frequent apremilast-associated adverse events were headache and nausea. Conclusions Although the primary endpoint of clinical remission was not met in this phase 2 trial, a greater proportion of patients with active UC who received apremilast (30 mg or 40 mg) had improvements in clinical and endoscopic features, and markers of inflammation, at 12 weeks. Clinical remission was maintained to week 52 in up to 40% of patients who continued apremilast until that time point. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02289417

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Fecal Microbiota Transplant Decreases Mortality in Patients with Refractory Severe or Fulminant Clostridioides difficile Infection
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yao-Wen Cheng; Emmalee Phelps; Sara Nemes; Nicholas Rogers; Sashidhar Sagi; Matthew Bohm; Mustapha El-Halabi; Jessica R. Allegretti; Zain Kassam; Huiping Xu; Monika Fischer

    Background & Aims Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is recommended for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). FMT cures nearly 80% of patients with severe or fulminant CDI (SFCDI) when utilized in a sequential manner. We compared outcomes of hospitalized patients before and after implementation of an FMT program for SFCDI and investigated whether the changes could be directly attributed to the FMT program. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of characteristics and outcomes of patients hospitalized for SFCDI (430 hospitalizations) at a single center, from January 2009 through December 2016. We performed subgroup analyses of 199 patients with fulminant CDI and 110 patients with refractory SFCDI (no improvement after 5 or more days of maximal anti-CDI antibiotic therapy). We compared CDI-related mortality within 30 days of hospitalization, CDI-related colectomy, length of hospital stay, and readmission to the hospital within 30 days before (2009–2012) vs after (2013–2016) implementation of the inpatient FMT program. Results CDI-related mortality and colectomy were lower after implementation of the FMT program. Overall, CDI-related mortality was 10.2% before the FMT program was implemented vs 4.4% after (P=.02). For patients with fulminant CDI, CDI-related mortality was 21.3% before the FMT program was implemented vs 9.1% after (P=.015). For patients with refractory SFCDI, CDI-related mortality was 43.2% before the FMT program vs 12.1% after (P < .001). The FMT program significantly reduced CDI-related colectomy in patients with SFCDI (6.8% before vs 2.7% after; P=.041), in patients with fulminant CDI (15.7% before vs 5.5% after; P=.017), and patients with refractory SFCDI (31.8% vs 7.6%; P = .001). The effect of FMT program implementation on CDI-related mortality remained significant for patients with refractory SFCDI after we accounted for the underlying secular trend (odds ratio, 0.09 for level change; P=.023). Conclusions An FMT program significantly decreased CDI-related mortality among patients hospitalized with refractory SFCDI.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Clinical validation of BASIC Classification for the Resect and Discard Strategy for Diminutive Colorectal Polyps
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Emanuele Rondonotti; Cesare Hassan; Alida Andrealli; Silvia Paggi; Arnaldo Amato; Lucia Scaramella; Alessandro Repici; Franco Radaelli

    Background & Aims Blue-light imaging (BLI) is a chromoendoscopy technique that uses direct (not filtered) emission of blue light with short wavelength (410 nm) to increase visibility of microvascular pattern and superficial mucosa. A BLI-based classification system for colorectal polyps (also called BLI Adenomas Serrated International Classification, BASIC) has been created and was validated using still images or short videos. We aimed to validate BASIC in a clinical practice setting, using thresholds recommended by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy for the resect and discard strategy as the reference standard. Methods We studied 333 patients (mean age, 62.7+8.1 y; 176 men) who underwent screening colonoscopy from January through July 2019. Six endoscopists trained in BASIC participated in the study. All detected diminutive polyps were characterized by real-time BLI and categorized as adenoma or non-adenoma according to BASIC. All polyps were removed and evaluated by histopathology. The BLI-directed surveillance intervals (based on high-confidence characterization of polyps 5 mm or smaller and pathology feature for others) were compared with histology-directed surveillance intervals, according to United States Multi-society Task Force and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommendations. We calculated negative-predictive values of optical real-time analysis of diminutive rectosigmoid adenomas. Results When we applied BASIC, 748 polyps smaller than 5 mm were categorized with 89% accuracy (95% CI, 85.9%–90.6%). BLI-directed surveillance was correct for 90% of patients according to the United States Multi-society task force criteria (95% CI, 86%–93%) and for 96% of patients according to European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy criteria (95% CI, 93%–97%). The negative-predictive value for 302 polyps smaller than 5 mm, located in the rectosigmoid colon and evaluated with high confidence, based on histologic features of adenomatous polyps, was 91% (95% CI, 85%–95%). Conclusions Our analysis of data from 333 patients undergoing screen colonoscopies support the validity of BASIC discriminating diminutive colorectal polyps with histologic features of adenomas from non-adenomas. This allows for the implementation of the resect and discard strategy based on BLI in clinical practice. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT03746171

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Frequency of Eating Disorder Pathology Among Patients With Chronic Constipation and Contribution of Gastrointestinal-Specific Anxiety
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Helen B. Murray; Ryan Flanagan; Bryana Banashefski; Casey J. Silvernale; Braden Kuo; Kyle Staller

    Background Aims Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) frequently have constipation-related symptoms, although the mechanisms of this relationship are not clear. We examined the frequency of and relation between EDs and constipation in patients with chronic constipation referred for anorectal manometry. Methods We analyzed data from 279 patients with chronic constipation (79.2% female) seen at a tertiary center from June 2017 through September 2018. Participants completed a standardized psychometric assessment (patient assessment of constipation symptoms questionnaire and hospital anxiety and depression scale and visceral sensitivity index analyses) and anorectal manometry. A subset of patients completed colonic transit testing. Participants with clinically significant ED pathology were identified based on scores of 20 or more on the eating attitudes test-26. We performed logistic regression analysis to examine factors associated with likelihood of having ED pathology. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated based on continuous variables. We examined the contribution of anxiety to the relationship between severity of ED pathology and symptoms of constipation (such as abdominal pain) using a regression-based bootstrapping approach. Results Of the study participants, 53 (19.0%) had clinically significant ED pathology. The presence of ED pathology was associated with greater general anxiety scores, based on the hospital anxiety and depression scale (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.05–1.38), and greater gastrointestinal-specific anxiety scores, based on the visceral sensitivity index (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03–1.09). Gastrointestinal-specific anxiety fully mediated the relationship between the severity of ED pathology and constipation (standardized β, 0.11–0.16; P=.026–.024). We found no differences in anorectal manometry or colonic transit between patients with vs without ED pathology. Conclusions In an analysis of patients with chronic constipation, we found that 19% had clinically significant ED pathology. Our preliminary finding indicate that ED pathology might contribute to constipation via gastrointestinal-specific anxiety. Clinicians should consider screening patients with chronic constipation for EDs—especially patients who report symptoms such as bloating and abdominal pain.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Development and Validation of the Asia-Pacific Proximal Colon Neoplasia Risk Score
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Martin CS. Wong; Rungsun Rerknimitr; Khean Lee Goh; Takahisa Matsuda; Hyun-Soo Kim; Deng-Chyang Wu; Kai Chun Wu; Khay Guan Yeoh; Vui Heng Chong; Furqaan Ahmed; Jose D. Sollano; Jayaram Menon; Han-Mo Chiu; Jingnan Li; Jessica YL. Ching; Joseph JY. Sung

    Background & Aims Patients found to be at high risk of advanced proximal neoplasia (APN) after flexible sigmoidoscopy screening should be considered for colonoscopy examination. We developed and validated a scoring system to identify persons at risk for APN. Methods We collected data from 7954 asymptomatic subjects (50–75 years old) who received screening colonoscopy examinations at 14 sites in Asia. We randomly assigned 5303 subjects to the derivation cohort and the remaining 2651 to the validation cohort. We collected data from the derivation cohort on age, sex, family history of colorectal cancer, smoking, drinking, body mass index, medical conditions, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin. Associations between the colonoscopic findings of APN and each risk factor were examined using the Pearson χ2 test, and we assigned each participant a risk score (0-15), with scores of 0-3 as average risk and scores of ≥4 as high risk. The scoring system was tested in the validation cohort. We used the Cochran-Armitage test of trend to compare the prevalence of APN among subjects in each group. Results In the validation cohort, 79.5% of patients were classified as average risk and 20.5% were classified as high risk. The prevalence of APN in the average-risk group was 1.9% and in the high-risk group was 9.4% (adjusted relative risk 5.08; 95% CI, 3.38–7.62; P<0.001). The score included age (61-70 years: 3; ≥70 years: 4), smoking habits (current/past: 2), family history of colorectal cancer (present in a first-degree relative: 2), and the presence of neoplasia in the distal colorectum (non-advanced adenoma 5-9mm: 2; advanced neoplasia: 7). The c-statistics of the score was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.68–0.79), and that for distal findings alone was 0.67 (95% CI=0.60-0.74). The Hosemer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test statistic was greater than 0.05, indicating the reliability of the validation set. The number needed to refer was 11 (95% CI, 10–13) and the number needed to screen was 15 (95% CI, 12–17). Conclusions We developed and validated a scoring system to identify persons at risk for APN. Screening participants who undergo flexible sigmoidoscopy screening with a scores of 4 points or more should undergo colonoscopy evaluation.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Systematic review and external validation of prediction models based on symptoms and biomarkers for identifying endoscopic activity in Crohn's disease
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Eelco C. Brand; Sjoerd G. Elias; Itta M. Minderhoud; Julius J. van der Veen; Filip J. Baert; David Laharie; Peter Bossuyt; Yoram Bouhnik; Anthony Buisson; Guy Lambrecht; Edouard Louis; Benjamin Pariente; Marieke J. Pierik; C. Janneke van der Woude; Geert R.A.M. D’Haens; Séverine Vermeire; Bas Oldenburg

    Background & Aims Endoscopic healing, an important target of treatment for Crohn’s Disease (CD), requires ileocolonoscopy, which is costly and burdensome. We investigated whether published non-invasive models (based on symptoms and biomarkers) to evaluate CD activity have sufficient accuracy to replace ileocolonoscopy. Methods We performed a systematic review of published non-invasive diagnostic models to evaluate CD activity that used endoscopic features of activity (endoscopic activity) or healing as the reference standard. We externally validated these models for the outcome endoscopic activity (CD endoscopic index of severity scores of 3 or more) using data from the TAILORIX study (346 ileocolonoscopies in 155 patients) and the Utrecht Activity Index (UAI) study (93 ileocolonoscopies in 82 patients). We calculated area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCROCs) for the models using data from these studies, and compared the performance of these models against measurements of fecal calprotectin (FC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results We screened 5303 articles and identified 27 models (from 21 studies) for our analysis. Seven models could be externally validated; in the TAILORIX dataset, these models identified patients with endoscopic activity with AUROC values ranging from 0.61 (95% CI, 0.51–0.70) to 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76–0.86). In this dataset, the AUROC value for FC concentration was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74–0.85) and the AUROC value for CRP level was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.66–0.77). The AUROC values for the validation in the UAI-dataset were similar. In the TAILORIX and/or UAI-dataset, 4 of the 7 models, as well as the FC and CRP assays, were able to identify patients with endoscopic activity with positive predictive values of 90% or more. Two of the 7 models (but not the FC or CRP values) identified patients without endoscopic activity with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 90% or more, leading to correct prediction of endoscopic healing in 3.2% to 11.3% of all patients. For example, applying the Herranz-Bachiller model (1 of 7 models) at a NPV of 92.1% and positive predictive value of 91.9% correctly identified 35.7% of all patients in whom ileocolonoscopy could be avoided for expected endoscopic activity or healing but incorrectly identified 3.2% of all patients. Most ileocolonoscopies (66.5% in TAILORIX and 72.6% in the UAI of all ileocolonoscopies) could correctly be avoided based on concentrations of FC of 100 μg/g or less and 250 μg/g or higher. However, using this range of FC concentrations to identify patients that don’t require ileocolonoscopy caused 18.7% of all patients in the TAILORIX cohort and 19.8% of all patients in the UAI cohort to incorrectly being predicted to have endoscopic activity or healing.. Conclusions In a systematic review and external validation of non-invasive models to identify patients with endoscopic activity of CD, we found only 2 of 7 models evaluated to have NPVs of 90% or more, however, only leading to correct predicted EH in a small proportion of patients. Ileocolonoscopy must therefore be used to evaluate CD mucosal disease activity and healing.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Response assessed by Ultrasonography as Target of Biological Treatment for Crohn’s disease
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Francesca Zorzi; Subrata Ghosh; Carlo Chiaramonte; Elisabetta Lolli; Martina Ventura; Sara Onali; Elena De Cristofaro; Massimo C. Fantini; Livia Biancone; Giovanni Monteleone; Emma Calabrese

    Background & Aims Mucosal healing, determined by ileocolonoscopy, is a goal for treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD), but this is an invasive assessment procedure. We investigated whether response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists, determined by small-intestine contrast ultrasonography, associates with long-term outcomes. Methods We performed observational study of 80 patients with CD treated with anti-TNF agents for at least 1 year who underwent serial small intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) at the University of Rome, in Italy. SICUS was used to evaluate disease site (based on bowel wall thickness), extent of lesions, and presence of complications were. Inclusion criteria required pre-therapy SICUS with follow-up SICUS after 18 months. At second SICUS, patients were assigned to categories of complete or partial responder or non-responder. CD-related outcomes (corticosteroid need, hospitalization, and surgery) were assessed at 1 year from the second SICUS, using multivariate models, and were analyzed after long term follow up (5 years) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results Based on SICUS, after a median of 18 months, 36 patients (51%) were complete responders, 30 were partial responders (34%), and 13 were non-responders (15%). At 1 year from the second SICUS, no patients with a complete response, based on ultrasonography, underwent surgery, in comparison to partial responders (P=.0003) or non-responders (P=.001). Complete responders used smaller amounts of corticosteroids than partial responders (P=.0001) or non-responders (P<.0001). Complete responders required fewer hospitalizations than non-responders (P=.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of long-term follow up data demonstrated a lower cumulative probability of need for surgery, hospitalization, and need for steroids among SICUS-categorized complete responders (P<.0001, P=0.003 and P=.0001 respectively) than SICUS-categorized non-responders. Conclusions In patients with CD, response to anti-TNF agents, determined by SICUS, is associated with better long-term outcomes than partial or no response. Ultrasonographic assessment therefore provides a relatively non-invasive method for monitoring response to treatment in patients with CD.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease Have Similar Burden and Goals for Treatment
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Catherine Le Berre; Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan; Silvio Danese; Siddharth Singh; Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet

    It is unclear whether ulcerative colitis (UC) is a progressive disease similar to Crohn’s disease (CD). Patients with UC often are undertreated because of the possibility of curative colectomy and the perception that the disease burden is lower than that of CD. We discuss findings from studies that aimed to determine whether UC and CD have the same disease burden and should be treated in the same intensive way. We discuss the similarities between CD and UC, including effects on quality of life, long-term complications, strictures, increased risk of cancer, pseudopolyps, functional abnormalities, and anorectal dysfunction. Contrary to the generally accepted idea, surgery cannot cure UC. Postoperative complications, especially pouchitis and fecal incontinence, affect more than one third of patients. CD and UC each pose substantial economic burdens. Monitoring, treatments, and goals of therapy are similar for all inflammatory bowel diseases. Earlier initiation of disease-modifying drugs might reduce the progression of UC and reduce its burden after surgery, although UC might not cause the irreversible damage observed in patients with CD.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Changes in Time of Gastric Emptying After Surgical and Endoscopic Bariatrics and Weight Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-04
    Eric J. Vargas; Fateh Bazerbachi; Gerardo Calderon; Larry J. Prokop; Victoria Gomez; M. Hassan Murad; Andres Acosta; Michael Camilleri; Barham K. Abu Dayyeh

    Background & Aims Gastric emptying (GE) is involved in the regulation of appetite. We compared times of GE after different bariatric endoscopic and surgical interventions and associations with weight loss. Methods We performed a comprehensive search of publication databases, through September 14, 2018, for randomized and nonrandomized studies reporting outcomes of weight-loss surgeries. Two independent reviewers selected and appraised studies. The outcome of interest was GE T1/2 (min), measured before and after the procedure. A random-effects model was used to pool the mean change in T1/2 (min) after the intervention. We performed a meta-regression analysis to find associations between GE and weight loss. Heterogeneity was calculated using the I2 statistic. Methodologic quality was assessed. Results From 762 citations, the following studies were included in our analysis: 9 sleeve gastrectomies, 5 intragastric balloons, and 5 antral botulinum toxins. After sleeve gastrectomy, the pooled mean reduction in GE T1/2 at 3 months was 29.2 minutes (95% CI, 40.9–17.5 min; I2 = 91%). Fluid-filled balloons increased GE T1/2 by 116 minutes (95% CI, 29.4–203.4 min; I2 = 58.6%). Air-filled balloons did not produce a statistically significant difference in GE T1/2. Antral botulinum injections increased GE T1/2 by 9.6 minutes (95% CI, 2.8–16.4 min; I2 = 13.3%). Placebo interventions reduced GE T1/2 by 6.3 minutes (95% CI, 10-2.6 min). Changes in GE were associated with weight loss after sleeve gastrectomy and intragastric balloons, but not botulinum toxin injections. Conclusions In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found that sleeve gastrectomy reduced GE T1/2 whereas fluid-filled balloons significantly increased GE T1/2. Air-filled balloons do not significantly change the time of GE, which could account for their low efficacy. Antral botulinum toxin injections produced small temporary increases in GE time, which were not associated with weight loss. Changes in GE time after surgical and endoscopic bariatric interventions correlated with weight loss and might be used to select interventions, based on patients’ physiology.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Prevalence and Incidence of Intestinal Metaplasia and Dysplasia of Gastric Cardia in Patients With Barrett’s Esophagus After Endoscopic Therapy
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Swathi Eluri; Athidi G. Earasi; Susan E. Moist; Evan S. Dellon; Nicholas J. Shaheen

    Background & Aims Endoscopic eradication therapy (EET) for Barrett’s esophagus (BE) has unclear effects on the gastric cardia. We investigated the prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia in the cardia after complete eradication of IM (CEIM) and the incidence of newly diagnosed cardia IM or dysplasia after EET. Methods We performed a prospective study, from 2013 through 2016, of patients with previously successful EET undergoing surveillance after CEIM (cross-sectional group) and treatment-naïve patients with BE undergoing EET (longitudinal group). Standard biopsies were collected from multiple levels in the cardia and analyzed histologically. We calculated the prevalence (cross-sectional group) and the incidence (longitudinal group) of cardia IM or dysplasia after EET. Results Of the 116 patients in the cross-sectional group, 17 (15%) had cardia IM or dysplasia after CEIM: 12 patients had IM, 2 patients were indefinite for dysplasia, and 3 patients had low-grade dysplasia. Cardia IM or dysplasia were most commonly found at the tops of gastric folds. Among 42 subjects in the longitudinal group, the pre-treatment prevalence of cardia IM or dysplasia was 28.5% (3 with non-dysplastic IM, 9 with dysplastic IM, 1 indefinite for dysplasia, 2 with low-grade dysplasia, 3 with high-grade dysplasia, and 3 with intramucosal cancer). All achieved CEIM. The incidence of cardia IM or dysplasia was 11.9% after 18 months of follow up. IM or dysplasia was more higher in the cardia after CEIM than in the tubular esophagus (P < .01). Conclusions In a prospective study, we found that cardia dysplasia becomes less, not more, common, after successful EET; recurrence of IM or dysplasia was more frequent in the cardia than the esophagus. Patients with BE undergoing EET should have careful examination of the cardia, with a single set of surveillance biopsies at the top of the gastric folds.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Comparative Risk of Serious Infections With Biologic and/or Immunosuppressive Therapy in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-03-12
    Siddharth Singh; Antonio Facciorusso; Parambir S. Dulai; Vipul Jairath; William J. Sandborn

    Background & Aims We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the comparative risk of serious infections with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists, non-TNF targeted biologics, tofacitinib, and immunosuppressive agents in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Methods In a systematic search of publications, through March 18, 2018, we identified 15 observational studies (>500 person-years) of patients with IBD treated with TNF antagonists, non-TNF targeted biologics, tofacitinib, and/or immunosuppressive agents (thiopurines, methotrexate) that reported risk of serious infections. Only studies with active comparators were included, to allow appropriate comparative synthesis. We performed random-effects meta-analysis and estimated relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs. Results Compared with anti-TNF monotherapy, risk of serious infection increased with the combination of anti-TNF and an immunosuppressive agent (in 6 cohorts: RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03–1.37), with anti-TNF and a corticosteroid (in 4 cohorts: RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.33–2.03), or with all 3 drugs (in 2 cohorts: RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04–1.77); there was minimal heterogeneity among studies. In contrast, monotherapy with an immunosuppressive agent was associated with a lower risk of serious infections than monotherapy with a TNF antagonist (7 cohorts: RR, 0.61; 95% CI 0.44–0.84) or a TNF antagonist with an immunosuppressive agent (2 cohorts: RR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.39–0.81). Infliximab-based therapy was associated with a lower risk of serious infections compared with adalimumab-based therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (4 cohorts: RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.33–0.97), but not Crohn’s disease (4 cohorts: RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.49–1.70). Few data were available on the comparative safety of biologic agents that do not inhibit TNF and tofacitinib. Conclusions Combination therapies for IBD that include TNF antagonists, especially with corticosteroids, are associated with a higher risk of serious infection, whereas monotherapy with an immunosuppressive agent is associated with a lower risk, compared with monotherapy with a TNF antagonist. Studies are needed to evaluate the comparative safety of non-TNF targeted biologics and small molecules for treatment of IBD.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Measurement of Forearm Bone Density by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Increases the Prevalence of Osteoporosis in Men With Celiac Disease
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-10
    Marcella D. Walker; John Williams; Suzanne K. Lewis; Julio C. Bai; Benjamin Lebwohl; Peter H.R. Green

    Background & Aims Guidelines advise measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with a diagnosis of celiac disease. The lumbar spine (LS) and hip sites are usually measured. Although skeletal sites rich in trabecular bone are believed to be vulnerable to osteoporosis in patients with celiac disease, most studies have not measured the cortical distal 1/3-radius. Methods We collected data from 721 patients (mean age, 43.6 years; 68.4% female) with celiac disease who underwent 3-site dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, at a median 1.22 years after diagnosis). We assessed skeletal site- and sex-specific osteoporosis prevalence and the incremental utility of 1/3-radius measurement by DXA. Results Mean T- and Z-scores were normal in patients, but 43.3% had osteopenia and 19.6% had osteoporosis. Osteoporosis was found in 12.1% of patients at the LS, 5.3% of patients at the total hip, 7.6% of patients at the femoral neck, and 11.5% of patients at the 1/3-radius. A greater degree of villous atrophy at diagnosis was associated with male sex and lower T-scores at the 1/3-radius (P = .03), but not other skeletal sites. Isolated forearm osteoporosis was detected in 4.9% of patients. A higher proportion of patients with isolated forearm osteoporosis were male and had a greater weight and body mass index (all P < .01, compared to patients with osteoporosis only at other sites). Z-scores were lower at the LS and 1/3-radius and osteoporosis was more common in men than women. In men, the 1/3-radius was the most frequent site for osteoporosis. Among patients 50 years or older, isolated forearm osteoporosis was present in 10.7%. Conclusions Based on DXA analysis of patients with celiac disease, the prevalence of osteoporosis appears to be underestimated—particularly in men when BMD at the 1/3-radius is not measured. Degree of villous atrophy is associated with BMD at the 1/3-radius and nearly 5% of patients have osteoporosis limited to that site. Recommendations for osteoporosis screening in patients with celiac disease should include measurement of the distal 1/3-radius in addition to the hip and LS.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Combination of Bismuth and Standard Triple Therapy Eradicates Helicobacter pylori Infection in More than 90% of Patients
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-10
    Adrian G. McNicholl; Dmitry S. Bordin; Alfredo Lucendo; Galina Fadeenko; Manuel Castro Fernandez; Irina Voynovan; Natalia Valerievna Zakharova; Aiman Silkanovna Sarsenbaeva; Luis Bujanda; Ángeles Perez-Aisa; Liudmila Vologzhanina; Oleg Zaytsev; Tatiana Ilchishina; Cristobal de la Coba; Jorge Perez Lasala; Sergey Alekseenko; Ines Modolell; Javier Molina-Infante; Javier P. Gisbert

    Background & Aims Due to the poor eradication rates of standard triple therapy, the addition of bismuth salts has been proposed for first-line eradication of Helicobacter pylori. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of the combination of bismuth and the standard, clarithromycin-containing triple therapy in eradication of H pylori infection, using data from a large multi-center registry. Methods We performed an interim analysis of data from the European Registry on H pylori Management, a prospective trial registering clinical data and outcomes from infected patients from 27 countries in Europe since 2013. We extracted data on 1141 treatment-naïve patients who received first-line treatment with bismuth salts (240 mg) and a proton pump inhibitor (57% received esomeprazole, 18% received omeprazole, 11% received pantoprazole, and 14% received rabeprazole), amoxicillin (1 g), and clarithromycin (500 mg), all taken twice daily. Results Intention to treat and per-protocol rates of eradication were 88% and 94%, respectively. Intention to treat eradication increased to 93% in patients who received 14-day treatments. Adverse events occurred in 36% of patients; 76% of these events were mild, with a mean duration of 6 days. In multivariate analysis, eradication was associated with treatment compliance (odds ratio [OR], 13.0), a double dose (equivalent to 40 mg omeprazole) of proton pump inhibitor (OR, 4.7), and 14-day duration of treatment (OR, 2.0). Conclusions In an analysis of data from a large multi-center registry, we found the addition of bismuth to 14-day standard triple therapy with clarithromycin and amoxicillin to eradicate H pylori infection in more than 90% of patients, based on intention to treat analysis, with an acceptable safety profile and level of adherence. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02328131.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Association of Obesity With Colonic Diverticulosis in Women
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Anne F. Peery; Alexander Keil; Katherine Jicha; Joseph A. Galanko; Robert S. Sandler

    Background & Aims Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of colonic diverticulosis. Evidence for this association is limited. We assessed whether anthropometric measures of obesity were associated with colonic diverticulosis. Methods We analyzed data from a prospective study of 623 patients undergoing screening colonoscopies from 2013 through 2015; colonoscopies included examinations for diverticulosis. Body measurements were made the day of the procedure. Multivariate analyses were performed using modified Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs while adjusting for confounding variables. All analyses were stratified by sex. Results Among men, there was no association between any measure of obesity and diverticulosis. After adjustment, women with an obese body mass index (BMI ≥ 30) had an increased risk of any diverticulosis (PR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.08–2.04) compared with women with a normal body mass index (BMI 18.5–24.9). The strength of this association was greater for more than 5 diverticula (PR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.23–3.40). There was no significant association between measures of central obesity and diverticulosis in women. Stratified by sex, colonic diverticulosis was significantly less prevalent in women compared with men before the age of 51 years (29% vs 45%, P = .06). The prevalence of diverticulosis did not differ by sex in older age groups. Conclusions In an analysis of data from 623 patients undergoing screening colonoscopies, we found that obesity (BMI ≥30) significantly increased the risk of colonic diverticulosis in women but not men. Colonic diverticulosis was less prevalent in premenopausal-age women compared with similar-age men. These findings suggest that sex hormones may influence the development of diverticulosis.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Clock Gene Disruption Is an Initial Manifestation of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-10
    Yael Weintraub; Shlomi Cohen; Nava Chapnik; Amir Ben-Tov; Anat Yerushalmy-Feler; Iris Dotan; Riva Tauman; Oren Froy

    Background & Aims Sleep disruption modifies the immune system and can trigger flares of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Changes in expression of clock genes have been reported in patients with IBD. We investigated whether a change in the circadian clock is an early event in development of IBD. Methods We performed a prospective study of patients younger than 21 years old who underwent diagnostic endoscopies at the pediatric and adult gastroenterology units at the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center from August 2016 through August 2017. Questionnaires were completed by 32 patients with IBD (8–21 years old) and 18 healthy individuals (controls) that provided data on demographics, sleep, disease activity scores. We also obtained data on endoscopic scores, anthropometric parameters, blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), and fecal level of calprotectin. Peripheral blood and intestinal mucosa samples were analyzed for expression levels of clock gene (CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, and PER2). Results Levels of CRP and fecal calprotectin were significantly higher in patients with IBD compared with controls (P<.05). Expression levels of clock genes (CLOCK, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, and PER2) were significantly lower in inflamed intestinal mucosa from patients compared with intestinal mucosa from controls (P<.05). Expression levels of all clock genes except for PER2, were also significantly lower in non-inflamed intestinal mucosal tissues from patients compared with controls (P<.05). Expression levels of clock genes (CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, CRY2, PER1 and PER2) were lower in white blood cells from patients with IBD compared with controls. This reduction was greater in white blood cells from patients with ulcerative colitis than in patients with Crohn's disease. Conclusion Young, newly diagnosed, untreated patients with IBD have reduced expression of clock genes in inflamed and non-inflamed intestinal mucosal samples, and also in blood cells, compared with healthy individuals. Alterations in expression of clock genes might be an early event in IBD pathogenesis. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03662646

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Tofacitinib Treatment Is Associated With Modest and Reversible Increases in Serum Lipids in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Bruce E. Sands; Pam R. Taub; Alessandro Armuzzi; Gary S. Friedman; Michele Moscariello; Nervin Lawendy; Ronald D. Pedersen; Gary Chan; Chudy I. Nduaka; Daniel Quirk; Leonardo Salese; Chinyu Su; Brian G. Feagan

    Background & Aims Tofacitinib is an oral, small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). We analyzed inflammation, lipid concentrations, and incidence rates of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACEs) in patients who received tofacitinib in worldwide studies. Methods We collected data from 1157 patients who participated in 3 8-week induction studies (1 phase-2 study and 2 phase-3 studies; patients received tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily or placebo), a 52-week phase-3 maintenance study of responders (patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo), and an ongoing long-term extension study of patients who did and did not respond to induction or maintenance therapy (patients received tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily). Lipid concentrations were assessed from induction baseline to week 61 (week 52 of maintenance therapy). We calculated MACE incidence rates (patients with ≥1 event per 100 patient-years of exposure) and Reynolds risk score (RRS; a composite score used to determine CV risk) for patients given tofacitinib vs placebo. Results The mean RRS was <5% at baseline and week 8 of treatment with tofacitinib. At week 8, there were greater increases from baseline in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients given tofacitinib compared with placebo. There were correlations between reduced levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and increased serum concentrations of lipid in patients given tofacitinib or placebo (P < .001). Lipid concentrations were increased in patients given tofacitinib vs patients given placebo through week 61. Overall, ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to HDL-c and total cholesterol to HDL-c did not change significantly over the 61-week period. Four MACEs were reported; the incidence rate was 0.24 (95% CI, 0.07–0.62) and 3 of these patients had 4 or more CV risk factors. Conclusions In an analysis of data from 5 trials of patients with UC who received tofacitinib, we found reversible increases in lipids with treatment and inverse correlations with reduced levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. We did not find clinically meaningful changes in lipid ratios or RRS. MACEs were infrequent and not dose-related. Clinicaltrials.gov: A3921063 (NCT00787202); OCTAVE Induction 1 (NCT01465763); OCTAVE Induction 2 (NCT01458951); OCTAVE Sustain (NCT01458574); OCTAVE Open (NCT01470612)

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Development and Validation of the Mucosal Inflammation Noninvasive Index For Pediatric Crohn’s Disease
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-10
    Martinus A. Cozijnsen; Assaf Ben Shoham; Ben Kang; Byung-Ho Choe; Yon Ho Choe; Maria M.E. Jongsma; Richard K. Russell; Frank M. Ruemmele; Johanna C. Escher; Lissy de Ridder; Sibylle Koletzko; Javier Martín-de-Carpi; Jeffrey Hyams; Thomas Walters; Anne Griffiths; Dan Turner

    Background & Aims Mucosal healing (MH) has become a goal of therapy for Crohn’s disease (CD), but frequent endoscopies are not feasible. We aimed to develop and validate a non-invasive index to assess mucosal inflammation in children with CD. Methods We collected data from the multi-center prospective ImageKids study, in which children with CD underwent ileocolonoscopy with magnetic resonance enterography. We investigated the association of pediatric CD activity index (PCDAI) items and laboratory test results with the simple endoscopic score for CD (SESCD). We used these data in a blended mathematical judgmental clinimetric approach to develop a weighted categorized index to identify children with CD who have MH, which we called the MINI index. We validated the index using data from 3 independent patient cohorts. The derivation and validation cohorts included 154 and 168 children, respectively (age 14.1 ± 2.5 years and 14.2 ± 3.9 years), of whom 16% and 36% had MH (defined as SESCD<3). Results In multivariable models, the stooling item of the PCDAI, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and level of fecal calprotectin were associated with SESCD (all P < .05). We added data on level of C-reactive protein to develop the MINI index. MINI scores below 8 identified children with MH with 88% sensitivity and 85% specificity in the derivation cohort and with 84% sensitivity and 87% specificity in the validation cohorts. Ninety percent of the patients in the validation cohort with scores of 8 or more had active mucosal inflammation, yet 78% of patients with scores below 8 had MH. Scores below 6 increase the positive predictive value to 86%. Conclusions We developed an index to non-invasively assess mucosal inflammation in children with CD. This index, identifies children with MH with high sensitivity and specificity. The added benefit of MINI over measurement of fecal calprotectin was small but significant, especially for patients with concentrations of fecal calprotectin from 100 to 599 μg/g. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT01881490.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Nancy Index Scores of Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Associate With Development of Colorectal Neoplasia
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-11
    Julien Kirchgesner; Magali Svrcek; Guillaume Le Gall; Cécilia Landman; Xavier Dray; Anne Bourrier; Isabelle Nion-Larmurier; Nadia Hoyeau; Harry Sokol; Philippe Seksik; Jacques Cosnes; Jean-François Fléjou; Laurent Beaugerie

    Background & Aims The degree of histologic and endoscopic disease activity has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), but no histologic scoring systems have been validated for determining risk of CRN. We investigated the association between histologic and endoscopic disease activity and risk of first CRN in patients with IBD who had negative findings from a surveillance colonoscopy. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent at least 2 colonoscopies at Saint Antoine Hospital in France from January 1, 1996, through March 1, 2015, and whose first procedure was a surveillance colonoscopy. Histologic IBD activity was assessed by the Nancy histologic index. Patients were followed up for a mean 5.7 ± 3.3 years. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to identify clinical, endoscopic, and histologic factors associated with detection of neoplasia in the inflamed colon mucosa. Results Among 398 patients who underwent 1277 colonoscopies, we identified 45 patients with CRN. Factors associated with CRN were primary sclerosing cholangitis (odds ratio [OR], 2.65; 95% CI, 1.06–6.61; P = .04), age (OR per 1-year increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.07; P = .003), and mean Nancy histologic index during follow-up evaluation (per 1-unit increase, OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.29–2.21; P < .001). After adjustment for established factors, chronic disease activity defined as detection of ulcerations at more than 50% of colonoscopies was not associated with an increased risk of CRN (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.53–2.91; P = .62). Conclusions In addition to established risk factors, we associated Nancy histologic index scores with development of CRN. Histologic findings based on the Nancy histologic index therefore should be included in determining the risk of colonic neoplasia in patients with IBD.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Association Between Microscopic Lesions at Ileal Resection Margin and Recurrence After Surgery in Patients With Crohn’s Disease
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-28
    Nassim Hammoudi; Dominique Cazals-Hatem; Claire Auzolle; Charlotte Gardair; Marjolaine Ngollo; Hugo Bottois; Stéphane Nancey; Benjamin Pariente; Anthony Buisson; Xavier Treton; Mathurin Fumery; Madeleine Bezault; Philippe Seksik; Lionel Le Bourhis

    Background and Aims Different types of histologic lesions at the ileal margin, detected by histology, have been associated with increased rates of recurrence after ileocaecal surgery in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). We aimed to characterize histologic features of the ileal margin and to evaluate their association with disease recurrence. Methods We collected histologic data from 211 patients with ileal or ileocolonic CD who underwent ileocolonic resections at hospitals in France from September 2010 through December 2016. Ileal margins were analyzed. Early endoscopic recurrence was defined by a Rutgeerts score of i2 or more, 6 months after surgery. We also collected data from 10 adults with healthy ileum who underwent ileocecal resection for colonic tumors (controls). Clinical relapse was defined by CD-related symptoms confirmed by imaging, endoscopy, therapy intensification, CD-related complication, or subsequent surgery. Results Six months after surgery, 49% of patients had endoscopic recurrence; 5 years after surgery, 57% of patients had clinical relapse. Ileal margins were macroscopically affected in 20.9% of patients. CD transmural lesions at the margin (defined by mucosal ulceration or cryptitis, submucosal fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate of the subserosa) were observed in 13.6% of patients. Endoscopic recurrence was observed in 75% of patients with CD transmural lesions vs 46% of patients without (P =.005). In multivariate analysis, CD transmural lesions at the margin were independently associated with early endoscopic recurrence (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.47-11.05; P =.008) and clinical recurrence (OR 2.04; 95% CI, 1.09-3.99; P =.026). Conclusion In patients with CD, transmural lesions at the ileal margin were associated with an increased risk of post-operative recurrence. Histologic features of the ileal margin should be included in making decisions about post-operative therapy.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Endocuff Vision Reduces Inspection Time Without Decreasing Lesion Detection: A Clinical Randomized Trial
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-01-17
    Douglas K. Rex; James E. Slaven; Jonathan Garcia; Rachel Lahr; Meghan Searight; Seth A. Gross

    Background & Aims Mucosal exposure devices improve detection of lesions during colonoscopy and have reduced examination times in uncontrolled studies. We performed a randomized trial of Endocuff Vision vs standard colonoscopy to compare differences in withdrawal time (the primary end point). We proposed that Endocuff Vision would allow complete mucosal inspection in a shorter time without impairing lesion detection. Methods Adults older than 40 years undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopies were randomly assigned to the Endocuff group (n=101, 43.6% women) or the standard colonoscopy group (n=99; 57.6% women). One of 2 experienced endoscopists performed the colonoscopies, aiming for a thorough evaluation of the proximal sides of all haustral folds, flexures, and valves in the shortest time possible. Inspection time was measured with a stopwatch and calculated by subtracting washing, suctioning, polypectomy and biopsy times from total withdrawal time. Results There were significantly fewer women in the Endocuff arm (P = .0475) but there were no other demographic differences between groups. Mean insertion time with Endocuff was 4.0 min vs 4.4 min for standard colonoscopy (P = .14). Mean inspection time with Endocuff was 6.5 min vs 8.4 min for standard colonoscopy (P < .0001). Numbers of adenomas detected per colonoscopy (1.43 vs 1.07; P = .07), adenoma detection rate (61.4% vs 52%; P = .21), number of sessile serrated polyps per colonoscopy (0.27 vs 0.21; P = .12), and sessile serrated polyp detection rate (19.8% vs 11.1%; P = .09) were all higher with Endocuff Vision. Results did not differ significantly when we controlled for age, sex, or race. Conclusion In a randomized trial, we found inclusion of Endocuff in screening or surveillance colonoscopies to decrease examination time without reducing lesion detection. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT03361917.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Racial Disparities and Trends in Pancreatic Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Anna Tavakkoli; Amit G. Singal; Akbar K. Waljee; B. Joseph Elmunzer; Sandi L. Pruitt; Thomas McKey; Joel H. Rubenstein; James M. Scheiman; Caitlin C. Murphy

    Background & Aims Pancreatic cancer is one of the few cancers in the United States that is increasing in incidence. Little is known about racial disparities in incidence and mortality. We characterized racial disparities in pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in different locations, time periods, age groups, and disease stages. Methods We obtained data on the incidence of pancreatic cancer from the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of cancer registries from 2001 through 2015 on incidence, demographics, tumor characteristics, and population estimates for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We obtained data on mortality from pancreatic cancer from the National Center for Health Statistics during the same time period. We plotted incidence rates by 10-year age group (30–39 years through 70–79 years and 80 years or older) separately for white and black patients. We calculated incidence and mortality rate ratios with 95% CIs for categories of age and race. To determine racial disparities, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) for black vs white patients and mortality rate ratios by state. Results Disparities in pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in black vs white patients decreased over 5-year time periods from 2001 through 2015. However, among all age groups, from 2001 through 2015, pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality were higher among blacks than whites (incidence, 24.7 vs 19.4 per 100,000; IRR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.26–1.29; mortality, 23.3 vs 18.4 per 100,000; IRR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.26–1.28). Black patients had a higher incidence of distant pancreatic cancer (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.31–1.34) and a lower incidence of local cancer. Incidence increased in whites and blacks of younger age groups and was most prominent among persons 30–39 years old. Incidence increased by 57% among younger whites (IRR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.43–2.02) and by 44% among blacks (IRR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01–2.15) from 2001 through 2015. Mortality remained stable among blacks and slightly increased among whites during this time period. Conclusions In the United States, there are racial disparities in pancreatic incidence and mortality that vary with location, patient age, and cancer stage. Further research is needed to identify factors associated with increasing incidence and persistence of racial disparities in pancreatic cancer.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Effect of Cotinine-Verified Change in Smoking Status on Risk of Metachronous Colorectal Neoplasia After Polypectomy
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    Yoon Suk Jung; Nam Hee Kim; Mi Yeon Lee; Jung Ho Park; Dong Il Park; Chong Il Sohn

    Background & Aims Previous assessments of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) recurrence after polypectomy used self-report to determine smoking status. We evaluated the association between change in smoking status and metachronous CRN risk after polypectomy using cotinine level in urine to determine tobacco exposure. Methods We performed a retrospective study of participants in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study in Korea who underwent a screening colonoscopy examination and measurement of cotinine in urine samples. Our analysis included 4762 patients who had 1 or more adenomas detected in an index colonoscopy performed between January 2010 and December 2014, and underwent a surveillance colonoscopy, 6 or more months later, until December 2017. Results Patients were classified into 4 groups based on the change in cotinine-verified smoking status from index to follow-up colonoscopy (mean interval, 3.2 ± 1.3 y), as follows: remained nonsmokers (n = 2962; group 1), smokers changed to nonsmokers (n = 600; group 2), nonsmokers changed to smokers (n = 138; group 3), and remained smokers (n = 1062; group 4). After adjustment for confounding factors, group 4 had a significantly higher risk of metachronous CRN than group 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.36–1.73) and group 2 (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.39–1.99). Group 4 also had a higher risk of metachronous advanced CRN than group 1 (HR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.79–4.53) and group 2 (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.13–3.89). Group 3 had a higher risk of metachronous CRN than group 1 (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.14–1.97) and group 2 (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.20–2.20). Conclusions In a retrospective study of individuals with at least 1 adenoma, we found that cotinine-verified changes in smoking status between index and follow-up colonoscopy are associated with a risk of metachronous CRN. Helping patients quit smoking is important for effective prevention of colorectal cancer.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Gaps in Viral Hepatitis Awareness in the United States in a Population-based Study
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
    Kali Zhou; Norah A. Terrault

    Background & Aims The benefits of highly effective therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or HCV infection can only be realized if infected individuals are identified and linked to care. We sought to identify gaps in awareness of diagnosis of HBV or HCV infection in a population-based sample of adults living in the United States (US). Methods Using National Health and Nutrition Examinations Surveys data, we examined factors associated with HBV and HCV awareness. Participants surveyed from 2013 through 2016, age ≥20 years, with complete serologic analyses were included. HBV and HCV infections were defined by detection of serum HBsAg and anti-HCV, respectively. The primary outcome was awareness of infection—if participants replied “yes” to the question: “Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you that you have hepatitis B or C?” Results Of 14,745 participants, 68 had HBV and 211 had HCV infection, corresponding to prevalence values of 0.7% and 1.8%, respectively. Among HBV-infected persons, 32% reported awareness, and 28% of aware persons reported treatment. Among HCV-infected persons, 49% reported awareness, 45% of aware persons were treated, and 59% of treated patients achieved a sustained virologic response. Factors associated with greater awareness in multivariable models included US citizenship, higher education, and abnormal level of alanine aminotransferase for HBV-infected participants and non-Hispanic race, income above the poverty line, not married, and history of injection drug use for HCV-infected participants. Conclusions Fewer than half of US adults with HBV or HCV infection are aware of their infection. Opportunities to increase awareness include provider education on cut-off values for abnormal level of alanine aminotransferase that should prompt screening, and expansion of existing screening interventions to under-recognized at-risk groups.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Effects of Vedolizumab in Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-14
    Kate D. Lynch; Roger W. Chapman; Satish Keshav; Aldo J. Montano-Loza; Andrew L. Mason; Andreas E. Kremer; Marcel Vetter; Manon de Krijger; Cyriel Y. Ponsioen; Palak Trivedi; Gideon Hirschfield; Christoph Schramm; Chung Heng Liu; Christopher L. Bowlus; Derek J. Estes; Daniel Pratt; Charlotte Hedin; Annika Bergquist; Cynthia Levy

    Background & Aims Gut-homing lymphocytes that express the integrin α4β7 and CCR9 might contribute to development of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Vedolizumab, which blocks the integrin α4β7, is used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but there are few data on its efficacy in patients with PSC. We investigated the effects of vedolizumab in a large international cohort of patients with PSC and IBD. Methods We collected data from European and North American centers participating in the International PSC Study Group from patients with PSC and IBD who received at least 3 doses of vedolizumab (n = 102; median vedolizumab treatment duration, 412 days). Demographic and clinical data were collected from baseline and during the follow-up period (until liver transplantation, death, or 56 days after the final vedolizumab infusion). We analyzed overall changes in biochemical features of liver and proportions of patients with reductions in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of 20% or more, from baseline through last follow-up evaluation. Other endpoints included response of IBD to treatment (improved, unchanged, or worsened, judged by the treating clinician, as well as endoscopic score) and liver-related outcomes. Results In the entire cohort, the median serum level of ALP increased from 1.54-fold the upper limit of normal at baseline to 1.64-fold the upper limit of normal at the last follow-up examination (P = .018); serum levels of transaminases and bilirubin also increased by a small amount between baseline and the last follow-up examination. Serum levels of ALP decreased by 20% or more in 21 patients (20.6%); only the presence of cirrhosis (odds ratio, 4.48; P = .019) was independently associated with this outcome. Of patients with available endoscopic data, 56.8% had a response of IBD to treatment. Liver-related events occurred in 21 patients (20.6%), including bacterial cholangitis, cirrhosis decompensation, or transplantation. Conclusions In an analysis of patients with PSC and IBD in an international study group, we found no evidence for a biochemical response to vedolizumab, although serum level of ALP decreased by 20% or more in a subset of patients. Vedolizumab appears to be well tolerated and the overall response of IBD was the same as expected for patients without PSC.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Incident Hospitalization for Liver and Cardiovascular Diseases
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-05-11
    Yoosoo Chang; Juhee Cho; Yong Kyun Cho; Ara Cho; Yun Soo Hong; Di Zhao; Jiin Ahn; Chong Il Sohn; Hocheol Shin; Eliseo Guallar; Seungho Ryu

    Background & Aims We compared the associations of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcohol-associated fatty liver disease (AFLD) with risk of incident hospitalization for liver and cardiovascular diseases. Methods We collected data from the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study on 218,030 men and women in Korea who underwent a health examination from 2011 through 2016. Fatty liver disease (FLD) was detected by ultrasound during the initial examination. The Fibrosis-4 index was used to identify individuals with liver fibrosis. Participants were followed up for as long as 5.9 years and data on hospitalizations for liver and cardiovascular diseases were collected. Results The prevalence of NAFLD was 22.0% and the prevalence of AFLD was 6.4%. Over a median follow-up period of 4.2 years, we observed 51 and 1097 incident cases of liver disease– or cardiovascular disease–related hospitalizations, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for liver disease–related hospitalization, comparing NAFLD and AFLD with the reference category (no excessive alcohol intake and no FLD), were 1.73 (95% CI, 0.76–3.96) and 5.00 (95% CI, 2.12–11.83), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease hospitalization were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.02–1.40) and 1.08 (95% CI, 0.86–1.34), respectively. Among participants with FLD, the risk of liver disease–related hospitalization increased with high Fibrosis-4 index scores, whereas the risk of incident cardiovascular disease did not. Conclusions In a large cohort study, we found an increased risk of liver disease–related hospitalizations for patients with NAFLD or AFLD, especially among those with Fibrosis-4 index scores. An increased risk of cardiovascular disease–associated hospitalization was observed in patients with NAFLD but not AFLD.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Variants in STAT4 Associated With Cure of Chronic HBV Infection in HBeAg-positive Patients Treated With Pegylated Interferon-alpha
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-28
    Haitao Chen; Jian Sun; Bin Zhou; Qing Xie; Xier Liang; Rong Fan; Carly Conran; Jianfeng Xu; Yuan Ji; Xinxin Zhang; Li Sun; Jidong Jia; Guiqiang Wang; Jinlin Hou; De-Ke Jiang

    Background & Aims Variants in STAT4 (rs7574865) have been associated with seroconversion to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and reduction in levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in patients with chronic infection treated with interferon alpha (IFNA). We evaluated the associations among rs7574865, loss of HB surface antigen (HBsAg, a marker of functional cure of HBV infection), and response to treatment with pegylated IFNA (PegIFN) or nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) in HBeAg-positive patients with chronic HBV infection. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 1823 HBeAg-positive patients with chronic HBV infection (954 patients treated with PegIFN and 869 patients treated with NUCs) included in 4 phase-4 multicenter randomized controlled trials. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to evaluate the association of rs7574865 genotype with combined response (CR, defined as HBeAg seroconversion and HBV DNA level <2000 IU/mL) and loss of HBsAg at week 72, for patients given PegIFN, or week 104, for patients given NUCs. Results We found a significant association between rs7574865 genotype and CR (P = .004) and loss of HBsAg (P = .037) in patients treated with PegIFN. In patients with HBV genotype B infection, 43.6% of those with rs7574865 TT achieved a CR, compared to patients with rs7574865 GG (20.5%), and 7.7% had loss of HBsAg, compared to 1.9% of patients with rs7574865 GG. However, in patients treated with NUCs, we found no association of rs7574865 genotype with CR (P = .811) or loss of HBsAg (P=.439). Conclusions In a retrospective analysis of data from 4 clinical trials, we found rs7574865 in STAT4 to be associated with functional cure of chronic HBV infection by PegIFN treatment, but not NUCs treatment, in HBeAg-positive patients with HBV genotype B infection.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Development and Validation of Hepamet Fibrosis Scoring System–A Simple, Noninvasive Test to Identify Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease With Advanced Fibrosis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Javier Ampuero; Raluca Pais; Rocío Aller; Rocío Gallego-Durán; Javier Crespo; Carmelo García-Monzón; Jerome Boursier; Eduardo Vilar; Salvatore Petta; Ming-Hua Zheng; Desamparados Escudero; Jose Luis Calleja; Patricia Aspichueta; Moisés Diago; Jose Miguel Rosales; Joan Caballería; Judith Gómez-Camarero; Oreste Lo Iacono; Elvira del Pozo Maroto

    Background & Aims Fibrosis affects prognoses for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several non-invasive scoring systems have aimed to identify patients at risk for advanced fibrosis, but inconclusive results and variations in features of patients (diabetes, obesity and older age) reduce their diagnostic accuracy. We sought to develop a scoring system based on serum markers to identify patients with NAFLD at risk for advanced fibrosis. Methods We collected data from 2452 patients with NAFLD at medical centers in Italy, France, Cuba, and China. We developed the Hepamet fibrosis scoring system using demographic, anthropometric, and laboratory test data, collected at time of liver biopsy, from a training cohort of patients from Spain (n = 768) and validated the system using patients from Cuba (n = 344), Italy (n = 288), France (n = 830), and China (n = 232). Hepamet fibrosis score (HFS) were compared with those of previously developed fibrosis scoring systems (the NAFLD fibrosis score [NFS] and FIB-4). The diagnostic accuracy of the Hepamet fibrosis scoring system was assessed based on area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve, sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios. Results Variables used to determine HFS were patient sex, age, homeostatic model assessment score, presence of diabetes, levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and albumin, and platelet counts; these were independently associated with advanced fibrosis. HFS discriminated between patients with and without advanced fibrosis with an AUROC curve value of 0.85 whereas NFS or FIB-4 did so with AUROC values of 0.80 (P = .0001). In the validation set, cut-off HFS of 0.12 and 0.47 identified patients with and without advanced fibrosis with 97.2% specificity, 74% sensitivity, a 92% negative predictive value, a 76.3% positive predictive value, a 13.22 positive likelihood ratio, and a 0.31 negative likelihood ratio. HFS were not affected by patient age, body mass index, hypertransaminasemia, or diabetes. The Hepamet fibrosis scoring system had the greatest net benefit in identifying patients who should undergo liver biopsy analysis and led to significant improvements in reclassification, reducing the number of patients with undetermined results to 20% from 30% for the FIB-4 and NFS systems (P < .05). Conclusions Using clinical and laboratory data from patients with NAFLD, we developed and validated the Hepamet fibrosis scoring system, which identified patients with advanced fibrosis with greater accuracy than the FIB-4 and NFS systems. the Hepamet system provides a greater net benefit for the decision-making process to identify patients who should undergo liver biopsy analysis.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • A System to Determine Risk of Osteoporosis in Patients With Autoimmune Hepatitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-06-01
    Tobias Schmidt; Constantin Schmidt; Andre Strahl; Haider Mussawy; Tim Rolvien; Nico M. Jandl; Christian Casar; Ralf Oheim; Thorsten Schinke; Ansgar W. Lohse; Michael Amling; Christoph Schramm; Florian Barvencik

    Background & Aims Osteoporosis is a feared complication of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but bone disease has not been well studied in these patients. We aimed to identify specific risk factors for osteoporosis in patients with AIH and to develop a scoring system that could be used to identify patients with increased risk of osteoporosis. Methods We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 211 patients (mean age, 56.8 years; 79.1% women) in Germany with a diagnosis of AIH from 2012 through 2017 and an indication for assessment of bone mineral status. The patients underwent bone mineral density measurements by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A subgroup of 99 patients underwent a second measurement. We used logistic regression to identify patient and clinical factors associated with the presence of osteoporosis. We developed a weighted sum score for estimating risk of osteoporosis and tested it in development (n = 141) and validation (n = 70) sets of patients. Results According to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements, 15.6% of patients had osteoporosis 42.9% were in the range for osteopenia. The prevalence of osteoporosis in patients 50 years or older was 19.2%. Univariate and logistic regression analyses showed that age older than 54 years, duration of glucocorticoid use >90 months, body mass index <23 kg/m2 and transient elastography values >8 kPA increased risk of osteoporosis 13.8-fold, 6.2-fold, 5.9-fold, and 3.0-fold, respectively. Based on these factors, we developed an index that identified patients at low-, moderate-, and high-risk of osteoporosis with an area under the curve of 0.811. Of the patients with a second osteodensitometry measurement, the rate of bone loss progression ranged from 2.7% after 1 year to 8.4% after 7 years (mean bone loss, 1.2% per year). Conclusions Almost 20% of patients with AIH older than 50 years have osteoporosis. Older age, duration of corticosteroid use, low body mass index, and liver fibrosis are independent risk factors for bone loss.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Karnofsky Performance Status Following Liver Transplantation in Patients With Multiple Organ Failures and Probable Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-03-15
    Paul J. Thuluvath; Avesh J. Thuluvath; Yulia Savva; Talan Zhang

    Background & Aims Little is known about outcomes of patients who underwent liver transplantation for acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) and multiple organ failures. We compared Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) before and after liver transplantation among patients with different numbers of organ failures and probable ACLF. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of adults who underwent liver transplantation within 30 days of listing with the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) network from January 1, 2006, through September 30, 2016. We determined the prevalence of organ failures using a modified version of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scale and collected KPS scores at the time of transplantation and at intervals of 3 to 12 months after liver transplantation. Multivariate analyses were performed to adjust for confounders including UNOS region. Results At the time of liver transplantation, 2838 patients had no organ failure, 2944 had 1 to 2 organ failures, and 1342 patients had 3 or more organ failures. KPS scores following liver transplantation improved significantly in all groups; scores ranged from 81 in patients with no organ failure to 72 in patients with 5 to 6 organ failures. Excellent performance status (KPS score, ≥80) by 1 year after transplantation was achieved by 60% of patients with 5 to 6 organ failures, 64% to 66% of patients with 3 to 4 organ failures, and 70% to 71% of patients with 1 to 2 organ failures, compared with 72.5% of patients without organ failure. Patients with 1 to 4 organ failure were more likely to achieve KPS scores of 80 or more than patients without organ failure, after we adjusted for other covariates and UNOS region. In addition, black patients were less likely, and patients with alcoholic cirrhosis were more likely, to have KPS scores of 80 or more after liver transplantation. Conclusions In a retrospective cohort study of patients with probable ACLF who underwent liver transplantation within 30 days of listing with the UNOS network, 60% to 66% of patients with 3 or more organ failures achieved excellent performance 3 to 12 months later.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence Is Decreasing Among Younger Adults in the United States
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-04-28
    Nicole E. Rich; Adam C. Yopp; Amit G. Singal; Caitlin C. Murphy

    Background & Aims Incidence rates for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increased rapidly in the United States since the 1990s, but have plateaued or started to decrease in other industrialized countries. It unclear if and when a similar trend will be observed in the United States. We examined trends in HCC incidence rates in the United States by age, sex, and race/ethnicity of patients. Methods We calculated age-adjusted HCC incidence rates using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of cancer registries from 1992 through 2015. We estimated incidence rates by 10-year age group and used joinpoint regression to quantify the magnitude and direction of trends, overall and by sex and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander). Results HCC incidence increased by 4.8% per year from 1992 through 2010 (from 4.1 per 100,000 to 9.4 per 100,000) but then started to plateau (annual percentage change, -0.7; 95% CI, -2.0 to 0.7). Incidence rates steadily increased among persons 60 years or older in all racial/ethnic groups except Asian/Pacific Islanders 70 to 79 years old. In contrast, incidence rates decreased in younger and middle-aged adults, in men and women of all races/ethnicities, beginning in the mid-2000s. Rates decreased by 6.2% per year in persons 40 to 49 years old and by 10.3% per year in persons 50 to 59 years old. Annual decreases in incidence were larger among middle-aged blacks (17.2% decrease per year since 2012) compared with adults of the same age in other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions In an analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of cancer registries from 1992 through 2015, we found the incidence of HCC to be decreasing among younger and middle-aged adults in the United States, regardless of sex, race, or ethnicity. It is unclear whether current decreases in incidence will reduce the burden of HCC in the future.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Mortality of Patients with Microscopic Colitis in Sweden
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Hamed Khalili; David Bergman; Bjorn Roelstraete; Kristin E. Burke; Michael C. Sachs; Olén O; Ludvigsson JF

    Background & Aims Microscopic colitis is one of the most common causes of chronic diarrhea in older populations. We investigated all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with microscopic colitis. Methods We conducted a nationwide cohort study of all cases of microscopic colitis (n=14,333) diagnosed from 1990 through 2017 in Sweden. Cases of microscopic colitis were identified using SNOMED codes from gastrointestinal histopathology reports collected from Sweden’s 28 pathology departments. Each case of microscopic colitis was matched to 5 population comparators (n = 68,700). Mortality data were ascertained from Sweden’s cause of death register. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% CIs. Results Through December of 2017, we confirmed 3014 deaths in patients with microscopic colitis (27.4/1000 person-years) and 12,534 deaths in matched population comparators (23.3/1000 person-years). This corresponded to a 10-year absolute risk difference of 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1%–4.6%) and an aHR of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.12–1.22). However, further adjustment of models for comorbidity burden reduced the relative risk of death for patients with microscopic colitis (aHR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.94–1.02). In analyses of cause-specific death, microscopic colitis was associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal-related death (aHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.38–2.05) and infection-related death (aHR, 1.42 ; 95% CI, 1.11–1.83), but not cancer-related death (aHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76–0.91) or cardiovascular-related death (aHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96–1.10). Conclusions In a nationwide cohort study in Sweden, we found that patients with microscopic colitis were at risk of death. However, the increase appears to be related to higher burden of comorbidities in this population.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Complete Resolution of Mucosal Neutrophils Associates With Improved Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Rish K. Pai; Douglas J. Hartman; Claudia Ramos Rivers; Miguel Regueiro; Marc Schwartz; David G. Binion; Reetesh K. Pai

    Background & Aims We investigated correlations between histologic features of the colonic mucosa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and clinical outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period. Methods We obtained baseline biopsies from all colorectal segments (n=889) from 281 patients with UC enrolled in a prospective study at a single center from 2009 through 2013. Biopsies were assessed in a blinded manner using validated histologic scoring systems (the Geboes score, Nancy histopathologic index, and Robarts histopathologic index). Clinical, endoscopic, and histologic data were collected and tested for correlations with systemic corticosteroid use, hospitalization, and colectomy within 3 years of the index colonoscopy. Results We found histologic evidence of UC activity (Geboes score ≥ 2B.1) in biopsies from 182 patients (65%) and endoscopic evidence of UC activity in 149 patients (53%) (substantial agreement, κ = 0.60). Histologic features of UC activity were associated with increased rates of systemic corticosteroid use, colectomy, and hospitalization in the entire cohort (P<.05 for all) and associated with increased rates of systemic corticosteroid use in an analysis limited to patients in endoscopic remission (P<.001). In patients in endoscopic remission, only histologic activity was independently associated with use of systemic corticosteroids (multivariate odds ratio, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.20–18.28; P=.001). Similar results were seen when the entire cohort was analyzed. Compared with patients without histologic evidence of UC activity, patients with only a small number of mucosal neutrophils still had higher rates of systemic corticosteroid use (P<.001). Conclusions Histologic evidence of UC activity, including small numbers neutrophils in the colonic mucosa, is the only factor independently associated with use of systemic corticosteroids. Complete resolution of neutrophil-associated inflammation should be a target for treatment of UC.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Prospective, Same-day, Direct Comparison of CAP With the M vs the XL Probe in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Proton Density Fat Fraction as the Standard
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (IF 7.958) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Cyrielle Caussy; Justine Brissot; Seema Singh; Shirin Bassirian; Carolyn Hernandez; Ricki Bettencourt; Emily Rizo; Lisa Richards; Claude B. Sirlin; Rohit Loomba

    Background & Aims Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurements using M probe have been reported to be lower than those of the XL-probe in detection of hepatic steatosis. However, there has been no direct comparison of CAP with the M vs the XL probe in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We compared CAP with the M vs the XL probe for quantification of hepatic fat content, using magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) as the standard. Methods We performed a prospective study of 100 adults (mean body mass index [BMI], 30.6±4.7 kg/m2) with and without NAFLD, assessed by CAP with the M probe and XL probe on the same day, at a single research center, from November 2017 through November 2018. We then measured the MRI-PDFF as the reference standard. Outcomes were presence of hepatic steatosis, defined as MRI-PDFF ≥ 5%, and detection of hepatic fat content ≥ 10%, defined as MRI-PDFF ≥ 10%. We performed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analyses to assess the diagnostic accuracy of CAP for each probe in detection of hepatic steatosis (MRI-PDFF ≥ 5%) and of hepatic fat content ≥ 10%. Results Of the study participants, 68% had an MRI-PDFF of 5% or more and 48% had an MRI-PDFF of 10% or more. The mean CAP measured by the M probe (310±62 db/m) was significantly lower than by the X probe (317±63 db/m) (P=.007). When M probe was used in participants with BMIs <30 kg/m2 and XL probe in participants with BMIs ≥30 kg/m2, the CAP measured by the M probe (312±51.4 db/m) remained significantly lower than that of the XL probe (345±47.6 db/m) (P=.0035.), when the MRI-PDFF was above 5%. The optimal threshold of CAP for the detection of MRI-PDFF≥5%, was 294 db/m with the M probe and 307 db/m with the XL probe. The optimal threshold of CAP for the detection of MRI-PDFF ≥ 10%, was 311 db/m with the M probe and 322 db/m with the XL probe. For only the XL probe, CAP measurements with an interquartile range below 30 dB/m detected an MRI-PDFF≥5% with a lower AUROC (0.97; 95% CI, 0.80–1.00) than CAP measurements with an interquartile range above 30 dB/m (AUROC, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.71–0.90) (P=.0129). Conclusions In an analysis of the same patients using CAP with the M probe and XL probe, with MRI-PDFF as the standard, we found that the M probe under-quantifies CAP values compared with the XL probe, independent of BMI. The type of probe should be considered when interpreting CAP data from patients with NAFLD.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
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