• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
Gwen S. Fernandes, Sanjay M. Parekh, Jonathan P. Moses, Colin W. Fuller, Brigitte E. Scammell, Mark E. Batt, Weiya Zhang, Michael Doherty

Abstract Background The long-term risk from knee intra-articular (KIA) injections in professional athletes such as ex-footballers remains unknown. The use of KIA injections is controversial and remains anecdotally prolific as it is perceived as being safe/beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the number, type and frequency KIA injections administered to retired professional footballers during their playing careers and the associations with post-career knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods This is a cross-sectional study involving a postal questionnaire (n = 1207) and subsequent knee radiographs in a random sample of questionnaire responders (n = 470). Footballers self-reported in the questionnaire whether they had received KIA injections and the estimated total number over the course of their playing career. Participant characteristics and football career-related details were also recorded. KOA was measured as self-reported knee pain (KP), total knee replacement (TKR) and radiographic KOA (RKOA). Results 44.5% of footballers had received at least one KIA injection (mean: 7.5; SD ± 11.2) during their professional career. 71% of knee injections were cortisone/corticosteroid based. Multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and significant knee injury identified that footballers with injections were two times more likely to have KP (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.40–2.34) and TKR (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.43–3.42) than those without injections. However, there was no association with RKOA (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.85–2.01). Given, the association with KP and TKR, we found a significant dose–response relationship as the more injections a player received (by dose–response groups), the greater the risk of KP and TKR outcomes after adjustment for knee injury and other confounders (p for trend < 0.01). Conclusion On average, 8 KIA injections were given to the ex-footballers during their professional career. The most commonly administered injections were cortisone based. These injections associated with KP and TKR after they retired. The associations are independent of knee injuries and are dose dependent. The study suggests that there may have been excessive use of KIA injections to expedite return to play and this contributed to detrimental long-term outcomes such as KP and TKR post-retirement from professional football.

更新日期：2020-01-11
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
Cormac Powell, Leonard D. Browne, Brian P. Carson, Kieran P. Dowd, Ivan J. Perry, Patricia M. Kearney, Janas M. Harrington, Alan E. Donnelly

All physical activity (PA) behaviours undertaken over the day, including sleep, sedentary time, standing time, light-intensity PA (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) have the potential to influence cardiometabolic health. Since these behaviours are mutually exclusive, standard statistical approaches are unable to account for the impact on time spent in other behaviours.

更新日期：2020-01-04
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
Shawn R. Eagle, Anthony P. Kontos, Gert-Jan Pepping, Caleb D. Johnson, Aaron Sinnott, Alice LaGoy, Chris Connaboy

Abstract Recent studies have concluded that athletes have increased risk of musculoskeletal injury following sport-related concussion. While an underlying explanation is still unknown, perceptual-motor control may be implicated in this increased risk. Some authors have purported that indirect perception (i.e., a “top-down” view of neuromuscular control) may be disrupted following sport-related concussion. Direct perception theory states that the athlete and environment are inextricably linked in a continuous perception–action coupling loop. That is, the athlete is able to directly perceive opportunities for action (e.g., “affordances”) in the environment. Based on these notions, the aim of the current paper was to introduce a theoretical model that argues that sport-related concussion may dysregulate the direct perception process, potentially increasing behavioral risk of musculoskeletal injury during sport. Our model is integrated with a sport-related concussion clinical treatment model, which highlights individualized profiles that characterize the heterogeneous response to sport-related concussion. These profiles have a typical constellation of symptoms (e.g., anxiety, fatigue, ocular dysfunction, etc.), which themselves have been associated with disrupted perception–action coupling, independent of sport-related concussion. Therefore, we argue that athletes who have not re-established perception–action coupling loops following sport-related concussion may be at increased risk of subsequent musculoskeletal injury.

更新日期：2020-01-04
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
Steve W. Thompson, David Rogerson, Alan Ruddock, Andrew Barnes

While typesetting the entries of the Table 1 were incorrectly aligned. The correct Table 1 has been copied below.

更新日期：2020-01-02
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
Manuela Besomi, Liam Maclachlan, Rebecca Mellor, Bill Vicenzino, Paul W. Hodges

Dysfunction of the tensor fascia latae (TFL) muscle is often clinically implicated in many musculoskeletal disorders.

更新日期：2020-01-02
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
Denver M. Y. Brown, Jeffrey D. Graham, Kira I. Innes, Sheereen Harris, Ashley Flemington, Steven R. Bray

Abstract Background An emerging body of the literature in the past two decades has generally shown that prior cognitive exertion is associated with a subsequent decline in physical performance. Two parallel, but overlapping, bodies of literature (i.e., ego depletion, mental fatigue) have examined this question. However, research to date has not merged these separate lines of inquiry to assess the overall magnitude of this effect. Objective The present work reports the results of a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis examining carryover effects of cognitive exertion on physical performance. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus was conducted. Only randomized controlled trials involving healthy humans, a central executive task requiring cognitive exertion, an easier cognitive comparison task, and a physical performance task were included. Results A total of 73 studies provided 91 comparisons with 2581 participants. Random effects meta-analysis showed a significant small-to-medium negative effect of prior cognitive exertion on physical performance (g = − 0.38 [95% CI − 0.46, − 0.31]). Subgroup analyses showed that cognitive tasks lasting < 30-min (g = − 0.45) and ≥ 30-min (g = − 0.30) have similar significant negative effects on subsequent physical performance. Prior cognitive exertion significantly impairs isometric resistance (g = − 0.57), motor (g = − 0.57), dynamic resistance (g = − 0.51), and aerobic performance (g = − 0.26), but the effects on maximal anaerobic performance are trivial and non-significant (g = 0.10). Studies employing between-subject designs showed a medium negative effect (g = − 0.65), whereas within-subject designs had a small negative effect (g = − 0.28). Conclusion Findings demonstrate that cognitive exertion has a negative effect on subsequent physical performance that is not due to chance and suggest that previous meta-analysis results may have underestimated the overall effect.

更新日期：2019-12-25
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
Pedro L. Valenzuela, Nicola A. Maffiuletti, Michael J. Joyner, Alejandro Lucia, Romuald Lepers

Abstract Maximum oxygen consumption ($$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$) is not only an indicator of endurance performance, but also a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality. This physiological parameter is known to decrease with aging. In turn, physical exercise might attenuate the rate of aging-related decline in $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$, which in light of the global population aging is of major clinical relevance, especially at advanced ages. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence available from masters athletes about the role of lifelong endurance exercise on aging-related $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$ decline, with examples of the highest $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$ values reported in the scientific literature for athletes across different ages (e.g., 35 ml·kg−1·min−1 in a centenarian cyclist). These data suggest that a linear decrease in $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$ might be possible if physical exercise loads are kept consistently high through the entire life span, with $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$ values remaining higher than those of the general population across all ages. We also summarize the main physiological changes that occur with inactive aging at different system levels—pulmonary and cardiovascular function, blood O2 carrying capacity, skeletal muscle capillary density and oxidative capacity—and negatively influence $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$, and review how lifelong exercise can attenuate or even prevent most—but apparently not all (e.g., maximum heart rate decline)—of them. In summary, although aging seems to be invariably associated with a progressive decline in $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$, maintaining high levels of physical exercise along the life span slows the multi-systemic deterioration that is commonly observed in inactive individuals, thereby attenuating age-related $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}$$ decline.

更新日期：2019-12-25
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
Joshua P. McGeown, Stephen Kara, Mark Fulcher, Hannah Crosswell, Robert Borotkanics, Patria A. Hume, Kenneth L. Quarrie, Alice Theadom

To identify which aspects of initial clinical assessment for sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (SR-mTBI) predict whether an athlete achieves symptom resolution within 14 days of the injury.

更新日期：2019-12-17
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
James L. Nuzzo

Flexibility refers to the intrinsic properties of body tissues that determine maximal joint range of motion without causing injury. For many years, flexibility has been classified by the American College of Sports Medicine as a major component of physical fitness. The notion flexibility is important for fitness has also led to the idea static stretching should be prescribed to improve flexibility. The current paper proposes flexibility be retired as a major component of physical fitness, and consequently, stretching be de-emphasized as a standard component of exercise prescriptions for most populations. First, I show flexibility has little predictive or concurrent validity with health and performance outcomes (e.g., mortality, falls, occupational performance) in apparently healthy individuals, particularly when viewed in light of the other major components of fitness (i.e., body composition, cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength). Second, I explain that if flexibility requires improvement, this does not necessitate a prescription of stretching in most populations. Flexibility can be maintained or improved by exercise modalities that cause more robust health benefits than stretching (e.g., resistance training). Retirement of flexibility as a major component of physical fitness will simplify fitness batteries; save time and resources dedicated to flexibility instruction, measurement, and evaluation; and prevent erroneous conclusions about fitness status when interpreting flexibility scores. De-emphasis of stretching in exercise prescriptions will ensure stretching does not negatively impact other exercise and does not take away from time that could be allocated to training activities that have more robust health and performance benefits.

更新日期：2019-12-17
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
Steve W. Thompson, David Rogerson, Alan Ruddock, Andrew Barnes

Optimal prescription of resistance exercise load (kg) is essential for the development of maximal strength. Two methods are commonly used in practice with no clear consensus on the most effective approach for the improvement of maximal strength.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
Laura M. Anderson, Daniel R. Bonanno, Harvi F. Hart, Christian J. Barton

Running participation continues to increase. The ideal strike pattern during running is a controversial topic. Many coaches and therapists promote non-rearfoot strike (NRFS) running with a belief that it can treat and prevent injury, and improve running economy.

更新日期：2019-12-11
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
Clementine Grandou, Lee Wallace, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Nicholas G. Allen, Aaron J. Coutts

The balance between training stress and recovery is important for inducing adaptations to improve athletic performance. However, continuously high training loads with insufficient recovery may cause fatigue to accumulate and result in overtraining. A comprehensive systematic review is required to collate overtraining literature and improve the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying functional overreaching (FOR), non-functional overreaching (NFOR) and the overtraining syndrome (OTS) in resistance training.

更新日期：2019-12-09
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
Amanda D. Hagstrom, Paul W. Marshall, Mark Halaki, Daniel A. Hackett

The effect of resistance training (RT) on adaptations in muscular strength and hypertrophy has never been examined in an exclusively female synthesis of the literature.

更新日期：2019-12-09
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
Kari Bø, Ingrid Elisabeth Nygaard

More women participate in sports than ever before and the proportion of women athletes at the Olympic Games is nearly 50%. The pelvic floor in women may be the only area of the body where the positive effect of physical activity has been questioned. The aim of this narrative review is to present two widely held opposing hypotheses on the effect of general exercise on the pelvic floor and to discuss the evidence for each. Hypothesis 1: by strengthening the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and decreasing the levator hiatus, exercise decreases the risk of urinary incontinence, anal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, but negatively affects the ease and safety of childbirth. Hypothesis 2: by overloading and stretching the PFM, exercise not only increases the risk of these disorders, but also makes labor and childbirth easier, as the PFM do not obstruct the exit of the fetus. Key findings of this review endorse aspects of both hypotheses. Exercising women generally have similar or stronger PFM strength and larger levator ani muscles than non-exercising women, but this does not seem to have a greater risk of obstructed labor or childbirth. Additionally, women that specifically train their PFM while pregnant are not more likely to have outcomes associated with obstructed labor. Mild-to-moderate physical activity, such as walking, decreases the risk of urinary incontinence but female athletes are about three times more likely to have urinary incontinence compared to controls. There is some evidence that strenuous exercise may cause and worsen pelvic organ prolapse, but data are inconsistent. Both intra-abdominal pressure associated with exercise and PFM strength vary between activities and between women; thus the threshold for optimal or negative effects on the pelvic floor almost certainly differs from person to person. Our review highlights many knowledge gaps that need to be understood to understand the full effects of strenuous and non-strenuous activities on pelvic floor health.

更新日期：2019-12-09
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Ed Maunder, Deborah K. Dulson

Ketone bodies (KB) provide an alternative energy source and uniquely modulate substrate metabolism during endurance exercise. Nutritional ketosis (blood KBs > 0.5 mM) can be achieved within minutes via exogenous ketone supplementation or days-to-weeks via conforming to a very low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (KD). In contrast to short-term (< 2 weeks) KD ingestion, chronic adherence (> 3 weeks) leads to a state of keto-adaptation. However, despite elevating blood KBs to similar concentrations, exogenous ketone supplementation and keto-adaptation are not similar metabolic states as they elicit diverse and distinct effects on substrate availability and metabolism during exercise; meaning that their influence on endurance exercise performance is different. In contrast to contemporary, high(er)-carbohydrate fuelling strategies, inducing nutritional ketosis is rarely ergogenic irrespective of origin and, in fact, can impair endurance performance. Nonetheless, exogenous ketone supplementation and keto-adaptation possess utility for select endurance events and individuals, thus warranting further research into their performance effects and potential strategies for their optimisation. It is critical, however, that future research considers the limitations of measuring blood KB concentrations and their utilisation, and assess the effect of nutritional ketosis on performance using exercise protocols reflective of real-world competition. Furthermore, to reliably assess the effects of keto-adaptation, rigorous dietary-training controls of sufficient duration should be prioritised.

更新日期：2019-12-09
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
Bas Van Hooren, Joel T. Fuller, Jonathan D. Buckley, Jayme R. Miller, Kerry Sewell, Guillaume Rao, Christian Barton, Chris Bishop, Richard W. Willy

Treadmills are often used in research, clinical practice, and training. Biomechanical investigations comparing treadmill and overground running report inconsistent findings.

更新日期：2019-12-04
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
Patroklos Androulakis-Korakakis, James P. Fisher, James Steele

Increases in muscular strength may increase sports performance, reduce injury risk, are associated with a plethora of health markers, as well as exerting positive psychological effects. Due to their efficiency and effectiveness in increasing total body muscular strength, multi-joint exercises like the powerlifts, i.e.: the squat (SQ), bench-press (BP) and deadlift (DL), are widely used by active individuals as well as athletes in the pursuit of increasing strength. To date, the concept of a minimum dose, i.e. “what is the minimum one needs to do to increase 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength?” has not been directly examined in the literature, especially in the context of the powerlifts. This review aims to explore the current available evidence around the minimum effective training dose required to increase 1RM strength in trained individuals in an attempt to enhance the practical guidelines around resistance-training as well as provide active individuals, athletes and coaches with more flexibility when designing a training protocol.

更新日期：2019-12-03
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
Jo Verschueren, Bruno Tassignon, Kevin De Pauw, Matthias Proost, Amber Teugels, Jeroen Van Cutsem, Bart Roelands, Evert Verhagen, Romain Meeusen

Acute fatigue is hypothesized to alter lower extremity injury risk profiles by affecting intrinsic risk factors (i.e. single leg postural control, hamstring strength). However, no systematic overview exists that merges the insights into prospective lower extremity injury risk profiling with the effect of acute fatigue on functional test performance.

更新日期：2019-11-30
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
Matthew Buckthorpe, Francesco Della Villa

Outcomes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction need improving, with poor return-to-sport rates and high risk of secondary re-injury. There is a need to improve rehabilitation strategies after ACL reconstruction, if we can support enhanced patient outcomes. This paper discusses how to optimise the mid-stage rehabilitation process after ACL reconstruction. Mid-stage is a difficult and vitally important stage of the functional recovery process and provides the foundation on which to commence late-stage rehabilitation training. Often many aspects of mid-stage rehabilitation (e.g. knee extensors isolated muscle strength) are not actually restored prior to return-to-sport. In addition, if we are to allow time for optimal late-stage rehabilitation and return-to-sport training, we need to optimise the mid-stage rehabilitation approach and complete it in a timely manner. This paper forms a key part of a strategy to optimise the ACL rehabilitation approach and considers factors more specific to mid-stage rehabilitation characterised in 3 areas: (1) muscle strength: muscle and joint specific, in particular at the knee level, with the knee extensors and flexors and distally with the triceps surae and proximally with the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex, as well as closed kinetic chain strength; (2) altered basic motor patterning (movement quality) and (3) fitness re-conditioning. In addition, the paper provides recommendations on how to implement these into practice, discussing training planning and programming and suggests specific screening to monitor work and when the athlete is able to progress to the next stage (e.g. late-stage rehabilitation criteria).

更新日期：2019-11-28
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-21
Renato Mattli, Renato Farcher, Maria-Eleni Syleouni, Simon Wieser, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Matthias Schwenkglenks

Physical inactivity is a worldwide pandemic associated with major chronic diseases. Given limited resources, policy makers are in need of physical activity interventions that provide best value for money.

更新日期：2019-11-21
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
Louise Czosnek, Nicole Rankin, Eva Zopf, Justin Richards, Simon Rosenbaum, Prue Cormie

Exercise is an efficacious therapy for many chronic diseases. Integrating efficacious evidence-based interventions (EBIs), such as exercise, into daily healthcare practice is a slow and complex pursuit. Implementation science seeks to understand and address this phenomenon by conducting studies about the methods used to promote the routine uptake of EBIs. The purpose of this article is to explore implementation science and a common conceptual framework in the discipline, the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), as it applies to exercise EBI. We conclude by offering recommendations for future research that leverage implementation science priorities to highlight the potential of this research field for advancing the implementation of exercise EBI.

更新日期：2019-11-21
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
Richard A. Brindle, Jeffrey B. Taylor, Coty Rajek, Anika Weisbrod, Kevin R. Ford

The following sentence, which previously read:

更新日期：2019-11-19
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
William T. Davies, Gregory D. Myer, Paul J. Read

There has been a move towards a criterion-based return to play in recent years, with 4 single-leg hop tests commonly used to assess functional performance. Despite their widespread integration, research indicates that relationships between ‘passing’ ‘hop test criteria and successful outcomes following rehabilitation are equivocal, and, therefore, require further investigation. This critical review includes key information to examine the evolution of these tests, their reliability, relationships with other constructs, and sensitivity to change over time. Recommendations for how measurement and administration of the tests can be improved are also discussed. The evidence presented in this review shows that hop tests display good reliability and are sensitive to change over time. However, the use of more than 2 hop tests does not appear to be necessary due to high collinearity and no greater sensitivity to detect abnormality. The inclusion of other hop tests in different planes may give greater information about the current function of the knee, particularly when measured over time using both relative and absolute measures of performance. It is recommended that the contralateral limb be tested prior to surgery for a more relevant benchmark for performance, and clinicians are strongly advised to measure movement quality, as hop distance alone appears to overestimate the recovery of the knee.

更新日期：2019-11-19
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
Israel Halperin, Aviv Emanuel

Rating of perceived effort (RPE) scales are the most frequently used single-item scales in exercise science. They offer an easy and useful way to monitor and prescribe exercise intensity. However, RPE scales suffer from methodological limitations stemming from multiple perceived effort definitions and measurement strategies. In the present review, we attend these issues by covering (1) two popular perceived effort definitions, (2) the terms included within these definitions and the reasons they can impede validity, (3) the problems associated with using different effort scales and instructions, and (4) measuring perceived effort from specific body parts and the body as a whole. We pose that the large number of interactions between definitions, scales, instructions and applications strategies, threatens measurement validity of RPE. We suggest two strategies to overcome these limitations: (1) to reinforce consistency by narrowing the number of definitions of perceived effort, the number of terms included within them, and the number of scales and instructions used. (2) Rather than measuring solely RPE as commonly done, exercise sciences will benefit from incorporating other single-item scales that measure affect, fatigue and discomfort, among others. By following these two recommendations, we expect the field will increase measurement validity and become more comprehensive.

更新日期：2019-11-19
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
Steven P. Broglio, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Barry Katz, Shi Zhao, Thomas McAllister, Michael McCrea, CARE Consortium Investigators

Numerous medical organizations recommend a multifaceted approach to the assessment of concussion occurring during sporting events. A number of tools are available to clinicians, with a wide breadth of sensitivity and specificity; however, little work has been done to evaluate the combined efficiency of these tools in concussed male and female athletes from a broad array of collegiate sports and with variable time from the pre-season baseline evaluation.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
Hugh H. K. Fullagar, Alan McCall, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Terry Favero, Aaron J. Coutts

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the collated integration of practitioner expertise, athlete values and research evidence aimed to optimise the decision-making process surrounding sport performance. Despite the academic interest afforded to sport science research, our knowledge of how this research is applied in elite sport settings is limited. This current opinion examines the existing evidence of the translation of sport science research into the field, with a tailored focus on the current perceptions of practitioners, researchers and coaches. Recent studies show that practitioners and researchers report they ascertain sport science knowledge differently, with coaches preferring personal interactions compared with coaching courses or scientific journals. The limited peer-reviewed research shows that coaches perceive their knowledge is greater in fields such as tactical/technical areas, rather than physical fitness or general conditioning. This likely explains coaches’ greater perceived value in research dedicated to technical and tactical expertise, as well as mental training and skill acquisition. Practitioners place a large emphasis on the need for research in physical fitness areas, which is likely due to their occupational focus. There are many perceived barriers of sport science research application, including funding, time, coach/player/staff ‘buy in’ and research questions that may not apply to the setting. We contend that researchers and practitioners may benefit in producing research, ascertaining knowledge and disseminating findings in alternative methods that better align with coaches’ needs. In addition, educational strategies that focus on real-world context and promote social interaction between coaches, practitioners, organisational personnel and researchers would likely benefit all stakeholders.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
Jason C. Tee, Shaun J. McLaren, Ben Jones

In recent years, an understanding has developed that sports injuries are the emergent outcomes of complex, dynamic systems. Thus, the influence of local contextual factors on injury outcomes is increasingly being acknowledged. These realisations place injury prevention research at a crossroads. Currently, injury prevention researchers develop universally applicable injury prevention solutions, but the adoption of these solutions in practice is low. This occurs because implementation contexts are both unique and dynamic in nature, and as a result singular, static solutions are often incompatible. In contrast, practitioners address injury prevention through iterative cycles of trial and error, aiming to optimise the injury prevention process within their own unique contexts. The purpose of this critical review is to draw attention to the misalignment between research and practice-based approaches to injury prevention. In light of this, we propose alternative research approaches that acknowledge the process-driven nature of injury prevention in practice. We propose that a core focus of sport injury prevention research should be to provide practitioners with useful and relevant information to support their decision making around their localised injury prevention practice. Through this approach, injury prevention research ceases to be about what works, and begins to engage with understanding what works in what contexts and why?

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
Barlo Hillen, Daniel Pfirrmann, Markus Nägele, Perikles Simon

Infrared thermography (IRT) is a non-invasive tool to measure the body surface radiation temperature (Tsr). IRT is an upcoming technology as a result of recent advancements in camera lenses, detector technique and data processing capabilities. The purpose of this review is to determine the potential and applicability of IRT in the context of dynamic measurements in exercise physiology. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar to identify appropriate articles, and conducted six case experiments with a high-resolution IRT camera (640 × 480 pixels) for complementary illustration. Ten articles for endurance exercise, 12 articles for incremental exercise testing and 11 articles for resistance exercise were identified. Specific Tsr changes were detected for different exercise types. Close to physical exertion or during prolonged exercise six recent studies described “tree-shaped” or “hyper-thermal” surface radiation pattern (Psr) without further specification. For the first time, we describe the Tsr and Psr dynamics and how these may relate to physiological adaptations during exercise and illustrate the differential responsiveness of Psr to resistance or endurance exercise. We discuss how bias related to individual factors, such as skin blood flow, or related to environmental factors could be resolved by innovative technological approaches. We specify why IRT seems to be increasingly capable of differentiating physiological traits relevant for exercise physiologists from various forms of environmental, technical and individual bias. For refined analysis, it will be necessary to develop and implement standardized and accurate pattern recognition technology capable of differentiating exercise modalities to support the evaluation of thermographic data by means of radiomics.

更新日期：2019-11-17
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
Ashley Cox, Stuart J. Fairclough, Maria-Christina Kosteli, Robert J. Noonan

It has been reported that boys’ and girls’ physical activity (PA) levels decline throughout adolescence. Boys are at risk of physical inactivity during adolescence; however, in intervention research, they are an under-represented group relative to girls. It is suggested that the school environment may be central to developing interventions that support adolescents in meeting the current PA guidelines. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of school-based physical activity interventions for improving muscular fitness (MF) in adolescent males.

更新日期：2019-11-15
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
Thomas A. Deshayes, David Jeker, Eric D. B. Goulet

Progressive exercise-induced dehydration may impair aerobic exercise performance (AEP). However, no systematic approach has yet been used to determine how pre-exercise hypohydration, which imposes physiological challenges differing from those of a well-hydrated pre-exercise state, affects AEP and related components such as peak oxygen consumption $$(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2{\text{peak}}}} )$$ and $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}$$ at lactate threshold $$(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} {\text{LT}})$$.

更新日期：2019-11-14
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
Nicolas Place, Guillaume Y Millet

Neuromuscular fatigue (NMF) is usually assessed non-invasively in healthy, athletic or clinical populations with the combination of voluntary and evoked contractions. Although it might appear relatively straightforward to magnetically or electrically stimulate at different levels (cortical/spinal/muscle) and to measure mechanical and electromyographic responses to quantify neuromuscular adjustments due to sustained/repeated muscle contractions, there are drawbacks that researchers and clinicians need to bear in mind. The aim of this opinion paper is to highlight the pitfalls inevitably faced when NMF is quantified. The first problem might arise from the definition of fatigue itself and the parameter(s) used to measure it; for instance, measuring power vs. isometric torque may lead to different conclusions. Another potential limitation is the delay between exercise termination and the evaluation of neuromuscular function; the possible underestimation of exercise-induced neural and contractile impairment and misinterpretation of fatigue etiology will be discussed, as well as solutions recently proposed to overcome this problem. Quantification of NMF can also be biased (or not feasible) because of the techniques themselves (e.g. results may depend on stimulation intensity for transcranial magnetic stimulation) or the way data are analyzed (e.g. M wave peak-to-peak vs first phase amplitude). When available, alternatives recently suggested in the literature to overcome these pitfalls are considered and recommendations about the best practices to assess NMF (e.g. paying attention to the delay between exercise and testing, adapting the method to the characteristics of the population to be tested and considering the limitations associated with the techniques) are proposed.

更新日期：2019-11-13
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
Matthew Cuthbert, Nicholas Ripley, John J. McMahon, Martin Evans, G. Gregory Haff, Paul Comfort

between the studies assessed for

更新日期：2019-11-07
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Michael J. Joyner

Humans vary in their ‘natural ability’ related to sports performance. One facet of natural ability reflects so-called intrinsic ability or the ability to do well with minimal training. A second facet of natural ability is how rapidly an individual adapts to training; this is termed trainability. A third facet is the upper limit achievable after years of prolonged intense training; this represents both intrinsic ability and also trainability. There are other features of natural ability to consider, for example body size, because some events, sports, or positions favor participants of different sizes. In this context, the physiological determinants of elite endurance performance, especially running and cycling, are well known and can be used as a template to discuss these general issues. The key determinants of endurance performance include maximal oxygen uptake $$(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2\hbox{max} } )$$, the lactate threshold, and running economy (efficiency in the case of cycling or other sports). In this article, I use these physiological determinants to explore what is known about the genetics of endurance performance. My main conclusion is that at this time there are very few, if any, obvious relationships between these key physiological determinants of performance and DNA sequence variation. Several potential reasons for this lack of relationship will be discussed.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Lewis J. James, Mark P. Funnell, Ruth M. James, Stephen A. Mears

The impact of alterations in hydration status on human physiology and performance responses during exercise is one of the oldest research topics in sport and exercise nutrition. This body of work has mainly focussed on the impact of reduced body water stores (i.e. hypohydration) on these outcomes, on the whole demonstrating that hypohydration impairs endurance performance, likely via detrimental effects on a number of physiological functions. However, an important consideration, that has received little attention, is the methods that have traditionally been used to investigate how hypohydration affects exercise outcomes, as those used may confound the results of many studies. There are two main methodological limitations in much of the published literature that perhaps make the results of studies investigating performance outcomes difficult to interpret. First, subjects involved in studies are generally not blinded to the intervention taking place (i.e. they know what their hydration status is), which may introduce expectancy effects. Second, most of the methods used to induce hypohydration are both uncomfortable and unfamiliar to the subjects, meaning that alterations in performance may be caused by this discomfort, rather than hypohydration per se. This review discusses these methodological considerations and provides an overview of the small body of recent work that has attempted to correct some of these methodological issues. On balance, these recent blinded hydration studies suggest hypohydration equivalent to 2–3% body mass decreases endurance cycling performance in the heat, at least when no/little fluid is ingested.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs

Muscle cramp is a temporary but intense and painful involuntary contraction of skeletal muscle that can occur in many different situations. The causes of, and cures for, the cramps that occur during or soon after exercise remain uncertain, although there is evidence that some cases may be associated with disturbances of water and salt balance, while others appear to involve sustained abnormal spinal reflex activity secondary to fatigue of the affected muscles. Evidence in favour of a role for dyshydration comes largely from medical records obtained in large industrial settings, although it is supported by one large-scale intervention trial and by field trials involving small numbers of athletes. Cramp is notoriously unpredictable, making laboratory studies difficult, but experimental models involving electrical stimulation or intense voluntary contractions of small muscles held in a shortened position can induce cramp in many, although not all, individuals. These studies show that dehydration has no effect on the stimulation frequency required to initiate cramping and confirm a role for spinal pathways, but their relevance to the spontaneous cramps that occur during exercise is questionable. There is a long history of folk remedies for treatment or prevention of cramps; some may reduce the likelihood of some forms of cramping and reduce its intensity and duration, but none are consistently effective. It seems likely that there are different types of cramp that are initiated by different mechanisms; if this is the case, the search for a single strategy for prevention or treatment is unlikely to succeed.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Charles R. Pedlar, John Newell, Nathan A. Lewis

Blood test data were traditionally confined to the clinic for diagnostic purposes, but are now becoming more routinely used in many professional and elite high-performance settings as a physiological profiling and monitoring tool. A wealth of information based on robust research evidence can be gleaned from blood tests, including: the identification of iron, vitamin or energy deficiency; the identification of oxidative stress and inflammation; and the status of red blood cell populations. Serial blood test data can be used to monitor athletes and make inferences about the efficacy of training interventions, nutritional strategies or indeed the capacity to tolerate training load. Via a profiling and monitoring approach, blood biomarker measurement combined with contextual data has the potential to help athletes avoid injury and illness via adjustments to diet, training load and recovery strategies. Since wide inter-individual variability exists in many biomarkers, clinical population-based reference data can be of limited value in athletes, and statistical methods for longitudinal data are required to identify meaningful changes within an athlete. Data quality is often compromised by poor pre-analytic controls in sport settings. The biotechnology industry is rapidly evolving, providing new technologies and methods, some of which may be well suited to athlete applications in the future. This review provides current perspectives, limitations and recommendations for sports science and sports medicine practitioners using blood profiling and monitoring for nutrition and performance purposes.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Neil P. Walsh

Respiratory and gastrointestinal infections limit an athlete’s availability to train and compete. To better understand how sick an athlete will become when they have an infection, a paradigm recently adopted from ecological immunology is presented that includes the concepts of immune resistance (the ability to destroy microbes) and immune tolerance (the ability to dampen defence yet control infection at a non-damaging level). This affords a new theoretical perspective on how nutrition may influence athlete immune health; paving the way for focused research efforts on tolerogenic nutritional supplements to reduce the infection burden in athletes. Looking through this new lens clarifies why nutritional supplements targeted at improving immune resistance in athletes show limited benefits: evidence supporting the old paradigm of immune suppression in athletes is lacking. Indeed, there is limited evidence that the dietary practices of athletes suppress immunity, e.g. low-energy availability and train- or sleep-low carbohydrate. It goes without saying, irrespective of the dietary preference (omnivorous, vegetarian), that athletes are recommended to follow a balanced diet to avoid a frank deficiency of a nutrient required for proper immune function. The new theoretical perspective provided sharpens the focus on tolerogenic nutritional supplements shown to reduce the infection burden in athletes, e.g. probiotics, vitamin C and vitamin D. Further research should demonstrate the benefits of candidate tolerogenic supplements to reduce infection in athletes; without blunting training adaptations and without side effects.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Mary Jane De Souza, Kristen J. Koltun, Nancy I. Williams

The Female Athlete Triad represents three interrelated conditions of (i) low energy availability (energy deficiency), presenting with or without disordered eating, (ii) menstrual dysfunction, and (iii) poor bone health, each of which can exist along a continuum of severity ranging from mild and moderate subclinical health concerns to severe clinical outcomes, including eating disorders, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. This review provides a brief overview of the Female Athlete Triad, including updating the current thinking regarding energy availability and how it relates to reproductive function, and sets the stage for an initial working model of a similar syndrome in males that will be based on currently available evidence and will later be defined and referred to as a Male Athlete Triad by the newly re-named Female and Male Athlete Triad Coalition. A primary focus of this paper will be on the physiology of each Triad model with an emphasis on low energy availability and its role in reproductive function, with a brief introduction on its effects on bone health in men. From the data reviewed, (i) a specific threshold of energy availability below which menstrual disturbances are induced is not supported; (ii) it appears that the energetic, reproductive, and bone systems in men are more resilient to the effects of low energy availability compared to those of women, requiring more severe energetic perturbations before alterations are observed; and (iii) it appears that recovery of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis can be observed more quickly in men than in women.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Trent Stellingwerff, Peter Peeling, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Rebecca Hall, Anu E. Koivisto, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke

Training at low to moderate altitudes (~ 1600–2400 m) is a common approach used by endurance athletes to provide a distinctive environmental stressor to augment training stimulus in the anticipation of increasing subsequent altitude- and sea-level-based performance. Despite some scientific progress being made on the impact of various nutrition-related changes in physiology and associated interventions at mountaineering altitudes (> 3000 m), the impact of nutrition and/or supplements on further optimization of these hypoxic adaptations at low–moderate altitudes is only an emerging topic. Within this narrative review we have highlighted six major themes involving nutrition: altered energy availability, iron, carbohydrate, hydration, antioxidant requirements and various performance supplements. Of these issues, emerging data suggest that particular attention be given to the potential risk for poor energy availability and increased iron requirements at the altitudes typical of elite athlete training (~ 1600–2400 m) to interfere with optimal adaptations. Furthermore, the safest way to address the possible increase in oxidative stress associated with altitude exposure is via the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods rather than high-dose antioxidant supplements. Meanwhile, many other important questions regarding nutrition and altitude training remain to be answered. At the elite level of sport where the differences between winning and losing are incredibly small, the strategic use of nutritional interventions to enhance the adaptations to altitude training provides an important consideration in the search for optimal performance.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
Craig Sale, Kirsty Jayne Elliott-Sale

Athletes should pay more attention to their bone health, whether this relates to their longer-term bone health (e.g. risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis) or their shorter-term risk of bony injuries. Perhaps the easiest way to do this would be to modify their training loads, although this advice rarely seems popular with coaches and athletes for obvious reasons. As such, other possibilities to support the athletes’ bone health need to be explored. Given that bone is a nutritionally modified tissue and diet has a significant influence on bone health across the lifespan, diet and nutritional composition seem like obvious candidates for manipulation. The nutritional requirements to support the skeleton during growth and development and during ageing are unlikely to be notably different between athletes and the general population, although there are some considerations of specific relevance, including energy availability, low carbohydrate availability, protein intake, vitamin D intake and dermal calcium and sodium losses. Energy availability is important for optimising bone health in the athlete, although normative energy balance targets are highly unrealistic for many athletes. The level of energy availability beyond which there is no negative effect for the bone needs to be established. On the balance of the available evidence it would seem unlikely that higher animal protein intakes, in the amounts recommended to athletes, are not harmful to bone health, particularly with adequate calcium intake. Dermal calcium losses might be an important consideration for endurance athletes, particularly during long training sessions or events. In these situations, some consideration should be given to pre-exercise calcium feeding. The avoidance of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is important for the athlete to protect their bone health. There remains a lack of information relating to the longer-term effects of different dietary and nutritional practices on bone health in athletes, something that needs to be addressed before specific guidance can be provided.

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
Alan Griffin, Ian C. Kenny, Thomas M. Comyns, Mark Lyons

There has been a recent increase in research examining training load as a method of mitigating injury risk due to its known detrimental effects on player welfare and team performance. The acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) takes into account the current training load (acute) and the training load that an athlete has been prepared for (chronic). The ACWR can be calculated using; (1) the rolling average model (RA) and (2) the exponentially weighted moving average model (EWMA).

更新日期：2019-11-06
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
Yu-Kai Chang, Kirk I. Erickson, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Tsung-Min Hung

The article How the 2018 US Physical Activity Guidelines are a Call to Promote and Better Understand Acute Physical Activity for Cognitive Function Gains, written by Yu-Kai Chang, Kirk I. Erickson, Emmanuel Stamatakis and Tsung-Min Hung, was originally published Online First without Open Access. After publication in volume 49, issue 11, pages 1625–1627 [#-#] the author decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an Open Access publication.

更新日期：2019-11-04
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
Jordan L. Fox, Aaron T. Scanlan, Robert Stanton, Charli Sargent

Sleep is essential in the preparation for, and the recovery from, training and competition. Despite being important for all individuals, young athletes are considered an at-risk group for reduced sleep duration and quality. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current literature relating to sleep duration and quality in young (14–25 years) athletes. Specifically, typical sleep and wake patterns, factors affecting sleep and wake patterns, and the consequences of altered sleep and wake patterns in young athletes are discussed. Scheduling training and competition in the afternoon or evening appears to result in reduced sleep duration due to less time in bed. Evidence suggests that young athletes who obtain less than 8 h of sleep per night are at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injury. An increase in sleep duration above habitual nightly sleep may be associated with favourable performance in young athletes; however, the associations between sleep quality and performance- and health-related outcomes remain unclear.

更新日期：2019-11-04
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
Yutaka Igarashi, Yoshie Nogami

According to previous epidemiological studies, there are pros and cons for the relationship between running regularly and changes in resting blood pressure (RBP), and the changes may depend on the form of exercise.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
Belinda Thompson, Ashley Almarjawi, Dean Sculley, Xanne Janse de Jonge

Resistance training is well known to increase strength and lean body mass, and plays a key role in many female athletic and recreational training programs. Most females train throughout their reproductive years when they are exposed to continuously changing female steroid hormone profiles due to the menstrual cycle or contraceptive use. Therefore, it is important to focus on how female hormones may affect resistance training responses.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
Javier Raya-González, Tara Rendo-Urteaga, Raúl Domínguez, Daniel Castillo, Alejandro Rodríguez-Fernández, Jozo Grgic

Several studies investigated the effects of caffeine supplementation on movement velocity in resistance exercise. However, these studies presented inconsistent findings.

更新日期：2019-10-24
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
Richard A. Brindle, Jeffrey B. Taylor, Coty Rajek, Anika Weisbrod, Kevin R. Ford

Temporal spatial parameters during running are measurable outside of clinical and laboratory environments using wearable technology. Data from wearable technology may be useful for injury prevention, however the association of temporal spatial parameters with overuse injury in runners remains unclear.

更新日期：2019-10-23
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
Gabrielle E. W. Giersch, Nisha Charkoudian, Rebecca L. Stearns, Douglas J. Casa

Although it is well understood that dehydration can have a major impact on exercise performance and thermoregulatory physiology, the potential for interactions between female sex hormone influences and the impact of dehydration on these variables is poorly understood. Female reproductive hormonal profiles over the course of the menstrual cycle have significant influences on thermoregulatory and volume regulatory physiology. Increased insight into the interactions among dehydration and menstrual cycle hormonal influences may have important implications for safety, nutritional recommendations, as well as optimal mental and physical performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize what is known in this area and highlight the areas that will be important for future work.

更新日期：2019-10-23
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
James T. Eckner, Jingshen Wang, Lindsay D. Nelson, Richard Bancroft, Melissa Pohorence, Xuming He, Steven P. Broglio, Christopher C. Giza, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Jeffrey S. Kutcher, Michael McCrea

To compare pre-season to post-season changes on a battery of clinical neurological outcome measures between non-contact, contact, and collision sport athletes over multiple seasons of play.

更新日期：2019-10-21
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
Jan Wilke, Anna-Lena Müller, Florian Giesche, Gerard Power, Hamid Ahmedi, David G. Behm

Foam rolling (FR) has been demonstrated to acutely enhance joint range of motion (ROM). However, data syntheses pooling the effect sizes across studies are scarce. It is, furthermore, unknown which moderators affect the treatment outcome.

更新日期：2019-10-19
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
Fernando González-Mohíno, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Inmaculada Yustres, José M. González-Ravé

Oxygen cost of running is largely influenced by endurance training strategies, including interval and continuous training. However, which training method better reduces the oxygen cost remains unknown.

更新日期：2019-10-12
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
Ken Quarrie, Simon Gianotti, Ian Murphy

Page 11, column 2, section 4.2 Injury Epidemiology, paragraph 4:

更新日期：2019-10-10
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
Gordon Dunlop, Clare L. Ardern, Thor Einar Andersen, Colin Lewin, Gregory Dupont, Ben Ashworth, Gary O’Driscoll, Andrew Rolls, Susan Brown, Alan McCall

Return-to-play (RTP) is an on-going challenge in professional football. Return-to-play related research is increasing. However, it is unknown to what extent the recommendations presented within research are being implemented by professional football teams, and where there are gaps between research and practice. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine if premier-league football teams worldwide follow a RTP continuum, (2) to identify RTP criteria used and (3) to understand how RTP decision-making occurs in applied practice.

更新日期：2019-10-08
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-03
Shiqi Thng, Simon Pearson, Justin W. L. Keogh

No sources of funding were used in the preparation of this article.

更新日期：2019-10-03
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
Despoina V. Tryfidou, Conor McClean, Michalis G. Nikolaidis, Gareth W. Davison

Page 17, Fig. 2

更新日期：2019-10-02
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
Wolfram Müller, Alfred Fürhapter-Rieger, Helmut Ahammer, Timothy G. Lohman, Nanna L. Meyer, Luis B. Sardinha, Arthur D. Stewart, Ronald J. Maughan, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Tom Müller, Margaret Harris, Nuwanee Kirihennedige, Joao P. Magalhaes, Xavier Melo, Wolfram Pirstinger, Alba Reguant-Closa, Vanessa Risoul-Salas, Timothy R. Ackland

Fat is a metabolic fuel, but excess body fat is ballast mass, and therefore, many elite athletes reduce body fat to dangerously low levels. Uncompressed subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) thickness measured by brightness-mode ultrasound (US) provides an estimate of body fat content.

更新日期：2019-09-30
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
Benedict Low, Diogo Coutinho, Bruno Gonçalves, Robert Rein, Daniel Memmert, Jaime Sampaio

Performance analysis research in association football has recently cusped a paradigmatic shift in the way tactical behaviours are studied. Based on insights from system complexity research, a growing number of studies now analyse tactical behaviours in football based on the collective movements of team players.

更新日期：2019-09-30
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
Luca Maestroni, Paul Read, Chris Bishop, Anthony Turner

Injuries have a detrimental impact on team and individual athletic performance. Deficits in maximal strength, rate of force development (RFD), and reactive strength are commonly reported following several musculoskeletal injuries. This article first examines the available literature to identify common deficits in fundamental physical qualities following injury, specifically strength, rate of force development and reactive strength. Secondly, evidence-based strategies to target a resolution of these residual deficits will be discussed to reduce the risk of future injury. Examples to enhance practical application and training programmes have also been provided to show how these can be addressed.

更新日期：2019-09-26
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
Paul J. Collings, Diane Farrar, Joanna Gibson, Jane West, Sally E. Barber, John Wright

Physical activity is advocated for a range of benefits to the uncomplicated pregnancy. We investigated associations of mid-pregnancy physical activity with maternal and neonatal health in white British and Pakistani-origin women from a deprived urban setting.

更新日期：2019-09-26
• Sports Med. (IF 7.583) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
Dahan da Cunha Nascimento, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Jonato Prestes

Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise (a.k.a. occlusion training) has emerged as a viable surrogate to traditional heavy-load strength rehabilitation training for a broad range of clinical populations including elderly subjects and rehabilitating athletes. A particular benefit of BFR exercise is the lower stress upon the joints as compared to traditional heavy resistance training, with similar gains in muscle strength and size. The application of an inflatable cuff to the proximal portion of the limbs increases the pressure required for venous return, leading to changes in venous compliance and wall tension. However, it is not known if long-term benefits of BFR exercise on muscle strength and size outweigh potential short and long-term complications on vascular health. BFR exercise could lead to clinical deterioration of the vasculature along with sympathetic overactivity and decreased vascular function associated with retrograde shear stress. This raises a fundamental question: Given the concern that excessive restriction could cause injury to endothelial cells and might cause detrimental effects on endothelial function, even in healthy individuals, should we critically re-evaluate the safety of this method for the general population? From this perspective, the purpose of this manuscript is to review the effects of BFR exercise on vascular function, and to provide relevant insights for training practice as well as future directions for research.

更新日期：2019-09-26
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