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  • Treatment-free remission after first-line dasatinib discontinuation in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (first-line DADI trial): a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Shinya Kimura; Jun Imagawa; Kazunori Murai; Masayuki Hino; Toshio Kitawaki; Masaya Okada; Hideo Tanaka; Motohiro Shindo; Takashi Kumagai; Takayuki Ikezoe; Nobuhiko Uoshima; Tsutomu Sato; Reiko Watanabe; Shugo Kowata; Masaya Hayakawa; Takaaki Hosoki; Kazuhiko Ikeda; Tsutomu Kobayashi; Yoji Ishida

    Background A previous dasatinib discontinuation (DADI) trial showed that 31 (49%) of 63 patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia who were treated with second-line or subsequent dasatinib could discontinue the drug safely. However, the safety and efficacy of discontinuing first-line dasatinib remains unclear. In this trial (the first-line DADI trial) we aimed to assess molecular relapse-free survival at 6 months after discontinuation of dasatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who had been treated with first-line dasatinib and had maintained deep molecular response for at least 1 year. Methods The first-line DADI trial was a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial done at 23 hospitals in Japan. Patients with newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia without hepatosplenomegaly and extramedullary mass, who received at least 24-month dasatinib treatment and had a sustained deep molecular response (defined as BCR-ABL1/ABL1 international scale ≤0·0069% in at least four successive samples spanning a 12 month period) were enrolled. Other eligibility criteria were an age of 15 years or older, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0–2, and no primary organ dysfunction. The primary outcome was molecular relapse-free survival (also known as treatment-free remission) after discontinuation of dasatinib at 6 months and was analysed in all patients who completed the 12-month consolidation phase. Safety was assessed in all patients who received treatment. This study closed early due to accrual and is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000011099). Findings Between Sept 20, 2013 and July 12, 2016, 68 patients who had a deep molecular response after receiving first-line dasatinib for at least 24 months were enrolled and assigned to the consolidation phase. Nine patients were excluded during the consolidation phase and one patient was excluded after study completion because of meeting exclusion criteria. 58 patients discontinued dasatinib and were assessed. 32 (55%) of 58 patients had treatment-free remission at 6 months after dasatinib discontinuation, and median follow-up was 23·3 months (IQR 11·7–31·0). Treatment-free remission at 6 months was 55·2% (95% CI 43·7–69·6). No non-haematological adverse events worse than grade 2 occurred before dasatinib discontinuation. The most common haematological adverse event was anaemia (14 [21%] of 68 treated patients); three (4%) of 68 treated patients had grade 3 neutropenia and one (1%) had grade 4 lymphopenia. Interpretation Our findings suggest that dasatinib could be safely discontinued after first-line treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who had received at least 36 months of therapy and sustained deep molecular response; however, further confirmation in larger trials is needed. Funding Epidemiological and Clinical Research Information Network.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Addition of anti-thymocyte globulin to standard graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis versus standard treatment alone in patients with haematological malignancies undergoing transplantation from unrelated donors: final analysis of a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Irwin Walker; Tony Panzarella; Stephen Couban; Felix Couture; Gerald Devins; Mohamed Elemary; Geneviève Gallagher; Holly Kerr; John Kuruvilla; Stephanie J Lee; John Moore; Thomas Nevill; Gizelle Popradi; Jean Roy; Kirk R Schultz; David Szwajcer; Cynthia Toze; Ronan Foley

    Background Previous trials testing prevention strategies for chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) have measured its cumulative incidence. In this trial of anti-thymocyte globulin, we measured treatment-independence at a long-term timepoint as the primary endpoint. Methods This was a randomised, open-label, multicentre, phase 3 trial done at ten centres in Canada and one in Australia. Eligible patients had a haematological malignancy (leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or lymphoma), were between 16 and 70 years of age, eligible for transplantation with a Karnofsky score of at least 60, and received an unrelated donor (fully matched or one-locus mismatched at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, or DRB1 loci) graft following myeloablative or non-myeloablative–reduced intensity conditioning. Patients were randomly assigned to receive anti-thymocyte globulin 4·5 mg/kg plus standard GVHD prophylaxis (cyclosporine or tacrolimus plus methotrexate or mycophenolate) or standard GVHD prophylaxis alone. The primary endpoint, freedom from immunosuppressive therapy without resumption at 12 months, was previously reported. Here we report on the prespecified 24-month analysis. Analyses were per-protocol, excluding those patients who did not proceed to transplantation. This trial is registered as ISRCTN 29899028 and NCT01217723, status completed. Findings Between June 9, 2010, and July 8, 2013, we recruited and randomly assigned 203 eligible patients to receive anti-thymocyte globulin (n=101) or no additional treatment (n=102) along with standard GVHD prophylaxis. 7 (3%) patients did not receive a transplant and were excluded from the analysis. 38 (38%) of 99 evaluable patients in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group were free from immunosuppressive therapy at 24 months compared with 18 (19%) of 97 patients in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3·49 [95% CI 1·60–7·60]; p=0·0016. At 24 months, the cumulative incidence of relapse was 16·3% (95% CI 8·9–23·7) in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group compared with 17·5 (9·9–25·1) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·73) and non-relapse mortality was 21·2% (95% CI 13·2–29·2) versus 31·3% (21·9–40·7; p=0·15). The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 24 months was 26·3% (95% CI 17·5–35·1) in the anti-thymocyte globulin group and 41·3% (31·3–51·3) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·032). Overall survival at 24 months was 53·3% (95% CI 42·8–62·7) in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group compared with 70.6% (95% CI 60·6–78·6) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·56, 95% CI [0·35–0·90]; p=0·017. Symptoms of chronic GVHD by the Lee Scale were more prevalent in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, with scores of 13·27 (SD 10·94) in the anti-thymocyte globulin plus GVHD prophylaxis group and 20·38 (SD 14·68) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·040). Depressive symptoms were more prominent in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, the mean Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) scores were 10·40 (SD 9·88) in the anti-thymocyte globulin group and 14·62 (SD 12·26) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (p=0·034). Serious adverse events (CTCAE grade 4 or 5) occurred in 38 (38%) patients in the anti-thymocyte globulin group and in 49 (51%) in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, the most common being infection and GVHD. One patient died of Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis. Interpretation The results of this prespecified 24-month analysis suggest that pretreatment with anti-thymocyte globulin provides clinically meaningful benefits when added to standard GVHD prophylaxis in patients undergoing unrelated donor transplantation, including a decrease in use of immunosuppressive therapy, chronic GVHD and its symptoms, depressive symptoms, and improved overall survival. Anti-thymocyte globulin could be included in the preparative regimens of patients with haematological malignancies selected for unrelated donor transplantation. Funding Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Sanofi.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Cost-effectiveness of first-line treatment options for patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: a modelling study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Abi Vijenthira; Kelvin Chan; Matthew C Cheung; Anca Prica

    Background Several strategies are available for the initial treatment of advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, but the optimal strategy in terms of cost-effectiveness is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the quality-adjusted effectiveness and costs of five modern treatment options for transplantation-eligible patients with newly diagnosed advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods A Markov decision-analytic model was developed using a 20-year time horizon. Five of the most common treatment approaches were selected based on clinical experience and expert opinion: (1) six cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD), including data from the HD2000 trial, Viviani and colleagues, and EORTC trial; (2) six cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP; from the HD15 trial or PET-adapted as in the HD18 trial, two initial cycles of BEACOPP followed by four additional cycles for patients with a positive PET and either two or four additional cycles of BEACOPP for patients with a negative PET); (3) PET-adapted escalation (as in the RATHL trial, two cycles of standard ABVD chemotherapy followed by an additional four cycles of ABVD or AVD in PET-negative patients and four cycles of BEACOPP in PET-positive patients); (4) six cycles of brentuximab vedotin, doxorubicin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (A-AVD) or ABVD as in the Echelon-1 trial; and (5) PET-adapted de-escalation (as in the AHL2011 trial, two cycles of BEACOPP followed by PET2 scan; PET-positive patients received two additional BEACOPP cycles and PET-negative patients received two cycles of ABVD; at PET4, PET-negative patients completed two further cycles of either ABVD or BEACOPP depending on what they received after PET2, and PET-positive patients received salvage therapy). Note that all uses of BEACOPP in these strategies were BEACOPPescalated. The randomised groups of interest from these studies comprised 4255 patients enrolled between April, 2000, and January, 2016. Baseline probability estimates and utilities were derived from the included trials in addition to a systematic review of published studies. A Canadian public health payer's perspective was considered (CAN$1=US$0·74) and adjusted for inflation for 2018. All costs and benefits were discounted by 1·5% per year because life-years now are more valuable than future potential life-years. Findings Probabilistic analyses (10 000 simulations) showed that, for a willingness-to-pay threshold of CAN$50 000, a PET-adapted de-escalation strategy based on AHL2011 was more cost-effective 87% of the time. This strategy had the highest number of life-years (14·6 years [95% CI 13·7–15·1]) and quality-adjusted life years (13·2 years [95% CI 10·2–14·4]), and the lowest direct costs ($53 129 [95% CI 31 914–94 446]) compared with the other treatment regimens. Sensitivity analyses showed that the model was robust to key variables, including probability of treatment-related mortality, relapse, frequency of secondary malignancy, death from secondary malignancy, and probability of infertility after BEACOPP. Interpretation Our results suggest that, when considering cost, effectiveness, and short and long-term toxicities, the preferred treatment strategy for patients with newly diagnosed advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is the PET-adapted de-escalation regimen starting with BEACOPP and de-escalating to ABVD as appropriate. Although our findings do not provide an absolute best treatment approach for clinicians to follow for all patients, they can contribute to shared decision making between patients and treating physicians. Funding None.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Clinical features and outcomes of patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Kasiani C Myers; Elissa Furutani; Edie Weller; Bradford Siegele; Ashley Galvin; Valerie Arsenault; Blanche P Alter; Farid Boulad; Carlos Bueso-Ramos; Lauri Burroughs; Paul Castillo; James Connelly; Stella M Davies; Courtney D DiNardo; Iftikhar Hanif; Richard H Ho; Nicole Karras; Michelle Manalang; Akiko Shimamura

    Background Data to inform surveillance and treatment for leukaemia predisposition syndromes are scarce and recommendations are largely based on expert opinion. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features and outcomes of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an inherited bone marrow failure disorder with high risk of developing myeloid malignancies. Methods We did a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study in collaboration with the North American Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Registry. We reviewed patient medical records from 17 centres in the USA and Canada. Patients with a genetic (biallelic mutations in the SBDS gene) or clinical diagnosis (cytopenias and pancreatic dysfunction) of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome who developed myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia were eligible without additional restriction. Medical records were reviewed between March 1, 2001, and Oct 5, 2017. Masked central review of bone marrow pathology was done if available to confirm leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome diagnosis. We describe the clinical features and overall survival of these patients. Findings We initially identified 37 patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia. 27 patients had samples available for central pathology review and were reclassified accordingly (central diagnosis concurred with local in 15 [56%] cases), 10 had no samples available and were classified based on the local review data, and 1 patient was excluded at this stage as not eligible. 36 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 10 (28%) initially presented with acute myeloid leukaemia and 26 (72%) initially presented with myelodysplastic syndrome. With a median follow-up of 4·9 years (IQR 3·9–8·4), median overall survival for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome was 7·7 years (95% CI 0·8–not reached) and 0·99 years (95% CI 0·2–2·4) for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Overall survival at 3 years was 11% (95% CI 1–39) for patients with leukaemia and 51% (29–68) for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Management and surveillance were variable. 18 (69%) of 26 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome received upfront therapy (14 haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 4 chemotherapy), 4 (15%) patients received no treatment, 2 (8%) had unavailable data, and 2 (8%) progressed to acute myeloid leukaemia before receiving treatment. 12 patients received treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia—including the two patients initially diagnosed with myelodysplastic who progressed— two (16%) received HSCT as initial therapy and ten (83%) received chemotherapy with intent to proceed with HSCT. 33 (92%) of 36 patients (eight of ten with leukaemia and 25 of 26 with myelodysplastic syndrome) were known to have Shwachman-Diamond syndrome before development of a myeloid malignancy and could have been monitored with bone marrow surveillance. Bone marrow surveillance before myeloid malignancy diagnosis was done in three (33%) of nine patients with leukaemia for whom surveillance status was confirmed and 11 (46%) of 24 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Patients monitored had a 3-year overall survival of 62% (95% CI 32–82; n=14) compared with 28% (95% CI 10–50; n=19; p=0·13) without surveillance. Six (40%) of 15 patients with available longitudinal data developed myelodysplastic syndrome in the setting of stable blood counts. Interpretation Our results suggest that prognosis is poor for patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukaemia owing to both therapy-resistant disease and treatment-related toxicities. Improved surveillance algorithms and risk stratification tools, studies of clonal evolution, and prospective trials are needed to inform effective prevention and treatment strategies for leukaemia predisposition in patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. Funding National Institute of Health.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Acalabrutinib monotherapy in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Roger G Owen; Helen McCarthy; Simon Rule; Shirley D'Sa; Sheeba K Thomas; Olivier Tournilhac; Francesco Forconi; Marie José Kersten; Pier Luigi Zinzani; Sunil Iyengar; Jaimal Kothari; Monique C Minnema; Efstathios Kastritis; Thérèse Aurran-Schleinitz; Bruce D Cheson; Harriet Walter; Daniel Greenwald; Dih-Yih Chen; Richard R Furman

    Background Chemoimmunotherapy is typically the standard of care for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia; however, infectious and hematologic toxic effects are problematic. Acalabrutinib is a selective, potent Bruton tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the activity and safety of acalabrutinib in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Methods This single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial was done in 19 European academic centres in France, Italy, Greece, the Netherlands, and the UK, and eight academic centres in the USA. Eligible patients were 18 years or older and had treatment naive (declined or not eligible for chemoimmunotherapy) or relapsed or refractory (at least one previous therapy) Waldenström macroglobulinemia that required treatment, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and received no previous Bruton tyrosine-kinase inhibitor therapy. Patients received 100 mg oral acalabrutinib twice per day in 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed overall response (at least a minor response) according to the 6th International Workshop for Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (IWWM) and the modified 3rd IWWM workshop criteria. The primary outcome and safety were assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02180724, and is ongoing, but no longer enrolling. Findings Between Sept 8, 2014, and Dec 24, 2015, 122 patients were assessed for eligibility, of which 106 (87%) patients were given acalabrutinib (14 were treatment naive and 92 had relapsed or refractory disease). With a median follow-up of 27·4 months (IQR 26·0–29·7), 13 (93% [95% CI 66–100]) of 14 treatment naive patients achieved an overall response and 86 (93% [86–98]) of 92 relapsed or refractory patients per both the modified 3rd and 6th IWWM criteria. Seven (50%) of 14 treatment naive patients and 23 (25%) of 92 relapsed or refractory patients discontinued treatment on study. Grade 3–4 adverse events occurring in more than 5% of patients were neutropenia (17 [16%] of 106 patients) and pneumonia (7 [7%]). Grade 3–4 atrial fibrillation occurred in one (1%) patient and grade 3–4 bleeding occurred in three (3%) patients. The most common serious adverse events were lower respiratory tract infection (n=7 [7%]), pneumonia (n=7 [7%]), pyrexia (n=4 [4%]), cellulitis (n=3 [3%]), fall (n=3 [3%]), and sepsis (n=3 [3%]). Pneumonia (n=5 [5%]) and lower respiratory tract infection (n=4 [4%]) were considered treatment related. One treatment-related death was reported (intracranial hematoma). Interpretation This study provides evidence that acalabrutinib is active as single-agent therapy with a manageable safety profile in patients with treatment-naive, or relapse or refractory Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Further studies are needed to establish its efficacy against current standard treatments and to investigate whether outcomes can be improved with combination therapies. Funding Acerta Pharma.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Alisertib plus induction chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with high-risk, acute myeloid leukaemia: a single-arm, phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Andrew M Brunner; Traci M Blonquist; Daniel J DeAngelo; Malgorzata McMasters; Geoffrey Fell; Nicole M Hermance; Eric S Winer; R Coleman Lindsley; Gabriela S Hobbs; Philip C Amrein; Hanno R Hock; David P Steensma; Jacqueline S Garcia; Marlise R Luskin; Richard M Stone; Karen K Ballen; Jacalyn Rosenblatt; David Avigan; Amir T Fathi

    Background Increased aurora A kinase (AAK) expression occurs in acute myeloid leukaemia; AAK inhibition is a promising therapeutic target in this disease. We therefore aimed to assess the activity of alisertib combined with 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy in previously untreated patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia. Methods We did a single-arm, phase 2 trial of patients recruited from the Dana–Farber/Harvard Cancer Center in the USA. Eligible patients had previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–2, and were at high risk of disease as defined by the presence of an adverse-risk karyotype, the presence of secondary acute myeloid leukaemia arising from previous myelodysplastic syndrome or myeloproliferative neoplasm, the presence of therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia, or being 65 years or older. Enrolled patients received 7 + 3 induction chemotherapy of continuous infusion of cytarabine (100 mg/m2 per day on days 1–7) and intravenous bolus of idarubicin (12 mg/m2 per day on days 1–3). Oral alisertib (30 mg) was given twice per day on days 8–15. Patients could receive up to four consolidation cycles with cytarabine and alisertib, and alisertib maintenance for 12 months. The primary endpoint was a composite including the proportion of patients achieving complete remission and those with a complete remission with incomplete neutrophil or platelet count recovery. Analyses were per-protocol. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02560025, and has completed enrolment. Findings Between Dec 31, 2015, and Aug 1, 2017, we enrolled a total of 39 eligible patients. 19 (49%) of 39 patients had secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and three (8%) had therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia. At mid-induction, 33 (85%) of 39 patients showed marrow aplasia, six (15%) received re-induction. The median follow-up was 13·7 months (IQR 12·7–14·4). Composite remission was 64% (two-stage 95% CI 48–79), with 20 (51%) of 39 patients achieving complete remission and five (13%) achieving complete remission with incomplete neutrophil or platelet count recovery. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events included febrile neutropenia (16 [41%] of 39), neutropenia (12 [31%]), thrombocytopenia (13 [33%]), anaemia (11 [28%]), anorexia (nine [23%]), and oral mucositis (four [10%]). No treatment-related deaths were observed. Interpretation These results suggest that alisertib combined with induction chemotherapy is active and safe in previously untreated patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia. This study met criteria to move forward to a future randomised trial. Funding Millennium Pharmaceuticals.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Diagnosis, grading, and treatment recommendations for children, adolescents, and young adults with sinusoidal obstructive syndrome: an international expert position statement
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Kris M Mahadeo, Rajinder Bajwa, Hisham Abdel-Azim, Leslie E Lehmann, Christine Duncan, Nicole Zantek, Jennifer Vittorio, Joseph Angelo, Jennifer McArthur, Keri Schadler, Sherwin Chan, Priti Tewari, Sajad Khazal, Jeffery J Auletta, Sung Won Choi, Basirat Shoberu, Krzysztof Kalwak, Avis Harden, Selim Corbacioglu

    Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, also known as hepatic veno-occlusive disease, is a potentially life-threatening complication that occurs in children undergoing haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Differences in the incidence of genetic predisposition and clinical presentation of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome between children and adults have rendered the historical Baltimore and Seattle diagnostic criteria insufficient for children. In 2017, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) proposed the first paediatric diagnostic and severity grading guidelines for sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, intended for implementation across European centres. However, universally accepted paediatric criteria are needed to ensure prompt diagnosis, definitive treatment, and improved outcomes for children, adolescents, and young adults with sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, and to facilitate international clinical research collaboration. We convened an international panel of multidisciplinary experts including physicians with expertise in HSCT, paediatric intensive care, nephrology, hepatology, radiology, pathology, and transfusion medicine; HSCT advanced-practice providers and medical trainees; pharmacists; and translational and basic science researchers from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators Network, the EBMT, the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortia, and several other institutions with extensive experience in sinusoidal obstructive syndrome. Panellists convened at The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA) in February, 2019, to evaluate the available evidence. In this expert position statement paper, we provide consensus recommendations for the international implementation of guidelines for the diagnosis, severity grading, and treatment of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome among children, adolescents, and young adults. We endorse universal adoption of paediatric diagnostic guidelines for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome as proposed by the EBMT, and provide implementation guidance for standardisation across centres; we have further proposed adjunctive use of age-appropriate organ-specific toxicity criteria for severity grading and provided prophylaxis and treatment considerations among children and adolescent and young adult patients. Key recommendations include: (1) liver biopsy, portal venous wedge pressure, and reversal of portal venous flow on Doppler ultrasonography should not be used for the routine diagnosis of sinusoidal obstructive syndrome in children, adolescents, and young adults; (2) platelet refractoriness can be defined as a corrected count increment of less than 5000–7500 following at least two sequential ABO-compatible fresh platelet transfusions; (3) hepatomegaly is best defined as an absolute increase of at least 1 cm in liver length at the midclavicular line; and if a baseline measurement is not available, hepatomegaly can be defined as greater than 2 SDs above normal for age; and (4) the presence and volume of ascites can be categorised as mild (minimal fluid by liver, spleen, or pelvis), moderate (<1 cm fluid), or severe (fluid in all three regions with >1 cm fluid in at least two regions).

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Assessing clonal haematopoiesis: clinical burdens and benefits of diagnosing myelodysplastic syndrome precursor states
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Lukasz P Gondek, Amy E DeZern

    Diagnosing, surveilling, and understanding the biological consequences of clonal haematopoiesis poses a clinical challenge for both patients and clinicians. The relationship between peripheral blood cytopenias and myeloid neoplasms—such as myelodysplastic syndrome—is an area of active research, and understanding of clonal haematopoiesis has developed markedly on the basis of findings concerning somatic mutations in genes known to be associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. These findings have raised the conundrum of how to appropriately define and follow myelodysplastic syndrome precursor states, such as clonal haematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) and clonal cytopenias of undetermined significance (CCUS). Identifying these conditions could allow earlier diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome, modify surveillance for myelodysplastic syndrome, and possibly guide therapies, but this information also comes at a cost to patients that might or might not be justified by our present understanding of clonal haematopoiesis. When faced with a diagnosis of clonal haematopoiesis, some patients and providers might be content to let the events unfold naturally, whereas others may insist on intense follow-up and early interventions. This Viewpoint assesses recent developments in clonal haematopoiesis and the related implications for affected patients and their providers.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis versus anticoagulation for the prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome (CAVA): a single-blind, multicentre, randomised trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Pascale Notten, Arina J ten Cate-Hoek, Carsten W K P Arnoldussen, Rob H W Strijkers, André A E A de Smet, Lidwine W Tick, Marlène H W van de Poel, Otmar R M Wikkeling, Louis-Jean Vleming, Ad Koster, Kon-Siong G Jie, Esther M G Jacobs, Harm P Ebben, Michiel Coppens, Irwin Toonder, Hugo ten Cate, Cees H A Wittens

    Background Early thrombus removal might prevent post-thrombotic syndrome by preserving venous function and restoring flow. Previous trials comparing additional catheter-directed thrombolysis to standard treatment showed conflicting outcomes. We aimed to assess the benefit of additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis for the prevention of post-thrombotic syndrome compared with standard therapy in patients with iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis. Methods We did a multicentre, randomised, single-blind, allocation-concealed, parallel group, superiority trial in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients aged 18–85 years with a first-time acute iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis and symptoms for no more than 14 days were randomly assigned (1:1) to either standard treatment with additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis or standard treatment alone. Randomisation was done with a web-based automatic programme and a random varying block size (2–12), stratified by age and centre. Standard treatment included anticoagulant therapy, compression therapy (knee-high elastic compression stockings; 30–40 mmHg), and early ambulation. Additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis was done with urokinase with a starting bolus of 250 000 international units (IU) in 10 mL NaCl followed by a continuous dose of 100 000 IU/h for a maximum of 96 h through the Ekos Endowave-system. Adjunctive percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, thrombosuction, or stenting was performed at the discretion of the physician who performed the intervention. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with post-thrombotic syndrome at 12 months diagnosed according to the original Villalta criteria—a Villalta-score of at least 5 on two consecutive occasions at least 3 months apart or the occurrence of venous ulceration—and was assessed in a modified intention-to-treat population of all randomly assigned patients who passed screening and started treatment. The safety analysis was assessed in the same modified intention-to-treat population. This study is complete and is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00970619. Findings Between May 28, 2010, and Sept 18, 2017, 184 patients were randomly assigned to either additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis (n=91) or standard treatment alone (n=93). Exclusion because of screening failure or early withdrawal of informed consent resulted in 77 patients in the intervention group and 75 in the standard treatment group starting allocated treatment. Median follow-up was 12·0 months (IQR 6·0–12·0). 12-month post-thrombotic syndrome occurred in 22 (29%) patients allocated to additional treatment versus 26 (35%) patients receiving standard treatment alone (odds ratio 0·75 [95% CI 0·38 to 1·50]; p=0·42). Major bleeding occurred in four (5%) patients in the intervention group, with associated neuropraxia or the peroneal nerve in one patient, and no events in the standard treatment group. No serious adverse events occurred. None of the four deaths (one [1%] in the intervention group vs three [4%] in the standard treatment group) were treatment related. Interpretation This study showed that additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis does not change the risk of post-thrombotic syndrome 1 year after acute iliofemoral deep-vein thrombosis compared with standard therapy alone. Although this trial is inconclusive, the outcome suggests the possibility of a moderate beneficial effect with additional ultrasound-accelerated catheter-directed thrombolysis. Further research is therefore warranted to better understand this outcome in the context of previous trials, preferably by combining the available evidence in an individual patient data meta-analysis. Funding The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), Maastricht University Medical Centre, BTG-Interventional Medicine.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using single UM171-expanded cord blood: a single-arm, phase 1–2 safety and feasibility study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Sandra Cohen, Jean Roy, Silvy Lachance, Jean-Sébastien Delisle, Anne Marinier, Lambert Busque, Denis-Claude Roy, Frédéric Barabé, Imran Ahmad, Nadia Bambace, Léa Bernard, Thomas Kiss, Philippe Bouchard, Pierre Caudrelier, Sévérine Landais, Fannie Larochelle, Jalila Chagraoui, Bernhard Lehnertz, Guy Sauvageau

    Background Benefits of cord blood transplantation include low rates of relapse and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, the use of cord blood is rapidly declining because of the high incidence of infections, severe acute GVHD, and transplant-related mortality. UM171, a haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal agonist, has been shown to expand cord blood stem cells and enhance multilineage blood cell reconstitution in mice. We aimed to investigate the safety and feasibility of single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation in patients with haematological malignancies who do not have a suitable HLA-matched donor. Methods This single-arm, open-label, phase 1–2 safety and feasibility study was done at two hospitals in Canada. The study had two parts. In part 1, patients received two cord blood units (one expanded with UM171 and one unmanipulated cord blood) until UM171-expanded cord blood demonstrated engraftment. Once engraftment was documented we initiated part 2, reported here, in which patients received a single UM171-expanded cord blood unit with a dose de-escalation design to determine the minimal cord blood unit cell dose that achieved prompt engraftment. Eligible patients were aged 3–64 years, weighed 12 kg or more, had a haematological malignancy with an indication for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant and did not have a suitable HLA-matched donor, and a had a Karnofsky performance status score of 70% or more. Five clinical sites were planned to participate in the study; however, only two study sites opened, both of which only treated adult patients, thus no paediatric patients (aged <18 years) were recruited. Patients aged younger than 50 years without comorbidities received a myeloablative conditioning regimen (cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg, fludarabine 75 mg/m2, and 12 Gy total body irradiation) and patients aged older than 50 years and those with comorbidities received a less myeloablative conditioning regimen (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2, and 4 Gy total body irradiation). Patients were infused with the 7-day UM171-expanded CD34-positive cells and the lymphocyte-containing CD34-negative fraction. The primary endpoints were feasibility of UM171 expansion, safety of the transplant, kinetics of hematopoietic reconstitution (time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment) of UM171-expanded cord blood, and minimal pre-expansion cord blood unit cell dose that achieved prompt engraftment. We analysed feasibility in all enrolled patients and all other primary outcomes were analysed per protocol, in all patients who received single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation. This trial has been completed and was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02668315. Findings Between Feb 17, 2016, and Nov 11, 2018, we enrolled 27 patients, four of whom received two cord blood units for safety purposes in part 1 of the study. 23 patients were subsequently enrolled in part 2 to receive a single UM171-expanded cord blood transplant and 22 patients received a single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation. At data cutoff (Dec 31, 2018), median follow-up was 18 months (IQR 12–22). The minimal cord blood unit cell dose at thaw that achieved prompt engraftment as a single cord transplant after UM171 expansion was 0·52 × 105 CD34-positive cells. We successfully expanded 26 (96%) of 27 cord blood units with UM171. Among the 22 patients who received single UM171-expanded cord blood transplantation, median time to engraftment of 100 neutrophils per μL was 9·5 days (IQR 8–12), median time to engraftment of 500 neutrophils per μL was 18 days (12·5–20·0), and no graft failure occurred. Median time to platelet recovery was 42 days (IQR 35–47). The most common non-haematological adverse events were grade 3 febrile neutropenia (16 [73%] of 22 patients) and bacteraemia (nine [41%]). No unexpected adverse events were observed. One (5%) of 22 patients died due to treatment-related diffuse alveolar haemorrhage. Interpretation Our preliminary findings suggest that UM171 cord blood stem cell expansion is feasible, safe, and allows for the use of small single cords without compromising engraftment. UM171-expanded cord blood might have the potential to overcome the disadvantages of other cord blood transplants while maintaining the benefits of low risk of chronic GVHD and relapse, and warrants further investigation in randomised trials. Funding Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian Cancer Society and Stem Cell Network.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Rivaroxaban compared with standard anticoagulants for the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism in children: a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Christoph Male, Anthonie W A Lensing, Joseph S Palumbo, Riten Kumar, Ildar Nurmeev, Kerry Hege, Damien Bonnet, Philip Connor, Hélène L Hooimeijer, Marcela Torres, Anthony K C Chan, Gili Kenet, Susanne Holzhauer, Amparo Santamaría, Pascal Amedro, Elizabeth Chalmers, Paolo Simioni, Rukhmi V Bhat, Roger Berkow

    Background Treatment of venous thromboembolism in children is based on data obtained in adults with little direct documentation of its efficacy and safety in children. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulants in children with venous thromboembolism. Methods In a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised study, children (aged 0–17 years) attending 107 paediatric hospitals in 28 countries with documented acute venous thromboembolism who had started heparinisation were assigned (2:1) to bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban (tablets or suspension) in a 20-mg equivalent dose or standard anticoagulants (heparin or switched to vitamin K antagonist). Randomisation was stratified by age and venous thromboembolism site. The main treatment period was 3 months (1 month in children <2 years of age with catheter-related venous thromboembolism). The primary efficacy outcome, symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (assessed by intention-to-treat), and the principal safety outcome, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding (assessed in participants who received ≥1 dose), were centrally assessed by investigators who were unaware of treatment assignment. Repeat imaging was obtained at the end of the main treatment period and compared with baseline imaging tests. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02234843 and has been completed. Findings From Nov 14, 2014, to Sept 28, 2018, 500 (96%) of the 520 children screened for eligibility were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 91 days (IQR 87–95) in children who had a study treatment period of 3 months (n=463) and 31 days (IQR 29–35) in children who had a study treatment period of 1 month (n=37), symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism occurred in four (1%) of 335 children receiving rivaroxaban and five (3%) of 165 receiving standard anticoagulants (hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·11–1·41). Repeat imaging showed an improved effect of rivaroxaban on thrombotic burden as compared with standard anticoagulants (p=0·012). Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding in participants who received ≥1 dose occurred in ten (3%) of 329 children (all non-major) receiving rivaroxaban and in three (2%) of 162 children (two major and one non-major) receiving standard anticoagulants (HR 1·58, 95% CI 0·51–6·27). Absolute and relative efficacy and safety estimates of rivaroxaban versus standard anticoagulation estimates were similar to those in rivaroxaban studies in adults. There were no treatment-related deaths. Interpretation In children with acute venous thromboembolism, treatment with rivaroxaban resulted in a similarly low recurrence risk and reduced thrombotic burden without increased bleeding, as compared with standard anticoagulants. Funding Bayer AG and Janssen Research & Development.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • International prognostic scoring system for mastocytosis (IPSM): a retrospective cohort study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Wolfgang R Sperr, Michael Kundi, Ivan Alvarez-Twose, Bjorn van Anrooij, Joanna N G Oude Elberink, Aleksandra Gorska, Marek Niedoszytko, Karoline V Gleixner, Emir Hadzijusufovic, Roberta Zanotti, Patrizia Bonadonna, Massimiliano Bonifacio, Cecelia Perkins, Anja Illerhaus, Chiara Elena, Serena Merante, Khalid Shoumariyeh, Nikolas von Bubnoff, Peter Valent

    Background The WHO classification separates mastocytosis into distinct variants, but prognostication remains a clinical challenge. The aim of this study was to improve prognostication for patients with mastocytosis. Methods We analysed data of the registry of the European Competence Network on Mastocytosis including 1639 patients (age 17–90 years) diagnosed with mastocytosis according to WHO criteria between Jan 12, 1978, and March 16, 2017. Univariate and multivariate analyses with Cox regression were applied to identify prognostic variables predicting survival outcomes and to establish a prognostic score. We validated this International Prognostic Scoring System in Mastocytosis (IPSM) with data of 462 patients (age 17–79 years) from the Spanish network Red Española de Mastocitosis diagnosed between Jan 22, 1998, and Nov 2, 2017. Findings The prognostic value of the WHO classification was confirmed in our study (p<0·0001). For patients with non-advanced mastocytosis (n=1380), we identified age 60 years or older (HR 10·75, 95% CI 5·68–20·32) and a concentration of alkaline phosphatase 100 U/L or higher (2·91, 1·60–5·30) as additional independent prognostic variables for overall survival. The resulting scoring system divided patients with non-advanced mastocytosis into three groups: low (no risk factors), intermediate 1 (one risk factor), and intermediate 2 (two risk factors). Overall survival and progression-free survival differed significantly among these groups (p<0·0001). In patients with advanced mastocytosis (n=259), age 60 years or older (HR 2·14, 95% CI 1·42–3·22), a concentration of tryptase 125 ng/mL or higher (1·81, 1·20–2·75), a leukocyte count of 16 × 109 per L or higher (1·88, 1·27–2·79), haemoglobin of 11 g/dL or lower (1·71, 1·13–2·57), a platelet count of 100 × 109 per L or lower (1·63, 1·13–2·34), and skin involvement (0·46, 0·30–0·69) were prognostic variables. Based on these variables, a separate score for advanced mastocytosis with four risk categories was established, with significantly different outcomes for overall survival and progression-free survival (p<0·0001). The prognostic value of both scores was confirmed in 413 patients with non-advanced disease and 49 with advanced mastocytosis from the validation cohort. Interpretation The IPSM scores for patients with non-advanced and advanced mastocytosis can be used to predict survival outcomes and guide treatment decisions. However, the predictive value of the IPSM needs to be confirmed in forthcoming trials. Funding Austrian Science Fund, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Koeln Fortune Program, Charles and Ann Johnson Foundation, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Fondos FEDER, Research-Foundation Flanders/Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Clinical Research-Fund of the University Hospitals Leuven, and Research-Foundation Flanders/Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of HLA-B exon 1 in graft-versus-host disease after unrelated haemopoietic cell transplantation: a retrospective cohort study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Effie W Petersdorf, Mary Carrington, Colm O'hUigin, Mats Bengtsson, Dianne De Santis, Valerie Dubois, Ted Gooley, Mary Horowitz, Katharine Hsu, J Alejandro Madrigal, Martin J Maiers, Mari Malkki, Caroline McKallor, Yasuo Morishima, Machteld Oudshoorn, Stephen R Spellman, Jean Villard, Phil Stevenson

    Background The success of unrelated haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is limited by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which is the main post-transplantation challenge when HLA-matched donors are unavailable. A sequence dimorphism in exon 1 of HLA-B gives rise to leader peptides containing methionine (Met; M) or threonine (Thr; T), which differentially influence natural killer and T-cell alloresponses. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the role of the leader dimorphism in GVHD after HLA-B-mismatched unrelated HCT. Methods We did a retrospective cohort study of 33 982 patients who received an unrelated HCT done in Australia, Europe, Japan, North America, and the UK between Jan 1, 1988, and Dec 31, 2016. Data were contributed by participants of the International Histocompatibility Working Group in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. All cases were included and there were no exclusion criteria. Multivariate regression models were used to assess risks associated with HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 mismatching. Among the 33 982 transplantations, the risks of GVHD associated with HLA-B M and T leaders were established in 17 100 (50·3%) HLA-matched and 1457 (4·3%) single HLA-B-mismatched transplantations using multivariate regression models. Leader frequencies were defined in 2 004 742 BeTheMatch US registry donors. Findings Between Jan 20, 2017, and March 11, 2019, we assessed 33 982 HCTs using multivariate regression models for the role of HLA mismatching on outcome. Median follow-up was 1841 days (IQR 909–2963). Mortality and GVHD increased with increasing numbers of HLA mismatches. A single HLA-B mismatch increased grade 3–4 acute GVHD (odds ratio [OR] 1·89, 95% CI 1·53–2·33; p<0·0001). Among the single HLA-B-mismatched transplantations, acute GVHD risk was higher with leader mismatching than with leader matching (OR 1·73, 1·02–2·94; p=0·042 for grade 2–4) and with an M leader shared allotype compared with a T leader shared allotype (OR 1·98, 1·39–2·81; p=0·0001 for grade 3–4). The preferred HLA-B-mismatched donor is leader-matched and shares a T leader allotype. The majority (1 836 939 [91·6%]) of the 2 004 742 US registry donors have the TT or MT genotype. Interpretation The HLA-B leader informs GVHD risk after HLA-B-mismatched unrelated HCT and differentiates high-risk HLA-B mismatches from those with lower risk. The leader of the matched allotype could be considered to be as important as the leader of the mismatched allotype for GVHD. Prospective identification of leader-matched donors is feasible for most patients in need of a HCT, and could lower GVHD and increase availability of HCT therapy. These findings are being independently validated and warrant further research in prospective trials. Funding The National Institutes of Health, USA.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • The global need and availability of blood products: a modelling study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Nicholas Roberts, Spencer James, Meghan Delaney, Christina Fitzmaurice

    Background Blood transfusions are an important resource of every health-care system, with often limited supply in low-income and middle-income countries; however, the degree of unmet need for blood transfusions is often unknown. We therefore aimed to estimate the blood transfusion need and supply at national level to determine gaps in transfusion services globally. Methods We did a modelling study involving 195 countries and territories. We used blood component preparation data from 2011–13 to estimate blood availability for 180 (92%) of 195 countries from the WHO Global Status Report on Blood Safety and Availability. We calculated disease-specific transfusion needs per prevalent case for 20 causes in the USA using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample dataset between the years 2000 and 2014, and the State Inpatient Databases between 2003 and 2007 from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Using prevalence estimates for the USA from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study, we estimated the ideal disease specific-transfusion rate as the lowest rate from the years 2000 to 2014. We applied this rate to GBD prevalence results for 195 countries to estimate transfusion needs. Unmet need was the difference between the estimated supply and need. Findings In 2017, the global blood need was 304 711 244 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 293 064 637–314 049 479) and the global blood supply was 272 270 243 (268 002 639–276 698 494) blood product units, with a need-to-supply ratio of 1·12 (95% UI 1·07–1·16). Of the 195 countries, 119 (61%) did not have sufficient blood supply to meet their need. Across these 119 countries, the unmet need totalled 102 359 632 (95% UI 93 381 710–111 360 725) blood product units, equal to 1849 (1687–2011) units per 100 000 population globally. Every country in central, eastern, and western sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, and south Asia had insufficient blood to meet their needs. Interpretation Our data suggest that the gap between need and supply is large in many low-income and middle-income countries, and reinforce that the WHO target of 10–20 donations per 1000 population is an underestimate for many countries. A continuous expansion and optimisation of national transfusion services and implementation of evidence-based strategies for blood availability is needed globally, as is more government support, financially, structurally, and through establishment of a regulatory oversight to ensure supply, quality, and safety in low-income and middle-income countries. Funding National Institutes of Health.

    更新日期:2019-10-17
  • Response-adapted intensification with cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone versus no intensification in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (Myeloma XI): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Graham H Jackson, Faith E Davies, Charlotte Pawlyn, David A Cairns, Alina Striha, Corinne Collett, Anna Waterhouse, John R Jones, Bhuvan Kishore, Mamta Garg, Cathy D Williams, Kamaraj Karunanithi, Jindriska Lindsay, Jamie N Wilson, Matthew W Jenner, Gordon Cook, Martin F Kaiser, Mark T Drayson, Gareth J Morgan

    Background Multiple myeloma has been shown to have substantial clonal heterogeneity, suggesting that agents with different mechanisms of action might be required to induce deep responses and improve outcomes. Such agents could be given in combination or in sequence on the basis of previous response. We aimed to assess the clinical value of maximising responses by using therapeutic agents with different modes of action, the use of which is directed by the response to the initial combination therapy. We aimed to assess response-adapted intensification treatment with cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (CVD) versus no intensification treatment in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who had a suboptimal response to initial immunomodulatory triplet treatment which was standard of care in the UK at the time of trial design. Methods The Myeloma XI trial was an open-label, randomised, phase 3, adaptive design trial done at 110 National Health Service hospitals in the UK. There were three potential randomisations in the study: induction treatment, intensification treatment, and maintenance treatment. Here, we report the results of the randomisation to intensification treatment. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had symptomatic or non-secretory, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, had completed their assigned induction therapy as per protocol (cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone or cyclophosphamide, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone) and achieved a partial or minimal response. For the intensification treatment, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to cyclophosphamide (500 mg daily orally on days 1, 8, and 15), bortezomib (1·3 mg/m2 subcutaneously or intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11), and dexamethasone (20 mg daily orally on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12) up to a maximum of eight cycles of 21 days or no treatment. Patients were stratified by allocated induction treatment, response to induction treatment, and centre. The co-primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival, assessed from intensification randomisation to data cutoff, analysed by intention to treat. Safety analysis was per protocol. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN49407852, and clinicaltrialsregister.eu, number 2009–010956–93, and has completed recruitment. Findings Between Nov 15, 2010, and July 28, 2016, 583 patients were enrolled to the intensification randomisation, representing 48% of the 1217 patients who achieved partial or minimal response after initial induction therapy. 289 patients were assigned to CVD treatment and 294 patients to no treatment. After a median follow-up of 29·7 months (IQR 17·0–43·5), median progression-free survival was 30 months (95% CI 25–36) with CVD and 20 months (15–28) with no CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0·60, 95% CI 0·48–0·75, p<0·0001), and 3-year overall survival was 77·3% (95% Cl 71·0–83·5) in the CVD group and 78·5% (72·3–84·6) in the no CVD group (HR 0·98, 95% CI 0·67–1·43, p=0·93). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events for patients taking CVD were haematological, including neutropenia (18 [7%] patients), thrombocytopenia (19 [7%] patients), and anaemia (8 [3%] patients). No deaths in the CVD group were deemed treatment related. Interpretation Intensification treatment with CVD significantly improved progression-free survival in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and a suboptimal response to immunomodulatory induction therapy compared with no intensification treatment, but did not improve overall survival. The manageable safety profile of this combination and the encouraging results support further investigation of response-adapted approaches in this setting. The substantial number of patients not entering this trial randomisation following induction therapy, however, might support the use of combination therapies upfront to maximise response and improve outcomes as is now the standard of care in the UK. Funding Cancer Research UK, Celgene, Amgen, Merck, Myeloma UK.

    更新日期:2019-10-15
  • Treosulfan or busulfan plus fludarabine as conditioning treatment before allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation for older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MC-FludT.14/L): a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Dietrich Wilhelm Beelen, Rudolf Trenschel, Matthias Stelljes, Christoph Groth, Tamás Masszi, Péter Reményi, Eva-Maria Wagner-Drouet, Beate Hauptrock, Peter Dreger, Thomas Luft, Wolfgang Bethge, Wichard Vogel, Fabio Ciceri, Jacopo Peccatori, Friedrich Stölzel, Johannes Schetelig, Christian Junghanß, Christina Grosse-Thie, Miroslaw Markiewicz

    Background Further improvement of preparative regimens before allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an unmet medical need for the growing number of older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of conditioning with treosulfan plus fludarabine compared with reduced-intensity busulfan plus fludarabine in this population. Methods We did an open-label, randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial in 31 transplantation centres in France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Poland. Eligible patients were 18–70 years, had acute myeloid leukaemia in first or consecutive complete haematological remission (blast counts <5% in bone marrow) or myelodysplastic syndrome (blast counts <20% in bone marrow), Karnofsky index of 60% or higher, and were indicated for allogeneic HSCT but considered at an increased risk for standard myeloablative preparative regimens based on age (≥50 years), an HSCT-specific comorbidity index of more than 2, or both. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intravenous 10 g/m2 treosulfan daily applied as a 2-h infusion for 3 days (days –4 to –2) or 0·8 mg/kg busulfan applied as a 2-h infusion at 6-h intervals on days –4 and –3. Both groups received 30 mg/m2 intravenous fludarabine daily for 5 days (days –6 to –2). The primary outcome was event-free survival 2 years after HSCT. The non-inferiority margin was a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·3. Efficacy was assessed in all patients who received treatment and completed transplantation, and safety in all patients who received treatment. The study is registered with EudraCT (2008–002356–18) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00822393). Findings Between June 13, 2013, and May 3, 2016, 476 patients were enrolled (240 in the busulfan group received treatment and transplantation, and in the treosulfan group 221 received treatment and 220 transplanation). At the second preplanned interim analysis (Nov 9, 2016), the primary endpoint was met and trial was stopped. Here we present the final confirmatory analysis (data cutoff May 31, 2017). Median follow-up was 15·4 months (IQR 8·8–23·6) for patients treated with treosulfan and 17·4 months (6·3–23·4) for those treated with busulfan. 2-year event-free survival was 64·0% (95% CI 56·0–70·9) in the treosulfan group and 50·4% (42·8–57·5) in the busulfan group (HR 0·65 [95% CI 0·47–0·90]; p<0·0001 for non-inferiority, p=0·0051 for superiority). The most frequently reported grade 3 or higher adverse events were abnormal blood chemistry results (33 [15%] of 221 patients in the treosulfan group vs 35 [15%] of 240 patients in the busulfan group) and gastrointestinal disorders (24 [11%] patients vs 39 [16%] patients). Serious adverse events were reported for 18 (8%) patients in the treosulfan group and 17 (7%) patients in the busulfan group. Causes of deaths were generally transplantation-related. Interpretation Treosulfan was non-inferior to busulfan when used in combination with fludarabine as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic HSCT for older or comorbid patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. The improved outcomes in patients treated with the treosulfan–fludarabine regimen suggest its potential to become a standard preparative regimen in this population. Funding medac GmbH.

    更新日期:2019-10-10
  • Obstetric and maternal outcomes in patients diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-09-26
    Charlotte Maggen, Daan Dierickx, Pieternella Lugtenburg, Annouschka Laenen, Elyce Cardonick, Roman Smakov, Mar Bellido, Alvaro Cabrera-Garcia, Mina Mhallem Gziri, Michael J Halaska, Petronella B Ottevanger, Kristel Van Calsteren, Andie O'Laughlin, Evgeniya Polushkina, Laura Van Dam, Irit Avivi, Peter Vandenberghe, F J Sherida H Woei-A-Jin, Frédéric Amant

    Background Outcomes for mother and child following a diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy are underinvestigated, and antenatal management of the disease has not been reported on widely. The aim of this study was to assess obstetric outcomes, antenatal management, and maternal survival in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed during pregnancy who were registered in the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy (INCIP) database. Methods We did a multicentre, retrospective cohort study including oncological and obstetric data from 134 pregnant patients diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma between Jan 1, 1969, and Aug 1, 2018. Data collected from the INCIP database were obtained from 17 academic centres in Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Greece, Israel, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Russia, the UK, and the USA. We analysed patients' management over three epochs (before 1995, 1995–2004, and 2005–18). Obstetric outcomes (birthweight, obstetric or neonatal complications, and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]) of patients who received antenatal chemotherapy were compared to those of patients who did not receive antenatal treatment. Maternal progression-free and overall survival was assessed by disease stage at diagnosis in pregnant patients and compared with outcomes of non-pregnant patients with Hodgkin lymphoma selected from databases of three tertiary centres, matched for stage and prognostic score. All patients included in survival analyses received standard doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazone (ABVD) therapy since Jan 1, 1997. Findings Of the 134 pregnant patients diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy. 72 (54%) patients initiated antenatal chemotherapy, 56 (42%) did not receive treatment during pregnancy, and 6 (4%) received only radiotherapy. Over the years, chemotherapy was increasingly commenced during pregnancy. The incidence of neonates who were small for gestational age did not differ between chemotherapy-exposed neonates (15 [22%] of 69) and non-exposed neonates (six [16%] of 42; p=0·455). Admission to NICU also did not differ between groups (19 [29%] exposed to antenatal chemotherapy vs 12 [35%] unexposed to antenatal chemotherapy). Birthweight percentiles were lower in neonates prenatally exposed to chemotherapy compared with non-exposed neonates (p=0·035). Patients receiving antenatal therapy had more obstetric complications than those without antenatal therapy (p=0·005), the most common complications being preterm contractions (nine [12%] vs three [7%]) and preterm rupture of membranes (four [5%] vs 0). For the maternal survival analyses, we compared 77 pregnant patients and 211 non-pregnant, matched controls. 5-year progression-free survival for patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma was 82·6% (95% CI 67·4–91·1) for 62 pregnant patients and 88·3% (81·6–92·7) for 142 controls (hazard ratio [HR] 1·80, 95% CI 0·84–3·87; p=0·130; 5-year overall survival was 97·3% (82·3–99·6) and 98·4% (93·6–99·6; HR 1·63, 0·35–7·65; p=0·534). In patients with advanced-stage disease (15 pregnant patients and 69 non-pregnant controls), 5-year progression-free survival was 90·9% (95% CI 50·8–98·7) versus 74·0% (60·9–83·3); HR 0·36, 95% CI 0·04–2·90; p=0·334. 5-year overall survival was 100% (no events occurred) and 96·2% (95% CI 85·5–99·1; HR cannot be estimated; p=0·146). Interpretation Occurrence of preterm contractions or preterm rupture of membranes was higher in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving antenatal treatment compared with those who did not initiate treatment during pregnancy. Maternal survival did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, suggesting that antenatal chemotherapy or deferral of treatment until postpartum in selected patients can be considered, with regular obstetric follow-up to safeguard foetal growth. Funding European Research Council, Research foundation Flanders, and Charles University Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic.

    更新日期:2019-09-27
  • Ruxolitinib in adult patients with secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: an open-label, single-centre, pilot trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Asra Ahmed, Samuel A Merrill, Fares Alsawah, Paula Bockenstedt, Erica Campagnaro, Sumana Devata, Scott D Gitlin, Mark Kaminski, Alice Cusick, Tycel Phillips, Suman Sood, Moshe Talpaz, Albert Quiery, Philip S Boonstra, Ryan A Wilcox

    Background Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a cytokine-driven inflammatory syndrome that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Overall survival in adult patients with secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis remains suboptimal, and novel therapeutic strategies are needed. The phosphorylation-dependent activation of the Janus family kinases JAK1 and JAK2 are hallmarks of the final common pathway in this disease. We therefore aimed to determine the activity and safety of ruxolitinib, a JAK inhibitor, in adults with secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Methods We performed an open-label, single-centre, pilot study of ruxolitinib in adults with secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis at the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center (Ann Arbor, MI, USA). We included patients aged 18 years or more who fulfilled at least five of the eight HLH-2004 criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Discontinuation of corticosteroids was not required for enrolment in this study. Patients received oral ruxolitinib (15 mg twice a day) on a continuous 28-day cycle, or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall survival at 2 months from the first dose of ruxolitinib. Secondary endpoints included the assessment of adverse events, response (defined as the assessment of all quantifiable signs and laboratory abnormalities included in the diagnostic criteria for haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis), and pharmacodynamic biomarkers. Analyses were done in all treated patients with available data. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02400463, and is still recruiting. Findings As of Feb 7, 2019, five patients had been enrolled. The first patient was enrolled in February, 2016. No deaths were recorded, with a median follow-up of 490 days (IQR 190–1075). 2-month overall survival was 100% (95% CI 57–100). Regarding response, resolution of symptoms (either partial or complete) and disease-associated laboratory abnormalities was observed in all five patients. Cytopenias improved in all patients within the first week of treatment, leading to relatively rapid transfusion independence, discontinuation of corticosteroids, and hospital discharge. A single serious adverse event (ie, grade 4 febrile neutropenia) was reported. One patient discontinued treatment because of grade 2 extremity pain and no treatment-related deaths were observed. Improvements in inflammatory markers (eg, ferritin, soluble IL-2 receptor) and T cells and monocytes activation (ie, decreased STAT1 phosphorylation) were observed following treatment. Interpretation These preliminary data suggest that ruxolitinib is active, well tolerated, and manageable in the outpatient setting in patients with secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Given the paucity of effective, non-myelosuppressive therapies, these preliminary findings have important therapeutic implications for patients with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and other cytokine-release syndromes and warrant further investigation. Funding National Cancer Institute, the University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center, and Incyte Corporation.

    更新日期:2019-09-17
  • Effect of donor type and conditioning regimen intensity on allogeneic transplantation outcomes in patients with sickle cell disease: a retrospective multicentre, cohort study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Mary Eapen, Ruta Brazauskas, Mark C Walters, Françoise Bernaudin, Khalid Bo-Subait, Courtney D Fitzhugh, Jane S Hankins, Julie Kanter, Joerg J Meerpohl, Javier Bolaños-Meade, Julie A Panepinto, Damiano Rondelli, Shalini Shenoy, Joi Williamson, Teonna L Woolford, Eliane Gluckman, John E Wagner, John F Tisdale

    Background Donors other than matched siblings and low-intensity conditioning regimens are increasingly used in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We aimed to compare the relative risk of donor type and conditioning regimen intensity on the transplantation outcomes of in patients with sickle cell disease. Methods For this retrospective cohort study, we collected data from 90 US centres reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Eligible patients were younger than 50 years, had genetically confirmed sickle cell disease (Hb SS) or sickle beta thalassemia (Hb Sβ), and underwent allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation between Jan 15, 2008, and Dec 28, 2017. We considered transplants from donor-recipient pairs matched at the allele-level (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1), including HLA-matched sibling donors, haploidentical related donors, matched unrelated donors, or mismatched unrelated donors. The main outcome was event-free survival. The effect of donor type, conditioning regimen intensity (myeloablative, non-myeloablative, and reduced-intensity regimens), age (≤12 or 13-49 years), sex, performance score, comorbidity index, recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus, graft type (bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood), and transplantation period (2008–12 and 2013–17) on outcomes was studied using Cox regression models. Findings Of 996 patients with sickle cell disease and who underwent transplantation in 2008–17, 910 (91%) were included (558 [61%] patients had HLA-matched sibling donors, 137 [15%] haploidentical related donors, 111 [12%] matched unrelated donors, and 104 [11%] mismatched unrelated donors). The median follow-up was 36 months (IQR 18–60) after transplantation from HLA-matched siblings, 25 months (12–48) after transplantation from haploidentical related donors, 37 months (23–60) after transplantation from HLA-matched unrelated donors, and 47 months (24–72) after transplantation from mismatched unrelated donors. Event-free survival was worse in recipients aged 13 years or older than in those younger than 13 years (hazard ratio 1·74, 95% CI 1·24–2·45; p=0·0014) and in those who received a transplant from haploidentical related donors (5·30, 3·17–8·86; p<0·0001), matched unrelated donors (3·71, 2·39–5·75; p<0·0001), and mismatched unrelated donors (4·34, 2·58–7·32; p<0·0001) than in patients who received a transplant from matched siblings. There was no significant difference in event-free survival between recipients of transplants from non-sibling donors: haploidentical related donors (1·43, 0·81–2·50; p=0·21) or mismatched unrelated donors (1·17, 0·67–2·05; p=0·58) versus HLA-matched unrelated donors, or mismatched unrelated donors versus haploidentical related donors (1·22, 0·65–2·27; p=0·98). Event-free survival was also worse in patients conditioned with reduced-intensity regimens (1·97, 1·15–3·36; p=0·013) than in those conditioned with non-myeloablative regimens, but did not differ between those who received myeloablative compared with non-myeloablative regimens (1·57, 0·95–2·61; p=0·079). Interpretation Our data suggest that event-free survival is improved in patients with sickle cell disease who receive an allogenic transplantation at age 12 years or younger and those with an HLA-matched sibling donor. For patients without a matched sibling available for transplantation, our data do not favour one alternative donor type over another in this setting. Funding National Institutes of Health and US Health Services Research Administration, Department of Health and Human Services.

    更新日期:2019-09-06
  • Outcomes of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched and alternative donors: a European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry retrospective analysis
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Roni Shouval, Joshua A Fein, Myriam Labopin, Nicolaus Kröger, Rafael F Duarte, Peter Bader, Christian Chabannon, Jurgen Kuball, Grzegorz Wladyslaw Basak, Carlo Dufour, Jacques-Emmanuel Galimard, Emmanuelle Polge, Arjan Lankester, Silvia Montoto, John A Snowden, Jan Styczynski, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Mohamad Mohty, Arnon Nagler

    Background The introduction of donors other than HLA-matched siblings has been a pivotal change in stem cell transplantation. We aimed to assess the evolution of outcomes within donor groups over time and explore whether donor–recipient HLA disparity might be advantageous in patients with aggressive disease. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre study, we assessed the outcomes for adult patients (≥18 years) with haematological malignancies who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between Jan 3, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The donor types studied were matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and cord blood donors. Unrelated non-cord-blood donors and recipients were typed at the allelic level for HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. We evaluated trends in overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse incidence, progression-free survival, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD-free and relapse-free survival following transplantation from various donor types (matched sibling, matched unrelated, mismatched unrelated, haploidentical, and umbilical cord blood), and compared transplantation outcomes across three epochs (epoch 1: 2001–05; epoch 2: 2006–10; and epoch 3: 2011–15). We used Kaplan-Meier estimators for survival probabilities and cumulative incidence functions accounting for competing risks for probabilities of GHVD, relapse, and non-relapse mortality, using multiple imputations by chained equations to deal with missing data. In epoch 3, we directly compared outcomes by donor group, stratified by a novel three-level disease-risk scheme. Findings We included 106 188 patients in our analysis. The median follow-up was 4·1 years (IQR 1·7–7·7). Overall survival at 3 years increased with all donor groups between epochs 2 and 3 (matched sibling: 54·0% [95% CI 53·1–54·8] to 54·6% [53·6–55·6]; matched unrelated: 49·1% [48·0–50·2] to 51·6% [50·7–52·6]; mismatched unrelated: 37·4% [35·7–39·2] to 41·3% [39·5–43·1]; haploidentical: 34·5% [31·4–37·9] to 44·2% [42·1–46·3]; and cord blood 36·3% [33·9–39] to 43·7% [40·8–46·8]). Improvement in overall survival seems to be driven by a reduction in non-relapse mortality, except in cord blood HSCT recipients, who had a lower relapse incidence. Comparing donor groups across disease-risk strata using the novel disease-risk scheme, overall survival among recipients of matched sibling transplantations remained better than other donor groups except in high-risk disease, where overall survival with matched unrelated transplantations was not different. Interpretation Overall survival following allogeneic stem cell transplantation is improving with substantial progress among recipients of haploidentical and cord blood HSCT. Nonetheless, the traditional donor hierarchy of matched sibling donors followed by matched unrelated donors and then other donors holds. Our findings warrant further investigation and could inform decision making and the development of donor-selection algorithms. Funding The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center in Haemato-Oncology, Tel Aviv University, and the Shalvi Foundation for Research.

    更新日期:2019-08-31
  • Romiplostim in patients with refractory aplastic anaemia previously treated with immunosuppressive therapy: a dose-finding and long-term treatment phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Jong Wook Lee, Sung-Eun Lee, Chul Won Jung, Silvia Park, Hiroyuki Keta, Soo Kyeong Park, Jin-A Kim, Il-Hoan Oh, Jun Ho Jang

    Background Aplastic anaemia is a rare, life-threatening condition, characterised by pancytopenia with hypocellular bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cells and most progenitor cells express thrombopoietin receptor (c-MPL). Romiplostim is a peptibody with c-MPL agonist activity that stimulates endogenous thrombopoietin production and leads to promoting the proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. In this phase 2 trial we aimed to assess the activity and safety of romiplostim in patients with aplastic anaemia who were previously treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Methods We did an open-label, phase 2 study including a randomised, parallel, dose-finding part followed by an extension part to evaluate long-term treatment at two clinical centres in Seoul, South Korea. Eligible patients were aged 19 years or older, and had aplastic anaemia confirmed by bone marrow and cytogenetic studies and thrombocytopenia (platelet count ≤30 × 109/L), an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or lower, and were previously treated with immunosuppressive therapy, including at least one course of antithymocyte globulin plus cyclosporin. In the dose-finding part, patients were randomly assigned to fixed dose cohorts (1, 3, 6, or 10 μg/kg) of subcutaneous romiplostim once weekly for 8 weeks, according to a static allocation procedure after stratification by platelet count. In the extension part of the study, patients continued romiplostim titrated every 4 weeks in single steps (1, 3, 6, 10, 13, 16, and 20 μg/kg once weekly), depending on platelet response and safety up to 1 year (weeks 9–52). Patients who had a platelet response during weeks 46–53 continued dose titration in single steps (3, 6, 10, 13, 16, and 20 μg/kg once weekly) for an additional 2 years (weeks 53–156). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a platelet response at week 9 (after completion of the dose-finding part). Activity was assessed per-protocol in all patients evaluable for response at week 9 and safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of romiplostim. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02094417. Findings Between April 14 and Nov 24, 2014, 35 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of four dose cohorts: romiplostim 1 μg/kg (n=7), 3 μg/kg (n=9), 6 μg/kg (n=9), and 10 μg/kg (n=10). Data cutoff for this final analysis was on April 14, 2018. The median duration of treatment for all patients was 53 weeks (IQR 35–155). Ten (30%) of 33 evaluable patients achieved a platelet response at week 9, including seven (70%) of ten patients in the 10 μg/kg cohort, three (33%) of nine patients in the 6 μg/kg cohort, and no patients in both the 3 μg/kg and 1 μg/kg cohorts. During the extension study, 18 (55%) of 33 evaluable patients had a platelet response during weeks 46–53 and were eligible for continued treatment. Ten (30%) patients maintained a platelet response at 2 and 3 years, of whom nine had an erythroid response and five a neutrophil response, and completed protocol treatment. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in three (9%) of 35 patients, including grade 1 or 2 myalgia, fatigue, and dizziness. 17 (49%) of 35 patients had adverse events of grade 3 or higher; seven (20%) had serious adverse events (one event of febrile neutropenia, cataract, retinal detachment, macular fibrosis, inguinal hernia, appendicitis, cellulitis, tendon injury, and transfusion reaction); and one patient died from sepsis during treatment; none of these events were related to treatment. No patients developed clonal evolution. Interpretation Romiplostim seems to be active and has a favourable safety profile in patients with refractory aplastic anaemia. 10 μg/kg once weekly might be used as a recommended starting dose in future studies. These findings warrant further investigation. Funding Kyowa Hakko Kirin Korea.

    更新日期:2019-08-30
  • Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis strategies for people undergoing elective total knee replacement: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Sedina Lewis, Jessica Glen, Dalia Dawoud, Sofia Dias, Jill Cobb, Xavier L Griffin, Nigel Rossiter, Michael Reed, Carlos Sharpin, Gerard Stansby, Peter Barry

    Background Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism is a major patient safety concern. Provision of prophylaxis to patients admitted for elective total knee replacement surgery has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism. We aimed to assess the relative efficacy and safety of all available prophylaxis strategies in this setting. Methods We did a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials to assess the relative efficacy and safety of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis strategies and to populate an economic model that assessed the cost-effectiveness of these strategies and informed the updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline recommendations for patients undergoing elective total knee replacement surgery. The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Embase, and Medline were last searched on June 19, 2017, with key terms relating to the population (venous thromboembolism and total knee replacement) and the interventions compared, including available pharmacological and mechanical interventions. Outcomes of interest were deep vein thrombosis (symptomatic and asymptomatic), pulmonary embolism, and major bleeding. Risk of bias was assessed, and relevant data extracted from the included randomised controlled trials for the network meta-analyses. Relative risks (RR; with 95% credible intervals [95% CrI]) compared to no prophylaxis, median ranks (with 95% CrI), and the probability of being the best intervention were calculated. The study was done in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Findings 25 randomised controlled trials were included in the network meta-analyses. 23 trials (19 interventions; n=15 028) were included in the deep vein thrombosis network, 12 in the pulmonary embolism network (13 interventions; n=15 555), and 19 in the major bleeding network (11 interventions; n=19 797). Risk of bias ranged from very low to high. Rivaroxaban ranked first for prevention of deep vein thrombosis (RR 0·12 [95% CrI 0·06–0·22]). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; standard prophylactic dose, 28–35 days) ranked first in the pulmonary embolism network (RR 0·02 [95% CrI 0·00–3·86]) and LMWH (low prophylactic dose, 10–14 days) ranked first in the major bleeding network (odds ratio 0·08 [95% CrI 0·00–1·76]), but the results for pulmonary embolism and major bleeding are highly uncertain. Interpretation Single prophylaxis strategies are more effective in prevention of deep vein thrombosis in the elective total knee replacement population than combination strategies, with rivaroxaban being the most effective. The results of the pulmonary embolism and major bleeding meta-analyses are uncertain and no clear conclusion can be made other than what is biologically plausible (eg, that no prophylaxis and mechanical prophylaxis strategies should have the lowest risk of major bleeding). Funding National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.

    更新日期:2019-08-21
  • Bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban for children with venous thromboembolism (EINSTEIN-Jr): results from three multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 studies
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Paul Monagle, Anthonie W A Lensing, Kirstin Thelen, Ida Martinelli, Christoph Male, Amparo Santamaría, Elena Samochatova, Riten Kumar, Susanne Holzhauer, Paola Saracco, Paolo Simioni, Jeremy Robertson, Gernot Grangl, Jacqueline Halton, Phillip Connor, Guy Young, Angelo C Molinari, Ulrike Nowak-Göttl, Guy Young

    Background Rivaroxaban has been shown to be efficacious for treatment of venous thromboembolism in adults, and has a reduced risk of bleeding compared with standard anticoagulants. We aimed to develop paediatric rivaroxaban regimens for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in children and adolescents. Methods In this phase 2 programme, we did three studies to evaluate rivaroxaban treatment in children younger than 6 months, aged 6 months to 5 years, and aged 6–17 years. Our studies used a multicentre, single-arm design at 54 sites in Australia, Europe, Israel, Japan, and north America. We included children with objectively confirmed venous thromboembolism previously treated with low-molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux, or a vitamin K antagonist for at least 2 months or, in children who had catheter-related venous thromboembolism for at least 6 weeks. We administered rivaroxaban orally in a bodyweight-adjusted 20 mg-equivalent dose, based on physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling predictions and EINSTEIN-Jr phase 1 data in young adults, in either a once-daily (tablets; for those aged 6–17 years), twice-daily (in suspension; for those aged 6 months to 11 years), or three times-daily (in suspension; for those younger than 6 months) dosing regimen for 30 days (or 7 days for those younger than 6 months). The primary aim was to define rivaroxaban treatment regimens that match the target adult exposure range. The principal safety outcome was major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major bleeding. Analyses were per-protocol. The predefined efficacy outcomes were symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism, asymptomatic deterioration on repeat imaging at the end of the study treatment period. These trials are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02564718, NCT02309411, and NCT02234843. Findings Between Feb 11, 2013, and Dec 20, 2017, we enrolled 93 children (ten children younger than 6 months; 15 children aged 6 months to 1 year; 25 children aged 2–5 years; 32 children aged 6–11 years; and 11 children aged 12–17 years) into our study. 89 (96%) children completed study treatment (30 days of treatment, or 7 days in those younger than 6 months), and 93 (100%) children received at least one dose of study treatment and were evaluable for the primary endpoints. None of the children had a major bleed, and four (4%, 95% CI 1·2–10·6) of these children had a clinically relevant non-major bleed (three children aged 12–17 years with menorrhagia and one child aged 6–11 years with gingival bleeding). We found no symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism in any patients (0%, 0·0–3·9). 24 (32%) of 75 patients with repeat imaging had their thrombotic burden resolved, 43 (57%) patients improved, and eight (11%) patients were unchanged. No patient deteriorated. We confirmed therapeutic rivaroxaban exposures with once-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 30 kg and with twice-daily dosing in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and less than 30 kg. Children with low bodyweights (<20 kg, particularly <12 kg) showed low exposures so, for future studies, rivaroxaban dosages were revised for these weight categories, to match the target adult exposure range. 61 (66%) of 93 children had adverse events during the study. Pyrexia was the most common adverse event (ten [11%] events), and anaemia and neutropenia or febrile neutropenia were the most frequent grade 3 or worse events (four [4%] events each). No children died or were discontinued from rivaroxaban because of adverse events. Interpretation Treatment with bodyweight-adjusted rivaroxaban appears to be safe in children. The treatment regimens that we confirmed in children with bodyweights of at least 20 kg and the revised treatment regimens that we predicted in those with bodyweights less than 20 kg will be evaluated in the EINSTEIN-Jr phase 3 trial in children with acute venous thromboembolism. Funding Bayer AG, Janssen Research and Development.

    更新日期:2019-08-14
  • Idarubicin, cytarabine, and nivolumab in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: a single-arm, phase 2 study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Farhad Ravandi, Rita Assi, Naval Daver, Christopher B Benton, Tapan Kadia, Philip A Thompson, Gautam Borthakur, Yesid Alvarado, Elias J Jabbour, Marina Konopleva, Koichi Takahashi, Steven Kornblau, Courtney D DiNardo, Zeev Estrov, Wilmer Flores, Sreyashi Basu, James Allison, Padmanee Sharma, Hagop M Kantarjian

    Background Outcomes for younger patients with acute myeloid leukaemia have moderately improved over the past two decades owing to better supportive care and recent introduction of novel targeted agents. Blocking PD-1 and its ligand's pathways enhances antileukaemia responses by enabling T cells in murine models. We aimed to assess the addition of nivolumab to frontline therapy with idarubicin and cytarabine in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Methods This single-arm, phase 2 part of the phase 1–2 study of nivolumab in combination with idarubicin and cytarabine was done at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX, USA). Eligible patients were aged 18–60 years (or >60 years if suitable for intensive chemotherapy), and had newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–2. Induction included cytarabine 1·5 g/m2 by 24-h continuous infusion daily on days 1–4 (3 days in patients >60 years) and idarubicin 12 mg/m2 daily on days 1–3. Nivolumab 3 mg/kg was started on day 24 (range 22–26) and continued every 2 weeks for up to a year in responders. Responders received either up to five consolidation cycles of attenuated doses of idarubicin and cytarabine, or allogeneic stem cell transplantation if eligible. The primary endpoint was event-free survival. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. Secondary endpoints were relapse-free survival and overall survival. This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02464657. Findings Between Aug 7, 2015, and June 2, 2018, 44 patients were enrolled of whom 22 (50%) had adverse genetic risk by European Leukaemia Network classification. All patients were evaluable for safety and efficacy. At a median follow-up of 17·25 months (IQR 0·50–30·40), median event-free survival was not reached (95% CI 7·93–NR). Median relapse-free survival of responders was 18·54 months (95% CI 8·20–23·22). The median overall survival was 18·54 months (95% CI 10·81–28·81). Six patients had seven grade 3–4 immune-related adverse events with two cases of rash, two of colitis, and one each of transaminitis, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis. 19 (43%) of 44 patients achieved a response and proceeded to allogeneic stem cell transplantation, with grade 3–4 graft-versus-host disease observed in five (26%). No treatment related deaths were attributed to nivolumab. Interpretation Addition of nivolumab to induction chemotherapy with idarubicin and cytarabine is feasible in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Post-transplant severe graft-versus-host disease could be improved, and earlier initiation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy is warranted in future studies. Funding The MD Anderson Cancer Center Support Grant CA016672, and the MD Anderson Cancer Center Leukaemia SPORE CA100632 from the National Cancer Institute, Bristol Myers Squibb.

    更新日期:2019-08-07
  • Longer-term efficiency and safety of increasing the frequency of whole blood donation (INTERVAL): extension study of a randomised trial of 20 757 blood donors
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-08-02
    Stephen Kaptoge, Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Carmel Moore, Matthew Walker, Jane Armitage, Willem H Ouwehand, David J Roberts, John Danesh, Simon G Thompson

    Background The INTERVAL trial showed that, over a 2-year period, inter-donation intervals for whole blood donation can be safely reduced to meet blood shortages. We extended the INTERVAL trial for a further 2 years to evaluate the longer-term risks and benefits of varying inter-donation intervals, and to compare routine versus more intensive reminders to help donors keep appointments. Methods The INTERVAL trial was a parallel group, pragmatic, randomised trial that recruited blood donors aged 18 years or older from 25 static donor centres of NHS Blood and Transplant across England, UK. Here we report on the prespecified analyses after 4 years of follow-up. Participants were whole blood donors who agreed to continue trial participation on their originally allocated inter-donation intervals (men: 12, 10, and 8 weeks; women: 16, 14, and 12 weeks). They were further block-randomised (1:1) to routine versus more intensive reminders using computer-generated random sequences. The prespecified primary outcome was units of blood collected per year analysed in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary outcomes related to safety were quality of life, self-reported symptoms potentially related to donation, haemoglobin and ferritin concentrations, and deferrals because of low haemoglobin and other factors. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN24760606, and has completed. Findings Between Oct 19, 2014, and May 3, 2016, 20 757 of the 38 035 invited blood donors (10 843 [58%] men, 9914 [51%] women) participated in the extension study. 10 378 (50%) were randomly assigned to routine reminders and 10 379 (50%) were randomly assigned to more intensive reminders. Median follow-up was 1·1 years (IQR 0·7–1·3). Compared with routine reminders, more intensive reminders increased blood collection by a mean of 0·11 units per year (95% CI 0·04–0·17; p=0·0003) in men and 0·06 units per year (0·01–0·11; p=0·0094) in women. During the extension study, each week shorter inter-donation interval increased blood collection by a mean of 0·23 units per year (0·21–0·25) in men and 0·14 units per year (0·12–0·15) in women (both p<0·0001). More frequent donation resulted in more deferrals for low haemoglobin (odds ratio per week shorter inter-donation interval 1·19 [95% CI 1·15–1·22] in men and 1·10 [1·06–1·14] in women), and lower mean haemoglobin (difference per week shorter inter-donation interval −0·84 g/L [95% CI −0·99 to −0·70] in men and −0·45 g/L [–0·59 to −0·31] in women) and ferritin concentrations (percentage difference per week shorter inter-donation interval −6·5% [95% CI −7·6 to −5·5] in men and −5·3% [–6·5 to −4·2] in women; all p<0·0001). No differences were observed in quality of life, serious adverse events, or self-reported symptoms (p>0.0001 for tests of linear trend by inter-donation intervals) other than a higher reported frequency of doctor-diagnosed low iron concentrations and prescription of iron supplements in men (p<0·0001). Interpretation During a period of up to 4 years, shorter inter-donation intervals and more intensive reminders resulted in more blood being collected without a detectable effect on donors' mental and physical wellbeing. However, donors had decreased haemoglobin concentrations and more self-reported symptoms compared with the initial 2 years of the trial. Our findings suggest that blood collection services could safely use shorter donation intervals and more intensive reminders to meet shortages, for donors who maintain adequate haemoglobin concentrations and iron stores. Funding NHS Blood and Transplant, UK National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, and British Heart Foundation.

    更新日期:2019-08-03
  • A combination of humanised anti-CD19 and anti-BCMA CAR T cells in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: a single-arm, phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Zhiling Yan, Jiang Cao, Hai Cheng, Jianlin Qiao, Huanxin Zhang, Ying Wang, Ming Shi, Jianping Lan, Xiaoming Fei, Lai Jin, Guangjun Jing, Wei Sang, Feng Zhu, Wei Chen, Qingyun Wu, Yao Yao, Gang Wang, Jing Zhao, Kailin Xu

    Background Anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has been shown to have activity in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Reports have suggested that a small subgroup of less differentiated myeloma clones express CD19 and anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy has shown activity in some of these patients. We aimed to assess the activity and safety of a combination of humanised anti-CD19 and anti-BCMA CAR T cells in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Methods We did a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 trial at the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University in China. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18–69 years, had histologically confirmed multiple myeloma, a Karnofsky Performance Score of 50 points or more, and met the International Myeloma Working Group diagnostic criteria for relapsed or refractory disease. Fludarabine (three daily doses of 30mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (one daily dose of 750 mg/m2) were used to deplete lymphocytes before infusion of humanised anti-CD19 CAR T cells (1 × 106 cells per kg) and murine anti-BCMA CAR T cells (1 × 106 cells per kg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response. Responses were assessed according to the International Myeloma Working Group criteria. This study is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registration Center, number ChiCTR-OIC-17011272. Findings From May 1, 2017, to Jan 20, 2019, 22 patients were enrolled and 21 received an infusion of CAR T cells and were evaluable for safety and activity analyses. At a median follow-up of 179 days (IQR 72–295), 20 (95%) of 21 patients had an overall response, including nine (43%) stringent complete responses, three (14%) complete responses, five (24%) very good partial responses, and three (14%) partial responses. The most common adverse events included cytokine release syndrome (19 [90%] of 21), including 18 patients (86%) with grade 1–2 cytokine release syndrome. The most common serious adverse events were haematological toxicities, which occurred in 20 (95%) of 21 patients. Common grade 3 or higher adverse events included neutropenia (18 [86%]), anaemia (13 [62%]), and thrombocytopenia (13 [62%]). One patient died due to cerebral hemorrhage, which was considered related to sustained thrombocytopenia. No deaths were judged to be treatment-related. Interpretation Our results confirm that combined infusion of humanised anti-CD19 and anti-BCMA CAR T cells is feasible in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, and the preliminary activity observed warrants further investigation in randomised trials. This dual CAR-T cell combinations might be a promising treatment option for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Funding National Natural Science Foundation of China, Natural Science Foundation, Key Research and Development Plan of Jiangsu.

    更新日期:2019-08-02
  • Pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with treatment-naive multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-185): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Saad Zafar Usmani, Fredrik Schjesvold, Albert Oriol, Lionel Karlin, Michele Cavo, Robert M Rifkin, Habte Aragaw Yimer, Richard LeBlanc, Naoki Takezako, Robert Donald McCroskey, Andrew Boon Ming Lim, Kenshi Suzuki, Hiroshi Kosugi, George Grigoriadis, Irit Avivi, Thierry Facon, Sundar Jagannath, Sagar Lonial, William Houck

    Background Lenalidomide and dexamethasone has been a standard of care in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. The addition of a third drug to the combination is likely to improve treatment efficacy. KEYNOTE-185 assessed the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide and dexamethasone with and without pembrolizumab in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. Here, we present the results of an unplanned interim analysis done to assess the benefit–risk of the combination at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods KEYNOTE-185 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 95 medical centres across 15 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Spain, UK, and USA). Transplantation-ineligible patients aged 18 years and older with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who were treatment naive were enrolled, and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone or lenalidomide and dexamethasone alone using an interactive voice or integrated web response system. Patients received oral lenalidomide 25 mg on days 1–21 and oral dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of repeated 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, which was investigator-assessed because of early trial termination. Efficacy was analysed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02579863, and it is closed for accrual. Findings Between Jan 7, 2016, and June 9, 2017, 301 patients were randomly assigned to the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=151) or the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=150). On July 3, 2017, the FDA decided to halt the study because of the imbalance in the proportion of death between groups. At database cutoff (June 2, 2017), with a median follow-up of 6·6 months (IQR 3·4–9·6), 149 patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and 145 in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group had received their assigned study drug. Median progression-free survival was not reached in either group; progression-free survival estimates at 6-months were 82·0% (95% CI 73·2–88·1) versus 85·0% (76·8–90·5; hazard ratio [HR] 1·22; 95% CI 0·67–2·22; p=0·75). Serious adverse events were reported in 81 (54%) patients in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 57 (39%) patients in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group; the most common serious adverse events were pneumonia (nine [6%]) and pyrexia (seven [5%]) in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group and pneumonia (eight [6%]) and sepsis (two [1%]) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group. Six (4%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, myocarditis, large intestine perforation, pneumonia, and pulmonary embolism) and two (1%) in the lenalidomide and dexamethasone group (upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage and respiratory failure). Interpretation The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit–risk profile of pembrolizumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated multiple myeloma. Long-term safety and survival follow-up is ongoing. Funding Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Inc (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • Pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (KEYNOTE-183): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Maria-Victoria Mateos, Hilary Blacklock, Fredrik Schjesvold, Albert Oriol, David Simpson, Anupkumar George, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Alessandra Larocca, Asher Chanan-Khan, Daniel Sherbenou, Irit Avivi, Noam Benyamini, Shinsuke Iida, Morio Matsumoto, Kenshi Suzuki, Vincent Ribrag, Saad Z Usmani, Sundar Jagannath, Habte Yimer

    Background Pomalidomide and dexamethasone is a standard of care for patients with multiple myeloma in whom bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment has failed. KEYNOTE-183 assessed efficacy and safety of pomalidomide and dexamethasone with or without pembrolizumab in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Here, we present the findings of an unplanned, ad-hoc interim analysis at the request of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Methods KEYNOTE-183 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial done at 97 medical centres across 11 countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, and USA). Patients aged at least 18 years with multiple myeloma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0 or 1, previously treated with at least two lines of therapy (excluding pomalidomide) and refractory to the last line were randomly assigned 1:1 to the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group via an interactive voice response or integrated web response system. Patients received oral pomalidomide 4 mg daily on days 1–21 and oral low-dose dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 in 28-day cycles, with or without intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. The dual primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. Efficacy was assessed in all randomly assigned patients and safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02576977, and it is closed for accrual. Findings Between Jan 18, 2016, and June 7, 2017, 249 patients were randomly assigned to either the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=125) or the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (n=124). On July 3, 2017, the FDA established that risks associated with the triple combination outweighed benefits and halted the study. Median follow-up was 8·1 months (IQR 4·5–10·9). Median progression-free survival was 5·6 months (95% CI 3·7–7·5) in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 8·4 months (5·9–not reached) in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group; progression-free survival estimates at 6 months were 48% (95% CI 37–58) versus 60% (49–69) at 6 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1·53; 95% CI 1·05–2·22; p=0·98). Median overall survival was not reached (95% CI 12·9–not reached) versus 15·2 months (12·7–not reached; HR 1·61; 95% CI 0·91–2·85; p=0·95); overall survival estimates at 6 months were 82% (95% CI 74–88) versus 90% (82–95). Serious adverse events occurred in 75 (63%) of 120 patients in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group versus 56 (46%) of 121 patients in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group. Four (3%) treatment-related deaths occurred in the pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone group (one each of unknown cause, neutropenic sepsis, myocarditis, and Stevens–Johnson syndrome); myocarditis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome were considered related to pembrolizumab. No treatment-related deaths were reported in the pomalidomide and dexamethasone group. Interpretation The results from this unplanned, FDA-requested, interim analysis showed that the benefit–risk profile of pembrolizumab plus pomalidomide and dexamethasone is unfavourable for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Funding Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co (Kenilworth, NJ, USA).

    更新日期:2019-07-18
  • Obinutuzumab and ibrutinib induction therapy followed by a minimal residual disease-driven strategy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (ICLL07 FILO): a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Anne-Sophie Michallet, Marie-Sarah Dilhuydy, Fabien Subtil, Valerie Rouille, Beatrice Mahe, Kamel Laribi, Bruno Villemagne, Gilles Salles, Olivier Tournilhac, Alain Delmer, Christelle Portois, Brigitte Pegourie, Veronique Leblond, Cecile Tomowiak, Sophie de Guibert, Frederique Orsini, Anne Banos, Philippe Carassou, Pierre Feugier

    Background In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, achievement of a complete response with minimal residual disease of less than 0·01% (ie, <1 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell per 10 000 leukocytes) in bone marrow has been associated with improved progression-free survival. We aimed to explore the activity of induction therapy for 9 months with obinutuzumab and ibrutinib, followed up with a minimal residual disease-driven therapeutic strategy for 6 additional months, in previously untreated patients. Methods We did a single-arm, phase 2 trial in 27 university hospitals, general hospitals, and specialist cancer centres in France. Eligible patients were at least 18 years old and previously untreated, and had immunophenotypically confirmed B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of less than 2; a Binet stage C according to IWCLL 2008 criteria or Binet stage A and B with active disease; no 17p deletion or absence of p53 mutation; and were considered medically fit. In the first part of the study (induction phase), all participants received eight intravenous infusions of obinutuzumab 1000 mg over six 4-weekly cycles and oral ibrutinib 420 mg once per day for 9 months. In part 2, after assessment on day 1 of month 9, patients with a complete response and bone marrow minimal residual disease of less than 0·01% received only oral ibrutinib 420 mg once per day for 6 additional months. Patients with a partial response, or with a complete response and bone marrow minimal residual disease of 0·01% or more, received 6 months of four 4-weekly cycles of intravenous fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab 1000 mg, alongside continuing ibrutinib 420 mg once per day. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response with bone marrow minimal residual disease less than 0·01% on day 1 of month 16 assessed by intention to treat (ITT). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02666898) and is still open for follow-up. Findings Between Oct 27, 2015, and May 16, 2017, 135 patients were enrolled. After induction treatment (day 1 of month 9), 130 patients were evaluable, of which ten (8%) achieved a complete response with bone marrow minimal residual disease of less than 0·01% and were assigned to ibrutinib, and 120 (92%) were assigned to ibrutinib plus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab. After minimal residual disease-guided treatment (day 1 of month 16), 84 (62%, 90% CI 55–69) of 135 patients (ITT population) achieved a complete response with bone marrow minimal residual disease of less than 0·01%. The most common haematological adverse event was thrombocytopenia (in 45 [34%] of 133 patients at grade 1–2 in months 1–9 and in 43 [33%] of 130 patients at grade 1–2 in months 9–15). The most common non-haematological adverse events were infusion-related reactions (in 83 [62%] patients at grade 1–2 in months 1–9) and gastrointestinal disorders (in 62 [48%] patients at grades 1 and 2 in months 9–15). 49 serious adverse events occurred, most frequently infections (ten), cardiac events (eight), and haematological events (eight). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Interpretation Obinutuzumab and ibrutinib induction therapy followed by a minimal residual disease driven strategy is safe and active in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. With longer follow-up, including assessing the evolution of minimal residual disease, if response is maintained, this strategy could be an option in the first-line setting in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, although randomised evidence is needed. Funding Roche, Janssen.

    更新日期:2019-07-17
  • Obinutuzumab combined with lenalidomide for relapsed or refractory follicular B-cell lymphoma (GALEN): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Franck Morschhauser, Steven Le Gouill, Pierre Feugier, Sarah Bailly, Emmanuelle Nicolas-Virelizier, Fontanet Bijou, Gilles A Salles, Hervé Tilly, Christophe Fruchart, Koen Van Eygen, Sylvia Snauwaert, Christophe Bonnet, Corinne Haioun, Catherine Thieblemont, Reda Bouabdallah, Ka Lung Wu, Danielle Canioni, Véronique Meignin, Roch Houot

    Background Lenalidomide plus rituximab is approved to treat patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Obinutuzumab has been shown to enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and direct B-cell killing better than rituximab. Our aim was to determine the activity and safety of lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Methods In this multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 24 Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation centres in France. Eligible patients (age ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed CD20-positive relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma of WHO grade 1, 2, or 3a; an ECOG performance status of 0–2; and received at least one previous rituximab-containing therapy. Patients received oral lenalidomide (20 mg) plus intravenously infused obinutuzumab as induction therapy (1000 mg; six 28-day cycles), 1-year maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg; 12 28-day cycles; days 2–22) plus obinutuzumab (1000 mg; alternate cycles), and 1-year maintenance with obinutuzumab (1000 mg; six 56-day cycles; day 1). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response at induction end as per investigator assessment using the 1999 international working group criteria. The secondary endpoints were event-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Analyses were per-protocol; the efficacy population included all patients who received at least one dose of both obinutuzumab and lenalidomide, and the safety population included all patients who received one dose of either investigational drug. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01582776, and is ongoing but closed to accrual. Findings Between June 11, 2014, and Dec 18, 2015, 89 patients were recruited and 86 patients were evaluable for efficacy and 88 for safety. Median follow-up was 2·6 years (IQR 2·2–2·8). 68 (79%) of 86 evaluable patients (95% CI 69–87) achieved an overall response at induction end, meeting the prespecified primary endpoint. At 2 years, event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 51–72), progression-free survival 65% (95% CI 54–74), duration of response 70% (95% CI 57–79), and overall survival 87% (95% CI 78–93). Complete response was achieved by 33 (38%, 95% CI 28–50) of 86 patients at induction end, and the proportion of patients achieving a best overall response was 70 (81%, 95% CI 72–89) and 72 (84%, 74–91) of 86 patients during induction and treatment, respectively. The most common adverse events were asthenia (n=54, 61%), neutropenia (n=38, 43%), bronchitis (n=36, 41%), diarrhoea (n=35, 40%), and muscle spasms (n=34, 39%). Neutropenia was the most common toxicity of grade 3 or more; four (5%) patients had febrile neutropenia. 57 serious adverse events were reported in 30 (34%) of 88 patients. The most common serious adverse events were basal cell carcinoma (n=5, 6%), febrile neutropenia (n=4, 5%), and infusion-related reaction (n=3, 3%). One patient died due to treatment-related febrile neutropenia. Interpretation Our data shows that lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab is active in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, including those with early relapse, and has a manageable safety profile. Randomised trials of new immunomodulatory regimens, such as GALEN or using GALEN as a backbone, versus lenalidomide plus rituximab, are warranted. Funding Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation, and Celgene and Roche

    更新日期:2019-07-09
  • Addition of sirolimus to standard cyclosporine plus mycophenolate mofetil-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for patients after unrelated non-myeloablative haemopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Brenda M Sandmaier, Brian Kornblit, Barry E Storer, Gitte Olesen, Michael B Maris, Amelia A Langston, Jonathan A Gutman, Soeren L Petersen, Thomas R Chauncey, Wolfgang A Bethge, Michael A Pulsipher, Ann E Woolfrey, Marco Mielcarek, Paul J Martin, Fred R Appelbaum, Mary E D Flowers, David G Maloney, Rainer Storb

    Background Acute graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) after non-myeloablative human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, unrelated donor, allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of adding sirolimus to the standard cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil prophylaxis therapy for preventing acute GVHD in this setting. Methods This multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trial took place at nine HSCT centres based in the USA, Denmark, and Germany. Eligible patients were diagnosed with advanced haematological malignancies treatable by allogeneic HSCT, had a Karnofsky score greater than or equal to 60, were aged older than 50 years, or if they were aged 50 years or younger, were considered at high risk of regimen-related toxicity associated with a high-dose pre-transplantation conditioning regimen. Patients were randomly allocated by an adaptive randomisation scheme stratified by transplantation centre to receive either the standard GVHD prophylaxis regimen (cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil) or the triple-drug combination regimen (cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus). Patients and physicians were not masked to treatment. All patients were prepared for HSCT with fludarabine (30 mg/m2 per day) 4, 3, and 2 days before receiving 2 or 3 Gy total body irradiation on the day of HSCT (day 0). In both study groups, 5·0 mg/kg of cyclosporine was administered orally twice daily starting 3 days before HSCT, and (in the absence of GVHD) tapered from day 96 through to day 150. In the standard GVHD prophylaxis group, 15 mg/kg of mycophenolate mofetil was given orally three times daily from day 0 until day 30, then twice daily until day 150, and (in the absence of GVHD) tapered off by day 180. In the triple-drug group, mycophenolate mofetil doses were the same as in the standard group, but the drug was discontinued on day 40. Sirolimus was started 3 days before HSCT, taken orally at 2 mg once daily and adjusted to maintain trough concentrations between 3–12 ng/mL through to day 150, and (in the absence of GVHD) tapered off by day 180. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of grade 2–4 acute GVHD at day 100 post-transplantation. Secondary endpoints were non-relapse mortality, overall survival, progression-free survival, cumulative incidence of grade 3–4 acute GVHD, and cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD. Efficacy and safety analyses were per protocol, including all patients who received conditioning treatment and underwent transplantation. Toxic effects were measured according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). The current study was closed prematurely by recommendation of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board on July 27, 2016, after 168 patients received the allocated intervention, based on the results of a prespecified interim analysis for futility. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01231412. Findings Participants were recruited between Nov 1, 2010, and July 27, 2016. Of 180 patients enrolled in the study, 167 received the complete study intervention and were included in safety and efficacy analyses: 77 patients in the standard GVHD prophylaxis group and 90 in the triple-drug group. At the time of analysis, median follow-up was 48 months (IQR 31–60). The cumulative incidence of grade 2–4 acute GVHD at day 100 was lower in the triple-drug group compared with the standard GVHD prophylaxis group (26% [95% CI 17–35] in the triple-drug group vs 52% [41–63] in the standard group; HR 0·45 [95% CI 0·28–0·73]; p=0·0013). After 1 and 4 years, non-relapse mortality increased to 4% (95% CI 0–9) and 16% (8–24) in the triple-drug group and 16% (8–24) and 32% (21–43) in the standard group (HR 0·48 [0·26–0·90]; p=0·021). Overall survival at 1 year was 86% (95% CI 78–93) in the triple-drug group and 70% in the standard group (60–80) and at 4 years it was 64% in the triple-drug group (54–75) and 46% in the standard group (34–57%; HR 0·62 [0·40–0·97]; p=0·035). Progression-free survival at 1 year was 77% (95% CI 68–85) in the triple-drug group and 64% (53–74) in the standard drug group, and at 4 years it was 59% in the triple-drug group (49–70) and 41% in the standard group (30–53%; HR 0·64 [0·42–0·99]; p=0·045). We observed no difference in the cumulative incidence of grade 3–4 acute GVHD (2% [0–5] in the triple-drug group vs 8% [2–14] in the standard group; HR 0·55 [0·16–1·96]; p=0·36) and chronic GVHD (49% [39–59] in triple-drug group vs 50% [39–61] in the standard group; HR 0·94 [0·62–1·40]; p=0·74). In both groups the most common CTCAE grade 4 or higher toxic effects were pulmonary. Interpretation Adding sirolimus to cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil resulted in a significantly lower proportion of patients developing acute GVHD compared with patients treated with cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil alone. Based on these results, the combination of cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus has become the new standard GVHD prophylaxis regimen for patients treated with non-myeloablative conditioning and HLA-matched unrelated HSCT at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Funding National Institutes of Health.

    更新日期:2019-06-25
  • Ibrutinib plus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab as initial treatment for younger patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Matthew S Davids, Danielle M Brander, Haesook T Kim, Svitlana Tyekucheva, Jad Bsat, Alexandra Savell, Jeffrey M Hellman, Josie Bazemore, Karen Francoeur, Alvaro Alencar, Leyla Shune, Mohammad Omaira, Caron A Jacobson, Philippe Armand, Samuel Ng, Jennifer Crombie, Ann S LaCasce, Jon Arnason, Jennifer R Brown

    Background Fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR) can improve disease-free survival for younger (age ≤65 years) fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia with mutated IGHV. However, patients with unmutated IGHV rarely have durable responses. Ibrutinib is active for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia irrespective of IGHV mutation status but requires continuous treatment. We postulated that time-limited ibrutinib plus FCR would induce durable responses in younger fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Methods We did a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, single-arm phase 2 trial at seven sites in the USA. We enrolled patients aged 65 years or younger with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Our initial cohort (original cohort) was not restricted by prognostic marker status and included patients who had del(17p) or TP53 aberrations. After a protocol amendment (on March 21, 2017), we enrolled an additional cohort (expansion cohort) that included patients without del(17p). Ibrutinib was given orally (420 mg/day) for 7 days, then up to six 28-day cycles were administered intravenously of fludarabine (25 mg/m2, days 1–3), cyclophosphamide (250 mg/m2, days 1–3), and rituximab (375 mg/m2 day 1 of cycle 1; 500 mg/m2 day 1 of cycles 2–6) with continuous oral ibrutinib (420 mg/day). Responders continued on ibrutinib maintenance for up to 2 years, and patients with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow after 2 years were able to discontinue treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a complete response with undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR. Analyses were done per-protocol in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02251548) and is ongoing. Findings Between Oct 23, 2014, and April 23, 2018, 85 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were enrolled. del(17p) was detected in four (5%) of 83 patients and TP53 mutations were noted in three (4%) of 81 patients; two patients had both del(17p) and TP53 mutations. Median patients' age was 55 years (IQR 50–58). At data cutoff, median follow-up was 16·5 months (IQR 10·6–34·1). A complete response and undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow 2 months after the last cycle of ibrutinib plus FCR was achieved by 28 (33%, 95% CI 0·23–0·44) of 85 patients (p=0·0035 compared with a 20% historical value with FCR alone). A best response of undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow was achieved by 71 (84%) of 85 patients during the study. One patient had disease progression and one patient died (sudden cardiac death after 17 months of ibrutinib maintenance, assessed as possibly related to ibrutinib). The most common all-grade toxic effects were haematological, including thrombocytopenia in 63 (74%) patients, neutropenia in 53 (62%), and anaemia in 41 (49%). Grade 3 or 4 non-haematological serious adverse events included grade 3 atrial fibrillation in three (4%) patients and grade 3 Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in two (2%). Interpretation The proportion of patients who achieved undetectable minimal residual disease in bone marrow with ibrutinib plus FCR is, to our knowledge, the highest ever published in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia unrestricted by prognostic marker status. Ibrutinib plus FCR is promising as a time-limited combination regimen for frontline chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treatment in younger fit patients. Funding Pharmacyclics and the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society.

    更新日期:2019-06-16
  • Treatment value of second-generation BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors compared with imatinib to achieve treatment-free remission in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia: a modelling study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Ya-Chen Tina Shih, Jorge E Cortes, Hagop M Kantarjian

    Background Treatment-free remission in chronic myeloid leukaemia—ie, achievement of a sustained deep molecular response leading to discontinuation of BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy—has become a potential aim of therapy. Highly priced second-generation TKIs might offer deep molecular response status more quickly and for more patients than imatinib; however, with the availability and lower cost of generic imatinib, the value of second-generation TKIs as frontline therapy for this particular treatment endpoint remains unknown. We aimed to assess the potential value of second-generation TKIs used as frontline therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase in relation to the probability of achieving sustained deep molecular responses compared with generic imatinib, and the associated cost of each modality. Methods We used a decision analytic model to consider the value of different TKI approaches from the payer's perspective. The proportion of patients achieving sustained deep molecular response after 5 years of treatment in chronic phase was estimated at 26% with imatinib and 44% with second-generation TKIs. We also modelled more favourable scenarios of the proportion of patients achieving such response with second-generation TKIs at 66%, 88%, and a near-perfect response of 99%. For each scenario, we examined the impact of the combination of health utilities for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (base case 0·89, range 0–1) and the annual cost of second-generation TKIs (base case US$152 814 [ie, the price of nilotinib in the USA], range 0–240 000) on the cost-effectiveness of second-generation TKIs compared with generic imatinib. We used different price scenarios for generic imatinib in the USA (average price $35 000 per year; lowest price $4400 per year), Europe ($4000 per year), and developing countries ($2100 per year). We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and assessed cost-effectiveness by considering two societal willingness-to-pay thresholds: $50 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in all markets and $200 000 per QALY in the USA. Findings In the base case, we obtained an ICER of $22 765 208, meaning that second-generation TKIs as frontline therapy to achieve sustained deep molecular response was not cost-effective under either of the societal willingness-to-pay thresholds. In our sensitivity analyses, none of the explored scenarios showed potential treatment value for use of second-generation TKIs at the current prices in the USA or at the price of $30 000–40 000 per year elsewhere. For example, considering a scenario in the USA using second-generation TKIs versus imatinib (annual price $4400 per year) with the potential benefit in favour of second-generation TKI (willingness to pay $200 000 per QALY, 66% of patients achieving sustained deep molecular response, and health utility of the chronic phase of 0·1), the cost of second-generation TKIs would need to be less than $25 000 per year to be a cost-effective option. Under the same conditions in developing nations, with a price of generic imatinib of $2100 per year and a willingness to pay of $50 000 per QALY, the annual price of second-generation TKIs should not exceed $10 000 per year of therapy. Interpretation Considering the current prices of second-generation TKIs and of generic imatinib under different pricing scenarios in the USA, Europe, and developing countries, second-generation TKIs at current prices do not offer good value as frontline therapy in chronic myeloid leukaemia in order to achieve sustained deep molecular response and treatment-free remission. Funding National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2019-06-16
  • De-escalation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy before complete treatment discontinuation in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (DESTINY): a non-randomised, phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-06-12
    Richard E Clark, Fotios Polydoros, Jane F Apperley, Dragana Milojkovic, Katherine Rothwell, Christopher Pocock, Jennifer Byrne, Hugues de Lavallade, Wendy Osborne, Lisa Robinson, Stephen G O'Brien, Lucy Read, Letizia Foroni, Mhairi Copland

    Background All studies of treatment-free remission (TFR) in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia have discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment abruptly and have focussed on patients with stable MR4 (BCR-ABL to ABL ratio ≤0·01%). We aimed to examine the effects of gradual treatment withdrawal and whether TFR is feasible for patients with less deep but stable remission. Methods The De-Escalation and Stopping Treatment with Imatinib, Nilotinib, or sprYcel (DESTINY) study is a non-randomised, phase 2 trial undertaken at 20 UK hospitals. We recruited patients (aged ≥18 years) with chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase, who had received TKI therapy for 3 years or more, with three or more BCR-ABL quantitative PCR transcript measurements (BCR-ABL to ABL1 ratio) less than 0·1% (major molecular response [MMR]) in the 12 months before entry. Patients with all PCR measurements less than 0·01% were assigned to the MR4 group. Patients with results between 0·1% and 0·01% were allocated to the MMR group. TKI treatment was de-escalated to half the standard dose for 12 months, then stopped for a further 24 months, with frequent PCR monitoring. Recurrence was defined as the first of two consecutive samples with PCR measurement greater than 0·1%, which required treatment recommencement at full dose. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who could first de-escalate their treatment for 12 months, and then stop treatment completely for a further 2 years, without losing MMR. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804985. Findings Treatment at entry was imatinib (n=148), nilotinib (n=16), or dasatinib (n=10), for a median of 6·9 years (IQR 4·8–10·2). Between Dec 16, 2013, and May 6, 2015, we enrolled 49 patients into the MMR group and 125 into the MR4 group. In the MR4 group, 84 (67%) patients reached the 36-month trial completion point and recurrence-free survival was 72% (95% CI 64–80). In the MMR group, 16 (33%) entrants completed the study and recurrence-free survival was 36% (25–53). No disease progression was seen and two deaths occurred due to unrelated causes. All recurrences regained MMR within 5 months of treatment resumption. Interpretation Initial de-escalation before discontinuation might improve the success of TFR protocols, although the mechanism of its benefit is not yet clear. The findings also suggest that TFR merits further study in patients with stable MMR. Funding Newcastle University and Bloodwise.

    更新日期:2019-06-12
  • Efficacy and safety of direct oral factor Xa inhibitors compared with warfarin in patients with morbid obesity: a single-centre, retrospective analysis of chart data
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-05-24
    Margarita Kushnir, Yun Choi, Ruth Eisenberg, Devika Rao, Seda Tolu, Jackson Gao, Wenzhu Mowrey, Henny H Billett

    Background Because studies of direct oral anticoagulants in patients with venous thromboembolism and non-valvular atrial fibrillation have had minimal representation of morbidly obese patients (ie, body-mass index [BMI] ≥40 kg/m2), their efficacy and safety in this population are unclear. We investigated whether apixaban and rivaroxaban are as effective and safe as warfarin in morbidly obese patients. Methods We did a single-centre, retrospective analysis of chart data for all adult patients aged at least 18 years at Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, NY, USA) with a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 who were prescribed apixaban, rivaroxaban, or warfarin for either venous thromboembolism or atrial fibrillation between March 1, 2013, and March 1, 2017. Patients who had both venous thromboembolism and atrial fibrillation were excluded, as were patients with indications other than atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. Outcomes of recurrent venous thromboembolism, stroke, and bleeding were measured from the first prescription date to the earliest of a thrombotic event, medication discontinuation, death, or end of study on June 30, 2017. Analyses were stratified by anticoagulation indication and adjusted for comorbidities, CHA2DS2-VASc score, and age where appropriate. Outcome rates were compared using Pearson's χ2 or Fisher's exact test. Time-to-event analyses accounting for length of follow-up were used to compare risks of outcomes. Findings We obtained data for 795 patients: 150 prescribed apixaban, 326 rivaroxaban, and 319 warfarin. In 366 patients prescribed an anticoagulant for venous thromboembolism, the incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism was similar between the apixaban, rivaroxaban, and warfarin cohorts (1/47 [2·1%, 95% CI 0·0–6·3], 3/152 [2·0%, 0·0–4·2], and 2/167 [1·2%, 0·0–2·9], respectively; p=0·74). Incidence of major bleeding in this patient group was also similar between the treatment cohorts (1/47 patients on apixaban [2·1%, 95% CI 0·0–6·3], 2/152 on rivaroxaban [1·3%, 0·0–3·1], and 4/167 on warfarin [2·4%, 0·1–4·7]; p=0·77). In 429 patients prescribed an anticoagulant for atrial fibrillation, incidence of stroke was similar between the treatment cohorts (1/103 patients on apixaban [1·0%, 95% CI 0·0–2·9], 4/174 on rivaroxaban [2·3%, 0·1–4·5], and 2/152 on warfarin [1·3%, 0·0–3·1], p=0·71). In this patient group, major bleeding occurred in 3/103 patients on apixaban (2·9%, 95% CI 0·0–6·2), 5/174 on rivaroxaban (2·9%, 0·4–5·4), and 12/152 on warfarin (7·9%, 3·6–12·2); p=0·063. Time-to-event analyses showed that risk of all outcomes in patients with venous thromboembolism, and stroke and composite bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation, were similar between the anticoagulant cohorts. Interpretation Our retrospective study provides further evidence of similar efficacy and safety between the direct oral anticoagulants apixaban and rivaroxaban, and warfarin in morbidly obese patients with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. These data, if confirmed in prospective studies, might enable patients with a BMI of at least 40 kg/m2 to benefit from more convenient, and possibly safer, anticoagulants. Funding None.

    更新日期:2019-05-27
  • Anthracycline dose optimisation in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a multicentre, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-05-21
    Peng-Peng Xu, Di Fu, Jian-Yong Li, Jian-Da Hu, Xin Wang, Jian-Feng Zhou, Hao Yu, Xia Zhao, Yao-Hui Huang, Lu Jiang, Feng Liu, Li-Ping Su, Zhuo-Wen Chen, Qing-Shu Zeng, Jie-Ping Chen, Mei-Yun Fang, Jun Ma, Ting Liu, Wei-Li Zhao

    Background Anthracycline dose optimisation in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has rarely been tested. We aimed to find out whether R-CEOP70 was non-inferior to R-CHOP50 with less cardiotoxicity, and whether R-CEOP90 had a superior efficacy to R-CHOP50 or R-CEOP70 with acceptable toxic effects. Methods In this multicentre, phase 3, randomised, controlled study (NHL-001), patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma grade 3B were enrolled from 20 centres of the Multicenter Hematology–Oncology Programs Evaluation System in China. Young patients (16–60 years) were randomly assigned 1:1:1 (block size of six) to six courses of R-CHOP50, R-CEOP70, or R-CEOP90, and older patients (61–80 years) were assigned 1:1 (block size of four) to R-CHOP50 or R-CEOP70. Patients were randomly assigned using computer-assisted permuted-block randomisation. Investigators and patients were not masked to treatment assignment. In the R-CHOP50 group, patients were given rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously on day 0, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2, and vincristine 1·4 mg/m2 (maximum dose 2 mg) intravenously on day 1, and prednisone 60 mg/m2 (maximum dose 100 mg) orally from day 1–5; in the R-CEOP70 group, epirubicin 70 mg/m2 replaced doxorubicin; and in the R-CEOP90 group, high dose epirubicin 90 mg/m2 replaced doxorubicin. All patients received two additional courses of rituximab 375 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days. Consolidation radiotherapy was given to patients with bulky disease at diagnosis or residual disease at the end of treatment. The primary endpoint was 2-year progression-free survival. The non-inferiority margin for R-CEOP70 versus R-CHOP50 was defined by hazard ratio [HR] as the upper limit of its 95% CI being no greater than 1·50. Analysis of efficacy and safety were of the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01852435. Findings From May 15, 2013, to March 16, 2016, a total of 648 patients were enrolled, including 404 (62%) young patients (R-CHOP50 [n=135], R-CEOP70 [n=134], or R-CEOP90 [n=135]), and 244 (38%) older patients (R-CHOP50 [n=122] or R-CEOP70 [n=122]). Four patients were excluded from the study for consent withdrawal and one patient for misdiagnosis before treatment. The 2-year progression-free survival in the R-CHOP50 group was 72·5% (95% CI 66·6–77·6) and in the R-CEOP70 group was 72·4% ([66·5–77·5]; HR 1·00 [0·73–1·38]; p=0·99). The non-inferiority was met and adverse events were similar between the two groups. Fewer patients in the R-CEOP70 group (14 [13%] of 110) presented with over 10% decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) than those in the R-CHOP50 group (31 [29%] of 108) at 3 years after remission. For young patients, the 2-year progression-free survival in the R-CEOP90 group was 88·8% (82·1–93·1) and was significantly improved compared with the R-CHOP50 group (75·9% [67·7–82·3]; 0·44 [0·25–0·76]; p=0·0047) and the R-CEOP70 group (77·4% [69·4–83·7%]; 0·49 [0·27–0·86]; p=0·017). Grade 3–4 neutropenia occurred more frequently in the R-CEOP90 group (97 [72%] of 134) than in the R-CHOP50 group (87 [65%] of 133) and R-CEOP70 group (84 [63%] of 133) in young patients but without further increase of clinically significant infections. Fewer patients in the R-CEOP70 group (7 [11%] of 66) and in the R-CEOP90 group (10 [13%] of 79) presented with more than 10% decrease in LVEF than those in the R-CHOP50 group (17 [26%] of 66) at 3 years after remission. Interpretation R-CEOP70 could serve as an alternative regimen to R-CHOP50 with mild long-term cardiotoxicity. Young patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma might benefit from high-dose epirubicin. Epirubicin is an alternative drug to doxorubicin in regular R-CHOP with mild long-term cardiotoxicity. Funding National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Key Research and Development Program, Shanghai Commission of Science and Technology, Shanghai Municipal Education Commission Gaofeng Clinical Medicine Grant Support, Multicenter Clinical Research Project by Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Plan of Shanghai Hospital Development Center, and Chang Jiang Scholars Program.

    更新日期:2019-05-22
  • Prognostic risk score for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with targeted therapies or chemoimmunotherapy: a retrospective, pooled cohort study with external validations
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Jacob D Soumerai, Ai Ni, Mohamed Darif, Anil Londhe, Guan Xing, Yong Mun, Neil E Kay, Tait D Shanafelt, Kari G Rabe, John C Byrd, Asher A Chanan-Khan, Richard R Furman, Peter Hillmen, Jeffrey Jones, John F Seymour, Jeffrey P Sharman, Lucille Ferrante, Mehrdad Mobasher, Andrew D Zelenetz

    Background Clinically validated prognostic models for overall survival do not exist for patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) who are on targeted therapies. We aimed to create a prognostic model to identify high-risk individuals who do not achieve a good outcome with available targeted therapies. Methods In this retrospective, pooled cohort study, 2475 patients with CLL treated between June 22, 2012, and Sept 23, 2015, in six randomised trials of ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax, or at the Mayo Clinic CLL Database (MCCD) were included. Eligible patients had CLL, were previously treated, were aged 18 years or older, had ECOG performance status 0–1, and required further treatment as per the international workshop on CLL 2008 criteria. There was heterogeneity in other eligibility criteria. We evaluated 28 candidate factors known to affect the overall survival of these patients and applied univariate and multivariate analyses to derive the risk score in a training dataset (n=727) of patients treated with ibrutinib or chemoimmunotherapy. We validated the score in an internal-validation dataset (n=242) of patients treated with ibrutinib or chemoimmunotherapy and three external-validation datasets (ibrutinib or chemoimmunotherapy dataset, n=897; venetoclax or chemoimmunotherapy dataset, n=389; and the MCCD [including patients treated with heterogeneous therapies], n=220), applying C-statistics as a measure of discrimination. Findings The derived model consisted of four factors (one point each; serum β2-microglobulin ≥5 mg/dL, lactate dehydrogenase >upper limit of normal, haemoglobin <110 g/L for women or <120 g/L for men, and time from initiation of last therapy <24 months), separating patients into low (score 0–1), intermediate (score 2–3), and high risk (score 4) groups. The risk score was prognostic for overall survival in the training dataset (CS=0·74, 95% CI 0·60–0·85, log-rank p<0·0001), and in the internal-validation (CS=0·79, 0·56–0·97, log-rank p=0·0003), and all three external-validation cohorts (idelalisib or chemoimmunotherapy: CS=0·71, 0·59–0·81, log-rank p<0·0001; venetoclax or chemoimmunotherapy: CS =0·76, 0·66–0·85, log-rank p=0·014; MCCD cohort: CS=0·61, 0·56–0·66), log-rank p<0·0001). The risk score is available on Calculate by QxMD. Interpretation We present the first validated risk score to predict overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL treated with targeted therapy. The model is applicable to patients treated with all currently approved targeted therapies (ibrutinib, idelalisib, and venetoclax) and chemoimmunotherapy. This tool allows the identification of a well defined cohort of previously treated patients with CLL who are at high risk of death, and could be used in future prospective trials to test therapeutic options for these patients with an unmet clinical need. Funding Lymphoma Research Foundation, Lymphoma Research Fund (Andrew D Zelenetz), and National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute.

    更新日期:2019-05-18
  • Lentiviral haemopoietic stem/progenitor cell gene therapy for treatment of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: interim results of a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 clinical study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-04-10
    Francesca Ferrua, Maria Pia Cicalese, Stefania Galimberti, Stefania Giannelli, Francesca Dionisio, Federica Barzaghi, Maddalena Migliavacca, Maria Ester Bernardo, Valeria Calbi, Andrea Angelo Assanelli, Marcella Facchini, Claudia Fossati, Elena Albertazzi, Samantha Scaramuzza, Immacolata Brigida, Serena Scala, Luca Basso-Ricci, Roberta Pajno, Alessandro Aiuti

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare, life-threatening, X-linked primary immunodeficiency characterised by microthrombocytopenia, infections, eczema, autoimmunity, and malignant disease. Lentiviral vector-mediated haemopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapy is a potentially curative treatment that represents an alternative to allogeneic HSPC transplantation. Here, we report safety and efficacy data from an interim analysis of patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome who received lentiviral vector-derived gene therapy. Methods We did a non-randomised, open-label, phase 1/2 clinical study in paediatric patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, defined by either WAS gene mutation or absent Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) expression or a Zhu clinical score of 3 or higher. We included patients who had no HLA-identical sibling donor available or, for children younger than 5 years of age, no suitable 10/10 matched unrelated donor or 6/6 unrelated cord blood donor. After treatment with rituximab and a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of busulfan and fludarabine, patients received one intravenous infusion of autologous CD34+ cells genetically modified with a lentiviral vector encoding for human WAS cDNA. The primary safety endpoints were safety of the conditioning regimen and safety of lentiviral gene transfer into HSPCs. The primary efficacy endpoints were overall survival, sustained engraftment of genetically corrected HSPCs, expression of vector-derived WASP, improved T-cell function, antigen-specific responses to vaccinations, and improved platelet count and mean platelet volume normalisation. This interim analysis was done when the first six patients treated had completed at least 3 years of follow-up. The planned analyses are presented for the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT01515462) and EudraCT (number 2009-017346-32). Findings Between April 20, 2010, and Feb 26, 2015, nine patients (all male) were enrolled of whom one was excluded after screening; the age range of the eight treated children was 1·1–12·4 years. At the time of the interim analysis (data cutoff April 29, 2016), median follow-up was 3·6 years (range 0·5–5·6). Overall survival was 100%. Engraftment of genetically corrected HSPCs was successful and sustained in all patients. The fraction of WASP-positive lymphocytes increased from a median of 3·9% (range 1·8–35·6) before gene therapy to 66·7% (55·7–98·6) at 12 months after gene therapy, whereas WASP-positive platelets increased from 19·1% (range 4·1–31·0) to 76·6% (53·1–98·4). Improvement of immune function was shown by normalisation of in-vitro T-cell function and successful discontinuation of immunoglobulin supplementation in seven patients with follow-up longer than 1 year, followed by positive antigen-specific response to vaccination. Severe infections fell from 2·38 (95% CI 1·44–3·72) per patient-year of observation (PYO) in the year before gene therapy to 0·31 (0·04–1·11) per PYO in the second year after gene therapy and 0·17 (0·00–0·93) per PYO in the third year after gene therapy. Before gene therapy, platelet counts were lower than 20 × 109 per L in seven of eight patients. At the last follow-up visit, the platelet count had increased to 20–50 × 109 per L in one patient, 50–100 × 109 per L in five patients, and more than 100 × 109 per L in two patients, which resulted in independence from platelet transfusions and absence of severe bleeding events. 27 serious adverse events in six patients occurred after gene therapy, 23 (85%) of which were infectious (pyrexia [five events in three patients], device-related infections, including one case of sepsis [four events in three patients], and gastroenteritis, including one case due to rotavirus [three events in two patients]); these occurred mainly in the first 6 months of follow-up. No adverse reactions to the investigational drug product and no abnormal clonal proliferation or leukaemia were reported after gene therapy. Interpretation Data from this study show that gene therapy provides a valuable treatment option for patients with severe Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, particularly for those who do not have a suitable HSPC donor available. Funding Italian Telethon Foundation, GlaxoSmithKline, and Orchard Therapeutics.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Polatuzumab vedotin or pinatuzumab vedotin plus rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma: final results from a phase 2 randomised study (ROMULUS)
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-03-29
    Franck Morschhauser, Ian W Flinn, Ranjana Advani, Laurie H Sehn, Catherine Diefenbach, Kathryn Kolibaba, Oliver W Press, Gilles Salles, Hervé Tilly, Andy I Chen, Sarit Assouline, Bruce D Cheson, Martin Dreyling, Anton Hagenbeek, Pier Luigi Zinzani, Surai Jones, Ji Cheng, Dan Lu, Jeff Sharman

    Background Antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) polatuzumab vedotin (pola) and pinatuzumab vedotin (pina) showed clinical activity and tolerability in phase 1 trials. The aim of this multicentre, open-label, phase 2 study was to compare rituximab plus pola (R-pola) or pina (R-pina) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Methods In this phase 2 randomised study at 39 investigational sites in six countries, patients were randomly assigned (1:1), by use of a dynamic hierarchical randomisation scheme, to receive R-pola or R-pina (375 mg/m2 rituximab plus 2·4 mg/kg ADCs) every 21 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity up to 1 year. Treatment allocations were not masked to the investigator, patients or sponsor after the patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. The primary objectives were safety and tolerability, and antitumour response. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01691898, and is closed to accrual. Findings 81 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 42 with follicular lymphoma were recruited between Sept 27, 2012, and Oct 10, 2013, and were assigned to treatment. 81 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 41 patients with follicular lymphoma were eligible for analysis. Of the 42 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who received R-pina, 25 (60%, 95% CI 43–74) achieved an objective response and 11 (26%, 95% CI 14–42) achieved a complete response. Of the 39 patients in this cohort who received R-pola, 21 (54%, 95% CI 37–70) achieved an objective response, and eight (21%, 95% CI 9–36) achieved a complete response. Of the 21 patients in the follicular lymphoma cohort who received R-pina, 13 (62%, 95% CI 38–82) achieved an objective response, and one (5%, 95% CI 0·1–24) achieved a complete response. Of the 20 patients in this cohort who received R-pola, 14 (70%, 95% CI 46–88) achieved an objective response, and nine (45%, 95% CI 23–68) achieved a complete response. In the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort, grade 3–5 adverse events occurred in 33 (79%) of 42 patients receiving R-pina (most common were neutropenia [29%] and hyperglycaemia [10%]; nine [21%] grade 5 adverse events, five of which were infection-related), and in 30 (77%) of 39 patients receiving R-pola (most common were neutropenia [23%], anaemia [8%] and diarrhoea [8%]; no grade 5 adverse events). In the follicular lymphoma cohort, grade 3–5 adverse events occurred in 13 (62%) of 21 patients receiving R-pina (most common were neutropenia [29%] and hyperglycaemia [14%]; no grade 5 adverse events) and in ten (50%) of 20 patients receiving R-pola (most common were neutropenia [15%] and diarrhoea [10%]; one grade 5 adverse event). Interpretation R-pina and R-pola are potential treatment options in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Pola was selected by the study funder for further development in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, partly because of longer durations of response than pina, and an overall benefit–risk favouring R-pola. Funding F Hoffmann-La Roche.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Conditioning with busulfan plus melphalan versus melphalan alone before autologous haemopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-03-22
    Qaiser Bashir, Peter F Thall, Denái R Milton, Patricia S Fox, Jitesh D Kawedia, Partow Kebriaei, Nina Shah, Krina Patel, Borje S Andersson, Yago L Nieto, Ben C Valdez, Simrit Parmar, Gabriela Rondon, Ruby Delgado, Chitra Hosing, Uday R Popat, Betul Oran, Stefan O Ciurea, Muzaffar H Qazilbash

    Background Retrospective studies suggest that conditioning therapy with busulfan plus melphalan could result in longer progression-free survival compared with melphalan alone in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous haemopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). We aimed to test this hypothesis in a randomised trial. Methods The primary objective of the study was to compare progression-free survival with conditioning of busulfan plus melphalan with melphalan alone in patients with multiple myeloma. Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were eligible for cell transplantation, aged 70 years or younger, with at least stable disease, were randomly assigned (1:1) to treatment. Patients received either busulfan plus melphalan, with a test dose of busulfan 32 mg/m2 followed by pharmacokinetically adjusted doses on days −7, −6, −5, and −4 to achieve a target daily area under the curve (AUC) of 5000 mmol-minute and melphalan 70 mg/m2 per day on days −2 and −1 (total melphalan dose 140 mg/m2), or a melphalan dose of 200 mg/m2 on day −2. Randomisation was performed via a Clinical Trial Conduct Website at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. The accrual is complete and final results are presented here. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01413178. Findings Between Oct 12, 2011, and March 22, 2017, 205 patients were assessed for eligibility and randomly assigned to treatment. The primary analysis of progression-free survival was measured in 202 patients who received treatment: 104 patients in the busulfan plus melphalan group and 98 patients in the melphalan alone group. 90 days after auto-HCT, 102 (98%) of 104 patients given busulfan plus melphalan and 95 (97%) of 98 patients given melphalan alone achieved partial response or better. The median follow-up in the busulfan plus melphalan group was 22·6 months (IQR 15·2–47·1) and 20·2 months (IQR 8·8–46·6) in the melphalan alone group. Median progression-free survival was 64·7 months (32·9–64·7) with busulfan plus melphalan versus 43·5 months (19·9–not estimated) with melphalan alone (hazard ratio 0·53 [95% CI 0·30–0·91]; p=0·022). There were no treatment-related deaths by day 100 in either group. Grade 2–3 mucositis was observed in 77 (74%) of 104 patients in the busulfan plus melphalan group versus 14 (14%) of 98 patients in the melphalan alone group. Interpretation These findings, if confirmed in other ongoing studies, suggest that busulfan plus melphalan could replace melphalan alone as the conditioning regimen for auto-HCT in patients with newly diagnosed myeloma. Funding This study was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) through MD Anderson's Cancer Center Support Grant (CA016672).

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Effect of low-level BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations identified by next-generation sequencing in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia: a population-based study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Aytug Kizilors, Elena Crisà, Nicholas Lea, Roberto Passera, Syed Mian, Jamal Anwar, Steve Best, Franck E Nicolini, Robin Ireland, Maadh Aldouri, Christopher Pocock, Tim Corbett, Richard Gale, Emily Bart-Smith, Simon Weston-Smith, Clare Wykes, Austin Kulasekararaj, Sophie Jackson, Hugues de Lavallade

    Background Kinase domain mutations in BCR-ABL1 are associated with resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows detection of low-level kinase domain mutations, but its relevance in clinical practice remains debated. We aimed to examine the clinical effects of low-level kinase domain mutations identified using NGS in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. Methods In this population-based study, we included consecutive patients newly diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukaemia treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and patients identified at the time of resistance to first-line treatment with imatinib at six institutions (teaching hospitals and district hospitals) in southeast England. We screened patients for BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations using NGS, irrespective of patient response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. When we detected a mutation with NGS, we retrospectively analysed all previous samples to establish the date of first occurrence and subsequent kinetics of the mutant subclone (or subclones). The primary endpoints of this study were progression-free and event-free survival at 5 years. Findings Between Feb 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, we screened 121 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia for BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutation. 99 consecutive patients were newly diagnosed, with available sequential RNA stored. The remaining 22 patients were diagnosed between June 1, 1999, and June 30, 2006, and were screened at the time of resistance to first-line treatment with imatinib. Imatinib was the first-line treatment for 111 patients, nilotinib for seven patients, and dasatinib for three patients. We detected a kinase domain mutation in 25 (21%) of 121 patients. Low-level kinase domain mutations were first identified in 17 (68%) of 25 patients with mutation. For patients with a complete cytogenetic response, 13 (14%) of 93 patients screened had a mutation. Five (71%) of the seven patients with a clinically relevant mutation lost complete cytogenetic response compared with 15 (17%) of 86 patients without a clinically relevant mutation (80 patients without mutation and six patients with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor-sensitive mutation, p=0·0031). Patients harbouring a mutant clone had poorer 5-year progression-free survival (65·3% [95% CI 40·5–81·8] vs 86·9% [75·8–93·2]; p=0·0161) and poorer 5-year event-free survival (22·2% [CI 5·6–45·9] vs 62·0% [50·4–71·6]; p<0·0001) than did patients without a mutation. We identified a kinase domain mutation in four (10%) of 41 patients with samples available at 3 months after starting first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment; all four subsequently progressed to accelerated phase disease compared with only three (8%) of 37 without a mutation (p<0·0001). Interpretation NGS reliably and consistently detected early appearance of kinase domain mutations that would not otherwise be detected by Sanger sequencing. For the first time, to our knowledge, we report the presence of kinase domain mutations after only 3 months of therapy, which could have substantial clinical implications. NGS will allow early clinical intervention and our findings will contribute to the establishment of new recommendations on the frequency of kinase domain mutation analysis to improve patient clinical care. Funding None.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Revised international surveillance case definition of transfusion-associated circulatory overload: a classification agreement validation study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Johanna C Wiersum-Osselton, Barbee Whitaker, Sharran Grey, Kevin Land, Gabriela Perez, Srijana Rajbhandary, Chester Andrzejewski, Paula Bolton-Maggs, Harriet Lucero, Philippe Renaudier, Pierre Robillard, Matilde Santos, Martin Schipperus

    Background Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a major cause of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality in countries with well developed transfusion services. The International Society of Blood Transfusion, the International Haemovigilance Network, and AABB (formerly American Association of Blood Banks), have developed and validated a revised definition of TACO. Methods International Haemovigilance Network-member haemovigilance systems (Australia, Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Slovenia, United Kingdom and United States) provided cases of respiratory complications categorised by their systems, including clinical parameters listed in the 2017 draft definition (part 1). Individual transfusion professionals were then invited to assess 24 case descriptions according to the draft definition (part 2). Positive and negative agreement and inter-rater agreement (κ) were calculated. Based on validation results, cases were reanalysed and slight adjustments made to yield the final 2018 TACO definition. Findings In part 1, 16 (44%) of 36 haemovigilance systems provided 178 cases, including 126 TACO cases. By use of the 2018 definition, 96 (76%) of 126 cases of TACO were in positive agreement. 19 (37%) of 52 cases were recognised as non-TACO respiratory complications. In part 2 (47 experts from 20 countries), moderate all-case agreement (κ=0·43) and TACO-specific agreement (κ=0·54) were observed. Excluding cases missing some clinical information (eg, N terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, distinctive chest x-ray findings, and relationship with existing respiratory co-morbidities like pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) improved all-case agreement to κ=0·50 (moderate) and κ=0·65 (good) for TACO cases. Interpretation The two-part validation exercise showed that the revised 2018 TACO surveillance case definition captures 76% of cases endorsed as TACO by participating haemovigilance systems. This definition can become the basis for internationally consistent surveillance reporting and contribute towards increased awareness and mitigation of TACO. Further research will require reporting more complete clinical information to haemovigilance systems and should focus on improved distinction between TACO and other transfusion respiratory complications. Funding International Society of Blood Transfusion, International Haemovigilance Network, and AABB.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • The changing burden of long-term health outcomes in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a retrospective analysis of the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Daniel A Mulrooney, Geehong Hyun, Kirsten K Ness, Nickhill Bhakta, Ching-Hon Pui, Matthew J Ehrhardt, Kevin R Krull, Deborah B Crom, Wassim Chemaitilly, Deokumar K Srivastava, Mary V Relling, Sima Jeha, Daniel M Green, Yutaka Yasui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson

    Background Treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has evolved over the past five decades, with moderation of traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy and the introduction of targeted immune-based and cellular-based therapies. The affect of these changes on late health outcomes has not been assessed. Using data from the The St Jude Lifetime (SJLIFE) Cohort, we aimed to characterise the magnitude of morbidity and patterns of late health outcomes among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated over time. Methods The St Jude Lifetime (SJLIFE) Cohort is a retrospective cohort study with prospective follow-up and ongoing data accrual designed to facilitate longitudinal, clinically-based assessment of health outcomes among survivors of paediatric malignancies. 980 survivors included in this analysis were diagnosed with paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital (SJCRH) between Aug 28, 1963, and July 19, 2003, were aged 18 years old and older at enrolment, had a minimum follow-up of 10 years after diagnosis, and completed an initial on-campus SJLIFE assessment as of data cutoff (June 30, 2015). 272 community control participants, matched to survivors on 5-year age blocks in each sex, were recruited for comparison. Cumulative chemotherapy and radiation dose exposures and major medical events during and after therapy were retrieved from the medical records of the survivors. History or physical examination, laboratory analysis, physical fitness, and neurocognitive testing were done. Health conditions were graded according to a modified version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Neurocognitive domains of attention (Trial Making Test Part A and Conner's Continuous Performance Test-II) and executive function (Trail Making Test Part B, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Digit Span Test Backward) were measured and age-adjusted Z scores were calculated. Mean cumulative count was used to calculate the age-standardised cumulative burden of health conditions over time. This cohort study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00760656. Findings 980 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (50% women, median age at diagnosis 5 years [IQR 3·1–9·1 years], and median time from diagnosis of 30·0 years [22·7–36·3]) had a median age of 35·8 years (29·4–42·9) at assessment compared with 35·1 years (28·7–42·6) for 272 controls. Survivors had significantly more growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, and neuropathy than controls. By age 30 years, survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had, on average, 5·4 (95% CI 5·1–5·8) grade 1–4 health conditions, including 3·2 (2·9–3·4) grade 2–4 health conditions, compared with 2·0 (CI 1·7–2·2) grade 1–4 and 1·2 (1·03–1·4) grade 2–4 health conditions among controls. The cumulative burden of grade 2–4 health conditions involved multiple organ systems for survivors treated on protocols between 1962–91, but after elimination of cranial radiotherapy for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, conditions now predominately include musculoskeletal and endocrine disorders for survivors on protocols between 1991–2007. Interpretation Although changes in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment protocols have improved overall survival, the burden of late morbidity remains high for these patients. We show that the pattern of late toxic effects has markedly changed over time, with survivors having a reduction in health conditions that are immediately life-threatening, however, maintaining health status and quality of life for survivors of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia requires continued medical surveillance, counselling, and lifestyle modifications. Funding US National Cancer Institute and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Guadecitabine (SGI-110) in patients with intermediate or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: phase 2 results from a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 1/2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-05-03
    Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Gail Roboz, Katherine Walsh, Hagop Kantarjian, Ellen Ritchie, Patricia Kropf, Casey O'Connell, Raoul Tibes, Scott Lunin, Todd Rosenblat, Karen Yee, Wendy Stock, Elizabeth Griffiths, Joseph Mace, Nikolai Podoltsev, Jesus Berdeja, Elias Jabbour, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Michael R Savona

    Background Guadecitabine is a next-generation hypomethylating agent whose active metabolite decitabine has a longer in-vivo exposure time than intravenous decitabine. More effective hypomethylating agents are needed for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. In the present study, we aimed to compare the activity and safety of two doses of guadecitabine in hypomethylating agent treatment-naive or relapsed or refractory patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Methods This phase 2 part of the phase 1/2, randomised, open-label study enrolled patients aged 18 years or older from 14 North American medical centres with International Prognostic Scoring System intermediate-1-risk, intermediate-2-risk, or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes, or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. They were either hypomethylating agent treatment-naive or had relapsed or refractory disease after previous hypomethylating agent treatment as determined by the investigators' judgment. Eligible patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0–2. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer algorithm for dynamic randomisation to subcutaneous guadecitabine 60 or 90 mg/m2 on days 1–5 of a 28-day treatment cycle. Treatment was stratified by previous treatment with hypomethylating agents and neither patients nor investigators were masked. The primary endpoint was overall response (a composite of complete response, partial response, marrow complete response, and haematological improvement) assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01261312. Findings Between July 9, 2012, and April 7, 2014, 105 patients were enrolled: 55 (52%) were allocated to guadecitabine 60 mg/m2 (28 patients were treatment-naive and 27 had relapsed or refractory disease after previous hypomethylating agent treatment) and 50 (48%) patients to 90 mg/m2 (23 patients were treatment-naive and 27 had relapsed or refractory disease). Three (3%) patients of 105 did not receive study treatment and were excluded from analyses. Median follow-up was 3·2 years (IQR 2·8–3·5). The proportion of patients achieving an overall response did not significantly differ between dose groups (21 of 53 [40%, 95% CI 27–54] with 60 mg/m2 and 27 of 49 [55%, 95% CI 40–69] with 90 mg/m2; p=0·16). 25 of 49 (51%, 95% CI 36–66) patients who were treatment-naive and 23 of 53 (43%, 30–58) patients with relapsed or refractory disease achieved an overall response. The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events in both groups, regardless of relationship to treatment, were thrombocytopenia (22 [41%] of 53 patients in the 60 mg/m2 group and 28 [57%] of 49 in the 90 mg/m2 group), neutropaenia (21 [40%] and 25 [51%]), anaemia (25 [47%] and 24 [49%]), febrile neutropaenia (17 [32%] and 21 [43%]), and pneumonia (13 [25%] and 15 [31%]). Seven (7%) of 102 patients died due to adverse events (three with 90 mg/m2 and four with 60 mg/m2), and all except one were in the relapsed or refractory cohort. Two deaths were deemed treatment related (septic shock with 60 mg/m2; pneumonia with 90 mg/m2). Interpretation Guadecitabine was clinically active with acceptable tolerability in patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Responses and overall survival in the relapsed or refractory cohort offer the potential of a new therapeutic option for patients for whom currently available hypomethylating agents are not successful. We therefore recommend guadecitabine at a dose of 60 mg/m2 on a 5-day schedule for these patients. Funding Astex Pharmaceuticals and Stand Up To Cancer.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • Efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of emicizumab prophylaxis given every 4 weeks in people with haemophilia A (HAVEN 4): a multicentre, open-label, non-randomised phase 3 study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-04-16
    Steven W Pipe, Midori Shima, Michaela Lehle, Amy Shapiro, Sammy Chebon, Katsuyuki Fukutake, Nigel S Key, Agnès Portron, Christophe Schmitt, Maria Podolak-Dawidziak, Nives Selak Bienz, Cedric Hermans, Avrita Campinha-Bacote, Anna Kiialainen, Kathelijne Peerlinck, Gallia G Levy, Victor Jiménez-Yuste

    Background Emicizumab, a subcutaneously administered, humanised, bispecific, monoclonal antibody, is approved to treat people with haemophilia A of all ages with and without coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. HAVEN 4 assessed emicizumab prophylaxis administered as one dose every 4 weeks in adults and adolescents with haemophilia A, regardless of FVIII inhibitor status. Methods In this phase 3, multicentre, open-label, two-stage study, patients aged 12 years and older with severe congenital haemophilia A (<1% of normal FVIII activity in blood) or haemophilia A with FVIII inhibitors, undergoing treatment with either FVIII concentrates or bypassing agents were recruited from three sites in Japan and Spain for a run-in cohort, and from 17 sites in Australia, Belgium, Japan, Poland, Spain, and the USA for a subsequent expansion cohort. Participants in the run-in and expansion cohorts were given emicizumab subcutaneously 6 mg/kg every 4 weeks for 24 weeks or more; for patients in the expansion cohort this regimen was preceded by four loading doses of 3 mg/kg once weekly. In the run-in cohort, we assessed pharmacokinetics after single and multiple (every 4 weeks) subcutaneous administration of 6 mg/kg emicizumab and safety. In the expansion cohort, the efficacy endpoint was efficacy of prophylactic emicizumab in maintaining adequate bleed prevention, assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of emicizumab and reported as annualised bleed rates for treated bleeds, all bleeds (treated and untreated), treated spontaneous bleeds, treated joint bleeds, and treated target joint bleeds. Safety was assessed in all participants given emicizumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03020160, and is ongoing. Findings Between Jan 30, 2017, and Feb 27, 2017, seven patients were enrolled into the initial run-in cohort, which confirmed the expected pharmacokinetic profile and safety of the regimen based on model-based simulations, providing sufficient evidence for opening of the expansion cohort (n=41), which was recruited and enrolled between May 24, 2017, and June 30, 2017. The annualised rate of treated bleeds was 2·4 (95% CI 1·4–4·3). 23 (56·1%; 95% CI 39·7–71·5) of 41 reported no treated bleeds and 37 (90%; 76·9–97·3) reported zero to three treated bleeds. The annualised bleed rate was 4·5 (95% CI 3·1–6·6) for all bleeds, 0·6 (0·3–1·5), for treated spontaneous bleeds, 1·7 (0·8–3·7) for treated joint bleeds, and 1·0 (0·3–3·3) for treated target joint bleeds. The most frequent treatment-related adverse event was injection-site reaction (nine [22%] of 41 patients). We observed no thrombotic events or development of de-novo antidrug antibodies with neutralising potential or FVIII inhibitors. Interpretation Emicizumab given once every 4 weeks showed clinically meaningful bleed control while being well tolerated. This regimen could improve patient care by decreasing treatment burden and increasing adherence to effective prophylaxis, potentially decreasing the development of secondary complications for people with haemophilia A. Funding F Hoffmann-La Roche and Chugai Pharmaceutical.

    更新日期:2019-05-17
  • An oral fixed-dose combination of decitabine and cedazuridine in myelodysplastic syndromes: a multicentre, open-label, dose-escalation, phase 1 study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-03-27
    Michael R Savona, Olatoyosi Odenike, Philip C Amrein, David P Steensma, Amy E DeZern, Laura C Michaelis, Stefan Faderl, Wael Harb, Hagop Kantarjian, James Lowder, Aram Oganesian, Mohammad Azab, Guillermo Garcia-Manero

    Background Decitabine, a DNA methyltransferase 1 inhibitor or DNA hypomethylating compound, is not readily orally bioavailable because of rapid clearance by cytidine deaminase (CDA) in the gut and liver. This dose-escalation study, guided by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic observations, evaluated whether simultaneous oral administration with the novel CDA inhibitor cedazuridine increases decitabine bioavailability for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. Methods In this phase 1 study, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with myelodysplastic syndromes or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Eligible patients were assigned to cohorts to receive escalating oral doses of decitabine and cedazuridine. The starting dose was decitabine 20 mg and cedazuridine 40 mg. Treatment cycles lasted 28 days, with 5 days of drug administration. In cycle 1, each patient received a cohort-defined dose of oral decitabine on day −3, a 1-h intravenous infusion of decitabine 20 mg/m2 on day 1, and cohort-defined doses of oral decitabine plus cedazuridine on days 2–5. In cycles 2 and beyond, the oral decitabine and cedazuridine were given on days 1–5. The dose of cedazuridine was escalated first and decitabine was escalated once CDA inhibition by cedazuridine approached the maximum effect. The drug dose was escalated if mean decitabine area under the curve (AUC) of the oral drug was less than 90% of that for intravenous decitabine in the cohort and if no dose-limiting toxicity was observed. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as a grade 3 or greater non-haematologic toxicity or grade 4 haematologic toxicity lasting more than 14 days and unrelated to the underlying disease. Once the decitabine AUC target range set as the primary endpoint, and established with intravenous decitabine, was reached at a dose deemed to be safe, the cohort that most closely approximated intravenous decitabine exposure was expanded to 18 evaluable patients. The primary objectives were to assess the safety of decitabine plus cedazuridine, and to determine the dose of each drug needed to achieve a mean AUC for decitabine exposure similar to that for intravenous decitabine exposure. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02103478. Findings Between Oct 28, 2014, and Nov 13, 2015, we enrolled 44 eligible patients (of 75 screened) with previously treated or newly diagnosed myelodysplastic syndromes or chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia; 43 of the enrolled patients were evaluable. Participants were treated in five cohorts: cohorts 1–4 included six evaluable patients each; cohort 5 included 19 patients in a 13-patient expansion. Dose-dependent increases in decitabine AUC and peak plasma concentration occurred with each cohort dose escalation. There was no evident increase in toxicity compared with that reported for intravenous decitabine. Decitabine 30 mg and 40 mg plus cedazuridine 100 mg produced mean day-5 decitabine AUCs (146 ng × h/mL for decitabine 30 mg, and 221 ng × h/mL for decitabine 40 mg) closest to the mean intravenous-decitabine AUC (164 ng × h/mL). The most common grade 3 or more adverse events were thrombocytopenia (18 [41%] of 44 patients), neutropenia (13 [30%]), anaemia (11 [25%]), leukopenia (seven [16%]), febrile neutropenia (seven [16%]), and pneumonia (seven [16%]). Four (9%) patients died because of adverse events, none of which was considered drug related, and three (7%) patients died more than 30 days after discontinuing treatment because of progressive disease (two [5%]) and respiratory failure (one [2%]). Interpretation Oral decitabine plus cedazuridine emulated the pharmacokinetics of intravenous decitabine, with a similar safety profile and dose-dependent demethylation. Clinical responses were similar to intravenous decitabine treatment for 5 days. Further study of decitabine plus cedazuridine as an alternative to parenteral therapy or in combination with other new oral agents for myeloid disorders is warranted. Funding Astex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

    更新日期:2019-03-27
  • Effect of increased dose of total body irradiation on graft failure associated with HLA-haploidentical transplantation in patients with severe haemoglobinopathies: a prospective clinical trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-03-14
    Javier Bolaños-Meade, Kenneth R Cooke, Christopher J Gamper, Syed Abbas Ali, Richard F Ambinder, Ivan M Borrello, Ephraim J Fuchs, Douglas E Gladstone, Christian B Gocke, Carol Ann Huff, Leo Luznik, Lode J Swinnen, Heather J Symons, Stephanie A Terezakis, Nina Wagner-Johnston, Richard J Jones, Robert A Brodsky

    Background Although severe haemoglobinopathies can be cured with allogeneic blood or bone marrow transplantation, availability of matched donors and toxic effects can be problematic. We previously found that non-myeloablative haploidentical related bone marrow transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide expanded the donor pool while limiting graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, graft failure—albeit with full host haemopoietic recovery—occurred in 50% of patients. In this study, we investigated whether increasing total body irradiation from 200 cGy to 400 cGy would improve engraftment while maintaining the safety profile. Methods This study was done at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD, USA). Patients aged 2–70 years receiving their first bone marrow transplant were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients received rabbit-derived intravenous anti-thymocyte globulin 0·5 mg/kg on day −9 and 2 mg/kg on days −8 and −7, intravenous fludarabine 30 mg/m2 on days −6 to −2, intravenous cyclophosphamide 14·5 mg/kg on days −6 and −5, and total body irradiation 400 cGy administered as a single fraction on day −1. We collected unmanipulated bone marrow and infused on day 0. GVHD prophylaxis comprised intravenous cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg per day on days 3 and 4 after transplantation, oral mycophenolate mofetil 15 mg/kg per dose (maximum 1 g) every 8 h on days 5 to 35, and oral sirolimus to maintain a level of 5–15 ng/dL for at least 1 year starting on day 5. The original planned primary objectives of this phase 2 clinical trial were transplant-related mortality and progression-free survival. However, the coverage decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to only provide payment for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with sickle cell disease on a clinical trial that had a comparison arm with patients not receiving bone marrow transplantation prompted the closure of this trial to accrual in 2017. Therefore, as we were unable to perform our planned statistical analysis, the primary objective was modified to evaluate engraftment, assessed by chimerism. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00489281. The study is closed to new participants and this is the primary analysis. Findings Between Sept 24, 2014, and Aug 1, 2017, we enrolled 17 consecutive patients: 12 (71%) with sickle cell disease and 5 (29%) with β-thalassaemia major. The median patient age was 16 years (range 6–31, IQR 7·7–27·5). One (6%) of 17 patients had primary graft failure with recovery of host haemopoiesis. 13 (76%) of 17 patients achieved full donor chimerism and three (18%) had mixed donor-host chimerism. Five (29%) of 17 patients developed grade 2–4 acute GVHD, including four (24%) with maximal grade 2 GVHD and one (6%) with grade 3 GVHD. Chronic GVHD developed in three (18%) patients. As of their last follow-up visit, GVHD had resolved in all patients and no patients were receiving systemic GVHD therapy. All patients remained alive as of Aug 4, 2019, and the median follow-up duration was 705 days (range 355–1294; IQR 398–943). Only one (6%) of the 16 engrafted patients remained transfusion dependent, and 14 (88%) discontinued immunosuppression. Interpretation Increasing total body irradiation to 400 cGy substantially reduced graft failure while maintaining the safety of haploidentical bone marrow transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that engraftment after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation for haemoglobinopathies is possible, and primary graft failure—the main problem previously reported—might be addressed by this strategy. Therefore, this curative approach should no longer be restricted to patients with HLA-matched donors. Funding Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund and US National Institutes of Health.

    更新日期:2019-03-14
  • Eltrombopag treatment during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia: a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Noelle Frey, Jun Ho Jang, Jeff Szer, Árpád Illés, Hee-Je Kim, Ron Ram, Beng H Chong, Jacob M Rowe, Elena Borisenkova, Jane Liesveld, Eric S Winer, Azzeddine Cherfi, Vassilios Aslanis, Farhat Ghaznawi, Stephen Strickland

    Background Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia frequently have thrombocytopenia during induction chemotherapy. Eltrombopag, an oral thrombopoietin receptor agonist, stimulates platelet production by a similar mechanism to endogenous thrombopoietin. This study investigated safety and efficacy of eltrombopag versus placebo during anthracycline-based induction treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, phase 2 study, treatment-naive patients were recruited from clinical centres across 10 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Greece, Hungary, Israel, South Korea, Poland, Russia, and the USA). Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia of any subtype except M3 and M7 were stratified by antecedent malignant haematological disorder (yes or no) and age (18–60 years or >60 years) and were then randomly assigned (1:1) using an automated interactive voice–response system randomisation schedule. Investigators and patients were blinded to study treatment. Starting on day 4, patients received standard induction chemotherapy (daunorubicin bolus intravenous infusion on days 1–3 [90 mg/m2 for patients aged 18–60 years or 60 mg/m2 for patients aged >60 years], plus cytarabine continuous intravenous infusion on days 1–7 [100 mg/m2]), with eltrombopag 200 mg (100 mg for east Asians) or placebo once daily, until platelet counts were 200 × 109/L or higher, until remission, or after 42 days from the start of induction chemotherapy. The primary objective of the study was safety and tolerability assessed by adverse events, changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and clinical laboratory parameters in all treated patients. This study has been completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01890746. Findings Between Sept 7, 2013, and Jan 30, 2015, 149 patients were assessed for eligibility and 148 were then randomly assigned to receive eltrombopag (n=74) and placebo (n=74). Groups were matched in mean (SD) age (56·7 years [12·3] in the eltrombopag group vs 56·6 years [11·6] in the placebo group), mean (SD) initial platelet count (59·5 × 109/L [43·3] vs 63·7 × 109/L [48·0]), and poor-risk karyotype (16 [22%] of 74 patients in both groups). The most common grade 3–4 adverse events (≥10% in either group) were febrile neutropenia (31 [42%] vs 28 [39%]), decreased white blood cell count (8 [11%] vs 5 [7%]), and hypophosphataemia (3 [4%] vs 9 [13%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 24 (32%) patients in the eltrombopag group compared with 14 (20%) patients in the placebo group. 39 (53%) patients in the eltrombopag group died versus 29 (41%) patients in the placebo group. Thromboembolic events (5 [7%] vs 4 [6%]) and mean (SD) change in LVEF (−2·5% [7·8] vs −4·3% [8·5]) were similar. Interpretation Data from this trial do not support combining eltrombopag with induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Funding Novartis Pharma AG.

    更新日期:2019-03-13
  • Three prophylaxis regimens (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclophosphamide; tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib; or tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc) versus tacrolimus and methotrexate for prevention of graft-versus-host disease with haemopoietic cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning: a randomised phase 2 trial with a non-randomised contemporaneous control group (BMT CTN 1203)
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-02-26
    Javier Bolaños-Meade, Ran Reshef, Raphael Fraser, Mingwei Fei, Sunil Abhyankar, Zaid Al-Kadhimi, Amin M Alousi, Joseph H Antin, Sally Arai, Kate Bickett, Yi-Bin Chen, Lloyd E Damon, Yvonne A Efebera, Nancy L Geller, Sergio A Giralt, Parameswaran Hari, Shernan G Holtan, Mary M Horowitz, John Koreth

    Background Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) without malignant relapse is the overall goal of allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We aimed to evaluate regimens using either maraviroc, bortezomib, or post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for GvHD prophylaxis compared with controls receiving the combination of tacrolimus and methotrexate using a novel composite primary endpoint to identify the most promising intervention to be further tested in a phase 3 trial. Methods In this prospective multicentre phase 2 trial, adult patients aged 18–75 years who received reduced-intensity conditioning HCT were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by random block sizes to tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg on days 3 and 4, followed by tacrolimus starting on day 5 and mycophenolate mofetil starting on day 5 at 15 mg/kg three times daily not to exceed 1 g from day 5 to day 35); tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib (bortezomib 1·3 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 4, and 7 after HCT); or tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc (maraviroc 300 mg orally twice daily from day −3 to day 30 after HCT). Methotrexate was administered as a 15 mg/m2 intravenous bolus on day 1 and 10 mg/m2 intravenous bolus on days 3, 6, and 11 after HCT; tacrolimus was given intravenously at a dose of 0·05 mg/kg twice daily (or oral equivalent) starting on day −3 (except the post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, as indicated), with a target level of 5–15 ng/mL. Tacrolimus was continued at least until day 90 and was tapered off by day 180. Each study group was compared separately to a contemporary non-randomised prospective cohort of patients (control group) who fulfilled the same eligibility criteria as the trial, but who were treated with tacrolimus and methotrexate at centres not participating in the trial. The primary endpoint (GvHD-free, relapse-free survival [GRFS]) was defined as the time from HCT to onset of grade 3–4 acute GvHD, chronic GvHD requiring systemic immunosuppression, disease relapse, or death. The study was analysed by modified intention to treat. The study is closed to accrual and this is the planned analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02208037. Findings Between Nov 17, 2014, and May 18, 2016, 273 patients from 31 US centres were randomly assigned to the three study arms: 89 to tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib; 92 to tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc; 92 to tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide; and six were excluded. Between Aug 1, 2014, and Sept 14, 2016, 224 controls received tacrolimus and methotrexate. Controls were generally well matched except for more frequent comorbidities than the intervention groups and a different distribution of types of conditioning regimens used. Compared with controls, the hazard ratio for GRFS was 0·72 (90% CI 0·54–0·94; p=0·044) for tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, 0·98 (0·76–1·27; p=0·92) for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib, and 1·10 (0·86–1·41; p=0·49) for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc. 238 patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicities: 12 (13%) had grade 3 and 67 (73%) grade 4 events with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide; ten (11%) had grade 3 and 68 (76%) had grade 4 events with tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib; and 18 (20%) had grade 3 and 63 (68%) had grade 4 events with tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc. The most common toxicities were haematological (77 [84%] for tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide; 73 [82%] for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and bortezomib; and 78 [85%] for tacrolimus, methotrexate, and maraviroc) and cardiac (43 [47%], 44 [49%], and 43 [47%], respectively). Interpretation Tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide was the most promising intervention, yielding the best GRFS; this regimen is thus being prospectively compared with tacrolimus and methotrexate in a phase 3 randomised trial. Funding US National Health, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Cancer Institute; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease; and Millennium Pharmaceuticals.

    更新日期:2019-03-13
  • Outcomes and risk factors of massive and submassive pulmonary embolism in children: a retrospective cohort study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-02-13
    Marie-Claude Pelland-Marcotte, Catherine Tucker, Alicia Klaassen, Maria Laura Avila, Ali Amid, Nour Amiri, Suzan Williams, Jacqueline Halton, Leonardo R Brandão

    Background Little is known about severe pulmonary embolism in children. We aimed to report pulmonary embolism outcomes, identify risk factors for unfavourable outcomes, and evaluate the discriminative ability of two clinical-severity indices in children. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we included consecutive patients aged 18 years or younger with acute pulmonary embolism, objectively diagnosed radiologically or pathologically, between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2016, from two Canadian paediatric hospitals (The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON). Exclusion criteria were sudden death without radiological or pathological pulmonary embolism confirmation and non-thromboembolic pulmonary embolism. The primary outcome was a composite of unfavourable outcomes of pulmonary embolism-related death and pulmonary embolism recurrence or progression. Potential predictors of the composite unfavourable outcome (ie, age at pulmonary embolism diagnosis, sex, underlying cardiac disease, severity of the pulmonary embolism, presence of a central venous catheter, associated venous thromboembolism, family history of thrombosis, treatment modalities, thrombophilia, obesity, and recent surgery) were explored with logistic regression. We calculated pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) and simplified PESI (sPESI) using age-adjusted parameters; we estimated the ability of PESI and sPESI to predict mortality using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Findings Of the 170 patients included, 37 (22%) had massive, 12 (7%) submassive, and 121 (71%) non-massive pulmonary embolism. Patients with massive or submassive pulmonary embolism were younger (median age 12·5 years [IQR 0·6–15·1] vs 14·4 years [9·3–16·1], p<0·0001), more likely to have a cardiac condition (16 [33%] vs 17 [14%] patients, p=0·009), and had more central venous catheters (29 [59%] vs 48 [40%] patients, p=0·027) than patients with non-massive pulmonary embolism. Aggressive treatment modalities were more commonly used in massive or submassive pulmonary embolism (22 [45%] vs 7 [6%] patients, p<0·0001). Of the predictors tested, only pulmonary embolism severity was associated with the composite unfavourable outcome in the multivariable analysis (odds ratio 3·53, 95% CI 1·69–7·36; p=0·011). The area under the ROC curve for PESI to predict 30-day mortality was 0·76 (95% CI 0·64–0·87). Sensitivity of sPESI was 100% and specificity was 30%. Interpretation Massive or submassive pulmonary embolism led to higher rates of unfavourable outcomes than non-massive pulmonary embolism in children. Further adaptations of PESI and sPESI are required to improve their clinical usefulness in paediatric patients. Funding Trainee Start-Up Fund (The Hospital for Sick Children).

    更新日期:2019-03-13
  • A clinical prediction model for outcome and therapy delivery in transplant-ineligible patients with myeloma (UK Myeloma Research Alliance Risk Profile): a development and validation study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-02-06
    Gordon Cook, Kara-Louise Royle, Charlotte Pawlyn, Anna Hockaday, Vallari Shah, Martin F Kaiser, Sarah R Brown, Walter M Gregory, J Anthony Child, Faith E Davies, Gareth J Morgan, David A Cairns, Graham H Jackson

    Background Tolerability of treatments for multiple myeloma can depend on the characteristics of the patient being treated. We aimed to develop and validate a risk profile, using routinely collected data, that could predict overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma who were ineligible for stem-cell transplantation. Methods We used patient data from two randomised controlled trials done in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who were ineligible for stem-cell transplantation (the NCRI Myeloma XI study [NCRI-XI, n=1852] and the MRC Myeloma IX study [MRC-IX, n=520]), to develop the UK Myeloma Research Alliance Risk Profile (MRP) for overall survival. We used multivariable Cox regression with a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator penalty term. Multiple imputation by chained equations was used to account for missing data in the development and internal validation of the model. The MRP was internally validated in NCRI-XI and externally validated in MRC-IX. The D-statistic was estimated in the developed model and used to internally and externally validate the model according to prespecified criteria. Findings The MRP included WHO performance status, International Staging System, age, and C-reactive protein concentration as prognostic variables. The MRP was prognostic of overall survival and was successfully internally validated in NCRI-XI and externally validated in MRC-IX (D-statistic NCRI-XI: 0·840 [95% CI 0·718–0·963] and MRC-IX: 0·654 [0·497–0·811]). The MRP groups defining low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk patients were associated with progression-free survival and early mortality. A decrease in the percentage of protocol dose delivered and quality of life at baseline were associated with increased risk. The MRP groups remained prognostic in patients exposed to different therapeutic combinations and in patients with genetic high-risk disease defined according to both the UK and International Myeloma Working Group definitions. Interpretation We have developed and externally validated a risk profile for overall survival containing widely available clinical parameters. This risk profile could aid decision making in patients with multiple myeloma ineligible for stem-cell transplantation, but further external validation is required. Funding Medical Research Council, Novartis, Schering Health Care, Chugai, Pharmion, Celgene, Ortho Biotech, Cancer Research UK, Celgene, Merck Sharp & Dohme, and Amgen.

    更新日期:2019-03-13
  • High cutoff versus high-flux haemodialysis for myeloma cast nephropathy in patients receiving bortezomib-based chemotherapy (EuLITE): a phase 2 randomised controlled trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    Colin A Hutchison, Paul Cockwell, Veronica Moroz, Arthur R Bradwell, Lesley Fifer, Julian D Gillmore, Mark D Jesky, Markus Storr, Julie Wessels, Christopher G Winearls, Katja Weisel, Nils Heyne, Mark Cook

    Background In multiple myeloma, severe acute kidney injury due to myeloma cast nephropathy is caused by pathogenic free light chain immunoglobulin in serum. High cutoff haemodialysis (HCO-HD) can remove large quantities of free light chain immunoglobulin from serum, but its effect on clinical outcomes is uncertain. We therefore aimed to assess whether HCO-HD could increase the frequency of renal recovery in patients with de novo multiple myeloma, severe acute kidney injury, and myeloma cast nephropathy relative to treatment with standard high-flux haemodialysis (HF-HD). Methods In this open-label, phase 2, multicentre, randomised controlled trial (EuLITE), we recruited patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, biopsy-confirmed cast nephropathy, and acute kidney injury that required dialysis from renal services in 16 hospitals in the UK and Germany. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by random number generation to receive intensive HCO-HD (in sessions lasting 6–8 h) or standard HF-HD and they were stratified by age and centre. Patients and the medical staff treating them were not masked to treatment allocation. Patients received bortezomib, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone chemotherapy, and were then followed up for 2 years. The primary outcome was independence from dialysis at 90 days after random allocation to groups, which was assessed in an intention-to-treat population. The trial has completed follow-up, and is registered at the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN45967602. Findings Between June 7, 2008, and Sept 18, 2013, we recruited 90 patients, of whom 43 (48%) were randomly assigned to receive HCO-HD and 47 (52%) were randomly assigned to receive HF-HD. All 90 patients were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. One (2%) patient from the HF-HD group withdrew consent before receiving treatment. During treatment, nine (21%) patients from the HCO-HD group and two (4%) patients in the HF-HD group discontinued trial treatment. After 90 days, 24 (56%) patients in the HCO-HD group and 24 (51%) patients in the HF-HD group were independent from dialysis (relative risk 1·09, 95% CI 0·74–1·61; p=0·81). During the 2-year follow-up, 98 serious adverse events were reported in the HCO-HD group and 82 serious adverse events were reported in the HF-HD group. The most common serious adverse events were infections and adverse events related to the cardiovascular and thrombotic and musculoskeletal systems. During the first 90 days, 26 infections were reported in the HCO-HD group and 13 infections were reported in the HF-HD group, including 14 lung infections in the HCO-HD group and three lung infections in the HF-HD group. Interpretation In this phase 2 study, HCO-HD did not improve clinical outcomes for patients with de novo multiple myeloma and myeloma cast nephropathy who required haemodialysis for acute kidney injury and who received a bortezomib-based chemotherapy regimen relative to those receiving HF-HD. These results do not support proceeding to a phase 3 study for HCO-HD in these patients. Funding Gambro, Janssen, and Binding Site.

    更新日期:2019-03-13
  • Outcomes of patients with childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with late bone marrow relapses: long-term follow-up of the ALLR3 open-label randomised trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-02-27
    Catriona Parker, Shekhar Krishnan, Lina Hamadeh, Julie A E Irving, Roland P Kuiper, Tamas Révész, Peter Hoogerbrugge, Jeremy Hancock, Rosemary Sutton, Anthony V Moorman, Vaskar Saha

    Background The ALLR3 trial investigated outcomes of children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who had late bone marrow relapses. We analysed long-term follow-up outcomes of these patients. Methods ALLR3 was an open-label randomised clinical trial that recruited children aged 1–18 years with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who had late bone marrow relapses. Eligible patients were recruited from centres in Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the UK. Patients were randomly assigned from Jan 31, 2003, to Dec 31, 2007, and the trial closed to recruitment on Oct 31, 2013. Randomly assigned patients were allocated to receive either idarubicin or mitoxantrone in induction by stratified concealed randomisation; after randomisation stopped in Dec 31, 2007, all patients were allocated to receive mitoxantrone. After three blocks of therapy, patients with high minimal residual disease (≥10−4 cells) at the end of induction were allocated to undergo allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and those with low minimal residual disease (<10−4 cells) at the end of induction were allocated to receive chemotherapy. Minimal residual disease level was measured by real-time quantitative PCR analysis of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The primary endpoint of the original ALLR3 clinical trial was progression-free survival of randomly assigned patients. The primary endpoint of this long-term follow-up analysis was progression-free survival of patients with late bone marrow relapses stratified by minimal residual disease level. Outcomes were correlated with age, site, time to recurrence, and genetic subtypes, and analysed by both intention to treat and actual treatment received. This trial is registered on the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN45724312, and on ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00967057. Findings Between Feb 2, 2003, and Oct 28, 2013, 228 patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and late bone marrow relapses were treated. After a median follow-up of 84 months (IQR 48–109), progression-free survival of all randomly assigned patients was 60% (95% CI 54–70). 220 patients achieved second complete remission, and minimal residual disease was evaluable in 192 (87%). 110 patients with late bone marrow relapses and high minimal residual disease at the end of induction were allocated to undergo stem-cell transplantation, and 82 patients with low minimal residual disease at the end of induction were allocated to receive chemotherapy. In the patients allocated to undergo stem-cell transplantation, four relapses and three deaths were reported before the procedure, and 11 patients were not transplanted. Of the 92 patients transplanted, 58 (63%) remained in second complete remission, 13 (14%) died of complications, and 21 (23%) relapsed after stem-cell transplantation. In patients allocated to receive chemotherapy, one early treatment-related death was reported and 11 patients were transplanted. Of the 70 patients who continued on chemotherapy, 49 (70%) remained in second complete remission, two (3%) died of complications, and 19 (27%) relapsed. Progression-free survival at 5 years was 56% (95% CI 46–65) in those with high minimal residual disease and 72% (60–81) in patients with low minimal residual disease (p=0·0078). Treatment-related serious adverse events were not analysed in the long-term follow-up. Interpretation Patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with late bone marrow relapses and low minimal residual disease at end of induction had favourable outcomes with chemotherapy without undergoing stem-cell transplantation. Patients with high minimal residual disease benefited from stem-cell transplantation, and targeted therapies might offer further improvements in outcomes for these patients. Funding Bloodwise (Formerly Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research) UK, Cancer Research UK, Sporting Chance Cancer Foundation, National Health and Medical Research Council Australia, KindreneKankervrij Netherlands, European Union Seventh Framework Programme, India Alliance Wellcome DBT Margdarshi Fellowship.

    更新日期:2019-03-13
  • Tolerability and activity of ublituximab, umbralisib, and ibrutinib in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a phase 1 dose escalation and expansion trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Loretta J Nastoupil, Matthew A Lunning, Julie M Vose, Marshall T Schreeder, Tanya Siddiqi, Christopher R Flowers, Jonathon B Cohen, Jan A Burger, William G Wierda, Susan O'Brien, Peter Sportelli, Hari P Miskin, Michelle A Purdom, Michael S Weiss, Nathan H Fowler

    Background Therapeutic approaches for B-cell malignancies continue to evolve, especially with regard to combination approaches. We assessed the safety and efficacy of the triplet ublituximab, umbralisib, and ibrutinib in patients with advanced B-cell malignancies. Methods We did an open-label, phase 1 study with dose-escalation and dose-expansion phases, at five centres in the USA. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed lymphocytic leukaemia or relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, had measurable disease, adequate organ function, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or less. Patients with known CNS lymphoma, active hepatitis B or C infection, or HIV were excluded. In the dose-escalation cohort, patients were treated in cycles of 28 days with escalating doses of oral umbralisib (400, 600, or 800 mg) and fixed doses of intravenous ublituximab (900 mg) and oral ibrutinib (420 mg for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; 560 mg for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma) in a standard 3 × 3 design until disease progression or intolerance. In the dose-expansion phase, patients were given the recommended dose of the drug combination as determined from the dose-escalation phase. The primary endpoints were safety, dose-limiting toxicities, and the maximum tolerated dose of umbralisib, when given in combination with ublituximab and ibrutinib. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of study drug; activity was assessed in all patients who had at least one post-treatment efficacy measurement. The study is ongoing but no longer recruiting patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02006485. Findings Between Sept 2, 2014, and Nov 6, 2017, we enrolled 46 patients: 24 in the dose-escalation cohort (n=14 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma; n=10 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and 22 in the dose-expansion cohort (n=9 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma; n=13 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma). 46 patients received at least one dose of study drug. The maximum tolerated dose of umbralisib was not reached. The recommended dose for the dose-expansion phase was umbralisib 800 mg orally once daily plus ibrutinib orally once daily and intravenous ublituximab 900 mg administered on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1, day 1 of cycles 2–6, and on day 1 of cycles 9 and 12. 37 (84%) of 44 patients achieved an overall response (complete or partial response). The most common any-grade adverse events were diarrhoea (n=27 [59%]), fatigue (n=23 [50%]), infusion-related reaction (n=20 [43%]), dizziness (n=17 [37%]), nausea (n=17 [37%]), and cough (n=16 [35%]). Grade 3–4 adverse events were manageable with the most common being neutropenia (n=10 [22%]) and cellulitis (n=6 [13%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 11 (24%) of 46 patients and included rash (n=2 [4%]), pneumonia (n=2 [4%]), atrial fibrillation (n=2 [4%]), sepsis (n=2 [4%]), abdominal pain (n=1 [2%]), syncope (n=1 [2%]), cellulitis (n=1 [2%]), pneumonitis (n=1 [2%]), headache (n=1 [2%]), lung infection (n=1 [2%]), skin infection (n=1 [2%]), pleural effusion (n=1 [2%]), pericardial infusion (n=1 [2%]), upper gastrointestinal bleeding (n=1 [2%]), diarrhoea (n=1 [2%]), and weakness (n=1 [2%]). No deaths related to adverse events occurred. Interpretation The combination of ublituximab, umbralisib, and ibrutinib seems to be tolerable and is associated with encouraging activity in advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This triplet combination will require further investigation in future studies to improve understanding of this novel, chemotherapy-free triplet combination in the management of these cancers. Funding TG Therapeutics.

    更新日期:2019-01-31
  • Prevalence, symptom burden, and natural history of deep vein thrombosis in people with advanced cancer in specialist palliative care units (HIDDen): a prospective longitudinal observational study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Clare White, Simon I R Noble, Max Watson, Flavia Swan, Victoria L Allgar, Eoin Napier, Annmarie Nelson, Jayne McAuley, Jennifer Doherty, Bernadette Lee, Miriam J Johnson

    Background The prevalence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with advanced cancer is unconfirmed and it is unknown whether current international thromboprophylaxis guidance is applicable to this population. We aimed to determine prevalence and predictors of femoral deep vein thrombosis in patients admitted to specialist palliative care units (SPCUs). Methods We did this prospective longitudinal observational study in five SPCUs in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (four hospices and one palliative care unit). Consecutive adults with cancer underwent bilateral femoral vein ultrasonography on admission and weekly until death or discharge for a maximum of 3 weeks. Data were collected on performance status, attributable symptoms, and variables known to be associated with venous thromboembolism. Patients with a short estimated prognosis (<5 days) were ineligible. The primary endpoint of the study was the prevalence of femoral deep vein thrombosis within 48 h of SPCU admission, analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN97567719. Findings Between June 20, 2016, and Oct 16, 2017, 343 participants were enrolled (mean age 68·2 years [SD 12·8; range 25–102]; 179 [52%] male; mean Australian-modified Karnofsky performance status 49 [SD 16·6; range 20–90]). Of 273 patients with evaluable scans, 92 (34%, 95% CI 28–40) had femoral deep vein thrombosis. Four participants with a scan showing no deep vein thrombosis on admission developed a deep vein thrombosis on repeat scanning over 21 days. Previous venous thromboembolism (p=0·014), being bedbound in the past 12 weeks for any reason (p=0·003), and lower limb oedema (p=0·009) independently predicted deep vein thrombosis. Serum albumin concentration (p=0·43), thromboprophylaxis (p=0·17), and survival (p=0·45) were unrelated to deep vein thrombosis. Interpretation About a third of patients with advanced cancer admitted to SPCUs had a femoral deep vein thrombosis. Deep vein thrombosis was not associated with thromboprophylaxis, survival, or symptoms other than leg oedema. These findings are consistent with venous thromboembolism being a manifestation of advanced disease rather than a cause of premature death. Thromboprophylaxis for SPCU inpatients with poor performance status seems to be of little benefit. Funding National Institute for Health Research (Research for Patient Benefit programme).

    更新日期:2019-01-31
  • Acute GVHD prophylaxis plus ATLG after myeloablative allogeneic haemopoietic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from HLA-identical siblings in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia in remission: final results of quality of life and long-term outcome analysis of a phase 3 randomised study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Francesca Bonifazi, Carlos Solano, Christine Wolschke, Mariarosaria Sessa, Francesca Patriarca, Francesco Zallio, Arnon Nagler, Carmine Selleri, Antonio Maria Risitano, Giuseppe Messina, Wolfgang Bethge, Pilar Herrera, Anna Sureda, Angelo Michele Carella, Michele Cimminiello, Stefano Guidi, Jürgen Finke, Roberto Sorasio, Nicolaus Kröger

    Background We previously showed that human anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) plus ciclosporin and methotrexate given to patients with acute leukaemia in remission, having allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation with peripheral blood stem cells from an HLA-identical sibling donor after myeloablative conditioning, significantly reduced 2-year chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) incidence and severity, without increasing disease relapse and infections, and improves cGVHD-free and relapse-free survival (cGRFS). The aim of an extended follow-up study was the assessment of long-term outcomes, which are, in this context, scarcely reported in the literature. We report unpublished data on quality of life (QoL) from the original study and the results of a follow-up extension. Methods In the original open-label study, patients with acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukaemia in first or subsequent remission, having sibling HLA-identical allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis with ciclosporin and short-term methotrexate (ATLG group) or standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG (non-ATLG group). Conditioning regimens were cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg with either total body irradiation (12 Gy) or busulfan (12·8 mg/kg intravenously or 16 mg/kg orally), with or without etoposide (30–60 mg/kg). Randomisation was stratified according to centre and disease risk. The primary endpoint was cumulative incidence of cGVHD at 2 years. The primary and secondary endpoints, excluding QoL, have been published. QoL, assessed using European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HDC29 questionnaires, was an unpublished secondary endpoint, which we now report here. A follow-up extension was then done, with the primary endpoint cumulative incidence of cGVHD. Enrolment has been completed for both studies. The original trial (number, NCT00678275) and follow-up extension (number, NCT03042676) are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Findings In the original study, from Dec 14, 2006, to Feb 2, 2012, 161 patients were enrolled and 155 were randomly assigned to either the ATLG group (n=83) or to the non-ATLG group (n=72). In the follow-up study, which started on Feb 7, 2017, and was completed on June 30, 2017, 61 patients were included in the ATLG group and 53 were included in the non-ATLG group. Global health status showed a more favourable time course in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group (p=0·02; treatment by visit interaction). ATLG was descriptively superior to non-ATLG at 24 months for physical function (points estimate −14·8 [95% CI −26·4 to −3·1]; p=0·014) and social function (–19·1 [–38·0 to −0·2]; p=0·047), gastrointestinal side-effects (8·8 [2·5–15·1]; p=0·008) and effect on family (13·5 [1·2–25·8]; p=0·032). Extended follow-up (median 5·9 years [IQR 1·7–7·9]) confirmed a lower 5-year cGVHD incidence (30·0% [95% CI 21·4–41·9] vs 69·1% [59·1–80·1]; analysis for entire follow-up, p<0·001), no increase in relapses (35·4% [26·4–47·5] vs 22·5% [14·6–34·7]; p=0·09), improved cGRFS (34·3% [24·2–44·5] vs 13·9% [7·1–22·9]; p=0·005), and fewer patients still in immunosuppression (9·6% vs 28·3%; p=0·017) in the ATLG group compared with the non-ATLG group. 5-year overall survival, relapse-free survival, and non-relapse mortality did not differ significantly between groups. Interpretation The addition of ATLG to standard GVHD prophylaxis improves the probability of surviving without disease relapse and cGVHD after myeloablative peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor for patients with acute leukaemia in remission. Further additional benefits are better QoL and shorter immunosuppressive treatment compared with standard GVHD prophylaxis without ATLG. Therefore, in this setting, ATLG plus standard GVHD prophylaxis should be preferred over the standard GVHD prophylaxis alone. Funding Neovii Biotech.

    更新日期:2019-01-31
  • Safety and activity of ibrutinib in combination with nivolumab in patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a phase 1/2a study
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Anas Younes, Joshua Brody, Cecilia Carpio, Armando Lopez-Guillermo, Dina Ben-Yehuda, Burhan Ferhanoglu, Arnon Nagler, Muhit Ozcan, Irit Avivi, Francesc Bosch, Maria Dolores Caballero Barrigón, Andrzej Hellmann, Bryone Kuss, David D F Ma, Fatih Demirkan, Münci Yağci, Netanel A Horowitz, Paula Marlton, Wojciech Jurczak

    Background Preclinical studies have shown synergistic antitumour effects between ibrutinib and immune-checkpoint blockade. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and activity of ibrutinib in combination with nivolumab in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell malignant diseases. Methods We did a two-part, open-label, phase 1/2a study at 21 hospitals in Australia, Israel, Poland, Spain, Turkey, and the USA. The primary objective of part A (dose escalation) was to assess the safety of daily oral ibrutinib (420 mg or 560 mg) in combination with intravenous nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) to ascertain a recommended phase 2 dose in patients with relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (del17p or del11q), follicular lymphoma, or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Dose optimisation was investigated using a modified toxicity probability interval design. The primary objective of the part B expansion phase was to establish the preliminary activity (the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response) of the combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab in four cohorts: relapsed or refractory high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (del17p or del11q), follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and Richter's transformation. All participants who received at least one dose of treatment were included in the primary analysis and analyses were done by disease cohort. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02329847. The trial is ongoing. Findings Between March 12, 2015, and April 11, 2017, 144 patients were enrolled in the study. Three patients died before receiving study treatment; thus, 141 patients were included in the analysis, 14 in part A and 127 in part B. One dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 hyperbilirubinaemia) was reported at the 420 mg dose in the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cohort, which resolved after 5 days. The combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab led to overall responses in 22 (61%) of 36 patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, 13 (33%) of 40 patients with follicular lymphoma, 16 (36%) of 45 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and 13 (65%) of 20 patients with Richter's transformation. The most common all-grade adverse events were diarrhoea (47 [33%] of 141 patients), neutropenia (44 [31%]), and fatigue (37 [26%]). 11 (8%) of 141 patients had adverse events leading to death; none were reported as drug-related. The most common grade 3–4 adverse events were neutropenia (40 [28%] of 141 patients) and anaemia (32 [23%]). The incidence of grade 3–4 neutropenia ranged from eight (18%) of 45 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma to 19 (53%) of 36 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma; incidence of grade 3–4 anaemia ranged from five (13%) of 40 patients with follicular lymphoma to seven (35%) of 20 patients with Richter's transformation. The most common serious adverse events included anaemia (six [4%] of 141 patients) and pneumonia (five [4%]). The most common grade 3–4 immune-related adverse events were rash (11 [8%] of 141 patients) and increased alanine aminotransferase (three [2%]). Interpretation The combination of ibrutinib and nivolumab had an acceptable safety profile and preliminary activity was similar to that reported with single-agent ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The clinical response in patients with Richter's transformation was promising and supports further clinical assessment. Funding Janssen R&D.

    更新日期:2019-01-13
  • Safety and activity of sintilimab in patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (ORIENT-1): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2019-01-03
    Yuankai Shi, Hang Su, Yongping Song, Wenqi Jiang, Xiuhua Sun, Wenbin Qian, Wei Zhang, Yuhuan Gao, Zhengming Jin, Jianfeng Zhou, Chuan Jin, Liqun Zou, Lugui Qiu, Wei Li, Jianmin Yang, Ming Hou, Shan Zeng, Qingyuan Zhang, Peng Liu

    Background Sintilimab (Innovent Biologics, Suzhou, China), a highly selective, fully humanised, monoclonal antibody, blocks the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands. We aimed to assess the activity and safety profile of sintilimab in Chinese patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Methods In this ongoing, single-arm, phase 2 study, we recruited patients with histopathologically diagnosed classical Hodgkin lymphoma that was relapsed or refractory after two or more lines of therapy from 18 hospitals in China. Patients were given intravenous sintilimab (200 mg, once every 3 weeks) until progression, death, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in the full analysis set (ie, those with classical Hodgkin lymphoma confirmed by the central pathology laboratory) who had an objective response, as assessed by an independent radiological review committee (IRRC), by 24 weeks after enrolment of the last patient. Tumour response was assessed by enhanced CT scan or MRI at baseline, at weeks 6, 15, and 24, every 12 weeks from weeks 24 to 48, and every 16 weeks beyond week 48. Safety was assessed in all treated patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03114683, and is ongoing. Findings Between April 19, 2017, and Nov 1, 2017, 96 patients were enrolled and commenced treatment. Four patients, whose diagnosis was not subsequently confirmed by the central pathology laboratory, were excluded from the full analysis set. Ten patients discontinued treatment. Median duration of follow-up was 10·5 months. In the full analysis set (n=92), 74 patients (80·4%; 95% CI 70·9–88·0) had an IRRC-assessed objective response before the analysis cutoff date of April 16, 2018. 89 (93%) of 96 patients had treatment-related adverse events, and 17 patients (18%) had grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events, the most common being pyrexia (three [3%] patients). 14 (15%) patients had serious adverse events of any cause. No patient died during the study. Interpretation Sintilimab could be a new treatment option for patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in China. Funding Innovent Biologics, Eli Lilly and Company, National New Drug Innovation Programme, and the National Key Scientific Programme Precision Medicine Research Fund of China.

    更新日期:2019-01-06
  • Exposure to Coxiella burnetii and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a retrospective population-based analysis in the Netherlands
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2018-04-09
    Sonja E van Roeden, Fedor van Houwelingen, Chiel M J Donkers, Sander J Hogewoning, Marit M A de Lange, Wim van der Hoek, Linda M Kampschreur, Marc J M Bonten, Andy I M Hoepelman, Chantal P Bleeker-Rovers, Peter C Wever, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert

    Background An association between Coxiella burnetii and non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been suggested. After a large Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands (2007–10), we postulated that the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma would be increased during and after the epidemic in areas with a high endemicity of Q fever compared with those with low endemicity. Methods We did a retrospective population-based analysis and calculated relative risks (RRs) of non-Hodgkin lymphoma during 1-year periods before, during, and after the Q fever epidemic, for areas with intermediate and high endemicity of Q fever compared with low endemic areas. We also calculated the RR of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in people with chronic Q fever compared with the general population. Findings Between Jan 1, 2002, and Dec 31, 2013, 48 760 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were diagnosed. The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma ranged from 21·4 per 100 000 per year in 2002 to 26·7 per 100 000 per year in 2010. A significant association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma was noted in 2009 for areas with a high endemicity of Q fever compared with low endemic areas (RR 1·16, 95% CI 1·02–1·33; p=0·029); no further associations were noted in any other year or for areas with intermediate Q fever endemicity. Among 439 individuals with chronic Q fever, five developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma, yielding a crude absolute risk of 301·0 cases per 100 000 per year (RR 4·99, 95% CI 2·07–11·98; p=0·0003) compared with the general population in the Netherlands. Interpretation These findings do not support the hypothesis that Q fever has a relevant causal role in the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Several limitations, inherent to the design of this study, might lead to both underestimation and overestimation of the studied association. Funding Foundation Q-support and Institut Mérieux.

    更新日期:2018-04-10
  • Enhanced labile plasma iron and outcome in acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (ALLIVE): a prospective, multicentre, observational trial
    Lancet Haematol. (IF 11.990) Pub Date : 2018-04-05
    Martin Wermke, Julia Eckoldt, Katharina S Götze, Stefan A Klein, Gesine Bug, Liesbeth C de Wreede, Michael Kramer, Friedrich Stölzel, Malte von Bonin, Johannes Schetelig, Michael Laniado, Verena Plodeck, Wolf-Karsten Hofmann, Gerhard Ehninger, Martin Bornhäuser, Dominik Wolf, Igor Theurl, Uwe Platzbecker

    Background The effect of systemic iron overload on outcomes after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been a matter of substantial debate. We aimed to investigate the predictive value of both stored (MRI-derived liver iron content) and biologically active iron (enhanced labile plasma iron; eLPI) on post-transplantation outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogenic HCT. Methods The prospective, multicentre, observational, ALLogeneic Iron inVEstigators (ALLIVE) trial recruited patients at five centres in Germany. We enrolled patients with acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing allogeneic HCT. Patients underwent cytotoxic conditioning for a median of 6 days (IQR 6–7) before undergoing allogeneic HCT and were followed up for up to 1 year (±3 months) post-transplantation. eLPI was measured in serum samples with the FeROS eLPI kit (Aferrix, Tel-Aviv, Israel) and values greater than 0·4 μmol/L were considered to represent raised eLPI. Liver iron content was measured by MRI. The primary endpoints were the quantitative delineation of eLPI dynamics during allogeneic HCT and the correlation coefficient between liver iron content before HCT and dynamic eLPI (eLPIdyn; maximum eLPI minus baseline eLPI). All patients with available data were included in all analyses. This is the final analysis of this completed trial, which is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01746147. Findings Between Dec 13, 2012, and Dec 23, 2014, 112 patients underwent allogeneic HCT. Liver iron content before allogeneic HCT was not significantly correlated with eLPIdyn (ρ=0·116, p=0·22). Serum eLPI concentrations rapidly increased during conditioning, and most (79 [73%] of 108) patients had raised eLPI by the day of transplantation. Patients with a pretransplant liver iron content greater than or equal to 125 μmol/g had an increased incidence of non-relapse mortality (20%, 95% CI 14–26) compared with those with lower concentrations (7%, 2–12; p=0·039) at day 100. Patients who had raised eLPI at baseline also had a significantly increased incidence of non-relapse mortality at day 100 (33%, 15–52) compared with those who had normal eLPI at baseline (7%, 2–13; p=0·00034). Interpretation eLPI is a possible biological mediator of iron-related toxicity. Peritransplantation eLPI-scavenging strategies could be explored in prospective interventional clinical trials for patients with systemic iron overload. Funding The Technical University of Dresden and Novartis.

    更新日期:2018-04-06
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