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  • Effect of pulsed light treatment on Listeria inactivation, sensory quality and oxidation in two varieties of Spanish dry–cured ham
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Manuela Fernández; Xavier F. Hospital; Carmen Cabellos; Eva Hierro

    The efficacy of pulsed light (PL) for the surface decontamination of ready-to-eat dry–cured ham was studied in two Spanish varieties, Serrano and Iberian. Listeria innocua was inoculated on the surface of ham slices that were vacuum-packaged and flashed with 2.1, 4.2 and 8.4 J/cm2 PL. Survivors were enumerated immediately after treatment. Peroxide values, sensory analysis and volatile profile were investigated during storage at 4 and 20 °C. Inactivation of Listeria was higher in Iberian (ca. 2 log cfu/cm2) than in Serrano ham (ca. 1 log cfu/cm2) with 8.4 J/cm2. PL did not increase the peroxide values above the usual levels reported in dry-cured ham, and no rancid notes were observed in the sensory analysis. PL–treated samples showed an increase in the concentration of some volatile compounds, such as methional, dimethyl disulfide and 1-octen-3-one, which imparted slight sulfur and metallic notes, although they disappeared during storage.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Ohmic heating polyphenolic extracts from vine pruning residue with enhanced biological activity
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Meirielly S. Jesus; Lina F. Ballesteros; Ricardo N. Pereira; Zlatina Genisheva; Ana S. Carvalho; Cristina Pereira-Wilson; José A Teixeira; Lucília Domingues
    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • A self-assembled electrochemical immunosensor for ultra-sensitive detection of ochratoxin A in medicinal and edible malt
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Chaonan Sun; Xiaofang Liao; Pinxuan Huang; Guangzhi Shan; Xiao Ma; Lizhu Fu; Lidong Zhou; Weijun Kong

    Trace residue of mycotoxins in complex medicinal and edible food matrices has brought huge challenges for the development of ultrasensitive analytical methods. Here, a green electrochemical immunosensor for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) was fabricated by self-assembling a compact 2-mercaptoacetic (TGA) monolayer on the surface of the working Au electrode to form the Au/TGA/bovine serum aibumin (BSA)-OTA/anti-OTA monoclonal antibody composite probes for selective and ultra-sensitive detection of OTA based on indirect competitive principle and differential pulse voltammetry analysis. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods were introduced to characterize the assemble situation of the TGA-modified Au electrode and optimize some critical parameters for the green electrochemical immunoseonsor. Under the optimal conditions, the developed immunosensor exhibited much lower limit of detection (0.08 ng/mL) in the range of 0.1-1.0 ng/mL for OTA compared with other direct or disposable electrochemical immunosensors. Real application in the spiked malt samples verified high accuracy with no matrix interferences of the proposed immunoseonsor. This is a meaningful study on a self-assembled electrochemical immunoseonsor for ultra-sensitive and rapid detection of OTA in malt samples, which suggested a general simple-to-use sensing platform and prospect as an economical and green tool for ultra-sensitive detection of much more trace-level of toxic small molecules in other complex matrices to ensure their quality and safety.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Aroma Enhancement of Instant Green Tea Infusion using β-Glucosidase and β-Xylosidase
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Ting Zhang; Ke Fang; Hui Ni; Ting Li; Li Jun Li; Qing Biao Li; Feng Chen

    β-Glucosidase and β-xylosidase were investigated for their ability to improve the aroma of instant green tea. The aroma and corresponding contributors were analyzed by sensory evaluation, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and odor activity value. Their specific contributions to aroma attributes were further examined by aroma reconstruction and omission experiments. The β-glucosidase treatment significantly enhanced floral and grassy notes, on account of the increases of geraniol, nonanal, and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and weakened the caramel note, attributable to the increases of nonanal, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, geraniol, methyl salicylate, and decanal. The co-treatment with β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase further enhanced the grassy note, with further increase in nonanal and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and further weakened the caramel note, with additional increase in nonanal, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, methyl salicylate, and decanal. The synergistic action of β-glucosidase and β-xylosidase provides new clues to the production of instant green tea infusions with high aroma quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Measuring quantitative proteomic distance between Spanish beef breeds
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    R. Rodríguez-Vázquez; A. Mato; M. López-Pedrouso; D. Franco; M.A. Sentandreu; C. Zapata
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Structure-based screening for discovery of sweet compounds
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Yaron Ben Shoshan-Galeczki; Masha Y. Niv

    Sweet taste is a cue for calorie-rich food and is innately attractive to animals, including humans. In the context of modern diets, attraction to sweetness presents a significant challenge to human health. Most known sugars and sweeteners bind to the Venus Fly Trap domain of T1R2 subunit of the sweet taste heterodimer. Because the sweet taste receptor structure has not been experimentally solved yet, a possible approach to finding sweet molecules is virtual screening using compatibility of candidate molecules to homology models of sugar-binding site. Here, the constructed structural models, docking and scoring schemes were validated by their ability to rank known sweet-tasting compounds higher than properties-matched random molecules. The best performing models were next used in virtual screening, retrieving recently patented sweeteners and providing novel predictions.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Chitosan hydrochloride/carboxymethyl starch complex nanogels stabilized Pickering emulsions for oral delivery of β-carotene: Protection Effect and in Vitro Digestion Study
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Xiao-Min Li; Xuehong Li; Zhengzong Wu; Ying Wang; Jie-Shun Cheng; Ting Wang; Bao Zhang
    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Design of nanoemulsion-based delivery systems to enhance intestinal lymphatic transport of lipophilic food bioactives: Influence of oil type
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Mingfei Yao; Zhengze Li Data acquisition; David Julian McClements; Zhonghai Tang; Hang Xiao

    The impact of nanoemulsions containing triglycerides with different fatty acid chain lengths on the bioavailability of a highly lipophilic bioactive: 5-demethylnobiletin (5-DN) was investigated. 5-DN was encapsulated in nanoemulsions fabricated using either medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) or long-chain triglycerides (LCT). They were then subjected to in vitro digestion, and the resulting mixed micelles was applied to a Caco-2 cell model. Higher 5-DN bioaccessibility was found for the MCT-nanoemulsion (13%) than for the LCT-nanoemulsion (7%). However, only 30% 5-DN in MCT crossed the Caco-2 monolayer and 50% was metabolized, while 60% 5-DN in LCT crossed the monolayer and only 10% was metabolized. More lipid droplets and chylomicrons were also formed for the LCT nanoemulsions, indicating greater 5-DN transported through lymph. Although MCT gave a higher 5-DN bioaccessibility, the final amount of 5-DN absorbed and transported to the lymph was inferior to that of the LCT formulation.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Anthocyanin composition and changes during kernel development in purple-pericarp supersweet sweetcorn
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    H.T. Hong; M.E. Netzel; T.J. O'Hare

    The current study reports the anthocyanin profile of purple ‘supersweet’ sweetcorn, recently developed from purple Peruvian maize, and the effect of kernel maturity on anthocyanin accumulation. Twenty anthocyanin compounds, consisting of cyanidin-, peonidin-, and pelargonidin-based glucosides, were identified and quantified in purple- and reddish-purple-pericarp sweetcorn accessions. For the first time, four isomers of cyanidin-3-malonylglucoside, four isomers of pelargonidin-3-malonylglucoside and two to three isomers each of cyanidin-3-dimalonylglucoside, peonidin-3-malonylglucoside and pelargonidin-3-dimalonylglucoside, were identified in the new pigmented sweetcorn. While cyanidin-based glucosides predominated in the purple-pericarp accession, pelargonidin-based glucosides predominated in the reddish-purple accession. Total anthocyanin concentration increased significantly (p<0.05) during the optimum sweetcorn eating period (23 to 28 DAP) and continued to increase as the kernels further matured (>28 DAP). As kernels continued to mature, pigment coverage across the pericarp progressively increased from a small spot at the stigma end of the kernel, to gradually spreading over the entire kernel.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Relationship among the minor constituents, antibacterial activity and geographical origin of honey: A multifactor perspective
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Gonzalo Cebrero; Oscar Sanhueza; Matías Pezoa; María E. Báez; Jessica Martínez; Mauricio Báez; Edwar Fuentes

    Some minor constituents of honey samples were determined through a fluorometric-chemical characterization method and related multifactorially with their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and with their geographical origin. Rotated principal component analysis identified five significant components in honey: three related to antibacterial activity and linked to phenolic compounds; Maillard products; proteins; the concentration of H2O2 at 3 and 24 h of incubation; and a tyrosine-containing entity. On the other hand, five constituents (phenolic compounds were the most relevant) allowed the classification of honey samples by geographical origin with 87% certainty. The results showed that phenolic compounds and Maillard products are related to the sustained production of H2O2 over time, which in turn boosts the antibacterial activity of honey. Native flora could promote this capability. The results showed the effect of geographic origin on the content of the analyzed minor constituents of honey, particularly phenolic compounds.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Functional and sensory properties of phenolic compounds from unripe grapes in vegetable food prototypes
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Ginevra Bucalossi; Giovanna Fia; Caterina Dinnella; Alessandra De Toffoli; Valentina Canuti; Bruno Zanoni; Maurizio Servili; Ella Pagliarini; Tullia Gallina Toschi; Erminio Monteleone

    Unripe grapes (UGs) from thinning are an unexploited source of phenols useful as functional ingredient. However, phenols may negative affect sensory quality of food. Chemical and sensory properties of UG phenols in plant-based foods were not investigated before. With this aim, an extract from UGs, obtained by a green extraction technique, was used to fortify three plant-based food models: carbohydrates/acidic pH/sweet - beetroot purée, proteins/neutral pH/sweet - pea purée and starch/neutral pH - potato purée. Functional and sensory properties of phenol-enriched foods varied as a function of their composition and original taste. The amount of UG phenols recovered from potato purée was higher than that recovered from beetroot and pea purée, while the antioxidant activity detected in beetroot purée was higher than that in potato and pea purée. Significant variations of sourness, saltiness, bitterness and astringency were induced by UG phenols added to food models. Beetroot purée resulted more appropriate to counteract the negative sensations induced by UG phenols.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Characterization of morphology and physicochemical properties of native starches isolated from 12 Lycoris species
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Kehu Li; Qingzhu Li; Can Jin; Shwetha Narayanamoorthy; Tongze Zhang; Zhongquan Sui; Zijun Li; Youming Cai; Kao Wu; Yongchun Zhang; Harold Corke

    In this study, starch was isolated from 13 genotypes of 12 Lycoris species, and the morphology, granule size distribution and physicochemical properties, including apparent amylose content (AAC), Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) pasting properties, textural properties, thermal and retrogradation properties were characterized. The majority of starch granules of the 13 Lycoris genotypes were oval in shape, and granule size followed a normal distribution with a mean diameter of 20-30 μm. Contrary to previously published findings, the XRD results revealed that lycoris starches had either C-type or CA-type crystallinity. All lycoris starches showed high AAC varying from 25.6% to 32.7%, and low gelatinization temperature (GT) ranging from 58.8 to 69.7 ℃. Inter-relationships among 18 starch quality traits were analyzed based on correlation analysis. The present study provides information on lycoris starch characteristics which should serve as a useful guide for later studies on lycoris starch utilization in food and non-food industries.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Development of one-step sample preparation methods for fatty acid profiling of milk fat
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Zhiqian Liu; Jianghui Wang; Cheng Li; Simone Rochfort

    Determination of the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk fat generally involves total lipid extraction from liquid milk, transesterification and GC analysis. The lipid extraction step is time consuming and often employs toxic solvents such as chloroform. Two alternative methods are presented here that skip the lipid extraction step and allow the determination of FA composition via direct transesterification of dried milk and liquid milk respectively. We have shown that dried milk can be used directly in alkaline-catalysed methylation, whereas direct transesterification of both dried milk and fresh milk is feasible with acidic methanol. Both methods generate similar results as compared to the classical two-step method (i.e. lipid extraction and FA methylation) when optimised methylation parameters (temperature, time, milk and reagent volume) are followed. By omitting the lipid extraction step, these simplified one-step methods offer a much higher throughput and a reduced cost in FA composition analysis of milk samples.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Effect of wooden breast on postmortem changes in chicken meat
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Yasuhiro Hasegawa; Takayuki Hara; Takeshi Kawasaki; Michi Yamada; Takafumi Watanabe; Tomohito Iwasaki

    Wooden breast is a common problem in the poultry industry, occurring when broiler breast meat becomes rubber-like and extremely hard. Unclear points remain regarding the mechanical strength changes caused by post-mortem biochemical changes in wooden breasts. This study aimed to investigate this knowledge gap. We found endogenous protease activity to be high in wooden breasts and observed a 30 kDa fragment of troponin T (an indicator of postmortem tenderness) from day 1 postmortem. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in wooden breasts was greater than that of normal breast meat, particularly in the perimysium. The intramuscular connective tissue structure and quantity significantly affect the mechanical strength of meat. It became clear that the wooden breasts are much more mechanically stronger than normal breasts at postmortem day 5 because the large amount of intramuscular connective tissue in the wooden breasts has hardly changed even 5 days postmortem.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • The Cellular Antioxidant and Anti-Glycation Capacities of Phenolics from Georgia Peaches
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Xiaoxi Liao; Andrew A. Brock; Brittany T. Jackson; Phillip Greenspan; Ronald B. Pegg

    Plant-based polyphenolics have been reported to bestow health benefits when consumed, which are partially ascribed to their antioxidant activity. Yet, many current in vitro chemical assays to characterize antioxidant potential do not truly reflect the physiological properties of food antioxidants in vivo. The present study employed biological approaches, including a cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and protein glycation assays, to offer an improved picture of antioxidant potential of phenolic extracts from Georgia peach cultivars. The phenolic extracts from two peach varieties, showing contrasting antioxidant capacities according to hydrophilic-oxygen radical absorbance capacity (H-ORACFL) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, exhibited significant differences in two biological tests when the assays were performed on a fresh weight basis. The procyanidins fraction displayed notable antioxidant capacity, when compared to other phenolic classes in the peach extract, in these two biological relevant assays.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Physiochemical properties, protein and metabolite profiles of muscle exudate of chicken meat affected by wooden breast myopathy
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Tong Xing; Xue Zhao; Xinglian Xu; Jiaolong Li; Lin Zhang; Feng Gao

    The current study was designed to investigate the physiochemical properties, protein and metabolite profiles of muscle exudate obtained from chicken breast fillets affected by wooden breast (WB) myopathy. Twenty-four fillets were categorized into varying degrees of WB condition including normal, moderate and severe. Results indicated that exudate loss, free hemoglobin concentration, protein and lipid oxidation were affected by WB myopathy. Electrophoresis analysis showed eight distinct protein bands of differential relative abundance in WB samples compared with the normal, and the identified proteins were mostly involved in carbohydrate metabolic process. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics identified eleven metabolites including amino acids, nucleotides and organic acid as the most influential metabolites affected by WB myopathy. Overall, this study shows differential molecular profiles of myopathic chicken muscle exudate, and provides a valuable resource for further recognition of WB myopathy.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • 更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Formation of Patulin-Glutathione conjugates induced by pulsed light: a tentative strategy for patulin degradation in apple juices
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Juan José Rodríguez-Bencomo; Vicente Sanchis; Inmaculada Viñas; Olga Martín-Belloso; Robert Soliva-Fortuny

    Patulin is a toxic mycotoxin usually associated with apple products. Due to its unhealthy effects for humans, its content is regulated by the food safety authorities. The removal or degradation of this mycotoxin in contaminated apple juices has been studied with different approaches with uneven effectiveness. However, a strategy based on the chemical reaction between patulin and glutathione (GSH), in order to generate the conjugates that are formed during cell detoxification process, is an innovative approach yet to be evaluated. In this work, the formation of patulin-GSH conjugates activated by the application of pulsed light treatments and catalyzed by Fe+2 ions was evaluated. The study of patulin degradation and effect of the GSH/Fe+2 molar ratio showed that a molar ratio of 5 allows an adequate catalytic effect of the metal ions. In addition, mono-substituted patulin-glutathione adducts were identified as the main type of generated conjugates.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Sulforaphane and its Antioxidative Effects in Broccoli Seeds and Sprouts of Different Cultivars
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Xingang Lv; Guanli Meng; Weina Li; Daidi Fan; Xiao Wang; Cesar A. Espinoza-Pinochet; Carlos L. Cespedes-Acuña

    The purpose of this study was to clearly understand the health-promoting potentials of broccoli seeds and sprouts according to identify their representative bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in six varieties. Sulforaphane (SF) extraction was firstly optimized from seeds and sprouts. Then SF extracted under optimized conditions from seeds and sprouts were compared. Most varieties obtained the maximum SF, total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) contents in sprouts on day 3. SF contents in sprouts were 46 % to 97 % of seeds, whereas TP and TF contents in sprouts were 1.12 to 3.58 times higher than seeds among varieties. After in vitro digestion, broccoli sprouts from MNL variety kept considerable SF, TF, and TP contents, as well as antioxidant capacities, with all values higher than seeds. Compared with seeds, sprouts after 3 days germination were also recommended as raw materials of functional foods that possess high health-promoting potential.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Antioxidant and anti-glycation potential of green pepper (Piper nigrum): optimization of β-cyclodextrin-based extraction by response surface methodology
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Leonardo Cristian Favre; Guido Rolandelli; Ndumiso Mshicileli; Lusani Norah Vhangani; Cristina dos Santos Ferreira; Jessy van Wyk; María del Pilar Buera

    Green pepper (Piper nigrum) presents high levels of functional compounds, with antioxidant and anti-glycation properties. Thus, the optimization of the β-cyclodextrin-based extraction of functional compounds from green pepper through Response Surface Methodology was performed. The optimum extraction conditions were assessed by optimizing total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH• and FRAP methods). 15 mM for β-CD solution, 5 min of ultrasonication and 41 °C were the optimum extraction conditions, with the TPC of 24.9 mg GAE/mL and the anti-radical activities were 3.1 mg GAE/mL (DPPH• assay) and 0.45 mg GAE/mL (FRAP method). This natural extract obtained through eco-friendly techniques proved to be effective to reduce the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural, a glycation marker, at 70 and 80 °C. GPE presented higher TPC than black and white pepper. The relationship between the antioxidant and anti-glycation properties was confirmed and green pepper and can be proposed as a natural potential anti-glycation agent.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Arsenic accumulation and speciation in strawberry plants exposed to inorganic arsenic enriched irrigation
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Ana Isabel González de las Torres; Inmaculada Giráldez; Fátima Martínez; Pedro Palencia; Warren T. Corns; Daniel Sánchez-Rodas

    The accumulation and transformation of arsenic species have been studied in the context of hydroponic cultivation of strawberry plants. Cultivation experiments have been performed by adding inorganic arsenic at concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000 µg L-1 via root irrigation. The total arsenic content was determined by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS). The accumulation was dependent on the concentration of arsenic added to the irrigation and the arsenic species. Arsenic (III) accumulated at higher rates than arsenic (V). A greater accumulation of arsenic was found in roots (0.44-4.10 mg kg-1) than in stems (0.43-1.27 mg kg-1) and fruits (0.22-0.30 mg kg-1). The speciation results obtained by HPLC-HG-AFS analysis indicated that the addition of As(III) resulted in a partial methylation producing monomethyl arsenic (MMA) and dimethyl arsenic (DMA). After As(V) addition, only MMA was observed and this was accompanied with a notable reduction in the ratio of As(V) to As(III).

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tea using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with dispersive solid phase extraction
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Guanwei Gao; Hongping Chen; Jinxia Dai; Lili Jin; Yunfeng Chai; Li Zhu; Xin Liu; Chengyin Lu

    A gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of 38 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tea. Sample preparation was based on a dispersive solid phase extraction procedure through an extraction of target compounds. An appropriate amount of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone was directly added in tea extractions to effectively remove polyphenols, and then tea extracts were cleaned up with primary secondary amine, florisil and graphitised carbon black. The method was validated, and linearity with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99 was obtained. Satisfactory recoveries at 2, 10, 50, and 100 µg kg-1 ranged from 71% to 117% with a maximum relative standard deviation of 23%, except for PCB 81, 77, 126 and 169, of which recoveries were in the range of 32% - 63%. Limits of quantitation for PCBs were 2 or 10 µg kg-1, which was set as the lowest validated and spiked level meeting the acceptable accuracy and precision.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Influence of seasonal variation on phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of Secondatia floribunda A. DC. (Apocynaceae)
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Daiany Alves Ribeiro; Cicera Janaine Camilo; Carla de Fátima Alves Nonato; Fabiola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues; Irwin Rose Alencar Menezes; Jaime Ribeiro-Filho; Jianbo Xiao; Marta Maria de Almeida Souza; José Galberto Martins da Costa

    This study reports the effects of seasonal variation on the total polyphenol and flavonoid content and the in vitro antioxidant activity of Secondatia floribunda A. DC. The extracts were prepared from the inner bark and heartwood of samples harvested in the 2015 to 2016. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined by specific qualitative tests. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was analyzed using the following tests: 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•), 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS•+), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and iron (Fe2+) chelating activity. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid content varied over the harvest period. The DPPH and ABTS tests revealed that in the dry season had the most potent in vitro antioxidant activity, although the extracts obtained during the rainy season presented the higher Fe2+ chelating and Ferric reducing activities. In conclusion, the phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity are correlated, and both are influenced by seasonality.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Starch from Two Unripe Plantains and Esterified with Octenyl Succinic Anhydride (OSA): Partial Characterization
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Victor D. Quintero-Castaño; Francisco J. Castellanos-Galeano; Cristina I. Álvarez-Barreto; Juan C. Lucas-Aguirre; Luis A. Bello-Pérez; Mario E. Rodríguez-Garcia

    Chemical modification with octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) helps to control the physicochemical and thermal properties of isolated starches. The main objective, herein, was to partially characterize modified starches from Dominico-Harton plantain and FHIA 21 planted in Colombia. The highest degree of substitution was found in FHIA 21 (0.020) starch with 3% OSA and 4-h reaction at room temperature. The grain morphology was not affected, but small changes on the surface were evident. Both modified starches reported absorption bands in the IR at 1566 and 1738 cm-1, proper for these types of starch derivatives. The hexagonal and monoclinic structures of starch were altered through chemical modification. In the bending curves, a drastic decrease in the viscosity of the modified starches was observed with respect to the native one. The gelatinization temperatures of the modified starches were similar to those of the isolated starches.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Supercritical CO2 extraction of tomato pomace: evaluation of the solubility of lycopene in tomato oil as limiting factor of the process performance
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Pietro Squillace; Fabrizio Adani; Barbara Scaglia

    This work considered lycopene (lyc) amount and (all-E)-lyc:Z-lyc (E:Z) ratio as driving parameters of the tomato pomace (TP) supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE_CO2) performance. By testing lyc concentrations solubilization in tomato seed oil and E:Z ratios of 75:25, 59:39 and 25:75, full and partial equations (SE) were calculated. The application of mass balances to experimental TP_SFE_CO2 highlighted an extraction yield of 84.6 % TP lyc, although the recovery into the extract was 48.4 % of the extracted lyc (lyc=1339 μg g-1 oil). The SE application to TP_SFE_CO2 data confirmed that partial solubilization mainly depended on oil availability vs. lyc amount. Thus an improved TP_SFE_CO2 was designed in which 703 g of exogenous tomato oil will be fluxed from the co-solvent tank: the new process will produce 884 g kg-1 d.m. of extract with an expected recovery of 99.3 % of the extractable lyc (lyc=502 μg g-1 oil).

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Combined treatment of epi-brassinolide and NaCl enhances the main phytochemicals in Chinese kale sprouts
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Mengyu Wang; Congxi Cai; Jiayao Lin; Han Tao; Wei Zeng; Fen Zhang; Huiying Miao; Bo Sun; Qiaomei Wang

    The effects of individual epi-brassinolide (eBL) and NaCl, as well as their combination on contents of main phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity of Chinese kale sprouts were investigated. Our results showed that the application of 100 nM eBL decreased the contents of individual and total glucosinolates, while treatments of 160 mM NaCl both alone and combined with 100 nM eBL enhanced the glucosinolates accumulation by promoting the expression of genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis in Chinese kale sprouts and the combined treatment led to significantly higher content of most glucosinolate profiles. Moreover, it also elevated the contents of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids, whereas did not influence the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity. These findings indicated that the combined treatment of 100 nM eBL plus 160 mM NaCl could provide a new strategy to improve the main health promoting compounds in Chinese kale sprouts.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Aroeira fruit (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) as a natural antioxidant: Chemical constituents, bioactive compounds and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Vanessa Sales de Oliveira; Ivanilda Maria Augusta; Marcos Vinícius da Conceição Braz; Cristiano Jorge Riger; Edlene Ribeiro Prudêncio; Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya; Geni Rodrigues Sampaio; Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres; Tatiana Saldanha

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi fruit, known as Brazilian pepper or aroeira, is a natural source of bioactive compounds. However, studies about the antioxidant and nutritional contribution of this fruit in food systems are limited. Regarding the presence of bioactive compounds, flavonoids showed the highest level (10.33 ± 0.34 mg QE/g), and potential antioxidant components such biflavonoids were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The aroeira fruit extract showed antioxidant potential in DPPH (42.68 ± 0.05 %), ORAC (43.40 ± 6.22 µM TE/g) and β- carotene/linoleic acid (61.41 ± 5.30 %) assays. Besides that, in vivo analyses demonstrated the ability of aroeira extracts to decrease the damage caused by oxidative stress promoted by H2O2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Thus, the presence of phytochemicals with functional properties and the antioxidant capacity of aroeira fruit indicate its use as a potential natural antioxidant for the food industry.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The application of pseudotargeted metabolomics method for fruit juices discrimination
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Lei Xu; Zhenzhen Xu; Xue Wang; Bingfeng Wang; Xiaojun Liao

    To optimize and evaluate the pseudotargeted metabolomics for juice discrimination and authentication, five widely consumed fruit (apple, orange, pear, purple grape and mandarin) juices were selected. SWATH-MS data was acquired by various windows being calculated based on total ion current, and then 2310 and 2292 MRM transitions were generated. Most of them (1522 and 1872) were detected in positive and negative modes. Distinctive separation among these juices could be observed from principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis. After analysis of variance, fold change analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis, 57 potential markers were defined. Subsequently, 33 markers were putatively annotated, which could be used for juice discrimination and authentication. And 7 markers including l-phenylalanine, ascorbic acid, adenosine, epicatechin, glutathione, chlorogenic acid and nobiletin, were confirmed by standards. It is clearly indicated that pseudotargeted metabolomics could make great contribution to food industry as a new emerging technique.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Utilization of pulse protein-xanthan gum complexes for foam stabilization: the effect of protein concentrate and isolate at various pH
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Athira Mohanan; Michael T. Nickerson; Supratim Ghosh

    The present study examines the foaming behaviour of pea and faba bean protein concentrates and isolates and explores the impact of pH and protein-polysaccharide complexation on overrun and foam stability. Foams were prepared with 5wt% proteins with and without 0.25wt% xanthan gum (XG) at pH 3, 5, 7 and 9. Most foams were unstable without XG. With XG foaming properties of protein concentrates were better than isolates. Irrespective of protein type and content, all protein-XG foams at pH 3 destabilized due to large insoluble complexes, however, at pH 5 foams were stable due to smaller size of insoluble complexes. Both the protein concentrate-XG foams were stable at pH 7 and 9 due to optimum viscosity and surface tension of the soluble complexes. Overall, the study revealed that the overrun and stability of pulse protein foams can be significantly improved by adding XG and controlling their intermolecular interactions as a function of pH.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Defatted Chia Flour as Functional Ingredient in Sweet Cookies. How do Processing, Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation Affect its Antioxidant Properties?
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Agustín Lucini Mas; Federico Iván Brigante; Emiliano Salvucci; Natalia Belén Pigni; Marcela Lilian Martinez; Pablo Ribotta; Daniel Alberto Wunderlin; María Verónica Baroni

    The aim of this work was to improve the antioxidant quality of cookies using defatted chia flour (DCF), which is a by-|product of the food industry. We prepared cookies containing DFC (5, 10 and 20%), and evaluated technological and sensory qualities of cookies. Additionally, we verified the effects of processing and simulated gastrointestinal digestion on polyphenols content. The addition of DFC did not affect the technological quality of cookies, with the exception of color. Furthermore, cookies supplemented with 10% DFC were sensorial preferred over the others. The addition of DFC increased the polyphenol content and the in vitro antioxidant capacity of cookies. Besides, the simulated gastrointestinal digestion suggested that 73% of total polyphenols could be absorbed in the intestine, showing an antioxidant effect greater than expected, also showing prebiotic effects. Supplementation of cookies with 10% DFC could be recommended to improve antioxidant quality without reducing the technological or sensorial properties.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Release of antidiabetic peptides from Stichopus japonicas by simulated gastrointestinal digestion
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Pi-Xian Gong; Bing-Kun Wang; Yan-Chao Wu; Qin-Ying Li; Bang-Wei Qin; Hui-Jing Li
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Collagen fibrils of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) are
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mo Tian; Changhu Xue; Yaoguang Chang; Jingjing Shen; Yuying Zhang; Zhaojie Li; Yanchao Wang

    Sea cucumbers attracted increasing interest due to its nutritional functions. Collagen is the most important structural biomacromolecule in sea cucumber body wall, and is highly related to the textual properties and food quality of sea cucumber. In this study, the types of constituent collagens of sea cucumber collagen fibrils were investigated, employing a commercially important species Apostichopus japonicus as the material. Proteomics and bioinformatics analysis revealed that collagen fibrils of A. japonicas are heterotypic. Two clade A and one clade B fibrillar collagens and two FACIT collagens were identified from the fibrils. Besides, the heterogeneity was also revealed in the pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) of A. japonicus by using the proteomics strategy. It implied that the previous conclusions on the type of sea cucumber collagen deduced from SDS-PAGE analysis should be rechecked. The results provided novel insight into the composition of sea cucumber collagen fibrils.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Oxidative metabolism of typical phenolic compounds of Danshen by electrochemistry coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Juan Yang; Yan Chen; Xiao-Ting Zhen; Xin Dong; Li-Hong Ye; Hui Zheng; Jun Cao

    An electrochemistry coupled to online quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (EC/Q-TOF/MS) was applied to investigate the oxidative transformation and metabolic pathway of five phenolic acids in Danshen sample. Simulation of the phase I oxidative metabolism was carried out in an electrochemical reactor equipped with a glassy carbon working electrode. The phase II reactivity of the generated oxidative products towards biomolecules (such as glutathione) was investigated by ways of covalent adduct formation experiments. The results obtained by EC/MS were compared with well-known in vitro studies by conducting rat liver microsome incubations. Structures of the electrochemically produced metabolites were identified by accurate mass measurement and previously results in vivo metabolites. It was indicated that the electrochemical oxidation was in good accordance with similar products found in vivo experiments. In conclusion, this work confirmed that EC/Q-TOF/MS was a promising analytical tool in the prediction of metabolic transformations of functional foods.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Production and Characterization of Okara Dietary Fiber Produced by Fermentation with Monascus anka
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Congcong Sun; Xuefeng Wu; Xiaoju Chen; Xingjiang Li; Zhi Zheng; Suwei Jiang

    Okara dietary fiber was prepared by liquid fermentation with Monascus anka (M. anka). Infrared spectra results indicated that there were more oligosaccharides because of the hydrogen bond cleavage of the polysaccharides in okara Monascus dietary fiber (OMDF). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analyses showed that the structures of OMDF were altered as compared to that of the control. The UV-visible spectrum of the M. anka seed broth (MSB) contained three absorption peaks corresponding to red, orange, and yellow pigments, which were present in equal quantities. The concentration of citrinin in MSB and Monascus okara fermentation broth was 0.980 ppm and 0.940 ppm, respectively. After fermentation, the soluble OMDF content in OMDF was 7.7 g/100 g, which was 1.79 times of that in the control. Further, the water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, and swelling capacity of OMDF increased significantly, while the water retaining capacity decreased slightly.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Identification of two novel prenylated flavonoids in mulberry leaf and their bioactivities
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lingrong Wen; Dingding Shi; Ting Zhou; Jiaming Tu; Mingyang He; Yueming Jiang; Bao Yang

    Mulberry leaf is a vegetable used in daily diet. It can bring delicious taste and multiple health benefits. However, the chemicals responsible for these health benefits remain unveiled. In this work, two novel prenylated flavonoids were isolated from mulberry leaf. Their structures were identified and named as morachalcone D and morachalcone E. The protective effects of these two compounds were investigated, against endogenous oxidative damage (oxytosis/ferroptosis) induced by glutamate and erastin in HT22 cells. The results revealed that morachalcone D was much more potent in preventing from glutamate- and erastin-induced cell death than morachalcone E. The neuroprotective effect of morachalcone D was related to the prevention of ROS production, glutathione depletion, and iron accumulation. Morachalcone D upregulated the expression of genes involved in antioxidant defense, including GPx4, CAT, SOD2, Nrf2, HMOX1 and SLC7A11. These findings indicated that morachalcone D was responsible for the health benefits of mulberry leaf, and could be a potent neuroprotective agent for use in dietary supplements and functional foods.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Influence of different cooking methods on the nutritional and potentially harmful components of peanuts
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Cong Guo; Yu-Jie Xie; Meng-Ting Zhu; Qian Xiong; Yi Chen; Qiang Yu; Jian-Hua Xie

    This study investigated the comparative effects of boiling, roasting, deep-frying methods on the content of nutritional and potentially harmful components in peanuts. After cooking, the contents of total reducing sugar, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids and almost all individual amino acids were reduced. Free methionine disappeared after heating processing, whereas fructose, starch, cis-palmitoleic acid and saturated fatty acids were increased in processed samples. Micronutrients including flavonoids and phenolic reduced significantly after boiling process but increased after roasting process. Both of frying and roasting promoted the formation of potentially harmful components including HMF, acrylamide and furan. The overall compositional difference between samples were further displayed and identified by a combination application of HCA and PCA, which showed that the roasting and frying process had a significant impact on the nutritional composition of peanuts.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Protein content of amaranth and quinoa starch plays a key role in their ability as Pickering emulsifiers
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Arkaye Kierulf; Judith Whaley; Weichang Liu; Mojtaba Enayati; Chen Tan; Mariana Perez-Herrera; Zheng You; Alireza Abbaspourrad

    Growing concerns about the safety of using synthetic surfactants to stabilize food emulsions have inspired a trend towards the use of natural ingredients like starch as alternative food stabilizers in what are called Pickering emulsions. The hydrophilicity of commercially available starches, however, necessitates further chemical treatment to increase their hydrophobicity and emulsifying ability. Here we demonstrate an alkaline isolation method to extract amaranth and quinoa starch from flour while retaining a high protein content, which gives these materials an emulsifying ability comparable to octenyl succinylated starches. We highlight the key role played by protein by showing that a serial reduction of the protein content leads to a parallel reduction in emulsifying ability, and that pH affects this ability. Our method of retaining proteins naturally present in amaranth and quinoa not only bolsters the nutritional profile of the food but also takes advantage of the proteins’ native hydrophobicity for improved emulsification.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Effect of solid-state fermentation on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factor, microbiological and functional properties of lupin flour
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Oladapo Oluwaseye Olukomaiya; Oladipupo Qudus Adiamo; W. Chrishanthi Fernando; Ram Mereddy; Xiuhua Li; Yasmina Sultanbawa

    The effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus sojae, Aspergillus ficuum and their co-cultures on proximate composition, anti-nutritional factor, microbiological and functional properties of lupin flour (LF) were investigated. Fibre fractions, in vitro enzyme protein digestion (IVPD), total phenolic content, protein molecular distribution and colour attributes were also evaluated. Samples differed in their proximate composition except ash and fibre contents. The microbial counts of the fermented LFs were generally higher (p<0.05) than that of the unfermented LF. Phytic acid content and IVPD decreased (p<0.05) in the fermented LFs. Also, the fermented LFs showed decreased (p<0.05) water absorption capacity but increased swelling capacity. In addition, fermented LFs demonstrated reduction in colour attributes. Thus, the study indicated that SSF using Aspergillus sojae and Aspergillus ficuum can influence the physical, chemical and functional properties of LF. LF has great potentials in developing new nutritious food products and feed formulations when subjected to SSF.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Photostability of Organic Red Food Dyes
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Catherine Boyles; Sarah J. Schmidtke Sobeck

    The shift from artificial to natural ingredients is a rising trend in the food industry. However, natural coloring agents tend to be less stable than their synthetic counterparts when exposed to light, air, changes in pH, and heat. This study compares the photostability of three organic red dyes, Red 40 (allura red AC), betanin and carminic acid, in aqueous and soft drink solutions. The degradation, traced through absorbance spectroscopy, is well fit to first-order kinetics. Two distinct timescales are observed in aqueous solution but only a single, faster decay in the soft drink matrix. Betanin is the least stable dye in both solvent environments and Red 40 exhibits the greatest destabilization in the soft drink solution. Anoxia has different impacts dependent upon both the dye and solvent system. The analysis provides further insight into the degradation mechanisms for these different red dyes and the role of environment on their photostability.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Inhibition of protein glycoxidation and advanced glycation end-product formation by barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) phenolics
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    A. Mohamed Anis; Yadahally N. Sreerama

    Protein glycation plays a vital role in the progression of various diabetes complications. Therefore, inhibition of protein glycation could be a key strategy to prevent these diabetic abnormalities. Evaluation of phenolic compositions and their antiglycation activity revealed that p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were major phenolic acids in barnyard millet. These phenolics exhibited multiple antioxidant activities in various mechanisms and protected the oxidative DNA damage and hydroxyl radical-induced protein fragmentation. Millet phenolics were very effective in scavenging >78% reactive carbonyl intermediates in the reaction and protected protein thiol group oxidation. Furthermore, 68.3% inhibition of protein glycation and reduced formation of protein aggregates were also observed with millet phenolics. Besides, fluorescence intensity measurements indicated a significant decrease in advance glycated end products and protection against glycoxidation-induced protein conformational changes at 100 µg/ml phenolics. These results suggest the potential utility of barnyard millet as an ingredient in functional foods for controlling protein glycation associated diabetic complications.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Cell surface changes that advance the application of using yeast as a food emulsifier
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Shinsuke Nerome; Masaya Onishi; Daiki Saito; Ayano Mizobuchi; Tatsuya Ando; Yui Daira; Azusa Matsumoto; Yoshihiro Ojima; Masayuki Azuma

    A previous study revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae mcd4Δ, a cell wall mutant with a defect in the synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, has a strong macrophage activation ability. In this study, remarkable emulsion formation after cell suspensions of mcd4Δ and anp1Δ (which exhibit an extreme reduction of mannan) were mixed with oil was found. Moreover, the relationship between cell wall mutation and emulsion formation was investigated, suggesting that och1Δ with a defect in the formation of N-linked glycans also had a strong emulsification ability and that high molecular weight materials released from the cells were involved in emulsion formation. Furthermore, two strains (asc1Δ and scp160Δ) with a strong emulsification ability without a large decrease in mannan content were also found from the wide screening of strains that exhibit an emulsifying activity using more than 5,000 gene-deficient strains. These results provide valuable information for the development of a yeast-derived emulsifier.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Starch digestion in intact pulse cotyledon cells depends on the extent of thermal treatment
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Ping Li; Sushil Dhital; Xiong Fu; Qiang Huang; Rui Liu; Bin Zhang; Xiaowei He

    Starch digestion in cellular matrices is primarily determined by the hindrance of cell walls limiting enzyme diffusion as well as the retention of starch granular structure. However, the effect of hydrothermal treatment on structure and digestion properties of entrapped starches is not fully elucidated. In present study, we reported the variations in structure and enzyme susceptibility of two pulse cells isolated at 60°C followed by heated at 70, 80, 90, 100°C, which are higher than the starch gelatinization temperature. Based on the thermal and crystalline properties, entrapped starches in cells are not fully gelatinized even treated at 100°C. Whilst, the digestion of entrapped starches increases with higher temperature, but still lower than the isolated starch treated at the same temperature. In addition to physical barriers (intact cell wall) and starch structural features (partial ordered crystalline structure), the soluble/insoluble proteinaceous materials in cells also synergy reduce the starch hydrolysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Olive oil mixtures. Part one: decisional trees or how to verify the olive oil percentage in declared blends
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Raquel B. Gómez-Coca; María del Carmen Pérez-Camino; José M. Martínez-Rivas; Alessandra Bendini; Tullia Gallina Toschi; Wenceslao Moreda

    The commercialization of declared blends of olive oil and seed oil is something long approved by the European Union. There, the olive oil percentage must be at least 50 % if the producer aims to advertise its presence on the front label, i.e., somewhere other than in the ingredients list. However, the Regulation did not propose any method to verify such proportion. For this purpose, we recommend the use of decisional trees, being the parameters under study those in which the greatest differences between olive and seed oils are shown: triacylglycerols, acyclic saturated hydrocarbons, free sterols, and tocopherols. In this way, to guarantee the presence of olive oil at 50 %: i) palmitodiolein must be above 11-15 %; ii) the ß/γ-tocopherol ratio must be below 2.4; iii) the alkane sum C21-C25 should be higher than 3.5-6 %; and iv) the total sterol content cannot surpass 2400 mg/kg.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • A review of milling damaged starch: Generation, measurement, functionality and its effect on starch-based food systems
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Qingfa Wang; Limin Li; Xueling Zheng

    Starchy food is quiet common in human diet. Starch is often modified to be endowed with specific functionalities. Making flour by milling is almost inevitable during starch-based food processing. So milling modified starch, i.e. milling damaged starch (MDS) is discussed in this paper. Starch damage degree depends on both milling conditions and raw materials. In comparison with native starch, MDS has changed granular structure, disrupted crystalline region and molecular degradation. Hence, its functionalities are modified, including gelatinization, pasting property, digestion and water hydration properties. Furthermore, this review summarizes the effect of MDS on flour, dough and starchy food products. Controlling MDS at a moderate level is essential for the production of starch(y) foods with desirable quality. The measurement of MDS is also summarized. This paper provides a comprehensive knowledge of MDS in order to promote the flourishing of novel starch(y) foods production.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Investigation on molecular and morphology changes of protein and starch in rice kernel during cooking
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Ling Zhu; Gangcheng Wu; Lilin Cheng; Hui Zhang; Li Wang; Haifeng Qian; Xiguang Qi

    The composition and structure of starch are important indicators to evaluate the quality of rice, but the effect of protein on structural properties of rice has always been controversial. In the present study, the rheological properties and thermal properties were combined to investigate the effects of protein on mechanical and inner structure changes of rice kernel during cooking. The morphologic changes in overall form and inner structure of the kernel showed the limited and uneven gelatinization of starch, and reflected the good heating stability of protein. The comparison of molecular mobility in H2O/D2O reflected the special gelatinization behavior of starch and the hydrophobicity of protein during cooking. The similar proton distributions between starch, starch-protein mixture and rice flour indicated the weak interactions between starch and protein. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscope confirmed the wrapping effect of starch and surface interactions with protein.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Geographical identification of Chianti red wine based on ICP-MS element composition
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Benedetta Bronzi; Claudio Brilli; Gian Maria. Beone; Maria Chiara Fontanella; Davide Ballabio; Roberto Todeschini; Viviana Consonni; Francesca Grisoni; Francesco Parri; Massimo Buscema

    Chianti is a precious red wine and enjoys a high reputation for its high quality in the world wine market. Despite this, the production region is small and product needs efficient tools to protect its brands and prevent adulterations. In this sense, ICP-MS combined with chemometrics has demonstrated its usefulness in food authentication. In this study, Chianti/Chianti Classico, authentic wines from vineyard of Toscana region (Italy), together samples from 18 different geographical regions, were analyzed with the objective of differentiate them from other Italian wines. Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) identified variables to discriminate wine geographical origin. Rare Earth Elements (REE), major and trace elements all contributed to the discrimination of Chianti samples. General model was not suited to distinguish PDO red wines from samples, with similar chemical fingerprints, collected in some regions. Specific classification models enhanced the capability of discrimination, emphasizing the discriminant role of some elements.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Quality evaluation of table grapes during storage by using 1H-NMR, LC-HRMS, MS-eNose and multivariate statistical analysis
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Valentina Innamorato; Francesco Longobardi; Salvatore Cervellieri; Maria Cefola; Bernardo Pace; Imperatrice Capotorto; Vito Gallo; Antonio Rizzuti; Antonio F. Logrieco; Vincenzo Lippolis

    Three non-targeted methods, i.e. 1H-NMR, LC-HRMS, and HS-SPME/MS-eNose, combined with chemometrics, were used to classify two table grape cultivars (Italia and Victoria) based on five quality levels (5, 4, 3, 2, 1). Grapes at marketable quality levels (5, 4, 3) were also discriminated from non-marketable quality levels (2 and 1). PCA-LDA and PLS-DA were applied, and results showed that, the MS-eNose provided the best results. Specifically, with the Italia table grapes, mean prediction abilities ranging from 87% to 88% and from 98% to 99% were obtained for discrimination amongst the five quality levels and of marketability/non-marketability, respectively. For the cultivar Vittoria, mean predictive abilities higher than 99% were achieved for both classifications. Good models were also obtained for both cultivars using NMR and HRMS data, but only for classification by marketability. Satisfying models were further validated by MCCV. Finally, the compounds that contributed the most to the discriminations were identified.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Novel gluten-free formulations from lentil flours and nutritional yeast: evaluation of extrusion effect on phytochemicals and non-nutritional factors
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    María Ciudad-Mulero; Virginia Fernández-Ruiz; Carmen Cuadrado; Claudia Arribas; Mercedes M. Pedrosa; José De J. Berrios; James Pan; Patricia Morales

    The food industry is increasingly innovating and applying new processing technologies and ingredients to develop novel food products that meet the consumers’ demand. In this study, the effect of extrusion (at 140 °C and 160 °C) was evaluated in different lentil flours formulations enriched with nutritional yeast, in terms of α-galactosides (raffinose, stachyose, verbascose), inositol phosphates (IPs), trypsin inhibitors and lectins content. The content of α-galactosides and IPs was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) was evaluated using a small-scale quantitative assay. The lectin content was analyzed using a haemagglutination assay and a Competitive Indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Extrusion promoted a significant increase, up to 85% in total α-galactosides content. After extrusion, IPs content was significantly decreased and TIA as well as lectins content had a reduction higher than 90%. Extrusion demonstrated to have a beneficial effect by increasing desirable prebiotic compounds and decreasing non-nutritional factors.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Insight into the formation mechanism of lotus seed starch-lecithin complexes by dynamic high-pressure homogenization
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Yixin Zheng; Zebin Guo; Baodong Zheng; Shaoxiao Zeng; Hongliang Zeng

    Our objective was to investigate the correlation between processing conditions and structural properties of lotus seed starch-lecithin complexes by dynamic high-pressure homogenization and explore the formation mechanism. The complexes formed with 5% lecithin at 90 MPa had the highest complex index among samples, thus protecting the integrity of the particles. The complexes inhibited the degradation of amylopectin and retrogradation of amylose, and displayed different V6II-, V6I- and A-type crystalline patterns. Additionally, the double helix structure was enhanced with increasing pressure, and the addition of lecithin contributed to the formation of single-helix amylose-lecithin complexes. These complexes prevented the single helix structure of starch to further form double helix structures, as demonstrated by visual correlation analysis. Moreover, a formation mechanism was established, and lotus seed starch-lecithin complexes with V6I-type crystalline were formed under appropriate conditions, but a homogenization pressure either too low or too high was not conducive to complex formation.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil and food crops in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration of China
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Shunan Zheng; Qi Wang; Yuzhi Yuan; Weimin Sun

    Heavy metal contamination is one of the most pressing concerns for food security and human health. Understanding the risk to human health posed by soil pollution that enters the food chain is paramount. Here, we systematically assessed potential risks due to heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, and As) contamination in soil and crops (2241 pairs of soil and crop (78 species) samples) in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration of China. Cadmium was the most common pollutant among all the heavy metals identified in soil and crops. The greatest risk of Cd ingestion from leaf and root vegetable consumption was concentrated within Huizhou. The highest risks to human health from heavy metals were found in rice and maize. This is the first time that the risk to human health from heavy metal contamination in soil and crops, and their associated spatial risk pattern, in China have been assessed systematically.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Identification and Characterization of Antioxidant and Immune-stimulatory Polysaccharides in Flaxseed Hull
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Yuan Biao; Han Jiannan; Cheng Yaolan; Cheng Shujie; Huang Dechun; David Julian Mcclements; Cao Chongjiang

    Flaxseeds are widely consumed for their desirable sensory attributes and health benefits. We focused on enhancing the sustainability and economic potential of flaxseeds by characterizing functional attributes of polysaccharides isolated from flaxseed hull residues. In particular, antioxidant and immune-stimulatory polysaccharides were isolated and purified from flaxseed hull. Infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the key functional groups. The polysaccharides were composed of mannose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose. In vitro studies showed certain flaxseed hull polysaccharide fractions exhibited strong antioxidant activities, increased nitric oxide levels, and enhanced the production of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). In the presence of 200 μg/mL of one of these fractions, the levels of p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 increased significantly by 1.8-, 9.0-, and 6.7-fold. These polysaccharide fractions may exhibit their immune-regulatory properties partly by modulating the MAPK pathway. The flaxseed hull polysaccharides identified have potential application as natural antioxidants and immune-enhancing nutraceuticals.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Molecular insight on the binding of monascin to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and its effect on antioxidant characteristics of monascin
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Shufen Wu; Xiaochan Wang; Yuxin Bao; Chuanying Zhang; Huanhuan Liu; Zhenjing Li; Mianhua Chen; Changlu Wang; Qingbin Guo; Xin Peng

    Monascin (MS) is a yellow lipid-soluble azaphilonoid pigment identified from Monascus-fermented products with promising biological activities. This work studied interactions between MS and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as well as their influences on the antioxidant activity of MS. Experimental results demonstrated that the fluorescence emission of BSA was quenched by MS via static quenching mechanism and the formed BSA-MS complex was mainly maintained by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions. Meanwhile, the probable binding pocket of MS located near site I of BSA and the corresponding conformational and structural alterations of BSA were determined. Furthermore, the molecular modeling approach was performed to understand the visual representation of binding mode between BSA and MS. It was noticeable that the BSA-MS complex exhibited reduced DPPH radical-scavenging ability, which might be attributed to the restraining effect of BSA on the relevant reaction pathways involved in antioxidation by MS.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of yeast β-glucan for off-odor compounds in silver carp mince
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Huimin Zhang; Dan Wu; Qilin Huang; Zhiyu Liu; Xiaogang Luo; Shanbai Xiong; Tao Yin

    Yeast β-glucan (YG) adsorbs off-odor in silver carp mince due to its more porous structure. To explore adsorption behavior and mechanism, adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of YG for 3 off-odor compounds (hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol and nonanal) were investigated by pseudo-first/second-order models and isothermal equations (Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson). Kinetic experiments indicated adsorption process followed pseudo-first-order model. Adsorption isotherms indicated 3 off-odors could easily be adsorbed by YG and adsorption capacity was in the order of 1-octene-3-ol > hexanal > nonanal. Thermodynamic result suggested adsorption of 3 off-odors by YG was endothermic and spontaneous, and was driven predominantly by physisorption and hydrophobic interaction. Consequently, the contents of 3 off-odors that released from mince/YG complex decreased by 22.8%, 29.9%, and 24.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, compared with those from mince without YG. Therefore, the addition of YG enhanced the binding capability to off-odors, thus reducing the release of off-odor from silver carp mince.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Water migration depicts the effect of hydrocolloids on the structural and textural properties of lotus seed starch
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Mingjing Zheng; Yan Lin; Hongqiang Wu; Shaoxiao Zeng; Baodong Zheng; Yi Zhang; Hongliang Zeng

    Water migration was used to depict the effect of hydrocolloids on the structural and textural properties of lotus seed starch (LS) during long-term retrogradation. The results showed that chitosan (CS) increased water migration and starch retrogradation of LS gel, causing the water molecules to easily diffuse as higher mobility free water (T24), which was strongly related to the higher short-range ordered and greater hardness of LS-CS gels. The addition of guar gum (GG) and xanthan (XN) interfered with water exudation, and thus increased the tightly bound water fraction (A21) of LS-GG blends and decreased the higher mobility free water fraction (A24) of LS-XN blends. This retarded the formation of ordered structures of LS gels, consequently, softening LS gel. GG performed better than XN in the above-mentioned effects due to their different molecular characteristics. Water migration can thus effectively depict the effect of hydrocolloids on the properties of LS.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Signal-enhanced SERS-sensors of CAR-PLS and GA-PLS coupled AgNPs for Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin B1 detection
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Felix Y.H. Kutsanedzie; Akwasi A. Agyekum; Viswadevarayalu Annavaram; Quansheng Chen

    Ochratoxin-A (OTA) and Aflatoxin-B1 (AFT-B1) pose debilitating health threats to consumers and therefore require rapid monitoring with sensors. This work synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) within (4 ≤ pH ≤ 11) ±0.2 to attain different enhancement-factors (EF). [email protected] which gave the highest SERS-EF (1.45 x 108) was selected to fabricate SERS-sensor; and coupled to two chemometric algorithms for the prediction of OTA and AFT-B1 in prepared standard solutions (SS) and spiked-cocoa-beans samples (SCBS). The LOD for OTA (2.63 pg/mL) and AFT-B1 (4.15 pg/mL) in the SCBS were lower compared with 0.002 µg/mL. The built-models recorded residual-predictive-deviations above 3. Obtained recovery rates of 96 - 110%; and the low coefficients of variation (2.12 - 8.07%) realized for both toxins suggest the predicted results are reproducible. The SERS-sensor holds promise for rapid quantification of OTA and AFT-B1 at pg/mL level in cocoa beans to enable safety assurance in the cocoa beans industry.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Laccases 2 & 3 as biomarkers of Botrytis cinerea infection in sweet white wines
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    S. Ployon; A. Attina; J. Vialaret; A.S. Walker; C. Hirtz; C. Saucier

    Botrytized sweet wines are made with berries infected by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of B. cinerea infection in sweet wines with a focus on laccases which are exocellular oxidase enzymes produced by this fungus during fruit contamination. Total proteins from six commercial sweet wines, including three naturally botrytized wines and three non-botrytized wines were analysed by LC-QTOF-MS. Five laccases, namely laccase-1-BcLCC1, laccase-2-BcLCC2, laccase-3-BcLCC7, laccase-8-BcLCC8 and laccase-12-BcLCC12, were identified in both types of wine. Then, a targeted proteomic approach by LC-MRM was used to semi-quantify laccase-2-BcLCC2 and laccase-3-BcLCC7, in the six samples. LC-MRM targeted analysis of the two enzymes allowed the discrimination of botrytized versus non-botrytized sweet white wines.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Wheat protein disulfide isomerase improves bread properties via different mechanisms
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Chunfei Zhao; Ziyue Luo; Mingze Li; Jihui Gao; Zhongxin Liang; Siyuan Sun; Xi Wang; Dong Yang

    Gluten network formation by the oxidation of glutenin sulfhydryl group majorly impacts the subsequent dough and bread properties, and an evolutionary list of chemical oxidants has been used as improvers in bread making. A systematic comparison between azodicarbonamide (ADA), Vc, wheat protein disulfide isomerase (wPDI) and disulfide bond formation protein C (DsbC) of their effects on the alveographic characters of dough and texture properties of subsequent bread was performed. Results show that wPDI improves dough alveographic characters and bread texture properties better in most aspects than other reagents. Free sulfhydryl analysis finds that addition of wPDI increased the free syfhydryl content in both dough and bread. Compare with inorganic reagents and its bacterial homologue, improving the dough and bread properties with less oxidation of sulfhydryl lead to the proposal that wPDI acts by catalyzing the formation of rheologically active disulfide and reduction of inactive ones in a substrate specific manner.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Effect of in vitro oxidation on the water retention mechanism of myofibrillar proteins gel from pork muscles
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Dong Zhang; Hongjun Li; A.M. Emara; Ying Hu; Zefu Wang; Mengqi Wang; Zhifei He

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oxidation on the structure of pork myofibrillar proteins (MPs) and the water retention mechanism of MPs gel. In a Fenton reaction system, protein oxidation increases (P < 0.05) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration (0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 mmol/L). The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of the proteins gel gradually increased (P < 0.05) from 6.17 m2/g to 14.73 m2/g. Low field nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that immobilized water in the gel gradually decreased but free water content gradually increased (P < 0.05). Gel strength and water holding capacity (WHC) increased and then decreased. The results reveal that moderate oxidation contributes to the compact and uniform pore structure, higher WHC of proteins gel as well. However, excessive oxidation leads to increase pores and changes in water states of gel, leading to lower WHC.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Effect of soaking conditions on the formation of lipid derived free radicals in soymilk
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Xiaoxiao Feng; Yufei Hua; Caimeng Zhang; Xiangzhen Kong; Xingfei Li; Yeming Chen

    Lipid derived free radical in soymilks were studied by combining 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-l-oxide (DMPO) spin trap, chloroform-methanol extraction and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Five lipid derived free radical adducts: DMPO-X, DMPO-L, DMPO-R, DMPO-LOO, and DMPO-RO were presented in soymilks. The total amounts of spins increased as the soaking temperature increased from 4 °C to 50 °C and the soaking pH increased from 3 to 9 and in paralleled with the diffusion of soybean exudates to soaking water. Prolonged soaking of soybean at 50 °C resulted in a higher signal intensity of DMPO-R than that of DMPO-LOO. Soybean lipoxygenases (LOXs) were responsible for the formation of lipid derived free radicals in soymilks. Soybean exudates affected the total amounts of lipid radicals in linoleic acid (LA) – LOX model system. The relative signal intensities of DMPO-R and DMPO-LOO were depended on the contents of soybean exudates in the system.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Long-term responses to climate change of the carbon and oxygen stable isotopic compositions and gelatinization temperature of rice
    Food Chem. (IF 5.399) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Fumikazu Akamatsu; Masaki Okuda; Tsutomu Fujii

    The stable isotopic compositions of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) in rice are often used to confirm its authenticity. The gelatinization temperature is a crucial factor in alcoholic fermentation. However, little is known about the isotopic and thermal responses of rice to climate change. We show that in sake rice grown annually in the same paddy field from 1994 to 2013, the δ13C (–27.4‰ to –25.9‰) and δ18O values (20.4‰ to 27.0‰) correlated negatively with the mean daily minimum air temperature and precipitation, and positively with the hours of sunshine during grain-filling. In contrast, of the air temperatures tested, the gelatinization temperature of the rice grains (63.2 °C to 70.0 °C) correlated positively and most strongly with the mean daily mean air temperature. Thus, we identified the mean daily minimum temperature during grain-filling, a nocturnal temperature, as a major factor affecting the isotopic and thermal variations in rice grains.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
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