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  • Author Correction: Federal energy R&D: Startups supported by ARPA-E were more innovative than others but an investment gap may remain
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Anna Goldstein; Claudia Doblinger; Erin Baker; Laura Díaz Anadón

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Oases in the valley of death
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    David M. Hart

    Government programmes such as the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) are designed to help cleantech companies overcome startup challenges and bring innovations to market. New analysis shows that support from ARPA-E has led to higher patenting rates but success in winning follow-up funding remains unclear.

  • Heuristic solution for achieving long-term cycle stability for Ni-rich layered cathodes at full depth of discharge
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Un-Hyuck Kim; Geon-Tae Park; Byoung-Ki Son; Gyeong Won Nam; Jun Liu; Liang-Yin Kuo; Payam Kaghazchi; Chong S. Yoon; Yang-Kook Sun

    The demand for energy sources with high energy densities continues to push the limits of Ni-rich layered oxides, which are currently the most promising cathode materials in automobile batteries. Although most current research is focused on extending battery life using Ni-rich layered cathodes, long-term cycling stability using a full cell is yet to be demonstrated. Here, we introduce Li[Ni0.90Co0.09Ta0

  • Increase in domestic electricity consumption from particulate air pollution
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Pan He; Jing Liang; Yueming (Lucy) Qiu; Qingran Li; Bo Xing

    Accurate assessment of environmental externalities of particulate air pollution is crucial to the design and evaluation of environmental policies. Current evaluations mainly focus on direct damages resulting from exposure, missing indirect co-damages that occur through interactions among the externalities, human behaviours and technologies. Our study provides an empirical assessment of such co-damages

  • First-cycle voltage hysteresis in Li-rich 3 d cathodes associated with molecular O 2 trapped in the bulk
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Robert A. House; Gregory J. Rees; Miguel A. Pérez-Osorio; John-Joseph Marie; Edouard Boivin; Alex W. Robertson; Abhishek Nag; Mirian Garcia-Fernandez; Ke-Jin Zhou; Peter G. Bruce

    Li-rich cathode materials are potential candidates for next-generation Li-ion batteries. However, they exhibit a large voltage hysteresis on the first charge/discharge cycle, which involves a substantial (up to 1 V) loss of voltage and therefore energy density. For Na cathodes, for example Na0.75[Li0.25Mn0.75]O2, voltage hysteresis can be explained by the formation of molecular O2 trapped in voids

  • Increase in household energy consumption due to ambient air pollution
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Jiyong Eom; Minwoo Hyun; Jaewoong Lee; Hyoseop Lee

    In response to acute environmental stresses such as air pollution, households may resort to quick and convenient adaptation measures that increase energy use, amplifying the environmental impact and requiring additional adaptation. This cycle of energy-intensive adaptation has so far received little consideration by the broader energy community. Here, we analyse the response of Korean households to

  • Startups supported by ARPA-E were more innovative than others but an investment gap may remain
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Anna Goldstein; Claudia Doblinger; Erin Baker; Laura Díaz Anadón

    Startups funded by the US Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy filed patents at twice the rate of similar cleantech firms. The high-risk high-reward funding model has succeeded in advancing energy technology, but more is needed to help these innovative firms cross the valley of death and bring new cleantech products to market.

  • Interplay between temperature and bandgap energies on the outdoor performance of perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Erkan Aydin; Thomas G. Allen; Michele De Bastiani; Lujia Xu; Jorge Ávila; Michael Salvador; Emmanuel Van Kerschaver; Stefaan De Wolf

    Perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells promise power conversion efficiencies beyond the Shockley–Queisser limit of single-junction devices; however, their actual outdoor performance is yet to be investigated. Here we fabricate 25% efficient two-terminal monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells and test them outdoors in a hot and sunny climate. We find that the temperature dependence of both

  • Patenting and business outcomes for cleantech startups funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Anna Goldstein; Claudia Doblinger; Erin Baker; Laura Díaz Anadón

    Innovation to reduce the cost of clean technologies has large environmental and societal benefits. Governments can play an important role in helping cleantech startups innovate and overcome risks involved in technology development. Here we examine the impact of the US Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) on two outcomes for startup companies: innovation (measured by patenting activity)

  • Changing geography of clean tech
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Stine Haakonsson

    The landscape of the global clean energy industry is transforming, with many technology-following firms in developing countries rapidly catching up to — and potentially poised to overtake — leaders in the developed world. New analysis reveals a clearer picture of this changing geography of clean energy value chains over time.

  • Mission Innovation is mission critical
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Zdenka Myslikova; Kelly Sims Gallagher

    The Paris Agreement’s Mission Innovation initiative to accelerate government spending on clean energy research is currently succeeding in its quest to support carbon mitigation. It should be renewed for an additional five years, with increased ambition, and changed to better integrate the private sector.

  • Ambient-pressure and low-temperature upgrading of lignin bio-oil to hydrocarbons using a hydrogen buffer catalytic system
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Wei Liu; Wenqin You; Wei Sun; Weisheng Yang; Akshay Korde; Yutao Gong; Yulin Deng

    Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation is an essential step for bio-oil upgrading. However, hydrodeoxygenation usually requires a high hydrogen pressure and high temperature due to the good stability of the C–O bonds. Here we report an effective multiphase hydrodeoxygenation of lignin-based bio-oil at temperatures <100 °C and hydrogen pressures <1 atm using a synergetic catalyst system that consists of a low

  • How to split an exciton
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Tracey M. Clarke

    Non-fullerene acceptors have enabled record power conversion efficiencies in organic solar cells, but it is unclear how they achieve efficient electron–hole separation. New research shows that extremely long exciton lifetimes are essential to ensure that charges are generated efficiently.

  • The role of exciton lifetime for charge generation in organic solar cells at negligible energy-level offsets
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Andrej Classen; Christos L. Chochos; Larry Lüer; Vasilis G. Gregoriou; Jonas Wortmann; Andres Osvet; Karen Forberich; Iain McCulloch; Thomas Heumüller; Christoph J. Brabec

    Organic solar cells utilize an energy-level offset to generate free charge carriers. Although a very small energy-level offset increases the open-circuit voltage, it remains unclear how exactly charge generation is affected. Here we investigate organic solar cell blends with highest occupied molecular orbital energy-level offsets (∆EHOMO) between the donor and acceptor that range from 0 to 300 meV

  • Effects of technology complexity on the emergence and evolution of wind industry manufacturing locations along global value chains
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Kavita Surana; Claudia Doblinger; Laura Diaz Anadon; Nathan Hultman

    Wind energy can contribute to national climate, energy and economic goals by expanding clean energy and supporting economies through new manufacturing industries. However, the mechanisms for achieving these interlinked goals are not well understood. Here we analyse the wind energy manufacturing global value chain, using a dataset on 389 component supplier firms (2006–2016) that work with 13 original

  • A global analysis of the progress and failure of electric utilities to adapt their portfolios of power-generation assets to the energy transition
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Galina Alova

    The penetration of low-carbon technologies in power generation has challenged fossil-fuel-focused electric utilities. While the extant, predominantly qualitative, literature highlights diversification into renewables among possible adaptation strategies, comprehensive quantitative understanding of utilities’ portfolio decarbonization has been missing. This study bridges this gap, systematically quantifying

  • The short-term costs of local content requirements in the Indian solar auctions
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Benedict Probst; Vasilios Anatolitis; Andreas Kontoleon; Laura Díaz Anadón

    Developing and emerging economies are implementing local content requirements to spur domestic manufacturing, though their costs and benefits are not well understood and difficult to quantify. Here, we provide an empirical assessment of the short-term costs of local content requirements using a credible counterfactual. We analyse data on government-run solar photovoltaic auctions held in India between

  • Sacrificing nothing to reduce CO 2
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Tuo Wang; Jinlong Gong

    Photocatalytic systems for CO2 conversion to fuels tend to suffer from low selectivity, and sacrificial reagents or external bias are often required to make the reaction work. Now, a wireless and stand-alone photocatalyst device is demonstrated that converts CO2 and water into formate and O2 using solar energy without external bias.

  • Molecularly engineered photocatalyst sheet for scalable solar formate production from carbon dioxide and water
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Qian Wang; Julien Warnan; Santiago Rodríguez-Jiménez; Jane J. Leung; Shafeer Kalathil; Virgil Andrei; Kazunari Domen; Erwin Reisner

    Harvesting solar energy to convert CO2 into chemical fuels is a promising technology to curtail the growing atmospheric CO2 levels and alleviate the global dependence on fossil fuels; however, the assembly of efficient and robust systems for the selective photoconversion of CO2 without sacrificial reagents and external bias remains a challenge. Here we present a photocatalyst sheet that converts CO2

  • Operando decoding of chemical and thermal events in commercial Na(Li)-ion cells via optical sensors
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Jiaqiang Huang; Laura Albero Blanquer; Julien Bonefacino; E. R. Logan; Daniel Alves Dalla Corte; Charles Delacourt; Betar M. Gallant; Steven T. Boles; J. R. Dahn; Hwa-Yaw Tam; Jean-Marie Tarascon

    Monitoring the dynamic chemical and thermal state of a cell during operation is crucial to making meaningful advancements in battery technology as safety and reliability cannot be compromised. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating optical fibre Bragg grating sensors into commercial 18650 cells. By adjusting fibre morphologies, wavelength changes associated with both temperature and pressure

  • Benefits and costs of a utility-ownership business model for residential rooftop solar photovoltaics
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Galen Barbose; Andrew J. Satchwell

    The rapid growth of rooftop solar photovoltaic systems can pose a number of financial challenges for electric utility shareholders and their customers. One potential pathway to resolving these perceived challenges involves allowing utilities to own and operate rooftop solar systems. However, the financial benefits and costs of this business model are not well understood. Here we model the financial

  • Energy justice towards racial justice
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-14

    Black and African American people face systematic disadvantages in energy costs and limited access to renewable energy benefits. Addressing these disparities is an important part of achieving racial justice.

  • Realizing high zinc reversibility in rechargeable batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Lin Ma; Marshall A. Schroeder; Oleg Borodin; Travis P. Pollard; Michael S. Ding; Chunsheng Wang; Kang Xu

    Rechargeable zinc metal batteries (RZMBs) offer a compelling complement to existing lithium ion and emerging lithium metal batteries for meeting the increasing energy storage demands of the future. Multiple recent reports have suggested that optimized electrolytes resolve a century-old challenge for RZMBs by achieving extremely reversible zinc plating/stripping with Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) approaching

  • Challenges and prospects for negawatt trading in light of recent technological developments
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Wayes Tushar; Tapan K. Saha; Chau Yuen; David Smith; Peta Ashworth; H. Vincent Poor; Subarna Basnet

    With the advancement of the smart grid, the current energy system is moving towards a future where people can buy what they need, can sell when they have excess and can trade the right of buying to other proactive consumers (prosumers). Although the first two schemes already exist in the market, selling the right of buying — also known as negawatt trading — is something that is yet to be implemented

  • Five thermal energy grand challenges for decarbonization
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Asegun Henry; Ravi Prasher; Arun Majumdar

    Roughly 90% of the world’s energy use today involves generation or manipulation of heat over a wide range of temperatures. Here, we note five key applications of research in thermal energy that could help make significant progress towards mitigating climate change at the necessary scale and urgency.

  • Diagnosing and correcting anode-free cell failure via electrolyte and morphological analysis
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    A. J. Louli; A. Eldesoky; Rochelle Weber; M. Genovese; Matt Coon; Jack deGooyer; Zhe Deng; R. T. White; Jaehan Lee; Thomas Rodgers; R. Petibon; S. Hy; Shawn J. H. Cheng; J. R. Dahn

    Anode-free lithium metal cells store 60% more energy per volume than conventional lithium-ion cells. Such high energy density can increase the range of electric vehicles by approximately 280 km or even enable electrified urban aviation. However, these cells tend to experience rapid capacity loss and short cycle life. Furthermore, safety issues concerning metallic lithium often remain unaddressed in

  • Molecular engineering of dispersed nickel phthalocyanines on carbon nanotubes for selective CO 2 reduction
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Xiao Zhang; Yang Wang; Meng Gu; Maoyu Wang; Zisheng Zhang; Weiying Pan; Zhan Jiang; Hongzhi Zheng; Marcos Lucero; Hailiang Wang; George E. Sterbinsky; Qing Ma; Yang-Gang Wang; Zhenxing Feng; Jun Li; Hongjie Dai; Yongye Liang

    Electrochemical reduction of CO2 is a promising route for sustainable production of fuels. A grand challenge is developing low-cost and efficient electrocatalysts that can enable rapid conversion with high product selectivity. Here we design a series of nickel phthalocyanine molecules supported on carbon nanotubes as molecularly dispersed electrocatalysts (MDEs), achieving CO2 reduction performances

  • Quantification beyond expenditure
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Harriet Thomson

    The use of energy expenditure thresholds for quantifying energy poverty is a widely used approach, particularly within the Global North. New research from Hong Kong confirms that this method risks overlooking important housing and climate-related factors.

  • Impacts of climate change on energy systems in global and regional scenarios
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Seleshi G. Yalew; Michelle T. H. van Vliet; David E. H. J. Gernaat; Fulco Ludwig; Ariel Miara; Chan Park; Edward Byers; Enrica De Cian; Franziska Piontek; Gokul Iyer; Ioanna Mouratiadou; James Glynn; Mohamad Hejazi; Olivier Dessens; Pedro Rochedo; Robert Pietzcker; Roberto Schaeffer; Shinichiro Fujimori; Shouro Dasgupta; Silvana Mima; Silvia R. Santos da Silva; Vaibhav Chaturvedi; Robert Vautard; Detlef

    Although our knowledge of climate change impacts on energy systems has increased substantially over the past few decades, there remains a lack of comprehensive overview of impacts across spatial scales. Here, we analyse results of 220 studies projecting climate impacts on energy systems globally and at the regional scale. Globally, a potential increase in cooling demand and decrease in heating demand

  • Publisher Correction: Current status and future directions of multivalent metal-ion batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Yanliang Liang; Hui Dong; Doron Aurbach; Yan Yao

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Publisher Correction: Exploiting intervalley scattering to harness hot carriers in III–V solar cells
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Hamidreza Esmaielpour; Kyle R. Dorman; David K. Ferry; Tetsuya D. Mishima; Michael B. Santos; Vincent R. Whiteside; Ian R. Sellers

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Leaving the competition in its wake
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Ian D. Broadbent; John Aldersey-Williams

    Offshore wind projects are being deployed at an increasing rate, and as the scale of these projects has grown, costs have tumbled. A new study indicates that some new European projects may no longer require support from state subsidy mechanisms to be competitive.

  • Recycling fertilizer
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Lauren F. Greenlee

    Efforts to electrochemically produce ammonia have mainly focused on dinitrogen as a feedstock. Now, an electrocatalyst composed of Cu embedded in an organic molecular solid is designed, which efficiently and selectively converts nitrate ions to ammonia, paving a way to nutrient recovery and recycling.

  • Electrochemical reduction of nitrate to ammonia via direct eight-electron transfer using a copper–molecular solid catalyst
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Gao-Feng Chen; Yifei Yuan; Haifeng Jiang; Shi-Yu Ren; Liang-Xin Ding; Lu Ma; Tianpin Wu; Jun Lu; Haihui Wang

    Ammonia (NH3) is essential for modern agriculture and industry and is a potential energy carrier. NH3 is traditionally synthesized by the Haber–Bosch process at high temperature and pressure. The high-energy input of this process has motivated research into electrochemical NH3 synthesis via nitrogen (N2)–water reactions under ambient conditions. However, the future of this low-cost process is compromised

  • Offshore wind competitiveness in mature markets without subsidy
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Malte Jansen; Iain Staffell; Lena Kitzing; Sylvain Quoilin; Edwin Wiggelinkhuizen; Bernard Bulder; Iegor Riepin; Felix Müsgens

    Offshore wind energy development has been driven by government support schemes; however, recent cost reductions raise the prospect of offshore wind power becoming cheaper than conventional power generation. Many countries use auctions to provide financial support; however, differences in auction design make their results difficult to compare. Here, we harmonize the auction results from five countries

  • Highly selective electrocatalytic CO 2 reduction to ethanol by metallic clusters dynamically formed from atomically dispersed copper
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Haiping Xu; Dominic Rebollar; Haiying He; Lina Chong; Yuzi Liu; Cong Liu; Cheng-Jun Sun; Tao Li; John V. Muntean; Randall E. Winans; Di-Jia Liu; Tao Xu

    Direct electrochemical conversion of CO2 to ethanol offers a promising strategy to lower CO2 emissions while storing energy from renewable electricity. However, current electrocatalysts offer only limited selectivity toward ethanol. Here we report a carbon-supported copper (Cu) catalyst, synthesized by an amalgamated Cu–Li method, that achieves a single-product Faradaic efficiency (FE) of 91% at −0

  • Step up in performance
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Jonathan Major

    Antimony selenosulfides are promising photovoltaic materials but obtaining high-quality absorber layers is challenging. Researchers now show that layers deposited using a hydrothermal method have optimal bandgap, good morphology and favourable growth orientation, enabling solar cells with 10% efficiency.

  • Author Correction: Highly efficient reversible protonic ceramic electrochemical cells for power generation and fuel production
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Chuancheng Duan; Robert Kee; Huayang Zhu; Neal Sullivan; Liangzhu Zhu; Liuzhen Bian; Dylan Jennings; Ryan O’Hayre

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Hydrothermal deposition of antimony selenosulfide thin films enables solar cells with 10% efficiency
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Rongfeng Tang; Xiaomin Wang; Weitao Lian; Jialiang Huang; Qi Wei; Menglin Huang; Yiwei Yin; Chenhui Jiang; Shangfeng Yang; Guichuan Xing; Shiyou Chen; Changfei Zhu; Xiaojing Hao; Martin A. Green; Tao Chen

    Antimony selenosulfide, Sb2(S,Se)3, has attracted attention over the last few years as a light-harvesting material for photovoltaic technology owing to its phase stability, earth abundancy and low toxicity. However, the lack of a suitable material processing approach to obtain Sb2(S,Se)3 films with optimal optoelectronic properties and morphology severely hampers prospects for efficiency improvement

  • Simplified interconnection structure based on C 60 /SnO 2-x for all-perovskite tandem solar cells
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Zhenhua Yu; Zhibin Yang; Zhenyi Ni; Yuchuan Shao; Bo Chen; Yuze Lin; Haotong Wei; Zhengshan J. Yu; Zachary Holman; Jinsong Huang

    The efficiencies of all-perovskite tandem devices are improving quickly. However, their complex interconnection layer (ICL) structures—with typically four or more layers deposited by different processes—limit their prospects for applications. Here, we report an ICL in all-perovskite tandem cells consisting merely of a fullerene layer and a SnO2–x (0 < x < 1) layer. The C60 layer is unintentionally

  • A holistic approach to interface stabilization for efficient perovskite solar modules with over 2,000-hour operational stability
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Zonghao Liu; Longbin Qiu; Luis K. Ono; Sisi He; Zhanhao Hu; Maowei Jiang; Guoqing Tong; Zhifang Wu; Yan Jiang; Dae-Yong Son; Yangyang Dang; Said Kazaoui; Yabing Qi

    The upscaling of perovskite solar cells to module scale and long-term stability have been recognized as the most important challenges for the commercialization of this emerging photovoltaic technology. In a perovskite solar module, each interface within the device contributes to the efficiency and stability of the module. Here, we employed a holistic interface stabilization strategy by modifying all

  • Virtually anything can change
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-17

    Coronavirus-imposed restrictions are putting great strain on academia and the research community but there may be a silver lining in all the commotion.

  • Getting to grips with online conferences
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Michael Saliba

    Online conferences are increasingly popular within scientific communities due to the travel restrictions faced by many countries. Although a relatively new phenomenon for many of us, lessons from recent meetings provide useful reflections on the format’s opportunities and challenges compared to conventional in-person meetings.

  • Machine learning model to project the impact of COVID-19 on US motor gasoline demand
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Shiqi Ou; Xin He; Weiqi Ji; Wei Chen; Lang Sui; Yu Gan; Zifeng Lu; Zhenhong Lin; Sili Deng; Steven Przesmitzki; Jessey Bouchard

    Owing to the global lockdowns that resulted from the COVID-19 pandemic, fuel demand plummeted and the price of oil futures went negative in April 2020. Robust fuel demand projections are crucial to economic and energy planning and policy discussions. Here we incorporate pandemic projections and people’s resulting travel and trip activities and fuel usage in a machine-learning-based model to project

  • Current status and future directions of multivalent metal-ion batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-16
    Yanliang Liang; Hui Dong; Doron Aurbach; Yan Yao

    Batteries based on multivalent metals have the potential to meet the future needs of large-scale energy storage, due to the relatively high abundance of elements such as magnesium, calcium, aluminium and zinc in the Earth’s crust. However, the complexity of multivalent metal-ion chemistries has led to rampant confusions, technical challenges, and eventually doubts and uncertainties about the future

  • Research and development priorities for silicon photovoltaic module recycling to support a circular economy
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Garvin A. Heath; Timothy J. Silverman; Michael Kempe; Michael Deceglie; Dwarakanath Ravikumar; Timothy Remo; Hao Cui; Parikhit Sinha; Cara Libby; Stephanie Shaw; Keiichi Komoto; Karsten Wambach; Evelyn Butler; Teresa Barnes; Andreas Wade

    Large-scale deployment of photovoltaic (PV) modules has considerably increased in recent decades. Given an estimated lifetime of 30 years, the challenge of how to handle large volumes of end-of-life PV modules is starting to emerge. In this Perspective, we assess the global status of practice and knowledge for end-of-life management for crystalline silicon PV modules. We focus in particular on module

  • Assessing the feasibility of carbon dioxide mitigation options in terms of energy usage
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Oytun Babacan; Sven De Causmaecker; Ajay Gambhir; Mathilde Fajardy; A. William Rutherford; Andrea Fantuzzi; Jenny Nelson

    Measures to mitigate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) can vary substantially in terms of the energy required. Some proposed CO2 mitigation options involve energy-intensive processes that compromise their viability as routes to mitigation, especially if deployed at a global scale. Here we provide an assessment of different mitigation options in terms of their energy usage. We assess the relative

  • Balanced news for long-term growth
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Lei Huang; Yang Liu

    China has the world’s most ambitious plan to expand nuclear power production to boost its economic growth. Now research shows that a concerted effort to control news framing may be playing an essential role in cultivating public acceptance of nuclear risk, helping to ensure sustained development of the nuclear power industry.

  • Trade-offs between automation and light vehicle electrification
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Aniruddh Mohan; Shashank Sripad; Parth Vaishnav; Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan

    Weight, computing load, sensor load and possibly higher drag may increase the energy use of automated electric vehicles relative to human-driven electric vehicles, although this increase may be offset by smoother driving. Here, we use a vehicle dynamics model to evaluate the trade-off between automation and electric vehicle range and battery longevity. We find that automation will likely reduce electric

  • Emissions benefits of electric vehicles in Uber and Lyft ride-hailing services
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Alan Jenn

    The use of plug-in electric vehicles in ride-hailing services is expected to have substantial emission reduction benefits. However, these benefits depend on the energy fuel mix in the grid and vehicle usage. Here we employ high-resolution data from Uber and Lyft in California to provide insights into the use of electric vehicles in ride-hailing. The growth in electric vehicle use has been rapid in

  • Ultrafast ion transport at a cathode–electrolyte interface and its strong dependence on salt solvation
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Bohua Wen; Zhi Deng; Ping-Chun Tsai; Zachary W. Lebens-Higgins; Louis F. J. Piper; Shyue Ping Ong; Yet-Ming Chiang

    To access the full performance potential of advanced batteries, electrodes and electrolytes must be designed to facilitate ion transport at all applicable length scales. Here, we perform electrodynamic measurements on single electrode particles of ~6 nAh capacity, decouple bulk and interfacial transport from other pathways and show that Li intercalation into LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2 (NMC333) is primarily

  • Understanding and applying coulombic efficiency in lithium metal batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Jie Xiao; Qiuyan Li; Yujing Bi; Mei Cai; Bruce Dunn; Tobias Glossmann; Jun Liu; Tetsuya Osaka; Ryuta Sugiura; Bingbin Wu; Jihui Yang; Ji-Guang Zhang; M. Stanley Whittingham

    Coulombic efficiency (CE) has been widely used in battery research as a quantifiable indicator for the reversibility of batteries. While CE helps to predict the lifespan of a lithium-ion battery, the prediction is not necessarily accurate in a rechargeable lithium metal battery. Here, we discuss the fundamental definition of CE and unravel its true meaning in lithium-ion batteries and a few representative

  • Monolayer guider
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Sheng S. Zhang

    The normal operation of Li metal batteries is limited to near room temperature and moderate current rates. Now, a self-assembled electrochemically active monolayer is shown to enable the stable operation of Li metal batteries below –15 oC and at a fast-charging time of 45 minutes.

  • Single solvent and single salt
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Claire Villevieille

    The electrolyte is the weak link when it comes to intrinsic issues of Li metal batteries such as instability of the Li metal interface. Now, a liquid electrolyte consisting of one molecular-designed solvent and one common salt is formulated leading to exceptional high-performance batteries.

  • Low-temperature and high-rate-charging lithium metal batteries enabled by an electrochemically active monolayer-regulated interface
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Yue Gao; Tomas Rojas; Ke Wang; Shuai Liu; Daiwei Wang; Tianhang Chen; Haiying Wang; Anh T. Ngo; Donghai Wang

    Stable operation of rechargeable lithium-based batteries at low temperatures is important for cold-climate applications, but is plagued by dendritic Li plating and unstable solid–electrolyte interphase (SEI). Here, we report on high-performance Li metal batteries under low-temperature and high-rate-charging conditions. The high performance is achieved by using a self-assembled monolayer of electrochemically

  • Molecular design for electrolyte solvents enabling energy-dense and long-cycling lithium metal batteries
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Zhiao Yu; Hansen Wang; Xian Kong; William Huang; Yuchi Tsao; David G. Mackanic; Kecheng Wang; Xinchang Wang; Wenxiao Huang; Snehashis Choudhury; Yu Zheng; Chibueze V. Amanchukwu; Samantha T. Hung; Yuting Ma; Eder G. Lomeli; Jian Qin; Yi Cui; Zhenan Bao

    Electrolyte engineering is critical for developing Li metal batteries. While recent works improved Li metal cyclability, a methodology for rational electrolyte design remains lacking. Herein, we propose a design strategy for electrolytes that enable anode-free Li metal batteries with single-solvent single-salt formations at standard concentrations. Rational incorporation of –CF2– units yields fluorinated

  • Publisher Correction: Current understanding and challenges of solar-driven hydrogen generation using polymeric photocatalysts
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Yiou Wang; Anastasia Vogel; Michael Sachs; Reiner Sebastian Sprick; Liam Wilbraham; Savio J. A. Moniz; Robert Godin; Martijn A. Zwijnenburg; James R. Durrant; Andrew I. Cooper; Junwang Tang

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • The justice and equity implications of the clean energy transition
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Sanya Carley; David M. Konisky

    The transition to lower-carbon sources of energy will inevitably produce and, in many cases, perpetuate pre-existing sets of winners and losers. The winners are those that will benefit from cleaner sources of energy, reduced emissions from the removal of fossil fuels, and the employment and innovation opportunities that accompany this transition. The losers are those that will bear the burdens, or

  • Shades of transparency
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Ana Flavia Nogueira

    Dye-sensitized solar cells are promising as power-generating solar windows yet their fixed transparency prevents control of indoor lighting and temperature. Researchers now present a device that dynamically self-adjusts its optical transmittance with sunlight intensity, opening up a way to energy-efficient self-powered building façades.

  • Photochromic dye-sensitized solar cells with light-driven adjustable optical transmission and power conversion efficiency
    Nat. Energy (IF 46.495) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Quentin Huaulmé; Valid M. Mwalukuku; Damien Joly; Johan Liotier; Yann Kervella; Pascale Maldivi; Stéphanie Narbey; Frédéric Oswald; Antonio J. Riquelme; Juan Antonio Anta; Renaud Demadrille

    Semi-transparent photovoltaics only allow for the fabrication of solar cells with an optical transmission that is fixed during their manufacturing resulting in a trade-off between transparency and efficiency. For the integration of semi-transparent devices in buildings, ideally solar cells should generate electricity while offering the comfort for users to self-adjust their light transmission with

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