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  • The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 is inherited from Neanderthals
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Hugo Zeberg; Svante Pääbo

    A recent genetic association study1 identified a gene cluster on chromosome 3 as a risk locus for respiratory failure upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. A new study2 comprising 3,199 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and controls finds that this is the major genetic risk factor for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization (COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative). Here, we show that the risk is conferred by

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b1 elicits human antibody and T H 1 T-cell responses
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Ugur Sahin; Alexander Muik; Evelyna Derhovanessian; Isabel Vogler; Lena M. Kranz; Mathias Vormehr; Alina Baum; Kristen Pascal; Jasmin Quandt; Daniel Maurus; Sebastian Brachtendorf; Verena Lörks; Julian Sikorski; Rolf Hilker; Dirk Becker; Ann-Kathrin Eller; Jan Grützner; Carsten Boesler; Corinna Rosenbaum; Marie-Cristine Kühnle; Ulrich Luxemburger; Alexandra Kemmer-Brück; David Langer; Martin Bexon;

    An effective vaccine is needed to halt the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Recently, we reported safety, tolerability and antibody response data from an ongoing placebo-controlled, observer-blinded phase 1/2 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trial with BNT162b1, a lipid nanoparticle (LNP) formulated nucleoside-modified messenger RNA (mRNA)

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • An enzymatic Alder-ene reaction
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Masao Ohashi; Cooper S. Jamieson; Yujuan Cai; Dan Tan; Daiki Kanayama; Man-Cheng Tang; Sarah M. Anthony; Jason V. Chari; Joyann S. Barber; Elias Picazo; Thomas B. Kakule; Shugeng Cao; Neil K. Garg; Jiahai Zhou; K. N. Houk; Yi Tang

    An ongoing challenge in chemical research is to design catalysts that select the outcomes of the reactions of complex molecules. Chemists rely on organocatalysts or transition metal catalysts to control stereoselectivity, regioselectivity and periselectivity (selectivity among possible pericyclic reactions). Nature achieves these types of selectivity with a variety of enzymes such as the recently discovered

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Concentric liquid reactors for chemical synthesis and separation
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Olgierd Cybulski; Miroslaw Dygas; Barbara Mikulak-Klucznik; Marta Siek; Tomasz Klucznik; Seong Yeol Choi; Robert J. Mitchell; Yaroslav I. Sobolev; Bartosz A. Grzybowski

    Recent years have witnessed increased interest in systems that are capable of supporting multistep chemical processes without the need for manual handling of intermediates. These systems have been based either on collections of batch reactors1 or on flow-chemistry designs2,3,4, both of which require considerable engineering effort to set up and control. Here we develop an out-of-equilibrium system

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Active particles induce large shape deformations in giant lipid vesicles
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Hanumantha Rao Vutukuri; Masoud Hoore; Clara Abaurrea-Velasco; Lennard van Buren; Alessandro Dutto; Thorsten Auth; Dmitry A. Fedosov; Gerhard Gompper; Jan Vermant

    Biological cells generate intricate structures by sculpting their membrane from within to actively sense and respond to external stimuli or to explore their environment1,2,3,4. Several pathogenic bacteria also provide examples of how localized forces strongly deform cell membranes from inside, leading to the invasion of neighbouring healthy mammalian cells5. Giant unilamellar vesicles have been successfully

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Tumoural activation of TLR3–SLIT2 axis in endothelium drives metastasis
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Bernardo Tavora; Tobias Mederer; Kai J. Wessel; Simon Ruffing; Mahan Sadjadi; Marc Missmahl; Benjamin N. Ostendorf; Xuhang Liu; Ji-Young Kim; Olav Olsen; Alana L. Welm; Hani Goodarzi; Sohail F. Tavazoie

    Blood vessels support tumours by providing nutrients and oxygen, while also acting as conduits for the dissemination of cancer1. Here we use mouse models of breast and lung cancer to investigate whether endothelial cells also have active ‘instructive’ roles in the dissemination of cancer. We purified genetically tagged endothelial ribosomes and their associated transcripts from highly and poorly metastatic

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Bolometer operating at the threshold for circuit quantum electrodynamics
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    R. Kokkoniemi; J.-P. Girard; D. Hazra; A. Laitinen; J. Govenius; R. E. Lake; I. Sallinen; V. Vesterinen; M. Partanen; J. Y. Tan; K. W. Chan; K. Y. Tan; P. Hakonen; M. Möttönen

    Radiation sensors based on the heating effect of absorbed radiation are typically simple to operate and flexible in terms of input frequency, so they are widely used in gas detection1, security2, terahertz imaging3, astrophysical observations4 and medical applications5. Several important applications are currently emerging from quantum technology and especially from electrical circuits that behave

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Innovations present in the primate interneuron repertoire
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Fenna M. Krienen; Melissa Goldman; Qiangge Zhang; Ricardo C. H. del Rosario; Marta Florio; Robert Machold; Arpiar Saunders; Kirsten Levandowski; Heather Zaniewski; Benjamin Schuman; Carolyn Wu; Alyssa Lutservitz; Christopher D. Mullally; Nora Reed; Elizabeth Bien; Laura Bortolin; Marian Fernandez-Otero; Jessica D. Lin; Alec Wysoker; James Nemesh; David Kulp; Monika Burns; Victor Tkachev; Richard Smith;

    Primates and rodents, which descended from a common ancestor around 90 million years ago1, exhibit profound differences in behaviour and cognitive capacity; the cellular basis for these differences is unknown. Here we use single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile RNA expression in 188,776 individual interneurons across homologous brain regions from three primates (human, macaque and marmoset), a rodent

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • A single bacterial genus maintains root growth in a complex microbiome
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Omri M. Finkel; Isai Salas-González; Gabriel Castrillo; Jonathan M. Conway; Theresa F. Law; Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira; Ellie D. Wilson; Connor R. Fitzpatrick; Corbin D. Jones; Jeffery L. Dangl

    Plants grow within a complex web of species that interact with each other and with the plant1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. These interactions are governed by a wide repertoire of chemical signals, and the resulting chemical landscape of the rhizosphere can strongly affect root health and development7,8,9,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18. Here, to understand how interactions between microorganisms influence root growth

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Repeat expansions confer WRN dependence in microsatellite-unstable cancers
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Niek van Wietmarschen; Sriram Sridharan; William J. Nathan; Anthony Tubbs; Edmond M. Chan; Elsa Callen; Wei Wu; Frida Belinky; Veenu Tripathi; Nancy Wong; Kyla Foster; Javad Noorbakhsh; Kiran Garimella; Abimael Cruz-Migoni; Joshua A. Sommers; Yongqing Huang; Ashir A. Borah; Jonathan T. Smith; Jeremie Kalfon; Nikolas Kesten; Kasper Fugger; Robert L. Walker; Egor Dolzhenko; Michael A. Eberle; Bruce E

    The RecQ DNA helicase WRN is a synthetic lethal target for cancer cells with microsatellite instability (MSI), a form of genetic hypermutability that arises from impaired mismatch repair1,2,3,4. Depletion of WRN induces widespread DNA double-strand breaks in MSI cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which WRN protects MSI-associated cancers from double-strand

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Structural basis for pH gating of the two-pore domain K + channel TASK2
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Baobin Li; Robert A. Rietmeijer; Stephen G. Brohawn

    TASK2 (also known as KCNK5) channels generate pH-gated leak-type K+ currents to control cellular electrical excitability1,2,3. TASK2 is involved in the regulation of breathing by chemosensory neurons of the retrotrapezoid nucleus in the brainstem4,5,6 and pH homeostasis by kidney proximal tubule cells7,8. These roles depend on channel activation by intracellular and extracellular alkalization3,8,9

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Rate of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet will exceed Holocene values this century
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Jason P. Briner; Joshua K. Cuzzone; Jessica A. Badgeley; Nicolás E. Young; Eric J. Steig; Mathieu Morlighem; Nicole-Jeanne Schlegel; Gregory J. Hakim; Joerg M. Schaefer; Jesse V. Johnson; Alia J. Lesnek; Elizabeth K. Thomas; Estelle Allan; Ole Bennike; Allison A. Cluett; Beata Csatho; Anne de Vernal; Jacob Downs; Eric Larour; Sophie Nowicki

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is losing mass at a high rate1. Given the short-term nature of the observational record, it is difficult to assess the historical importance of this mass-loss trend. Unlike records of greenhouse gas concentrations and global temperature, in which observations have been merged with palaeoclimate datasets, there are no comparably long records for rates of GIS mass change

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Graphene-based Josephson junction microwave bolometer
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Gil-Ho Lee; Dmitri K. Efetov; Woochan Jung; Leonardo Ranzani; Evan D. Walsh; Thomas A. Ohki; Takashi Taniguchi; Kenji Watanabe; Philip Kim; Dirk Englund; Kin Chung Fong

    Sensitive microwave detectors are essential in radioastronomy1, dark-matter axion searches2 and superconducting quantum information science3,4. The conventional strategy to obtain higher-sensitivity bolometry is the nanofabrication of ever smaller devices to augment the thermal response5,6,7. However, it is difficult to obtain efficient photon coupling and to maintain the material properties in a device

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • A hypothalamic novelty signal modulates hippocampal memory
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Shuo Chen; Linmeng He; Arthur J. Y. Huang; Roman Boehringer; Vincent Robert; Marie E. Wintzer; Denis Polygalov; Adam Z. Weitemier; Yanqiu Tao; Mingxiao Gu; Steven J. Middleton; Kana Namiki; Hiroshi Hama; Ludivine Therreau; Vivien Chevaleyre; Hiroyuki Hioki; Atsushi Miyawaki; Rebecca A. Piskorowski; Thomas J. McHugh

    The ability to recognize information that is incongruous with previous experience is critical for survival. Novelty signals have therefore evolved in the mammalian brain to enhance attention, perception and memory1,2. Although the importance of regions such as the ventral tegmental area3,4 and locus coeruleus5 in broadly signalling novelty is well-established, these diffuse monoaminergic transmitters

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Negative feedback control of neuronal activity by microglia
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Ana Badimon; Hayley J. Strasburger; Pinar Ayata; Xinhong Chen; Aditya Nair; Ako Ikegami; Philip Hwang; Andrew T. Chan; Steven M. Graves; Joseph O. Uweru; Carola Ledderose; Munir Gunes Kutlu; Michael A. Wheeler; Anat Kahan; Masago Ishikawa; Ying-Chih Wang; Yong-Hwee E. Loh; Jean X. Jiang; D. James Surmeier; Simon C. Robson; Wolfgang G. Junger; Robert Sebra; Erin S. Calipari; Paul J. Kenny; Ukpong B

    Microglia, the brain’s resident macrophages, help to regulate brain function by removing dying neurons, pruning non-functional synapses, and producing ligands that support neuronal survival1. Here we show that microglia are also critical modulators of neuronal activity and associated behavioural responses in mice. Microglia respond to neuronal activation by suppressing neuronal activity, and ablation

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Integration of innate immune signaling by caspase-8 cleavage of N4BP1
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Alexander D. Gitlin; Klaus Heger; Alexander F. Schubert; Rohit Reja; Donghong Yan; Victoria C. Pham; Eric Suto; Juan Zhang; Youngsu C. Kwon; Emily C. Freund; Jing Kang; Anna Pham; Roger Caothien; Natasha Bacarro; Trent Hinkle; Min Xu; Brent S. McKenzie; Benjamin Haley; Wyne P. Lee; Jennie R. Lill; Merone Roose-Girma; Monika Dohse; Joshua D. Webster; Kim Newton; Vishva M. Dixit

    Mutations in the death receptor Fas1,2 or its ligand FasL3 cause autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), whereas mutations in caspase-8 or its adaptor FADD – which mediate cell death downstream of Fas/FasL – cause severe immunodeficiency in addition to ALPS4–6. Mouse models have corroborated a role for FADD-caspase-8 in promoting inflammatory responses7–12, but the mechanisms underlying immunodeficiency

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Cells of the adult human heart
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Monika Litviňuková; Carlos Talavera-López; Henrike Maatz; Daniel Reichart; Catherine L. Worth; Eric L. Lindberg; Masatoshi Kanda; Krzysztof Polanski; Matthias Heinig; Michael Lee; Emily R. Nadelmann; Kenny Roberts; Liz Tuck; Eirini S. Fasouli; Daniel M. DeLaughter; Barbara McDonough; Hiroko Wakimoto; Joshua M. Gorham; Sara Samari; Krishnaa T. Mahbubani; Kourosh Saeb-Parsy; Giannino Patone; Joseph J

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Advanced insights into disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies require deeper understanding of the healthy heart’s molecular processes. Knowledge of the full repertoire of cardiac cells and their gene expression profiles is a fundamental first step in this endeavor. Here, using state-of-the-art analyses of large-scale single-cell

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in development.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Florian Krammer

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 in China and caused a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To mitigate the public health, economic and societal impacts of the virus, a vaccine is urgently needed. The development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines was initiated in early January 2020 when the sequence of the virus became available and moved at record speed

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Animal models for COVID-19.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    César Muñoz-Fontela,William E Dowling,Simon G P Funnell,Pierre-S Gsell,Ximena Riveros Balta,Randy A Albrecht,Hanne Andersen,Ralph S Baric,Miles W Carroll,Marco Cavaleri,Chuan Qin,Ian Crozier,Kai Dallmeier,Leon de Waal,Emmie de Wit,Leen Delang,Erik Dohm,W Paul Duprex,Darryl Falzarano,Courtney L Finch,Matthew B Frieman,Barney S Graham,Lisa Gralinski,Kate Guilfoyle,Bart L Haagmans,Geraldine A Hamilton

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging respiratory infection caused by introduction of a novel coronavirus into humans in late 2019 in China’s Hubei province. As of September 11, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 215 countries, has infected more than 28 million people, and has caused more than 910,000 deaths

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Third-order nanocircuit elements for neuromorphic engineering.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Suhas Kumar,R Stanley Williams,Ziwen Wang

    Current hardware approaches to biomimetic or neuromorphic artificial intelligence rely on elaborate transistor circuits to simulate biological functions. However, these can instead be more faithfully emulated by higher-order circuit elements that naturally express neuromorphic nonlinear dynamics1,2,3,4. Generating neuromorphic action potentials in a circuit element theoretically requires a minimum

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • The hysteresis of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Julius Garbe,Torsten Albrecht,Anders Levermann,Jonathan F Donges,Ricarda Winkelmann

    More than half of Earth’s freshwater resources are held by the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which thus represents by far the largest potential source for global sea-level rise under future warming conditions1. Its long-term stability determines the fate of our coastal cities and cultural heritage. Feedbacks between ice, atmosphere, ocean, and the solid Earth give rise to potential nonlinearities in its response

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Functional genomic landscape of cancer-intrinsic evasion of killing by T cells.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Keith A Lawson,Cristovão M Sousa,Xiaoyu Zhang,Eiru Kim,Rummy Akthar,Joseph J Caumanns,Yuxi Yao,Nicholas Mikolajewicz,Catherine Ross,Kevin R Brown,Abdelrahman Abou Zid,Zi Peng Fan,Shirley Hui,Jordan A Krall,Donald M Simons,Chloe J Slater,Victor De Jesus,Lujia Tang,Richa Singh,Joshua E Goldford,Sarah Martin,Qian Huang,Elizabeth A Francis,Andrea Habsid,Ryan Climie,David Tieu,Jiarun Wei,Ren Li,Amy Hin

    The genetic circuits that allow cancer cells to evade destruction by the host immune system remain poorly understood1,2,3. Here, to identify a phenotypically robust core set of genes and pathways that enable cancer cells to evade killing mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), we performed genome-wide CRISPR screens across a panel of genetically diverse mouse cancer cell lines that were cultured

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Hippocampal CA2 sharp-wave ripples reactivate and promote social memory.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Azahara Oliva,Antonio Fernández-Ruiz,Felix Leroy,Steven A Siegelbaum

    The consolidation of spatial memory depends on the reactivation (‘replay’) of hippocampal place cells that were active during recent behaviour. Such reactivation is observed during sharp-wave ripples (SWRs)—synchronous oscillatory electrical events that occur during non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 and whose disruption impairs spatial memory3,5,6,8. Although the hippocampus also

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Colloidal diamond.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Mingxin He,Johnathon P Gales,Étienne Ducrot,Zhe Gong,Gi-Ra Yi,Stefano Sacanna,David J Pine

    Self-assembling colloidal particles in the cubic diamond crystal structure could potentially be used to make materials with a photonic bandgap1,2,3. Such materials are beneficial because they suppress spontaneous emission of light1 and are valued for their applications as optical waveguides, filters and laser resonators4, for improving light-harvesting technologies5,6,7 and for other applications4

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Conformation of sister chromatids in the replicated human genome.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Michael Mitter,Catherina Gasser,Zsuzsanna Takacs,Christoph C H Langer,Wen Tang,Gregor Jessberger,Charlie T Beales,Eva Neuner,Stefan L Ameres,Jan-Michael Peters,Anton Goloborodko,Ronald Micura,Daniel W Gerlich

    The three-dimensional organization of the genome supports regulated gene expression, recombination, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C)1,2 analysis has revealed a complex genomic landscape of internal chromosomal structures in vertebrate cells3,4,5,6,7, but the identical sequence of sister chromatids has made it difficult to determine how they

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Local exposure to inequality raises support of people of low wealth for taxing the wealthy.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Melissa L Sands,Daniel de Kadt

    Psychological research shows that social comparison of individuals with peers or others shapes attitude formation1,2. Opportunities for such comparisons have increased with global inequality3,4; everyday experiences can make economic disparities more salient through signals of social class5,6. Here we show that, among individuals with a lower socioeconomic status, such local exposure to inequality

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Structure of nucleosome-bound DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Ting-Hai Xu,Minmin Liu,X Edward Zhou,Gangning Liang,Gongpu Zhao,H Eric Xu,Karsten Melcher,Peter A Jones

    CpG methylation by de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 3A and 3B is essential for mammalian development and differentiation and is frequently dysregulated in cancer1. These two DNMTs preferentially bind to nucleosomes, yet cannot methylate the DNA wrapped around the nucleosome core2, and they favour the methylation of linker DNA at positioned nucleosomes3,4. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Fractional antiferromagnetic skyrmion lattice induced by anisotropic couplings.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Shang Gao,H Diego Rosales,Flavia A Gómez Albarracín,Vladimir Tsurkan,Guratinder Kaur,Tom Fennell,Paul Steffens,Martin Boehm,Petr Čermák,Astrid Schneidewind,Eric Ressouche,Daniel C Cabra,Christian Rüegg,Oksana Zaharko

    Magnetic skyrmions are topological solitons with a nanoscale winding spin texture that hold promise for spintronics applications1,2,3,4. Skyrmions have so far been observed in a variety of magnets that exhibit nearly parallel alignment for neighbouring spins, but theoretically skyrmions with anti-parallel neighbouring spins are also possible. Such antiferromagnetic skyrmions may allow more flexible

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Initiation of a conserved trophectoderm program in human, cow and mouse embryos.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Claudia Gerri,Afshan McCarthy,Gregorio Alanis-Lobato,Andrej Demtschenko,Alexandre Bruneau,Sophie Loubersac,Norah M E Fogarty,Daniel Hampshire,Kay Elder,Phil Snell,Leila Christie,Laurent David,Hilde Van de Velde,Ali A Fouladi-Nashta,Kathy K Niakan

    Current understandings of cell specification in early mammalian pre-implantation development are based mainly on mouse studies. The first lineage differentiation event occurs at the morula stage, with outer cells initiating a trophectoderm (TE) placental progenitor program. The inner cell mass arises from inner cells during subsequent developmental stages and comprises precursor cells of the embryo

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Synthetic group A streptogramin antibiotics that overcome Vat resistance.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Qi Li,Jenna Pellegrino,D John Lee,Arthur A Tran,Hector A Chaires,Ruoxi Wang,Jesslyn E Park,Kaijie Ji,David Chow,Na Zhang,Axel F Brilot,Justin T Biel,Gydo van Zundert,Kenneth Borrelli,Dean Shinabarger,Cindy Wolfe,Beverly Murray,Matthew P Jacobson,Estelle Mühle,Olivier Chesneau,James S Fraser,Ian B Seiple

    Natural products serve as chemical blueprints for most antibiotics in clinical use. The evolutionary process by which these molecules arise is inherently accompanied by the co-evolution of resistance mechanisms that shorten the clinical lifetime of any given class of antibiotics1. Virginiamycin acetyltransferase (Vat) enzymes are resistance proteins that provide protection against streptogramins2,

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Mapping carbon accumulation potential from global natural forest regrowth.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Susan C Cook-Patton,Sara M Leavitt,David Gibbs,Nancy L Harris,Kristine Lister,Kristina J Anderson-Teixeira,Russell D Briggs,Robin L Chazdon,Thomas W Crowther,Peter W Ellis,Heather P Griscom,Valentine Herrmann,Karen D Holl,Richard A Houghton,Cecilia Larrosa,Guy Lomax,Richard Lucas,Palle Madsen,Yadvinder Malhi,Alain Paquette,John D Parker,Keryn Paul,Devin Routh,Stephen Roxburgh,Sassan Saatchi,Johan van

    To constrain global warming, we must strongly curtail greenhouse gas emissions and capture excess atmospheric carbon dioxide1,2. Regrowing natural forests is a prominent strategy for capturing additional carbon3, but accurate assessments of its potential are limited by uncertainty and variability in carbon accumulation rates2,3. To assess why and where rates differ, here we compile 13,112 georeferenced

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • The maternal microbiome modulates fetal neurodevelopment in mice.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Helen E Vuong,Geoffrey N Pronovost,Drake W Williams,Elena J L Coley,Emily L Siegler,Austin Qiu,Maria Kazantsev,Chantel J Wilson,Tomiko Rendon,Elaine Y Hsiao

    ‘Dysbiosis’ of the maternal gut microbiome, in response to challenges such as infection1, altered diet2 and stress3 during pregnancy, has been increasingly associated with abnormalities in brain function and behaviour of the offspring4. However, it is unclear whether the maternal gut microbiome influences neurodevelopment during critical prenatal periods and in the absence of environmental challenges

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Light-driven post-translational installation of reactive protein side chains.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Brian Josephson,Charlie Fehl,Patrick G Isenegger,Simon Nadal,Tom H Wright,Adeline W J Poh,Ben J Bower,Andrew M Giltrap,Lifu Chen,Christopher Batchelor-McAuley,Grace Roper,Oluwatobi Arisa,Jeroen B I Sap,Akane Kawamura,Andrew J Baldwin,Shabaz Mohammed,Richard G Compton,Veronique Gouverneur,Benjamin G Davis

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) greatly expand the structures and functions of proteins in nature1,2. Although synthetic protein functionalization strategies allow mimicry of PTMs3,4, as well as formation of unnatural protein variants with diverse potential functions, including drug carrying5, tracking, imaging6 and partner crosslinking7, the range of functional groups that can be introduced

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Host-microbiota maladaptation in colorectal cancer.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Alina Janney,Fiona Powrie,Elizabeth H Mann

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease of the intestinal epithelium that is characterized by the accumulation of mutations and a dysregulated immune response. Up to 90% of disease risk is thought to be due to environmental factors such as diet, which is consistent with a growing body of literature that describes an ‘oncogenic’ CRC-associated microbiota. Whether this dysbiosis contributes

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Modulating TRADD to restore cellular homeostasis and inhibit apoptosis.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Daichao Xu,Heng Zhao,Minzhi Jin,Hong Zhu,Bing Shan,Jiefei Geng,Slawomir A Dziedzic,Palak Amin,Lauren Mifflin,Masanori Gomi Naito,Ayaz Najafov,Jing Xing,Lingjie Yan,Jianping Liu,Ying Qin,Xinqian Hu,Huibing Wang,Mengmeng Zhang,Vica Jean Manuel,Li Tan,Zhuohao He,Zhenyu J Sun,Virginia M Y Lee,Gerhard Wagner,Junying Yuan

    Cell death in human diseases is often a consequence of disrupted cellular homeostasis. If cell death is prevented without restoring cellular homeostasis, it may lead to a persistent dysfunctional and pathological state. Although mechanisms of cell death have been thoroughly investigated1,2,3, it remains unclear how homeostasis can be restored after inhibition of cell death. Here we identify TRADD4

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Shared yet dissociable neural codes across eye gaze, valence and expectation.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Raviv Pryluk,Yosef Shohat,Anna Morozov,Dafna Friedman,Aryeh H Taub,Rony Paz

    The direction of the eye gaze of others is a prominent social cue in primates and is important for communication1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. Although gaze can signal threat and elicit anxiety6,12,13, it remains unclear whether it shares neural circuitry with stimulus value. Notably, gaze not only has valence, but can also serve as a predictor of the outcome of a social encounter, which can be either negative

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Near-perfect photon utilization in an air-bridge thermophotovoltaic cell.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Dejiu Fan,Tobias Burger,Sean McSherry,Byungjun Lee,Andrej Lenert,Stephen R Forrest

    Thermophotovoltaic cells are similar to solar cells, but instead of converting solar radiation to electricity, they are designed to utilize locally radiated heat. Development of high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic cells has the potential to enable widespread applications in grid-scale thermal energy storage1,2, direct solar energy conversion3,4,5,6,7,8, distributed co-generation9,10,11 and waste heat

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Receptor binding and priming of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 for membrane fusion.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Donald J Benton,Antoni G Wrobel,Pengqi Xu,Chloë Roustan,Stephen R Martin,Peter B Rosenthal,John J Skehel,Steven J Gamblin

    SARS-CoV-2 infection is initiated by virus binding to ACE2 cell surface receptors1–4, followed by fusion of virus and cell membranes to release the virus genome into the cell. Both receptor binding and membrane fusion activities are mediated by the virus Spike glycoprotein, S5–7. As with other class I membrane fusion proteins, S is post-translationally cleaved, in this case by furin, into S1 and S2

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Prokaryotic viperins produce diverse antiviral molecules.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Aude Bernheim,Adi Millman,Gal Ofir,Gilad Meitav,Carmel Avraham,Helena Shomar,Masha M Rosenberg,Nir Tal,Sarah Melamed,Gil Amitai,Rotem Sorek

    Viperin is an interferon-induced cellular protein conserved in animals1. It was shown to inhibit the replication of multiple viruses by producing a ribonucleotide called 3’-deoxy-3’4’-didehydro-CTP (ddhCTP), which acts as a chain terminator for the viral RNA polymerase2. Here we show that the eukaryotic viperin has originated from a clade of bacterial and archaeal proteins that protect against phage

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Plasmonic enhancement of stability and brightness in organic light-emitting devices.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Michael A Fusella,Renata Saramak,Rezlind Bushati,Vinod M Menon,Michael S Weaver,Nicholas J Thompson,Julia J Brown

    The field of plasmonics, which studies the resonant interactions of electromagnetic waves and free electrons in solid-state materials1, has yet to be put to large-scale commercial application2 owing to the large amount of loss that usually occurs in plasmonic materials3. Organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs)4,5,6,7 have been incorporated into billions of commercial products because of their good colour

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Array programming with NumPy.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Charles R Harris,K Jarrod Millman,Stéfan J van der Walt,Ralf Gommers,Pauli Virtanen,David Cournapeau,Eric Wieser,Julian Taylor,Sebastian Berg,Nathaniel J Smith,Robert Kern,Matti Picus,Stephan Hoyer,Marten H van Kerkwijk,Matthew Brett,Allan Haldane,Jaime Fernández Del Río,Mark Wiebe,Pearu Peterson,Pierre Gérard-Marchant,Kevin Sheppard,Tyler Reddy,Warren Weckesser,Hameer Abbasi,Christoph Gohlke,Travis

    Array programming provides a powerful, compact and expressive syntax for accessing, manipulating and operating on data in vectors, matrices and higher-dimensional arrays. NumPy is the primary array programming library for the Python language. It has an essential role in research analysis pipelines in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geoscience, biology, psychology, materials science

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Homeostatic mini-intestines through scaffold-guided organoid morphogenesis.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Mikhail Nikolaev,Olga Mitrofanova,Nicolas Broguiere,Sara Geraldo,Devanjali Dutta,Yoji Tabata,Bilge Elci,Nathalie Brandenberg,Irina Kolotuev,Nikolce Gjorevski,Hans Clevers,Matthias P Lutolf

    Epithelial organoids, such as those derived from stem cells of the intestine, have great potential for modelling tissue and disease biology1,2,3,4. However, the approaches that are used at present to derive these organoids in three-dimensional matrices5,6 result in stochastically developing tissues with a closed, cystic architecture that restricts lifespan and size, limits experimental manipulation

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Deep posteromedial cortical rhythm in dissociation.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sam Vesuna,Isaac V Kauvar,Ethan Richman,Felicity Gore,Tomiko Oskotsky,Clara Sava-Segal,Liqun Luo,Robert C Malenka,Jaimie M Henderson,Paul Nuyujukian,Josef Parvizi,Karl Deisseroth

    Advanced imaging methods now allow cell-type-specific recording of neural activity across the mammalian brain, potentially enabling the exploration of how brain-wide dynamical patterns give rise to complex behavioural states1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12. Dissociation is an altered behavioural state in which the integrity of experience is disrupted, resulting in reproducible cognitive phenomena including

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Population genomics of the Viking world.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ashot Margaryan,Daniel J Lawson,Martin Sikora,Fernando Racimo,Simon Rasmussen,Ida Moltke,Lara M Cassidy,Emil Jørsboe,Andrés Ingason,Mikkel W Pedersen,Thorfinn Korneliussen,Helene Wilhelmson,Magdalena M Buś,Peter de Barros Damgaard,Rui Martiniano,Gabriel Renaud,Claude Bhérer,J Víctor Moreno-Mayar,Anna K Fotakis,Marie Allen,Raili Allmäe,Martyna Molak,Enrico Cappellini,Gabriele Scorrano,Hugh McColl,Alexandra

    The maritime expansion of Scandinavian populations during the Viking Age (about ad 750–1050) was a far-flung transformation in world history1,2. Here we sequenced the genomes of 442 humans from archaeological sites across Europe and Greenland (to a median depth of about 1×) to understand the global influence of this expansion. We find the Viking period involved gene flow into Scandinavia from the south

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Reprogramming roadmap reveals route to human induced trophoblast stem cells.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Xiaodong Liu,John F Ouyang,Fernando J Rossello,Jia Ping Tan,Kathryn C Davidson,Daniela S Valdes,Jan Schröder,Yu B Y Sun,Joseph Chen,Anja S Knaupp,Guizhi Sun,Hun S Chy,Ziyi Huang,Jahnvi Pflueger,Jaber Firas,Vincent Tano,Sam Buckberry,Jacob M Paynter,Michael R Larcombe,Daniel Poppe,Xin Yi Choo,Carmel M O'Brien,William A Pastor,Di Chen,Anna L Leichter,Haroon Naeem,Pratibha Tripathi,Partha P Das,Alexandra

    The reprogramming of human somatic cells to primed or naive induced pluripotent stem cells recapitulates the stages of early embryonic development1,2,3,4,5,6. The molecular mechanism that underpins these reprogramming processes remains largely unexplored, which impedes our understanding and limits rational improvements to reprogramming protocols. Here, to address these issues, we reconstruct molecular

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Metabolic trait diversity shapes marine biogeography.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Curtis Deutsch,Justin L Penn,Brad Seibel

    Climate and physiology shape biogeography, yet the range limits of species can rarely be ascribed to the quantitative traits of organisms1,2,3. Here we evaluate whether the geographical range boundaries of species coincide with ecophysiological limits to acquisition of aerobic energy4 for a global cross-section of the biodiversity of marine animals. We observe a tight correlation between the metabolic

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • A submicrometre silicon-on-insulator resonator for ultrasound detection.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Rami Shnaiderman,Georg Wissmeyer,Okan Ülgen,Qutaiba Mustafa,Andriy Chmyrov,Vasilis Ntziachristos

    Ultrasound detectors use high-frequency sound waves to image objects and measure distances, but the resolution of these readings is limited by the physical dimensions of the detecting element. Point-like broadband ultrasound detection can greatly increase the resolution of ultrasonography and optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging1,2, but current ultrasound detectors, such as those used for medical imaging

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Bridging of DNA breaks activates PARP2-HPF1 to modify chromatin.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Silvija Bilokapic,Marcin J Suskiewicz,Ivan Ahel,Mario Halic

    Breaks in DNA strands recruit the protein PARP1 and its paralogue PARP2 to modify histones and other substrates through the addition of mono- and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)1,2,3,4,5. In the DNA damage responses, this post-translational modification occurs predominantly on serine residues6,7,8 and requires HPF1, an accessory factor that switches the amino acid specificity of PARP1 and PARP2 from aspartate

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Plasticity of ether lipids promotes ferroptosis susceptibility and evasion.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Yilong Zou,Whitney S Henry,Emily L Ricq,Emily T Graham,Vaishnavi V Phadnis,Pema Maretich,Sateja Paradkar,Natalie Boehnke,Amy A Deik,Ferenc Reinhardt,John K Eaton,Bryan Ferguson,Wenyu Wang,Joshua Fairman,Heather R Keys,Vlado Dančík,Clary B Clish,Paul A Clemons,Paula T Hammond,Laurie A Boyer,Robert A Weinberg,Stuart L Schreiber

    Ferroptosis—an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death process—is involved in various degenerative diseases and represents a targetable susceptibility in certain cancers1. The ferroptosis-susceptible cell state can either pre-exist in cells that arise from certain lineages or be acquired during cell-state transitions2,3,4,5. However, precisely how susceptibility to ferroptosis is dynamically regulated

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Stimulus-specific hypothalamic encoding of a persistent defensive state.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ann Kennedy,Prabhat S Kunwar,Ling-Yun Li,Stefanos Stagkourakis,Daniel A Wagenaar,David J Anderson

    Persistent neural activity in cortical, hippocampal, and motor networks has been described as mediating working memory for transiently encountered stimuli1,2. Internal emotional states, such as fear, also persist following exposure to an inciting stimulus3, but it is unclear whether slow neural dynamics are involved in this process. Neurons in the dorsomedial and central subdivisions of the ventromedial

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • The superconducting quasicharge qubit.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Ivan V Pechenezhskiy,Raymond A Mencia,Long B Nguyen,Yen-Hsiang Lin,Vladimir E Manucharyan

    The non-dissipative nonlinearity of Josephson junctions1 converts macroscopic superconducting circuits into artificial atoms2, enabling some of the best-controlled qubits today3,4. Three fundamental types of superconducting qubit are known5, each reflecting a distinct behaviour of quantum fluctuations in a Cooper pair condensate: single-charge tunnelling (charge qubit6,7), single-flux tunnelling (flux

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Reverse and forward engineering of Drosophila corneal nanocoatings.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Mikhail Kryuchkov,Oleksii Bilousov,Jannis Lehmann,Manfred Fiebig,Vladimir L Katanaev

    Insect eyes have an anti-reflective coating, owing to nanostructures on the corneal surface creating a gradient of refractive index between that of air and that of the lens material1,2. These nanocoatings have also been shown to provide anti-adhesive functionality3. The morphology of corneal nanocoatings are very diverse in arthropods, with nipple-like structures that can be organized into arrays or

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Red blood cell tension protects against severe malaria in the Dantu blood group.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Silvia N Kariuki,Alejandro Marin-Menendez,Viola Introini,Benjamin J Ravenhill,Yen-Chun Lin,Alex Macharia,Johnstone Makale,Metrine Tendwa,Wilfred Nyamu,Jurij Kotar,Manuela Carrasquilla,J Alexandra Rowe,Kirk Rockett,Dominic Kwiatkowski,Michael P Weekes,Pietro Cicuta,Thomas N Williams,Julian C Rayner

    Malaria has had a major effect on the human genome, with many protective polymorphisms—such as the sickle-cell trait—having been selected to high frequencies in malaria-endemic regions1,2. The blood group variant Dantu provides 74% protection against all forms of severe malaria in homozygous individuals3,4,5, a similar degree of protection to that afforded by the sickle-cell trait and considerably

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • A giant planet candidate transiting a white dwarf.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Andrew Vanderburg,Saul A Rappaport,Siyi Xu,Ian J M Crossfield,Juliette C Becker,Bruce Gary,Felipe Murgas,Simon Blouin,Thomas G Kaye,Enric Palle,Carl Melis,Brett M Morris,Laura Kreidberg,Varoujan Gorjian,Caroline V Morley,Andrew W Mann,Hannu Parviainen,Logan A Pearce,Elisabeth R Newton,Andreia Carrillo,Ben Zuckerman,Lorne Nelson,Greg Zeimann,Warren R Brown,René Tronsgaard,Beth Klein,George R Ricker

    Astronomers have discovered thousands of planets outside the Solar System1, most of which orbit stars that will eventually evolve into red giants and then into white dwarfs. During the red giant phase, any close-orbiting planets will be engulfed by the star2, but more distant planets can survive this phase and remain in orbit around the white dwarf3,4. Some white dwarfs show evidence for rocky material

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Evolution of the endothelin pathway drove neural crest cell diversification.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Tyler A Square,David Jandzik,James L Massey,Marek Romášek,Haley P Stein,Andrew W Hansen,Amrita Purkayastha,Maria V Cattell,Daniel M Medeiros

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are migratory, multipotent embryonic cells that are unique to vertebrates and form an array of clade-defining adult features. The evolution of NCCs has been linked to various genomic events, including the evolution of new gene-regulatory networks1,2, the de novo evolution of genes3 and the proliferation of paralogous genes during genome-wide duplication events4. However, conclusive

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Structural basis for the action of the drug trametinib at KSR-bound MEK.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Zaigham M Khan,Alexander M Real,William M Marsiglia,Arthur Chow,Mary E Duffy,Jayasudhan R Yerabolu,Alex P Scopton,Arvin C Dar

    The MAPK/ERK kinase MEK is a shared effector of the frequent cancer drivers KRAS and BRAF that has long been pursued as a drug target in oncology1, and more recently in immunotherapy2,3 and aging4. However, many MEK inhibitors (MEKi) are limited due to on-target toxicities5–7 and drug resistance8–10. Accordingly, a molecular understanding of the structure and function of MEK within physiological complexes

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Structural mechanism of cGAS inhibition by the nucleosome.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Ganesh R Pathare,Alexiane Decout,Selene Glück,Simone Cavadini,Kristina Makasheva,Ruud Hovius,Georg Kempf,Joscha Weiss,Zuzanna Kozicka,Baptiste Guey,Pauline Melenec,Beat Fierz,Nicolas H Thomä,Andrea Ablasser

    The DNA sensor cGAS initiates innate immune responses following microbial infection, cellular stress, and cancer1. Upon activation by double-stranded DNA, cytosolic cGAS produces 2’3’ cyclic GMP-AMP and triggers inflammatory cytokine and type I interferon (IFN) induction2–7. cGAS is also present inside the cell nucleus replete with genomic DNA8, where chromatin has been implicated in restricting its

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The Molecular Basis of Tight Nuclear Tethering and Inactivation of cGAS.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Baoyu Zhao,Pengbiao Xu,Chesley M Rowlett,Tao Jing,Omkar Shinde,Yuanjiu Lei,A Phillip West,Wenshe Ray Liu,Pingwei Li

    Pathogen-derived nucleic acids induce potent innate immune responses1–6. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a dsDNA sensor that catalyzes the synthesis of a cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, which mediates the induction of type I interferons through the STING-TBK1-IRF3 signaling axis7–11. It was widely accepted that cGAS is not reactive to self-DNA due to its cytosolic localization2,12,13. However, recent

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Structural basis for sequestration and autoinhibition of cGAS by chromatin.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Sebastian Michalski,Carina C de Oliveira Mann,Che Stafford,Gregor Witte,Joseph Bartho,Katja Lammens,Veit Hornung,Karl-Peter Hopfner

    cGAS (cyclic GMP–AMP synthase) is an innate immune sensor for cytosolic microbial DNA1. Upon binding DNA, it synthesizes the messenger cGAMP (2’3’ cyclic GMP–AMP)2–4, which triggers cell-autonomous defense and the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines via activation of STING5. Besides responding to cytosolic microbial DNA, cGAS also recognizes mis-localized cytosolic self-DNA

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Bending the curve of terrestrial biodiversity needs an integrated strategy.
    Nature (IF 42.778) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    David Leclère,Michael Obersteiner,Mike Barrett,Stuart H M Butchart,Abhishek Chaudhary,Adriana De Palma,Fabrice A J DeClerck,Moreno Di Marco,Jonathan C Doelman,Martina Dürauer,Robin Freeman,Michael Harfoot,Tomoko Hasegawa,Stefanie Hellweg,Jelle P Hilbers,Samantha L L Hill,Florian Humpenöder,Nancy Jennings,Tamás Krisztin,Georgina M Mace,Haruka Ohashi,Alexander Popp,Andy Purvis,Aafke M Schipper,Andrzej

    Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether—and how—humanity

    更新日期:2020-09-10
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