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  • Dynamic metal-polymer interaction for the design of chemoselective and long-lived hydrogenation catalysts
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Songhyun Lee, Seung-Jae Shin, Hoyong Baek, Yeonwoo Choi, Kyunglim Hyun, Myungeun Seo, Kyunam Kim, Dong-Yeun Koh, Hyungjun Kim, Minkee Choi

    Metal catalysts are generally supported on hard inorganic materials because of their high thermochemical stabilities. Here, we support Pd catalysts on a thermochemically stable but “soft” engineering plastic, polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), for acetylene partial hydrogenation. Near the glass transition temperature (~353 K), the mobile PPS chains cover the entire surface of Pd particles via strong metal-polymer

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Modeling, design, and machine learning-based framework for optimal injectability of microparticle-based drug formulations
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Morteza Sarmadi, Adam M. Behrens, Kevin J. McHugh, Hannah T. M. Contreras, Zachary L. Tochka, Xueguang Lu, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec

    Inefficient injection of microparticles through conventional hypodermic needles can impose serious challenges on clinical translation of biopharmaceutical drugs and microparticle-based drug formulations. This study aims to determine the important factors affecting microparticle injectability and establish a predictive framework using computational fluid dynamics, design of experiments, and machine

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Full-color active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display on human skin based on a large-area MoS2 backplane
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Minwoo Choi, Sa-Rang Bae, Luhing Hu, Anh Tuan Hoang, Soo Young Kim, Jong-Hyun Ahn

    Electronic applications are continuously developing and taking new forms. Foldable, rollable, and wearable displays are applicable for human health care monitoring or robotics, and their operation relies on organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Yet, the development of semiconducting materials with high mechanical flexibility has remained a challenge and restricted their use in unusual format electronics

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • One-step vapor-phase synthesis of transparent high refractive index sulfur-containing polymers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Do Heung Kim, Wontae Jang, Keonwoo Choi, Ji Sung Choi, Jeffrey Pyun, Jeewoo Lim, Kookheon Char, Sung Gap Im

    High refractive index polymers (HRIPs) have recently emerged as an important class of materials for use in a variety of optoelectronic devices including image sensors, lithography, and light-emitting diodes. However, achieving polymers having refractive index exceeding 1.8 while maintaining full transparency in the visible range still remains formidably challenging. Here, we present a unique one-step

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Chemical identification through two-dimensional electron energy-loss spectroscopy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Renwen Yu, F. Javier García de Abajo

    We explore a disruptive approach to nanoscale sensing by performing electron energy loss spectroscopy through the use of low-energy ballistic electrons that propagate on a two-dimensional semiconductor. In analogy to free-space electron microscopy, we show that the presence of analyte molecules in the vicinity of the semiconductor produces substantial energy losses in the electrons, which can be resolved

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Tip-induced flipping of droplets on Janus pillars: From local reconfiguration to global transport
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Shile Feng, Joachim Delannoy, Antoine Malod, Huanxi Zheng, David Quéré, Zuankai Wang

    Despite their simplicity, water droplets manifest a wide spectrum of forms and dynamics, which can be actuated using special texture at solid surfaces to achieve desired functions. Along this vein, natural or synthetic materials can be rendered water repellent, oleophobic, antifogging, anisotropic, etc.—all properties arising from an original design of the substrate and/or from the use of special materials

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • The bystander effect in rats
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    John L. Havlik, Yuri Y. Vieira Sugano, Maura Clement Jacobi, Rahul R. Kukreja, John H. Clement Jacobi, Peggy Mason

    To investigate whether the classic bystander effect is unique to humans, the effect of bystanders on rat helping was studied. In the presence of rats rendered incompetent to help through pharmacological treatment, rats were less likely to help due to a reduction in reinforcement rather than to a lack of initial interest. Only incompetent helpers of a strain familiar to the helper rat exerted a detrimental

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Smart, soft contact lens for wireless immunosensing of cortisol
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Minjae Ku, Joohee Kim, Jong-Eun Won, Wonkyu Kang, Young-Geun Park, Jihun Park, Jae-Hyun Lee, Jinwoo Cheon, Hyun Ho Lee, Jang-Ung Park

    Despite various approaches to immunoassay and chromatography for monitoring cortisol concentrations, conventional methods require bulky external equipment, which limits their use as mobile health care systems. Here, we describe a human pilot trial of a soft, smart contact lens for real-time detection of the cortisol concentration in tears using a smartphone. A cortisol sensor formed using a graphene

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Transient structures in rupturing thin films: Marangoni-induced symmetry-breaking pattern formation in viscous fluids
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Li Shen, Fabian Denner, Neal Morgan, Berend van Wachem, Daniele Dini

    In the minutes immediately preceding the rupture of a soap bubble, distinctive and repeatable patterns can be observed. These quasistable transient structures are associated with the instabilities of the complex Marangoni flows on the curved thin film in the presence of a surfactant solution. Here, we report a generalized Cahn-Hilliard-Swift-Hohenberg model derived using asymptotic theory that describes

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Seismic anisotropy reveals crustal flow driven by mantle vertical loading in the Pacific NW
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Jorge C. Castellanos, Jonathan Perry-Houts, Robert W. Clayton, YoungHee Kim, A. Christian Stanciu, Bart Niday, Eugene Humphreys

    Buoyancy anomalies within Earth’s mantle create large convective currents that are thought to control the evolution of the lithosphere. While tectonic plate motions provide evidence for this relation, the mechanism by which mantle processes influence near-surface tectonics remains elusive. Here, we present an azimuthal anisotropy model for the Pacific Northwest crust that strongly correlates with high-velocity

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Cooperation between passive and active silicon transporters clarifies the ecophysiology and evolution of biosilicification in sponges
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    M. Maldonado, M. López-Acosta, L. Beazley, E. Kenchington, V. Koutsouveli, A. Riesgo

    The biological utilization of dissolved silicon (DSi) influences ocean ecology and biogeochemistry. In the deep sea, hexactinellid sponges are major DSi consumers that remain poorly understood. Their DSi consumption departs from the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of shallow-water demosponges and appears particularly maladapted to incorporating DSi from the modest concentrations typical of the modern ocean

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Ester dance reaction on the aromatic ring
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Kaoru Matsushita, Ryosuke Takise, Kei Muto, Junichiro Yamaguchi

    Aromatic rearrangement reactions are useful tools in the organic chemist’s toolbox when generating uncommon substitution patterns. However, it is difficult to precisely translocate a functional group in (hetero) arene systems, with the exception of halogen atoms in a halogen dance reaction. Here, we describe an unprecedented “ester dance” reaction: a predictable translocation of an ester group from

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Molecular and functional architecture of the mouse photoreceptor network
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Nange Jin, Zhijing Zhang, Joyce Keung, Sean B. Youn, Munenori Ishibashi, Lian-Ming Tian, David W. Marshak, Eduardo Solessio, Yumiko Umino, Iris Fahrenfort, Takae Kiyama, Chai-An Mao, Yanan You, Haichao Wei, Jiaqian Wu, Friso Postma, David L. Paul, Stephen C. Massey, Christophe P. Ribelayga

    Mouse photoreceptors are electrically coupled via gap junctions, but the relative importance of rod/rod, cone/cone, or rod/cone coupling is unknown. Furthermore, while connexin36 (Cx36) is expressed by cones, the identity of the rod connexin has been controversial. We report that FACS-sorted rods and cones both express Cx36 but no other connexins. We created rod- and cone-specific Cx36 knockout mice

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • IRONSperm: Sperm-templated soft magnetic microrobots
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Veronika Magdanz, Islam S. M. Khalil, Juliane Simmchen, Guilherme P. Furtado, Sumit Mohanty, Johannes Gebauer, Haifeng Xu, Anke Klingner, Azaam Aziz, Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Oliver G. Schmidt, Sarthak Misra

    We develop biohybrid magnetic microrobots by electrostatic self-assembly of nonmotile sperm cells and magnetic nanoparticles. Incorporating a biological entity into microrobots entails many functional advantages beyond shape templating, such as the facile uptake of chemotherapeutic agents to achieve targeted drug delivery. We present a single-step electrostatic self-assembly technique to fabricate

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Self-powered user-interactive electronic skin for programmable touch operation platform
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Xuan Zhao, Zheng Zhang, Qingliang Liao, Xiaochen Xun, Fangfang Gao, Liangxu Xu, Zhuo Kang, Yue Zhang

    User-interactive electronic skin is capable of spatially mapping touch via electric readout and providing visual output as a human-readable response. However, the high power consumption, complex structure, and high cost of user-interactive electronic skin are notable obstacles for practical application. Here, we report a self-powered, user-interactive electronic skin (SUE-skin), which is simple in

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Single-cell RNA-seq reveals ectopic and aberrant lung-resident cell populations in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Taylor S. Adams, Jonas C. Schupp, Sergio Poli, Ehab A. Ayaub, Nir Neumark, Farida Ahangari, Sarah G. Chu, Benjamin A. Raby, Giuseppe DeIuliis, Michael Januszyk, Qiaonan Duan, Heather A. Arnett, Asim Siddiqui, George R. Washko, Robert Homer, Xiting Yan, Ivan O. Rosas, Naftali Kaminski

    We provide a single-cell atlas of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal interstitial lung disease, by profiling 312,928 cells from 32 IPF, 28 smoker and nonsmoker controls, and 18 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) lungs. Among epithelial cells enriched in IPF, we identify a previously unidentified population of aberrant basaloid cells that coexpress basal epithelial, mesenchymal,

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals profibrotic roles of distinct epithelial and mesenchymal lineages in pulmonary fibrosis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Arun C. Habermann, Austin J. Gutierrez, Linh T. Bui, Stephanie L. Yahn, Nichelle I. Winters, Carla L. Calvi, Lance Peter, Mei-I Chung, Chase J. Taylor, Christopher Jetter, Latha Raju, Jamie Roberson, Guixiao Ding, Lori Wood, Jennifer M. S. Sucre, Bradley W. Richmond, Ana P. Serezani, Wyatt J. McDonnell, Simon B. Mallal, Matthew J. Bacchetta, James E. Loyd, Ciara M. Shaver, Lorraine B. Ware, Ross Bremner

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a form of chronic lung disease characterized by pathologic epithelial remodeling and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). To comprehensively define the cell types, mechanisms, and mediators driving fibrotic remodeling in lungs with PF, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing of single-cell suspensions from 10 nonfibrotic control and 20 PF lungs. Analysis of 114,396

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Spin stress contribution to the lattice dynamics of FePt
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    A. von Reppert, L. Willig, J.-E. Pudell, S. P. Zeuschner, G. Sellge, F. Ganss, O. Hellwig, J. A. Arregi, V. Uhlíř, A. Crut, M. Bargheer

    Invar-behavior occurring in many magnetic materials has long been of interest to materials science. Here, we show not only invar behavior of a continuous film of FePt but also even negative thermal expansion of FePt nanograins upon equilibrium heating. Yet, both samples exhibit pronounced transient expansion upon laser heating in femtosecond x-ray diffraction experiments. We show that the granular

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Paired EMI-HIMU hotspots in the South Atlantic—Starting plume heads trigger compositionally distinct secondary plumes?
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    S. Homrighausen, K. Hoernle, H. Zhou, J. Geldmacher, J-A. Wartho, F. Hauff, R. Werner, S. Jung, J. P. Morgan

    Age-progressive volcanism is generally accepted as the surface expression of deep-rooted mantle plumes, which are enigmatically linked with the African and Pacific large low–shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). We present geochemical and geochronological data collected from the oldest portions of the age-progressive enriched mantle one (EMI)-type Tristan-Gough track. They are part of a 30- to 40-million

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Evolutionarily conserved sequence motif analysis guides development of chemically defined hydrogels for therapeutic vascularization
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Jia Jia, Eun Je Jeon, Mei Li, Dylan J. Richards, Soojin Lee, Youngmee Jung, Ryan W. Barrs, Robert Coyle, Xiaoyang Li, James C. Chou, Michael J. Yost, Sharon Gerecht, Seung-Woo Cho, Ying Mei

    Biologically active ligands (e.g., RGDS from fibronectin) play critical roles in the development of chemically defined biomaterials. However, recent decades have shown only limited progress in discovering novel extracellular matrix–protein–derived ligands for translational applications. Through motif analysis of evolutionarily conserved RGD-containing regions in laminin (LM) and peptide-functionalized

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Characteristic boundaries associated with three-dimensional twins in hexagonal metals
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Shujuan Wang, Mingyu Gong, Rodney J. McCabe, Laurent Capolungo, Jian Wang, Carlos N. Tomé

    Twinning is a critically important deformation mode in hexagonal close-packed metals. Twins are three-dimensional (3D) domains, whose growth is mediated by the motion of facets bounding the 3D twin domains and influences work hardening in metals. An understanding of twin transformations therefore necessitates that the atomic-scale structure and intrinsic mobilities of facets be known and characterized

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Habituation is not neutral or equal: Individual differences in tolerance suggest an overlooked personality trait
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Andrew T. L. Allan, Annie L. Bailey, Russell A. Hill

    In behavioral studies, observer effects can be substantial, even for habituated animals, but few studies account for potential observer-related phenomenon empirically. We used wild, habituated chacma baboons to explore two key assumptions of behavioral ecology (i) that observers become a “neutral” stimulus and (ii) that habituation is “equal” across group members. Using flight initiation distance (FID)

    更新日期:2020-07-08
  • Mechanical penetration of β-lactam–resistant Gram-negative bacteria by programmable nanowires
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Lizhi Liu, Sheng Chen, Xu Zhang, Zhenjie Xue, Shengjie Cui, Xiaoting Hua, Baowei Yang, Huiling Yan, Cong Liu, Jing Wang, Zengfeng Zhang, Wei Yu, Fan Wu, Wujun Xu, Vesa-Pekka Lehto, Tianli Yue, Yan Liu, Yunsong Yu, Tie Wang, Jianlong Wang

    β-Lactam–resistant (BLR) Gram-negative bacteria that are difficult or impossible to treat are causing a global health threat. However, the development of effective nanoantibiotics is limited by the poor understanding of changes in the physical nature of BLR Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we systematically explored the nanomechanical properties of a range of Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella, Escherichia

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • General description for nonequilibrium steady states in periodically driven dissipative quantum systems
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Tatsuhiko N. Ikeda, Masahiro Sato

    Laser technology has developed and accelerated photo-induced nonequilibrium physics, from both the scientific and engineering viewpoints. Floquet engineering, i.e., controlling material properties and functionalities by time-periodic drives, is at the forefront of quantum physics of light-matter interaction. However, it is limited to ideal dissipationless systems. Extending Floquet engineering to various

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Molecular basis of junctional current rectification at an electrical synapse
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Yuan Shui, Ping Liu, Haiying Zhan, Bojun Chen, Zhao-Wen Wang

    Rectifying electrical synapses (RESs) exist across animal species, but their rectification mechanism is largely unknown. We investigated why RESs between AVA premotor interneurons and A-type cholinergic motoneurons (A-MNs) in Caenorhabditis elegans escape circuit conduct junctional currents (Ij) only in the antidromic direction. These RESs consist of UNC-7 innexin in AVA and UNC-9 innexin in A-MNs

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Temperature-resilient solid-state organic artificial synapses for neuromorphic computing
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    A. Melianas, T. J. Quill, G. LeCroy, Y. Tuchman, H. v. Loo, S. T. Keene, A. Giovannitti, H. R. Lee, I. P. Maria, I. McCulloch, A. Salleo

    Devices with tunable resistance are highly sought after for neuromorphic computing. Conventional resistive memories, however, suffer from nonlinear and asymmetric resistance tuning and excessive write noise, degrading artificial neural network (ANN) accelerator performance. Emerging electrochemical random-access memories (ECRAMs) display write linearity, which enables substantially faster ANN training

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Synaptic zinc inhibition of NMDA receptors depends on the association of GluN2A with the zinc transporter ZnT1
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Rebecca F. Krall, Aubin Moutal, Matthew B. Phillips, Hila Asraf, Jon W. Johnson, Rajesh Khanna, Michal Hershfinkel, Elias Aizenman, Thanos Tzounopoulos

    The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) is inhibited by synaptically released zinc. This inhibition is thought to be the result of zinc diffusion across the synaptic cleft and subsequent binding to the extracellular domain of the NMDAR. However, this model fails to incorporate the observed association of the highly zinc-sensitive NMDAR subunit GluN2A with the postsynaptic zinc transporter ZnT1, which moves intracellular

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Fumarolic-like activity on carbonaceous chondrite parent body
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Clément Ganino, Guy Libourel

    Comparative planetology studies are key for understanding the main processes driving planetary formation and evolution. None have been yet applied to pristine asteroids formed in the solar protoplanetary disk, mainly because of their comminution during their 4.5-billion-year collisional lifetime. From remarkable textural, mineralogical, chemical, and thermodynamic similarities, we show that the high-temperature

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Trispecific natural killer cell nanoengagers for targeted chemoimmunotherapy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Kin Man Au, Steven I. Park, Andrew Z. Wang

    Activation of the innate immune system and natural killer (NK) cells has been a key effort in cancer immunotherapy research. Here, we report a nanoparticle-based trispecific NK cell engager (nano-TriNKE) platform that can target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–overexpressing tumors and promote the recruitment and activation of NK cells to eradicate these cancer cells. Moreover, the nanoengagers

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Controllable freezing of the nuclear spin bath in a single-atom spin qubit
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Mateusz T. Mądzik, Thaddeus D. Ladd, Fay E. Hudson, Kohei M. Itoh, Alexander M. Jakob, Brett C. Johnson, Jeffrey C. McCallum, David N. Jamieson, Andrew S. Dzurak, Arne Laucht, Andrea Morello

    The quantum coherence and gate fidelity of electron spin qubits in semiconductors are often limited by nuclear spin fluctuations. Enrichment of spin-zero isotopes in silicon markedly improves the dephasing time T2*, which, unexpectedly, can extend two orders of magnitude beyond theoretical expectations. Using a single-atom 31P qubit in enriched 28Si, we show that the abnormally long T2* is due to the

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Engineering bacterial outer membrane vesicles as transdermal nanoplatforms for photo-TRAIL–programmed therapy against melanoma
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Li-Hua Peng, Mao-Ze Wang, Yang Chu, Lei Zhang, Jie Niu, Hai-Tao Shao, Tie-Jun Yuan, Zhi-Hong Jiang, Jian-Qing Gao, Xing-Hai Ning

    Melanoma is an aggressive cancer with rapid progression, relapse, and metastasis. Systemic therapies for melanoma exhibit limited anticancer potential and high toxicity. Here, we developed the outer membrane vesicles derived from transgenic Escherichia coli, modified with αvβ3 integrin peptide targeting ligand and indocyanine green (named as I-P-OMVs), to induce the transdermal photo-TRAIL-programmed

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Suprachoroidal gene transfer with nonviral nanoparticles
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jikui Shen, Jayoung Kim, Stephany Y. Tzeng, Kun Ding, Zibran Hafiz, Da Long, Jiangxia Wang, Jordan J. Green, Peter A. Campochiaro

    Subretinal injections of viral vectors provide great benefits but have limited cargo capacity; they induce innate and adaptive immune responses, which may cause damage and preclude repeated injections; and they pose administration risks. As a new biotechnology, suprachoroidal injections of biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) containing a reporter plasmid induce reporter expression in rat photoreceptors

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Paleoindian ochre mines in the submerged caves of the Yucatán Peninsula, Quintana Roo, Mexico
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Brandi L. MacDonald, James C. Chatters, Eduard G. Reinhardt, Fred Devos, Sam Meacham, Dominique Rissolo, Barry Rock, Chris Le Maillot, David Stalla, Marc D. Marino, Eric Lo, Pilar Luna Erreguerena

    Investigations in the now-submerged cave systems on the Yucatán Peninsula continue to yield evidence for human presence during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Skeletal remains are scattered throughout the caves of Quintana Roo, most representing individuals who died in situ. The reasons why they explored these underground environments have remained unclear. Here, we announce the discovery of the

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Integrator restrains paraspeckles assembly by promoting isoform switching of the lncRNA NEAT1
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jasmine Barra, Gabriel S. Gaidosh, Ezra Blumenthal, Felipe Beckedorff, Mina M. Tayari, Nina Kirstein, Tobias K. Karakach, Torben Heick Jensen, Francis Impens, Kris Gevaert, Eleonora Leucci, Ramin Shiekhattar, Jean-Christophe Marine

    RNA 3′ end processing provides a source of transcriptome diversification which affects various (patho)-physiological processes. A prime example is the transcript isoform switch that leads to the read-through expression of the long non-coding RNA NEAT1_2, at the expense of the shorter polyadenylated transcript NEAT1_1. NEAT1_2 is required for assembly of paraspeckles (PS), nuclear bodies that protect

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Cystathione β-synthase regulates HIF-1α stability through persulfidation of PHD2
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Anindya Dey, Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Yushan Zhang, Geeta Rao, Karthikeyan Thirugnanam, Md. Nazir Hossen, Shailendra Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Ramani Ramchandran, Priyabrata Mukherjee, Resham Bhattacharya

    The stringent expression of the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is critical to a variety of pathophysiological conditions. We reveal that, in normoxia, enzymatic action of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) produces H2S, which persulfidates prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) at residues Cys21 and Cys33 (zinc finger motif), augmenting prolyl hydroxylase activity. Depleting endogenous H2S either by hypoxia

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Single-cell transcriptomics identifies multiple pathways underlying antitumor function of TCR- and CD8αβ-engineered human CD4+ T cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Jan A. Rath, Gagan Bajwa, Benoit Carreres, Elisabeth Hoyer, Isabelle Gruber, Melisa A. Martínez-Paniagua, Yi-Ru Yu, Nazila Nouraee, Fatemeh Sadeghi, Mengfen Wu, Tao Wang, Michael Hebeisen, Nathalie Rufer, Navin Varadarajan, Ping-Chih Ho, Malcolm K. Brenner, David Gfeller, Caroline Arber

    Transgenic coexpression of a class I–restricted tumor antigen–specific T cell receptor (TCR) and CD8αβ (TCR8) redirects antigen specificity of CD4+ T cells. Reinforcement of biophysical properties and early TCR signaling explain how redirected CD4+ T cells recognize target cells, but the transcriptional basis for their acquired antitumor function remains elusive. We, therefore, interrogated redirected

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Three-dimensional chromatin interactions remain stable upon CAG/CTG repeat expansion
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Gustavo A. Ruiz Buendía, Marion Leleu, Flavia Marzetta, Ludovica Vanzan, Jennifer Y. Tan, Victor Ythier, Emma L. Randall, Ana C. Marques, Tuncay Baubec, Rabih Murr, Ioannis Xenarios, Vincent Dion

    Expanded CAG/CTG repeats underlie 13 neurological disorders, including myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Upon expansion, disease loci acquire heterochromatic characteristics, which may provoke changes to chromatin conformation and thereby affect both gene expression and repeat instability. Here, we tested this hypothesis by performing 4C sequencing at the DMPK and HTT loci

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Interfacial tuning of chiral magnetic interactions for large topological Hall effects in LaMnO3/SrIrO3 heterostructures
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Elizabeth Skoropata, John Nichols, Jong Mok Ok, Rajesh V. Chopdekar, Eun Sang Choi, Ankur Rastogi, Changhee Sohn, Xiang Gao, Sangmoon Yoon, Thomas Farmer, Ryan D. Desautels, Yongseong Choi, Daniel Haskel, John W. Freeland, Satoshi Okamoto, Matthew Brahlek, Ho Nyung Lee

    Chiral interactions in magnetic systems can give rise to rich physics manifested, for example, as nontrivial spin textures. The foremost interaction responsible for chiral magnetism is the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), resulting from inversion symmetry breaking in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. However, the atomistic origin of DMIs and their relationship to emergent electrodynamic

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • In situ monitoring of exopolymer-dependent Mn mineralization on bacterial surfaces
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Thaïs Couasnon, Damien Alloyeau, Bénédicte Ménez, François Guyot, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Alexandre Gélabert

    Bacterial biomineralization is a widespread process that affects cycling of metals in the environment. Functionalized bacterial cell surfaces and exopolymers are thought to initiate mineral formation, however, direct evidences are hampered by technical challenges. Here, we present a breakthrough in the use of liquid-cell scanning transmission electron microscopy to observe mineral growth on bacteria

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Discovery of diffuse optical emission lines from the inner Galaxy: Evidence for LI(N)ER-like gas
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    D. Krishnarao, R. A. Benjamin, L. M. Haffner

    Optical emission lines are used to categorize galaxies into three groups according to their dominant central radiation source: active galactic nuclei, star formation, or low-ionization (nuclear) emission regions [LI(N)ERs] that may trace ionizing radiation from older stellar populations. Using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper, we detect optical line emission in low-extinction windows within eight degrees

    更新日期:2020-07-05
  • Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 through recombination and strong purifying selection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Xiaojun Li, Elena E. Giorgi, Manukumar Honnayakanahalli Marichannegowda, Brian Foley, Chuan Xiao, Xiang-Peng Kong, Yue Chen, S. Gnanakaran, Bette Korber, Feng Gao

    COVID-19 has become a global pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Understanding the origins of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for deterring future zoonosis, discovering new drugs, and developing a vaccine. We show evidence of strong purifying selection around the receptor binding motif (RBM) in the spike and other genes among bat, pangolin, and human coronaviruses, suggesting similar evolutionary

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Acceptorless dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of N- and O-containing compounds on Pd3Au1(111) facets
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Xinjiang Cui, Zhangjun Huang, Antoine P. van Muyden, Zhaofu Fei, Tao Wang, Paul J. Dyson

    Catalytic dehydrogenation and hydrogenation of amines and alcohols are important in the synthesis of fine chemicals. Despite several efficient homogeneous catalysts having been identified, highly active heterogeneous catalysts remain elusive, although they would meet an unmet need. Here, we show that bimetallic Pd-Au nanoparticles with Pd-to-Au molar ratios of 3:1 immobilized on multiwall carbon nanotubes

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Coupling and confinement of current in thermoacoustic phased arrays
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    David M. Tatnell, Mark S. Heath, Steven P. Hepplestone, Alastair P. Hibbins, Samuel M. Hornett, Simon A. R. Horsley, David W. Horsell

    When a medium is rapidly heated and cooled, heat transfers to its surroundings as sound. A controllable source of this sound is realized through joule heating of thin, conductive films by an alternating current. Here, we show that arrays of these sources generate sound unique to this mechanism. From the sound alone, we spatially resolve current flow by varying the film geometry and electrical phase

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Photonic paper: Multiscale assembly of reflective cellulose sheets in Lunaria annua
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    G. Guidetti, H. Sun, B. Marelli, F. G. Omenetto

    Bright, iridescent colors observed in nature are often caused by light interference within nanoscale periodic lattices, inspiring numerous strategies for coloration devoid of inorganic pigments. Here, we describe and characterize the septum of the Lunaria annua plant that generates large (multicentimeter), freestanding iridescent sheets, with distinctive silvery-white reflective appearance. This originates

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Identification of human CD4+ T cell populations with distinct antitumor activity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Michelle H. Nelson, Hannah M. Knochelmann, Stefanie R. Bailey, Logan W. Huff, Jacob S. Bowers, Kinga Majchrzak-Kuligowska, Megan M. Wyatt, Mark P. Rubinstein, Shikhar Mehrotra, Michael I. Nishimura, Kent E. Armeson, Paul G. Giresi, Michael J. Zilliox, Hal E. Broxmeyer, Chrystal M. Paulos

    How naturally arising human CD4+ T helper subsets affect cancer immunotherapy is unclear. We reported that human CD4+CD26high T cells elicit potent immunity against solid tumors. As CD26high T cells are often categorized as TH17 cells for their IL-17 production and high CD26 expression, we posited these populations would have similar molecular properties. Here, we reveal that CD26high T cells are epigenetically

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Calpain-2 as a therapeutic target in repeated concussion–induced neuropathy and behavioral impairment
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yubin Wang, Yan Liu, Amy Nham, Arash Sherbaf, Diana Quach, Emad Yahya, Davis Ranburger, Xiaoning Bi, Michel Baudry

    Repeated concussion represents a serious health problem as it can result in various brain pathologies, ranging from minor focal tissue injury to severe chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The calcium-dependent protease, calpain, participates in the development of neurodegeneration following concussion, but there is no information regarding the relative contribution of calpain-1 and calpain-2, the major

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • A novel system to map protein interactions reveals evolutionarily conserved immune evasion pathways on transmissible cancers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Andrew S. Flies, Jocelyn M. Darby, Patrick R. Lennard, Peter R. Murphy, Chrissie E. B. Ong, Terry L. Pinfold, Alana De Luca, A. Bruce Lyons, Gregory M. Woods, Amanda L. Patchett

    Around 40% of humans and Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) develop cancer in their lifetime, compared to less than 10% for most species. In addition, devils are affected by two of the three known transmissible cancers in mammals. Immune checkpoint immunotherapy has transformed human medicine, but a lack of species-specific reagents has limited checkpoint immunology in most species. We developed

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Signal dynamics of midbrain dopamine neurons during economic decision-making in monkeys
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Mengxi Yun, Takashi Kawai, Masafumi Nejime, Hiroshi Yamada, Masayuki Matsumoto

    When we make economic choices, the brain first evaluates available options and then decides whether to choose them. Midbrain dopamine neurons are known to reinforce economic choices through their signal evoked by outcomes after decisions are made. However, although critical internal processing is executed while decisions are being made, little is known about the role of dopamine neurons during this

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Esophageal extracellular matrix hydrogel mitigates metaplastic change in a dog model of Barrett’s esophagus
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Juan Diego Naranjo, Lindsey T. Saldin, Eric Sobieski, Lina M. Quijano, Ryan C. Hill, Patrick G. Chan, Crisanto Torres, Jenna L. Dziki, Madeline C. Cramer, Yoojin C. Lee, Rohit Das, Anant K. Bajwa, Rania Nossair, Molly Klimak, Lucile Marchal, Shil Patel, Sachin S. Velankar, Kirk C. Hansen, Kevin McGrath, Stephen F. Badylak

    Chronic inflammatory gastric reflux alters the esophageal microenvironment and induces metaplastic transformation of the epithelium, a precancerous condition termed Barrett’s esophagus (BE). The microenvironmental niche, which includes the extracellular matrix (ECM), substantially influences cell phenotype. ECM harvested from normal porcine esophageal mucosa (eECM) was formulated as a mucoadhesive

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The fungal collaboration gradient dominates the root economics space in plants
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Joana Bergmann, Alexandra Weigelt, Fons van der Plas, Daniel C. Laughlin, Thom W. Kuyper, Nathaly Guerrero-Ramirez, Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes, Helge Bruelheide, Grégoire T. Freschet, Colleen M. Iversen, Jens Kattge, M. Luke McCormack, Ina C. Meier, Matthias C. Rillig, Catherine Roumet, Marina Semchenko, Christopher J. Sweeney, Jasper van Ruijven, Larry M. York, Liesje Mommer

    Plant economics run on carbon and nutrients instead of money. Leaf strategies aboveground span an economic spectrum from “live fast and die young” to “slow and steady,” but the economy defined by root strategies belowground remains unclear. Here, we take a holistic view of the belowground economy and show that root-mycorrhizal collaboration can short circuit a one-dimensional economic spectrum, providing

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The structure of the RCAN1:CN complex explains the inhibition of and substrate recruitment by calcineurin
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yang Li, Sarah R. Sheftic, Simina Grigoriu, Charles D. Schwieters, Rebecca Page, Wolfgang Peti

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is an endogenous inhibitor of the Ser/Thr phosphatase calcineurin (CN). It has been shown that excessive inhibition of CN is a critical factor for Down syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we determined RCAN1’s mode of action. Using a combination of structural, biophysical, and biochemical studies, we show that RCAN1 inhibits CN via multiple routes: first, by blocking

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Single-dose mRNA therapy via biomaterial-mediated sequestration of overexpressed proteins
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Andrew S. Khalil, Xiaohua Yu, Jennifer M. Umhoefer, Connie S. Chamberlain, Linzie A. Wildenauer, Gaoussou M. Diarra, Timothy A. Hacker, William L. Murphy

    Nonviral mRNA delivery is an attractive therapeutic gene delivery strategy, as it achieves efficient protein overexpression in vivo and has a desirable safety profile. However, mRNA’s short cytoplasmic half-life limits its utility to therapeutic applications amenable to repeated dosing or short-term overexpression. Here, we describe a biomaterial that enables a durable in vivo response to a single

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Matching cell lines with cancer type and subtype of origin via mutational, epigenomic, and transcriptomic patterns
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Marina Salvadores, Francisco Fuster-Tormo, Fran Supek

    Cell lines are commonly used as cancer models. The tissue of origin provides context for understanding biological mechanisms and predicting therapy response. We therefore systematically examined whether cancer cell lines exhibit features matching the presumed cancer type of origin. Gene expression and DNA methylation classifiers trained on ~9000 tumors identified 35 (of 614 examined) cell lines that

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • DeepH&M: Estimating single-CpG hydroxymethylation and methylation levels from enrichment and restriction enzyme sequencing methods
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yu He, Hyo Sik Jang, Xiaoyun Xing, Daofeng Li, Michael J. Vasek, Joseph D. Dougherty, Ting Wang

    Increased appreciation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as a stable epigenetic mark, which defines cell identity and disease progress, has engendered a need for cost-effective, but high-resolution, 5hmC mapping technology. Current enrichment-based technologies provide cheap but low-resolution and relative enrichment of 5hmC levels, while single-base resolution methods can be prohibitively expensive

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Targeted disruption of Kv2.1-VAPA association provides neuroprotection against ischemic stroke in mice by declustering Kv2.1 channels
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Anthony J. Schulien, Chung-Yang Yeh, Bailey N. Orange, Olivia J. Pav, Madelynn P. Hopkins, Aubin Moutal, Rajesh Khanna, Dandan Sun, Jason A. Justice, Elias Aizenman

    Kv2.1 channels mediate cell death–enabling loss of cytosolic potassium in neurons following plasma membrane insertion at somatodendritic clusters. Overexpression of the carboxyl terminus (CT) of the cognate channel Kv2.2 is neuroprotective by disrupting Kv2.1 surface clusters. Here, we define a seven–amino acid declustering domain within Kv2.2 CT (DP-2) and demonstrate its neuroprotective efficacy

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • The predictable chaos of slow earthquakes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    A. Gualandi, J.-P. Avouac, S. Michel, D. Faranda

    Slow earthquakes, like regular earthquakes, result from unstable frictional slip. They produce little slip and can therefore repeat frequently. We assess their predictability using the slip history of the Cascadia subduction between 2007 and 2017, during which slow earthquakes have repeatedly ruptured multiple segments. We characterize the system dynamics using embedding theory and extreme value theory

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Long-term heat-storage ceramics absorbing thermal energy from hot water
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yoshitaka Nakamura, Yuki Sakai, Masaki Azuma, Shin-ichi Ohkoshi

    In thermal and nuclear power plants, 70% of the generated thermal energy is lost as waste heat. The temperature of the waste heat is below the boiling temperature of water. Here, we show a long-term heat-storage material that absorbs heat energy at warm temperatures from 38°C (311 K) to 67°C (340 K). This unique series of material is composed of scandium-substituted lambda-trititanium-pentoxide (λ-ScxTi3−xO5)

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Coupling chromatin structure and dynamics by live super-resolution imaging
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    R. Barth, K. Bystricky, H. A. Shaban

    Chromatin conformation regulates gene expression and thus, constant remodeling of chromatin structure is essential to guarantee proper cell function. To gain insight into the spatiotemporal organization of the genome, we use high-density photoactivated localization microscopy and deep learning to obtain temporally resolved super-resolution images of chromatin in living cells. In combination with high-resolution

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • Xenogenization of tumor cells by fusogenic exosomes in tumor microenvironment ignites and propagates antitumor immunity
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Gi Beom Kim, Gi-Hoon Nam, Yeonsun Hong, Jiwan Woo, Yakdol Cho, Ick Chan Kwon, Yoosoo Yang, In-San Kim

    Many cancer patients not responding to current immunotherapies fail to produce tumor-specific T cells for various reasons, such as a lack of recognition of cancer cells as foreign. Here, we suggest a previously unidentified method for xenogenizing (turning self to non-self) tumors by using fusogenic exosomes to introduce fusogenic viral antigens (VSV-G) onto the tumor cell surface. We found that xenogenized

    更新日期:2020-07-01
  • How the effects of actions become our own
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    L. Zapparoli, S. Seghezzi, E. Zirone, G. Guidali, M. Tettamanti, G. Banfi, N. Bolognini, E. Paulesu

    Every day, we do things that cause effects in the outside world with little doubt about who caused what. To some, this sense of agency derives from a post hoc reconstruction of a likely causal relationship between an event and our preceding movements; others propose that the sense of agency originates from prospective comparisons of motor programs and their effects. Using functional magnetic resonance

    更新日期:2020-07-01
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