当前期刊: Science Advances Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: IF: - GO 导出
我的关注
我的收藏
您暂时未登录!
登录
  • Biocrust as one of multiple stable states in global drylands
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Ning Chen, Kailiang Yu, Rongliang Jia, Jialing Teng, Changming Zhao

    Biocrusts cover ~30% of global drylands with a prominent role in the biogeochemical cycles. Theoretically, biocrusts, vascular plants, and bare soil can represent multiple stable states in drylands. However, no empirical evidence for the existence of a biocrust stable state has been reported. Here, using a global drylands dataset, we found that biocrusts form an alternative stable state (biocrust cover

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • First measurements of the radiation dose on the lunar surface
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Shenyi Zhang, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Jia Yu, Chi Wang, Qiang Fu, Yongliao Zou, Yueqiang Sun, Chunqin Wang, Donghui Hou, Stephan I. Böttcher, Sönke Burmeister, Lars Seimetz, Björn Schuster, Violetta Knierim, Guohong Shen, Bin Yuan, Henning Lohf, Jingnan Guo, Zigong Xu, Johan L. Freiherr von Forstner, Shrinivasrao R. Kulkarni, Haitao Xu, Changbin Xue, Jun Li, Zhe Zhang, He Zhang, Thomas Berger

    Human exploration of the Moon is associated with substantial risks to astronauts from space radiation. On the surface of the Moon, this consists of the chronic exposure to galactic cosmic rays and sporadic solar particle events. The interaction of this radiation field with the lunar soil leads to a third component that consists of neutral particles, i.e., neutrons and gamma radiation. The Lunar Lander

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Frequency division using a soliton-injected semiconductor gain-switched frequency comb
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Wenle Weng, Aleksandra Kaszubowska-Anandarajah, Junqiu Liu, Prince M. Anandarajah, Tobias J. Kippenberg

    With optical spectral marks equally spaced by a frequency in the microwave or the radio frequency domain, optical frequency combs have been used not only to synthesize optical frequencies from microwave references but also to generate ultralow-noise microwaves via optical frequency division. Here, we combine two compact frequency combs, namely, a soliton microcomb and a semiconductor gain-switched

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • A machine learning approach to define antimalarial drug action from heterogeneous cell-based screens
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    George W. Ashdown, Michelle Dimon, Minjie Fan, Fernando Sánchez-Román Terán, Kathrin Witmer, David C. A. Gaboriau, Zan Armstrong, D. Michael Ando, Jake Baum

    Drug resistance threatens the effective prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of human infections. This highlights an urgent need for new and improved drugs with novel mechanisms of action to avoid cross-resistance. Current cell-based drug screens are, however, restricted to binary live/dead readouts with no provision for mechanism of action prediction. Machine learning methods are increasingly

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • GADD34 is a modulator of autophagy during starvation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Gennaro Gambardella, Leopoldo Staiano, Maria Nicoletta Moretti, Rossella De Cegli, Luca Fagnocchi, Giuseppe Di Tullio, Sara Polletti, Clarissa Braccia, Andrea Armirotti, Alessio Zippo, Andrea Ballabio, Maria Antonietta De Matteis, Diego di Bernardo

    Cells respond to starvation by shutting down protein synthesis and by activating catabolic processes, including autophagy, to recycle nutrients. This two-pronged response is mediated by the integrated stress response (ISR) through phosphorylation of eIF2α, which represses protein translation, and by inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, which promotes autophagy also through a stress-responsive transcriptional

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Platform for micro-invasive membrane-free biochemical sampling of brain interstitial fluid
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Ritu Raman, Erin B. Rousseau, Michael Wade, Allison Tong, Max J. Cotler, Jenevieve Kuang, Alejandro Aponte Lugo, Elizabeth Zhang, Ann M. Graybiel, Forest M. White, Robert Langer, Michael J. Cima

    Neurochemical dysregulation underlies many pathologies and can be monitored by measuring the composition of brain interstitial fluid (ISF). Existing in vivo tools for sampling ISF do not enable measuring large rare molecules, such as proteins and neuropeptides, and thus cannot generate a complete picture of the neurochemical connectome. Our micro-invasive platform, composed of a nanofluidic pump coupled

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Magnetic Hamiltonian parameter estimation using deep learning techniques
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    H. Y. Kwon, H. G. Yoon, C. Lee, G. Chen, K. Liu, A. K. Schmid, Y. Z. Wu, J. W. Choi, C. Won

    Understanding spin textures in magnetic systems is extremely important to the spintronics and it is vital to extrapolate the magnetic Hamiltonian parameters through the experimentally determined spin. It can provide a better complementary link between theories and experimental results. We demonstrate deep learning can quantify the magnetic Hamiltonian from magnetic domain images. To train the deep

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Shaping brain structure: Genetic and phylogenetic axes of macroscale organization of cortical thickness
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Sofie L. Valk, Ting Xu, Daniel S. Margulies, Shahrzad Kharabian Masouleh, Casey Paquola, Alexandros Goulas, Peter Kochunov, Jonathan Smallwood, B. T. Thomas Yeo, Boris C. Bernhardt, Simon B. Eickhoff

    The topology of the cerebral cortex has been proposed to provide an important source of constraint for the organization of cognition. In a sample of twins (n = 1113), we determined structural covariance of thickness to be organized along both a posterior-to-anterior and an inferior-to-superior axis. Both organizational axes were present when investigating the genetic correlation of cortical thickness

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • An implantable blood clot–based immune niche for enhanced cancer vaccination
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Qin Fan, Qingle Ma, Jingyu Bai, Jialu Xu, Ziying Fei, Ziliang Dong, Atsushi Maruyama, Kam W. Leong, Zhuang Liu, Chao Wang

    Cancer immunotherapy using cancer vaccines has shown great potential in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Here, we report an implantable autologous blood clot scaffold for enhanced cancer vaccination. It comprises a gel-like fibrin network formed by coagulation of blood to trap a large number of red blood cells. Upon implantation, the cross-linked RBCs in the blood clot can attract and recruit

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • A magnetically actuated microrobot for targeted neural cell delivery and selective connection of neural networks
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Eunhee Kim, Sungwoong Jeon, Hyun-Kyu An, Mehrnoosh Kianpour, Seong-Woon Yu, Jin-young Kim, Jong-Cheol Rah, Hongsoo Choi

    There has been a great deal of interest in the development of technologies for actively manipulating neural networks in vitro, providing natural but simplified environments in a highly reproducible manner in which to study brain function and related diseases. Platforms for these in vitro neural networks require precise and selective neural connections at the target location, with minimal external influences

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Aquaporin-like water transport in nanoporous crystalline layered carbon nitride
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Fabrizia Foglia, Adam J. Clancy, Jasper Berry-Gair, Karolina Lisowska, Martin C. Wilding, Theo M. Suter, Thomas S. Miller, Keenan Smith, Franz Demmel, Markus Appel, Victoria García Sakai, Andrea Sella, Christopher A. Howard, Madhusudan Tyagi, Furio Corà, Paul F. McMillan

    Designing next-generation fuel cell and filtration devices requires the development of nanoporous materials that allow rapid and reversible uptake and directed transport of water molecules. Here, we combine neutron spectroscopy and first-principles calculations to demonstrate rapid transport of molecular H2O through nanometer-sized voids ordered within the layers of crystalline carbon nitride with

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Structure and sequence features of mussel adhesive protein lead to its salt-tolerant adhesion ability
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Xinwen Ou, Bin Xue, Yichong Lao, Yanee Wutthinitikornkit, Ranran Tian, Aodong Zou, Lingyun Yang, Wei Wang, Yi Cao, Jingyuan Li

    Mussels can strongly adhere to hydrophilic minerals in sea habitats by secreting adhesive proteins. The adhesion ability of these proteins is often attributed to the presence of Dopa derived from posttranslational modification of Tyr, whereas the contribution of structural feature is overlooked. It remains largely unknown how adhesive proteins overcome the surface-bound water layer to establish underwater

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Many functionally connected loci foster adaptive diversification along a neotropical hybrid zone
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    James J. Lewis, Steven M. Van Belleghem, Riccardo Papa, Charles G. Danko, Robert D. Reed

    Characterizing the genetic complexity of adaptation and trait evolution is a major emphasis of evolutionary biology and genetics. Incongruent findings from genetic studies have resulted in conceptual models ranging from a few large-effect loci to massively polygenic architectures. Here, we combine chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, Hi-C, RNA sequencing, and 40 whole-genome sequences from Heliconius

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Dopamine and beta-band oscillations differentially link to striatal value and motor control
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    H. N. Schwerdt, K. Amemori, D. J. Gibson, L. L. Stanwicks, T. Yoshida, N. P. Bichot, S. Amemori, R. Desimone, R. Langer, M. J. Cima, A. M. Graybiel

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by decreased dopamine and increased beta-band oscillatory activity accompanying debilitating motor and mood impairments. Coordinate dopamine-beta opposition is considered a normative rule for basal ganglia function. We report a breakdown of this rule. We developed multimodal systems allowing the first simultaneous, chronic recordings of dopamine release and beta-band

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Three-dimensional printing of functionally graded liquid crystal elastomer
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Zijun Wang, Zhijian Wang, Yue Zheng, Qiguang He, Yang Wang, Shengqiang Cai

    As a promising actuating material, liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) has been intensively explored in building diverse active structures and devices. Recently, direct ink writing technique has been developed to print LCE structures with various geometries and actuation behaviors. Despite the advancement in printing LCE, it remains challenging to print three-dimensional (3D) LCE structures with graded

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Ultimate suppression of thermal transport in amorphous silicon nitride by phononic nanostructure
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Naoki Tambo, Yuxuan Liao, Chun Zhou, Elizabeth Michiko Ashley, Kouhei Takahashi, Paul F. Nealey, Yasuyuki Naito, Junichiro Shiomi

    Engineering the thermal conductivity of amorphous materials is highly essential for the thermal management of future electronic devices. Here, we demonstrate the impact of ultrafine nanostructuring on the thermal conductivity reduction of amorphous silicon nitride (a-Si3N4) thin films, in which the thermal transport is inherently impeded by the atomic disorders. Ultrafine nanostructuring with feature

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • The prefusion structure of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    B. Vollmer, V. Pražák, D. Vasishtan, E. E. Jefferys, A. Hernandez-Duran, M. Vallbracht, B. G. Klupp, T. C. Mettenleiter, M. Backovic, F. A. Rey, M. Topf, K. Grünewald

    Cell entry of enveloped viruses requires specialized viral proteins that mediate fusion with the host membrane by substantial structural rearrangements from a metastable pre- to a stable postfusion conformation. This metastability renders the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) fusion glycoprotein B (gB) highly unstable such that it readily converts into the postfusion form, thereby precluding structural

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Arctic mid-winter phytoplankton growth revealed by autonomous profilers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Achim Randelhoff, Léo Lacour, Claudie Marec, Edouard Leymarie, José Lagunas, Xiaogang Xing, Gérald Darnis, Christophe Penkerc’h, Makoto Sampei, Louis Fortier, Fabrizio D’Ortenzio, Hervé Claustre, Marcel Babin

    It is widely believed that during winter and spring, Arctic marine phytoplankton cannot grow until sea ice and snow cover start melting and transmit sufficient irradiance, but there is little observational evidence for that paradigm. To explore the life of phytoplankton during and after the polar night, we used robotic ice-avoiding profiling floats to measure ocean optics and phytoplankton characteristics

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Near-infrared light-triggered NO release for spinal cord injury repair
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Yaqin Jiang, Pengfei Fu, Yanyan Liu, Chaochao Wang, Peiran Zhao, Xu Chu, Xingwu Jiang, Wei Yang, Yelin Wu, Ya Wang, Guohua Xu, Jin Hu, Wenbo Bu

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is caused by external physical impacts and can induce complex cascade events, sometimes converging to paralysis. Existing clinical drugs to traumatic SCI have limited therapeutic efficacy because of either the poor blood–spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability or a single function. Here, we suggest a “pleiotropic messenger” strategy based on near-infrared (NIR)–triggered

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Programmable low-cost DNA-based platform for viral RNA detection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Lifeng Zhou, Arun Richard Chandrasekaran, Jibin Abraham Punnoose, Gaston Bonenfant, Stephon Charles, Oksana Levchenko, Pheonah Badu, Cassandra Cavaliere, Cara T. Pager, Ken Halvorsen

    Detection of viruses is critical for controlling disease spread. Recent emerging viral threats, including Zika virus, Ebola virus, and SARS-CoV-2 responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlight the cost and difficulty in responding rapidly. To address these challenges, we develop a platform for low-cost and rapid detection of viral RNA with DNA nanoswitches that mechanically reconfigure

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Future climate response to Antarctic Ice Sheet melt caused by anthropogenic warming.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Shaina Sadai,Alan Condron,Robert DeConto,David Pollard

    Meltwater and ice discharge from a retreating Antarctic Ice Sheet could have important impacts on future global climate. Here, we report on multi-century (present–2250) climate simulations performed using a coupled numerical model integrated under future greenhouse-gas emission scenarios IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, with meltwater and ice discharge provided by a dynamic-thermodynamic ice sheet model. Accounting

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • A century of observations reveals increasing likelihood of continental-scale compound dry-hot extremes.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Mohammad Reza Alizadeh,Jan Adamowski,Mohammad Reza Nikoo,Amir AghaKouchak,Philip Dennison,Mojtaba Sadegh

    Using over a century of ground-based observations over the contiguous United States, we show that the frequency of compound dry and hot extremes has increased substantially in the past decades, with an alarming increase in very rare dry-hot extremes. Our results indicate that the area affected by concurrent extremes has also increased significantly. Further, we explore homogeneity (i.e., connectedness)

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Explosive-effusive volcanic eruption transitions caused by sintering.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Fabian B Wadsworth,Edward W Llewellin,Jérémie Vasseur,James E Gardner,Hugh Tuffen

    Silicic volcanic activity has long been framed as either violently explosive or gently effusive. However, recent observations demonstrate that explosive and effusive behavior can occur simultaneously. Here, we propose that rhyolitic magma feeding subaerial eruptions generally fragments during ascent through the upper crust and that effusive eruptions result from conduit blockage and sintering of the

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Ultrastrong low-carbon nanosteel produced by heterostructure and interstitial mediated warm rolling.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Bo Gao,Qingquan Lai,Yang Cao,Rong Hu,Lirong Xiao,Zhiyi Pan,Ningning Liang,Yusheng Li,Gang Sha,Manping Liu,Hao Zhou,Xiaolei Wu,Yuntian Zhu

    Ultrastrong materials can notably help with improving the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles by reducing their weight. Grain refinement by severe plastic deformation is, so far, the most effective approach to produce bulk strong nanostructured metals, but its scaling up for industrial production has been a challenge. Here, we report an ultrastrong (2.15 GPa) low-carbon nanosteel processed

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Chromatin arranges in chains of mesoscale domains with nanoscale functional topography independent of cohesin.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Ezequiel Miron,Roel Oldenkamp,Jill M Brown,David M S Pinto,C Shan Xu,Ana R Faria,Haitham A Shaban,James D P Rhodes,Cassandravictoria Innocent,Sara de Ornellas,Harald F Hess,Veronica Buckle,Lothar Schermelleh

    Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin organization plays a key role in regulating mammalian genome function; however, many of its physical features at the single-cell level remain underexplored. Here, we use live- and fixed-cell 3D super-resolution and scanning electron microscopy to analyze structural and functional nuclear organization in somatic cells. We identify chains of interlinked ~200- to 300-nm-wide

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Moiré potential impedes interlayer exciton diffusion in van der Waals heterostructures.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Junho Choi,Wei-Ting Hsu,Li-Syuan Lu,Liuyang Sun,Hui-Yu Cheng,Ming-Hao Lee,Jiamin Quan,Kha Tran,Chun-Yuan Wang,Matthew Staab,Kayleigh Jones,Takashi Taniguchi,Kenji Watanabe,Ming-Wen Chu,Shangjr Gwo,Suenne Kim,Chih-Kang Shih,Xiaoqin Li,Wen-Hao Chang

    The properties of van der Waals heterostructures are drastically altered by a tunable moiré superlattice arising from periodically varying atomic alignment between the layers. Exciton diffusion represents an important channel of energy transport in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). While early studies performed on TMD heterobilayers suggested that carriers and excitons exhibit long diffusion

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Broadband quadrature-squeezed vacuum and nonclassical photon number correlations from a nanophotonic device.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    V D Vaidya,B Morrison,L G Helt,R Shahrokshahi,D H Mahler,M J Collins,K Tan,J Lavoie,A Repingon,M Menotti,N Quesada,R C Pooser,A E Lita,T Gerrits,S W Nam,Z Vernon

    We report demonstrations of both quadrature-squeezed vacuum and photon number difference squeezing generated in an integrated nanophotonic device. Squeezed light is generated via strongly driven spontaneous four-wave mixing below threshold in silicon nitride microring resonators. The generated light is characterized with both homodyne detection and direct measurements of photon statistics using photon

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • In situ observation of nanolite growth in volcanic melt: A driving force for explosive eruptions.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Danilo Di Genova,Richard A Brooker,Heidy M Mader,James W E Drewitt,Alessandro Longo,Joachim Deubener,Daniel R Neuville,Sara Fanara,Olga Shebanova,Simone Anzellini,Fabio Arzilli,Emily C Bamber,Louis Hennet,Giuseppe La Spina,Nobuyoshi Miyajima

    Although gas exsolution is a major driving force behind explosive volcanic eruptions, viscosity is critical in controlling the escape of bubbles and switching between explosive and effusive behavior. Temperature and composition control melt viscosity, but crystallization above a critical volume (>30 volume %) can lock up the magma, triggering an explosion. Here, we present an alternative to this well-established

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Embedding two-dimensional graphene array in ceramic matrix.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Chuan Sun,Yujia Huang,Qiang Shen,Wei Wang,Wei Pan,Peng'an Zong,Li Yang,Yan Xing,Chunlei Wan

    Dispersing two-dimensional (2D) graphene sheets in 3D material matrix becomes a promising route to access the exceptional mechanical and electrical properties of individual graphene sheets in bulk quantities for macroscopic applications. However, this is highly restricted by the uncontrolled distribution and orientation of the graphene sheets in 3D structures as well as the weak graphene-matrix bonding

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • The role of ultrafast magnon generation in the magnetization dynamics of rare-earth metals.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    B Frietsch,A Donges,R Carley,M Teichmann,J Bowlan,K Döbrich,K Carva,D Legut,P M Oppeneer,U Nowak,M Weinelt

    Ultrafast demagnetization of rare-earth metals is distinct from that of 3d ferromagnets, as rare-earth magnetism is dominated by localized 4f electrons that cannot be directly excited by an optical laser pulse. Their demagnetization must involve excitation of magnons, driven either through exchange coupling between the 5d6s-itinerant and 4f-localized electrons or by coupling of 4f spins to lattice

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • First-order synchronization transition in a large population of strongly coupled relaxation oscillators.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Dumitru Călugăru,Jan Frederik Totz,Erik A Martens,Harald Engel

    Onset and loss of synchronization in coupled oscillators are of fundamental importance in understanding emergent behavior in natural and man-made systems, which range from neural networks to power grids. We report on experiments with hundreds of strongly coupled photochemical relaxation oscillators that exhibit a discontinuous synchronization transition with hysteresis, as opposed to the paradigmatic

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Cross-wavelength invisibility integrated with various invisibility tactics.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Su Xu,Fu-Yan Dong,Wen-Rui Guo,Dong-Dong Han,Chao Qian,Fei Gao,Wen-Ming Su,Hongsheng Chen,Hong-Bo Sun

    As a superior self-protection strategy, invisibility has been a topic of long-standing interest in both academia and industry, because of its potential for intriguing applications that have only appeared thus far in science fiction. However, due to the strong dispersion of passive materials, achieving cross-wavelength invisibility remains an open challenge. Inspired by the natural ecological relationship

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Infants tailor their attention to maximize learning.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    F Poli,G Serino,R B Mars,S Hunnius

    Infants’ remarkable learning abilities allow them to rapidly acquire many complex skills. It has been suggested that infants achieve this learning by optimally allocating their attention to relevant stimuli in the environment, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we modeled infants’ looking behavior during a learning task through an ideal learner that quantified the informational

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Recycled selenium in hot spot-influenced lavas records ocean-atmosphere oxygenation.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Aierken Yierpan,Stephan König,Jabrane Labidi,Ronny Schoenberg

    Oxygenation of Earth’s oceans and atmosphere through time has consequences for subducted surface signatures that are now stored in the mantle. Here, we report significant mass-dependent selenium isotope variations in modern hot spot–influenced oceanic lavas. These variations are correlated with tracers of mantle source enrichment, which can only be explained by incorporation of abyssal pelagic sediments

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Achieving room-temperature brittle-to-ductile transition in ultrafine layered Fe-Al alloys.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Lu-Lu Li,Yanqing Su,Irene J Beyerlein,Wei-Zhong Han

    Fe-Al compounds are of interest due to their combination of light weight, high strength, and wear and corrosion resistance, but new forms that are also ductile are needed for their widespread use. The challenge in developing Fe-Al compositions that are both lightweight and ductile lies in the intrinsic tradeoff between Al concentration and brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Here, we show that

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Microenvironment modulation of single-atom catalysts and their roles in electrochemical energy conversion.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Xuning Li,Linghui Liu,Xinyi Ren,Jiajian Gao,Yanqiang Huang,Bin Liu

    Single-atom catalysts (SACs) have become the most attractive frontier research field in heterogeneous catalysis. Since the atomically dispersed metal atoms are commonly stabilized by ionic/covalent interactions with neighboring atoms, the geometric and electronic structures of SACs depend greatly on their microenvironment, which, in turn, determine the performances in catalytic processes. In this review

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Direct probing of atomically dispersed Ru species over multi-edged TiO2 for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Huabin Zhang,Shouwei Zuo,Mei Qiu,Sibo Wang,Yongfan Zhang,Jing Zhang,Xiong Wen David Lou

    A cocatalyst is necessary for boosting the electron-hole separation efficiency and accelerating the reaction kinetics of semiconductors. As a result, it is of critical importance to in situ track the structural evolution of the cocatalyst during the photocatalytic process, but it remains very challenging. Here, atomically dispersed Ru atoms are decorated over multi-edged TiO2 spheres for photocatalytic

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Mechanical stimulation of single cells by reversible host-guest interactions in 3D microscaffolds.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Marc Hippler,Kai Weißenbruch,Kai Richler,Enrico D Lemma,Masaki Nakahata,Benjamin Richter,Christopher Barner-Kowollik,Yoshinori Takashima,Akira Harada,Eva Blasco,Martin Wegener,Motomu Tanaka,Martin Bastmeyer

    Many essential cellular processes are regulated by mechanical properties of their microenvironment. Here, we introduce stimuli-responsive composite scaffolds fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) laser lithography to simultaneously stretch large numbers of single cells in tailored 3D microenvironments. The key material is a stimuli-responsive photoresist containing cross-links formed by noncovalent

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Halide perovskite nanocrystal arrays: Multiplexed synthesis and size-dependent emission.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Jingshan S Du,Donghoon Shin,Teodor K Stanev,Chiara Musumeci,Zhuang Xie,Ziyin Huang,Minliang Lai,Lin Sun,Wenjie Zhou,Nathaniel P Stern,Vinayak P Dravid,Chad A Mirkin

    Halide perovskites have exceptional optoelectronic properties, but a poor understanding of the relationship between crystal dimensions, composition, and properties limits their use in integrated devices. We report a new multiplexed cantilever-free scanning probe method for synthesizing compositionally diverse and size-controlled halide perovskite nanocrystals spanning square centimeter areas. Single-particle

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Notch signaling protects CD4 T cells from STING-mediated apoptosis during acute systemic inflammation.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Junke Long,Chenxuan Yang,Yawen Zheng,Patricia Loughran,Fu Guang,Yiming Li,Hong Liao,Melanie J Scott,Daolin Tang,Timothy R Billiar,Meihong Deng

    Dysregulation of T cell apoptosis contributes to the pathogenesis of acute systemic inflammation–induced immunosuppression, as seen in sepsis and trauma. However, the regulatory mechanisms of T cell apoptosis are unclear. Activation of stimulator of interferon genes (STING) has been shown to induce T cell apoptosis. Notch was previously identified as the top negative regulator of STING in macrophages

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Postweaning maternal care increases male chimpanzee reproductive success.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Catherine Crockford,Liran Samuni,Linda Vigilant,Roman M Wittig

    Humans are unusual among animals for continuing to provision and care for their offspring until adulthood. This “prolonged dependency” is considered key for the evolution of other notable human traits, such as large brains, complex societies, and extended postreproductive lifespans. Prolonged dependency must therefore have evolved under conditions in which reproductive success is gained with parental

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Unraveling why we sleep: Quantitative analysis reveals abrupt transition from neural reorganization to repair in early development.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Junyu Cao,Alexander B Herman,Geoffrey B West,Gina Poe,Van M Savage

    Sleep serves disparate functions, most notably neural repair, metabolite clearance and circuit reorganization. Yet the relative importance remains hotly debated. Here, we create a novel mechanistic framework for understanding and predicting how sleep changes during ontogeny and across phylogeny. We use this theory to quantitatively distinguish between sleep used for neural reorganization versus repair

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Fingerprint of volcanic forcing on the ENSO-Indian monsoon coupling.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    M Singh,R Krishnan,B Goswami,A D Choudhury,P Swapna,R Vellore,A G Prajeesh,N Sandeep,C Venkataraman,R V Donner,N Marwan,J Kurths

    Coupling of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian monsoon (IM) is central to seasonal summer monsoon rainfall predictions over the Indian subcontinent, although a nonstationary relationship between the two nonlinear phenomena can limit seasonal predictability. Radiative effects of volcanic aerosols injected into the stratosphere during large volcanic eruptions (LVEs) tend to alter ENSO

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Human footprints provide snapshot of last interglacial ecology in the Arabian interior.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Mathew Stewart,Richard Clark-Wilson,Paul S Breeze,Klint Janulis,Ian Candy,Simon J Armitage,David B Ryves,Julien Louys,Mathieu Duval,Gilbert J Price,Patrick Cuthbertson,Marco A Bernal,Nick A Drake,Abdullah M Alsharekh,Badr Zahrani,Abdulaziz Al-Omari,Patrick Roberts,Huw S Groucutt,Michael D Petraglia

    The nature of human dispersals out of Africa has remained elusive because of the poor resolution of paleoecological data in direct association with remains of the earliest non-African people. Here, we report hominin and non-hominin mammalian tracks from an ancient lake deposit in the Arabian Peninsula, dated within the last interglacial. The findings, it is argued, likely represent the oldest securely

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Intermolecular vibrations mediate ultrafast singlet fission.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Hong-Guang Duan,Ajay Jha,Xin Li,Vandana Tiwari,Hanyang Ye,Pabitra K Nayak,Xiao-Lei Zhu,Zheng Li,Todd J Martinez,Michael Thorwart,R J Dwayne Miller

    Singlet fission is a spin-allowed exciton multiplication process in organic semiconductors that converts one spin-singlet exciton to two triplet excitons. It offers the potential to enhance solar energy conversion by circumventing the Shockley-Queisser limit on efficiency. We study the primary steps of singlet fission in a pentacene film by using a combination of TG and 2D electronic spectroscopy complemented

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Electrical control of single-photon emission in highly charged individual colloidal quantum dots.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Sergii Morozov,Evangelina L Pensa,Ali Hossain Khan,Anatolii Polovitsyn,Emiliano Cortés,Stefan A Maier,Stefano Vezzoli,Iwan Moreels,Riccardo Sapienza

    Electron transfer to an individual quantum dot promotes the formation of charged excitons with enhanced recombination pathways and reduced lifetimes. Excitons with only one or two extra charges have been observed and exploited for very efficient lasing or single–quantum dot light-emitting diodes. Here, by room-temperature time-resolved experiments on individual giant-shell CdSe/CdS quantum dots, we

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Viral cGAMP nuclease reveals the essential role of DNA sensing in protection against acute lethal virus infection.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Bruno Hernáez,Graciela Alonso,Iliana Georgana,Misbah El-Jesr,Rocío Martín,Kathy H Y Shair,Cornelius Fischer,Sascha Sauer,Carlos Maluquer de Motes,Antonio Alcamí

    Cells contain numerous immune sensors to detect virus infection. The cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) recognizes cytosolic DNA and activates innate immune responses via stimulator of interferon genes (STING), but the impact of DNA sensing pathways on host protective responses has not been fully defined. We demonstrate that cGAS/STING activation is required to resist lethal poxvirus infection

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • High-frequency magnetoacoustic resonance through strain-spin coupling in perpendicular magnetic multilayers.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    De-Lin Zhang,Jie Zhu,Tao Qu,Dustin M Lattery,R H Victora,Xiaojia Wang,Jian-Ping Wang

    It is desirable to experimentally demonstrate an extremely high resonant frequency, assisted by strain-spin coupling, in technologically important perpendicular magnetic materials for device applications. Here, we directly observe the coupling of magnons and phonons in both time and frequency domains upon femtosecond laser excitation. This strain-spin coupling leads to a magnetoacoustic resonance in

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Artificial cells drive neural differentiation.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Ö Duhan Toparlak,Jacopo Zasso,Simone Bridi,Mauro Dalla Serra,Paolo Macchi,Luciano Conti,Marie-Laure Baudet,Sheref S Mansy

    We report the construction of artificial cells that chemically communicate with mammalian cells under physiological conditions. The artificial cells respond to the presence of a small molecule in the environment by synthesizing and releasing a potent protein signal, brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Genetically controlled artificial cells communicate with engineered human embryonic kidney cells and

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • RELATe enables genome-scale engineering in fungal genomics.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Zhongming Li,Kwang Sik Kim

    CRISPR-Cas9–based screening with single-guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries has emerged as a revolutionary tool for comprehensive analysis of genetic elements. However, genome-scale sgRNA libraries are currently available only in a few model organisms. The traditional approach is to synthesize thousands to tens of thousands of sgRNAs, which is laborious and expensive. We have developed a simple method, RELATe

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Single-molecule imaging reveals control of parental histone recycling by free histones during DNA replication.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    D T Gruszka,S Xie,H Kimura,H Yardimci

    During replication, nucleosomes are disrupted ahead of the replication fork, followed by their reassembly on daughter strands from the pool of recycled parental and new histones. However, because no previous studies have managed to capture the moment that replication forks encounter nucleosomes, the mechanism of recycling has remained unclear. Here, through real-time single-molecule visualization of

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Structural insights into ADP-ribosylation of ubiquitin by Deltex family E3 ubiquitin ligases.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Chatrin Chatrin,Mads Gabrielsen,Lori Buetow,Mark A Nakasone,Syed F Ahmed,David Sumpton,Gary J Sibbet,Brian O Smith,Danny T Huang

    Cellular cross-talk between ubiquitination and other posttranslational modifications contributes to the regulation of numerous processes. One example is ADP-ribosylation of the carboxyl terminus of ubiquitin by the E3 DTX3L/ADP-ribosyltransferase PARP9 heterodimer, but the mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that independently of PARP9, the conserved carboxyl-terminal RING and DTC (Deltex carboxyl-terminal)

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • TbRAP1 has an unusual duplex DNA binding activity required for its telomere localization and VSG silencing.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Marjia Afrin,Amit Kumar Gaurav,Xian Yang,Xuehua Pan,Yanxiang Zhao,Bibo Li

    Localization of Repressor Activator Protein 1 (RAP1) to the telomere is essential for its telomeric functions. RAP1 homologs either directly bind the duplex telomere DNA or interact with telomere-binding proteins. We find that Trypanosoma brucei RAP1 relies on a unique double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) binding activity to achieve this goal. T. brucei causes human sleeping sickness and regularly switches

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Chaos-assisted tunneling resonances in a synthetic Floquet superlattice.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    M Arnal,G Chatelain,M Martinez,N Dupont,O Giraud,D Ullmo,B Georgeot,G Lemarié,J Billy,D Guéry-Odelin

    The field of quantum simulation, which aims at using a tunable quantum system to simulate another, has been developing fast in the past years as an alternative to the all-purpose quantum computer. So far, most efforts in this domain have been directed to either fully regular or fully chaotic systems. Here, we focus on the intermediate regime, where regular orbits are surrounded by a large sea of chaotic

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Expanding and optimizing 3D bioprinting capabilities using complementary network bioinks.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Liliang Ouyang,James P K Armstrong,Yiyang Lin,Jonathan P Wojciechowski,Charlotte Lee-Reeves,Daniel Hachim,Kun Zhou,Jason A Burdick,Molly M Stevens

    A major challenge in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is the limited number of bioinks that fulfill the physicochemical requirements of printing while also providing a desirable environment for encapsulated cells. Here, we address this limitation by temporarily stabilizing bioinks with a complementary thermo-reversible gelatin network. This strategy enables the effective printing of biomaterials

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Reprogrammable shape morphing of magnetic soft machines.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Yunus Alapan,Alp C Karacakol,Seyda N Guzelhan,Irem Isik,Metin Sitti

    Shape-morphing magnetic soft machines are highly desirable for diverse applications in minimally invasive medicine, wearable devices, and soft robotics. Despite recent progress, current magnetic programming approaches are inherently coupled to sequential fabrication processes, preventing reprogrammability and high-throughput programming. Here, we report a high-throughput magnetic programming strategy

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Snapshot spectral imaging with parallel metasystems.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Andrew McClung,Sarath Samudrala,Mahsa Torfeh,Mahdad Mansouree,Amir Arbabi

    Spectral imagers divide scenes into quantitative and narrowband spectral channels. They have become important metrological tools in many areas of science, especially remote sensing. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a snapshot spectral imager using a parallel optical processing paradigm based on arrays of metasystems. Our multi-aperture spectral imager weighs less than 20 mg and simultaneously

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • USP15 suppresses tumor immunity via deubiquitylation and inactivation of TET2.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Lei-Lei Chen,Matthew D Smith,Lei Lv,Tadashi Nakagawa,Zhijun Li,Shao-Cong Sun,Nicholas G Brown,Yue Xiong,Yan-Ping Xu

    TET2 DNA dioxygenase is frequently mutated in human hematopoietic malignancies and functionally inactivated in many solid tumors through a nonmutational mechanism. We recently found that TET2 mediates the interferon-JAK-STAT pathway to stimulate chemokine expression and tumor infiltration of lymphocytes (TILs). TET2 is monoubiquitylated at K1299, which promotes its activity. Here, we report that USP15

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Revisiting the PD-1 pathway.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Nikolaos Patsoukis,Qi Wang,Laura Strauss,Vassiliki A Boussiotis

    Programmed Death-1 (PD-1; CD279) is an inhibitory receptor induced in activated T cells. PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, maintains peripheral tolerance but also compromises anti-tumor immunity. Blocking antibodies against PD-1 or its ligands have revolutionized cancer immunotherapy. However, only a fraction of patients develop durable antitumor responses. Clinical outcomes have reached

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic: A probability-based, nationally representative study of mental health in the U.S.
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    E Alison Holman,Rebecca R Thompson,Dana Rose Garfin,Roxane Cohen Silver

    The COVID-19 pandemic is a collective stressor unfolding over time, yet rigorous published empirical studies addressing mental health consequences of COVID-19 among large probability-based national samples are rare. Between 3/18-4/18/20, during an escalating period of illness and death in the United States, we assessed acute stress, depressive symptoms and direct, community, and media-based exposures

    更新日期:2020-09-18
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
导出
全部期刊列表>>
chemistry
物理学研究前沿热点精选期刊推荐
自然职位线上招聘会
欢迎报名注册2020量子在线大会
化学领域亟待解决的问题
材料学研究精选新
GIANT
ACS ES&T Engineering
ACS ES&T Water
ACS Publications填问卷
屿渡论文,编辑服务
阿拉丁试剂right
南昌大学
王辉
南方科技大学
彭小水
隐藏1h前已浏览文章
课题组网站
新版X-MOL期刊搜索和高级搜索功能介绍
ACS材料视界
天合科研
x-mol收录
赵延川
李霄羽
廖矿标
朱守非
试剂库存
down
wechat
bug