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  • B7-H3×4-1BB bispecific antibody augments antitumor immunity by enhancing terminally differentiated CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Gihoon You, Yangsoon Lee, Yeon-Woo Kang, Han Wook Park, Kyeongsu Park, Hyekang Kim, Young-Min Kim, Sora Kim, Ji-Hae Kim, Dain Moon, Hyejin Chung, Wonjun Son, Ui-jung Jung, Eunyoung Park, Shinai Lee, Yong-Gyu Son, Jaehyun Eom, Jonghwa Won, Yunji Park, Jaeho Jung, Seung-Woo Lee

    Cancer immunotherapy with 4-1BB agonists has limited further clinical development because of dose-limiting toxicity. Here, we developed a bispecific antibody (bsAb; B7-H3×4-1BB), targeting human B7-H3 (hB7-H3) and mouse or human 4-1BB, to restrict the 4-1BB stimulation in tumors. B7-H3×m4-1BB elicited a 4-1BB–dependent antitumor response in hB7-H3–overexpressing tumor models without systemic toxicity

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • TBC1D3 promotes neural progenitor proliferation by suppressing the histone methyltransferase G9a
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Qiong-Qiong Hou, Qi Xiao, Xin-Yao Sun, Xiang-Chun Ju, Zhen-Ge Luo

    Genomic changes during human linage evolution contribute to the expansion of the cerebral cortex to allow more advanced thought processes. The hominoid-specific gene TBC1D3 displays robust capacity of promoting the generation and proliferation of neural progenitors (NPs), which are thought to contribute to cortical expansion. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that TBC1D3

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Deriving iron contents from past and future Venus surface spectra with new high-temperature laboratory emissivity data
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    J. Helbert, A. Maturilli, M. D. Dyar, G. Alemanno

    In situ information on the surface composition of Venus is based on measurements of a small number of landing sites. In the laboratory, we measured the emissivity of a range of igneous rocks at temperatures up to 480°C. We show that high-temperature laboratory spectra of basalts are consistent with the only existing multispectral data from the surface of Venus obtained by the photometers on the Venera

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • The Rab32/BLOC-3–dependent pathway mediates host defense against different pathogens in human macrophages
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Massimiliano Baldassarre, Virtu Solano-Collado, Arda Balci, Rosa A. Colamarino, Ivy M. Dambuza, Delyth M. Reid, Heather M. Wilson, Gordon D. Brown, Subhankar Mukhopadhyay, Gordon Dougan, Stefania Spanò

    Macrophages provide a first line of defense against microorganisms, and while some mechanisms to kill pathogens such as the oxidative burst are well described, others are still undefined or unknown. Here, we report that the Rab32 guanosine triphosphatase and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex–3) are central components of a trafficking pathway

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Ancient protein analysis in archaeology
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Jessica Hendy

    The analysis of ancient proteins from paleontological, archeological, and historic materials is revealing insights into past subsistence practices, patterns of health and disease, evolution and phylogeny, and past environments. This review tracks the development of this field, discusses some of the major methodological strategies used, and synthesizes recent developments in archeological applications

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Multiple screening approaches reveal HDAC6 as a novel regulator of glycolytic metabolism in triple-negative breast cancer
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Catríona M. Dowling, Kate E. R. Hollinshead, Alessandra Di Grande, Justin Pritchard, Hua Zhang, Eugene T. Dillon, Kathryn Haley, Eleni Papadopoulos, Anita K. Mehta, Rachel Bleach, Andreas U. Lindner, Brian Mooney, Heiko Düssmann, Darran O’Connor, Jochen H. M. Prehn, Kieran Wynne, Michael Hemann, James E. Bradner, Alec C. Kimmelman, Jennifer L. Guerriero, Gerard Cagney, Kwok-Kin Wong, Anthony G. Letai

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer without a targeted form of therapy. Unfortunately, up to 70% of patients with TNBC develop resistance to treatment. A known contributor to chemoresistance is dysfunctional mitochondrial apoptosis signaling. We set up a phenotypic small-molecule screen to reveal vulnerabilities in TNBC cells that were independent of mitochondrial apoptosis

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • The translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex regulates quality control of N-linked glycosylation during ER stress
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Chatchai Phoomak, Wei Cui, Thomas J. Hayman, Seok-Ho Yu, Peng Zhao, Lance Wells, Richard Steet, Joseph N. Contessa

    Asparagine (N)–linked glycosylation is required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, but how this co- and posttranslational modification is maintained during ER stress is unknown. Here, we introduce a fluorescence-based strategy to detect aberrant N-glycosylation in individual cells and identify a regulatory role for the heterotetrameric translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex. Unexpectedly

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Overlap of NatA and IAP substrates implicates N-terminal acetylation in protein stabilization
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Franziska Mueller, Alexandra Friese, Claudio Pathe, Richard Cardoso da Silva, Kenny Bravo Rodriguez, Andrea Musacchio, Tanja Bange

    SMAC/DIABLO and HTRA2 are mitochondrial proteins whose amino-terminal sequences, known as inhibitor of apoptosis binding motifs (IBMs), bind and activate ubiquitin ligases known as inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), unleashing a cell’s apoptotic potential. IBMs comprise a four-residue, loose consensus sequence, and binding to IAPs requires an unmodified amino terminus. Closely related, IBM-like

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Integrated quantitative PIXE analysis and EDX spectroscopy using a laser-driven particle source
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    F. Mirani, A. Maffini, F. Casamichiela, A. Pazzaglia, A. Formenti, D. Dellasega, V. Russo, D. Vavassori, D. Bortot, M. Huault, G. Zeraouli, V. Ospina, S. Malko, J. I. Apiñaniz, J. A. Pérez-Hernández, D. De Luis, G. Gatti, L. Volpe, A. Pola, M. Passoni

    Among the existing elemental characterization techniques, particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy are two of the most widely used in different scientific and technological fields. Here, we present the first quantitative laser-driven PIXE and laser-driven EDX experimental investigation performed at the Centro de Láseres Pulsados in Salamanca. Thanks to their

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Leaf-derived ABA regulates rice seed development via a transporter-mediated and temperature-sensitive mechanism
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Peng Qin, Guohua Zhang, Binhua Hu, Jie Wu, Weilan Chen, Zhijie Ren, Yulan Liu, Jing Xie, Hua Yuan, Bin Tu, Bingtian Ma, Yuping Wang, Limin Ye, Legong Li, Chengbin Xiang, Shigui Li

    Long-distance transport of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been studied for ~50 years, yet its mechanistic basis and biological significance remain very poorly understood. Here, we show that leaf-derived ABA controls rice seed development in a temperature-dependent manner and is regulated by defective grain-filling 1 (DG1), a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporter that effluxes

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Translational and rotational critical-like behaviors in the glass transition of colloidal ellipsoid monolayers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Zhongyu Zheng, Ran Ni, Yuren Wang, Yilong Han

    Critical-like behaviors have been found in translational degrees of freedom near the glass transition of spherical particle systems mainly with local polycrystalline structures, but it is not clear if criticality exists in more general glassy systems composed of nonspherical particles without crystalline structures. Here, through experiments and simulations, we show critical-like behaviors in both

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Metallic line defect in wide-bandgap transparent perovskite BaSnO3
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Hwanhui Yun, Mehmet Topsakal, Abhinav Prakash, Bharat Jalan, Jong Seok Jeong, Turan Birol, K. Andre Mkhoyan

    A line defect with metallic characteristics has been found in optically transparent BaSnO3 perovskite thin films. The distinct atomic structure of the defect core, composed of Sn and O atoms, was visualized by atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). When doped with La, dopants that replace Ba atoms preferentially segregate to specific crystallographic sites adjacent to the

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Structure and noncanonical Cdk8 activation mechanism within an Argonaute-containing Mediator kinase module
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Yi-Chuan Li, Ti-Chun Chao, Hee Jong Kim, Timothy Cholko, Shin-Fu Chen, Guojie Li, Laura Snyder, Kotaro Nakanishi, Chia-en Chang, Kenji Murakami, Benjamin A. Garcia, Thomas G. Boyer, Kuang-Lei Tsai

    The Cdk8 kinase module (CKM) in Mediator, comprising Med13, Med12, CycC, and Cdk8, regulates RNA polymerase II transcription through kinase-dependent and -independent functions. Numerous pathogenic mutations causative for neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer congregate in CKM subunits. However, the structure of the intact CKM and the mechanism by which Cdk8 is non-canonically activated and functionally

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Direct coherent multi-ink printing of fabric supercapacitors
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Jingxin Zhao, Hongyu Lu, Yan Zhang, Shixiong Yu, Oleksandr I. Malyi, Xiaoxin Zhao, Litong Wang, Huibo Wang, Jianhong Peng, Xifei Li, Yanyan Zhang, Shi Chen, Hui Pan, Guichuan Xing, Conghua Lu, Yuxin Tang, Xiaodong Chen

    Coaxial fiber-shaped supercapacitors with short charge carrier diffusion paths are highly desirable as high-performance energy storage devices for wearable electronics. However, the traditional approaches based on the multistep fabrication processes for constructing the fiber-shaped energy device still encounter persistent restrictions in fabrication procedure, scalability, and mechanical durability

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • In situ measurements of intracellular thermal conductivity using heater-thermometer hybrid diamond nanosensors
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Shingo Sotoma, Chongxia Zhong, James Chen Yong Kah, Hayato Yamashita, Taras Plakhotnik, Yoshie Harada, Madoka Suzuki

    Understanding heat dissipation processes at nanoscale during cellular thermogenesis is essential to clarify the relationships between the heat and biological processes in cells and organisms. A key parameter determining the heat flux inside a cell is the local thermal conductivity, a factor poorly investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Here, using a nanoheater/nanothermometer hybrid made

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Single-cell cytometry via multiplexed fluorescence prediction by label-free reflectance microscopy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Shiyi Cheng, Sipei Fu, Yumi Mun Kim, Weiye Song, Yunzhe Li, Yujia Xue, Ji Yi, Lei Tian

    Traditional imaging cytometry uses fluorescence markers to identify specific structures but is limited in throughput by the labeling process. We develop a label-free technique that alleviates the physical staining and provides multiplexed readouts via a deep learning–augmented digital labeling method. We leverage the rich structural information and superior sensitivity in reflectance microscopy and

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Strontium ions protect hearts against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Min Xing, Yun Jiang, Wei Bi, Long Gao, Yan-Ling Zhou, Sen-Le Rao, Ling-Ling Ma, Zhao-Wenbin Zhang, Huang-Tian Yang, Jiang Chang

    Timely restoration of blood supply following myocardial infarction is critical to save the infarcted myocardium, while reperfusion would cause additional damage. Strontium ions have been shown to promote angiogenesis, but it is unknown whether they can save the damaged myocardium. We report that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)–induced functional deterioration and scar formation were notably attenuated

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Systemic inequalities for LGBTQ professionals in STEM
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    E. A. Cech, T. J. Waidzunas

    Researchers have documented race and gender inequality in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for decades. Do lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) professionals face parallel experiences of disadvantage in STEM? Using representative survey data from 21 STEM professional societies (Nsample = 25,324; NLGBTQ = 1006), this paper presents multidimensional and methodologically

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Ultrahigh-yield on-surface synthesis and assembly of circumcoronene into a chiral electronic Kagome-honeycomb lattice
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Mykola Telychko, Guangwu Li, Pingo Mutombo, Diego Soler-Polo, Xinnan Peng, Jie Su, Shaotang Song, Ming Joo Koh, Mark Edmonds, Pavel Jelínek, Jishan Wu, Jiong Lu

    On-surface synthesis has revealed remarkable potential in the fabrication of atomically precise nanographenes. However, surface-assisted synthesis often involves multiple-step cascade reactions with competing pathways, leading to a limited yield of target nanographene products. Here, we devise a strategy for the ultrahigh-yield synthesis of circumcoronene molecules on Cu(111) via surface-assisted intramolecular

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • Corner-, edge-, and facet-controlled growth of nanocrystals
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Yuanwei Li, Haixin Lin, Wenjie Zhou, Lin Sun, Devleena Samanta, Chad A. Mirkin

    The ability to precisely control nanocrystal (NC) shape and composition is useful in many fields, including catalysis and plasmonics. Seed-mediated strategies have proven effective for preparing a wide variety of structures, but a poor understanding of how to selectively grow corners, edges, and facets has limited the development of a general strategy to control structure evolution. Here, we report

    更新日期:2021-01-15
  • How close are we to the temperature tipping point of the terrestrial biosphere?
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Katharyn A. Duffy, Christopher R. Schwalm, Vickery L. Arcus, George W. Koch, Liyin L. Liang, Louis A. Schipper

    The temperature dependence of global photosynthesis and respiration determine land carbon sink strength. While the land sink currently mitigates ~30% of anthropogenic carbon emissions, it is unclear whether this ecosystem service will persist and, more specifically, what hard temperature limits, if any, regulate carbon uptake. Here, we use the largest continuous carbon flux monitoring network to construct

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • EGR1 is a gatekeeper of inflammatory enhancers in human macrophages
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Marco Trizzino, Avery Zucco, Sandra Deliard, Fang Wang, Elisa Barbieri, Filippo Veglia, Dmitry Gabrilovich, Alessandro Gardini

    Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages originate through a multistep differentiation process. First, hematopoietic stem cells generate lineage-restricted progenitors that eventually develop into peripheral, postmitotic monocytes. Second, blood-circulating monocytes undergo differentiation into macrophages, which are specialized phagocytic cells capable of tissue infiltration. While monocytes mediate

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Ionizable lipid nanoparticles for in utero mRNA delivery
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Rachel S. Riley, Meghana V. Kashyap, Margaret M. Billingsley, Brandon White, Mohamad-Gabriel Alameh, Sourav K. Bose, Philip W. Zoltick, Hiaying Li, Rui Zhang, Andrew Y. Cheng, Drew Weissman, William H. Peranteau, Michael J. Mitchell

    Clinical advances enable the prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases that are candidates for gene and enzyme therapies such as messenger RNA (mRNA)–mediated protein replacement. Prenatal mRNA therapies can treat disease before the onset of irreversible pathology with high therapeutic efficacy and safety due to the small fetal size, immature immune system, and abundance of progenitor cells. However,

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Exceptions to bed-controlled ice sheet flow and retreat from glaciated continental margins worldwide
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Sarah L. Greenwood, Lauren M. Simkins, Monica C. M. Winsborrow, Lilja R. Bjarnadóttir

    Projections of ice sheet behavior hinge on how ice flow velocity evolves and the extent to which marine-based grounding lines are stable. Ice flow and grounding line retreat are variably governed by the coupling between the ice and underlying terrain. We ask to what degree catchment-scale bed characteristics determine ice flow and retreat, drawing on paleo-ice sheet landform imprints from 99 sites

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Substrate-specific recognition of IKKs mediated by USP16 facilitates autoimmune inflammation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Jian-shuai Yu, Tao Huang, Yu Zhang, Xin-tao Mao, Ling-jie Huang, Yi-ning Li, Ting-ting Wu, Jiang-yan Zhong, Qian Cao, Yi-yuan Li, Jin Jin

    The classic NF-κB pathway plays crucial roles in various immune responses and inflammatory diseases. Its key kinase, IKKβ, participates in a variety of pathological and physiological processes by selectively recognizing its downstream substrates, including p105, p65, and IκBα, but the specific mechanisms of these substrates are unclear. Hyperactivation of one of the substrates, p105, is closely related

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Nonresonant powering of injectable nanoelectrodes enables wireless deep brain stimulation in freely moving mice
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    K. L. Kozielski, A. Jahanshahi, H. B. Gilbert, Y. Yu, Ö. Erin, D. Francisco, F. Alosaimi, Y. Temel, M. Sitti

    Devices that electrically modulate the deep brain have enabled important breakthroughs in the management of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such devices are typically centimeter-scale, requiring surgical implantation and wired-in powering, which increases the risk of hemorrhage, infection, and damage during daily activity. Using smaller, remotely powered materials could lead to less invasive

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • The Ocean 100: Transnational corporations in the ocean economy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    J. Virdin, T. Vegh, J.-B. Jouffray, R. Blasiak, S. Mason, H. Österblom, D. Vermeer, H. Wachtmeister, N. Werner

    The ocean economy is growing as commercial use of the ocean accelerates, while progress toward achieving international goals for ocean conservation and sustainability is lagging. In this context, the private sector is increasingly recognized as having the capacity to hamper efforts to achieve aspirations of sustainable ocean-based development or alternatively to bend current trajectories of ocean use

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Real-time observation and control of optical chaos
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Linran Fan, Xiaodong Yan, Han Wang, Lihong V. Wang

    Optical chaotic system is a central research topic due to its scientific importance and practical relevance in key photonic applications such as laser optics and optical communication. Because of the ultrafast propagation of light, all previous studies on optical chaos are based on either static imaging or spectral measurement, which shows only time-averaged phenomena. The ability to reveal real-time

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Induction of muscle-regenerative multipotent stem cells from human adipocytes by PDGF-AB and 5-azacytidine
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Avani Yeola, Shruthi Subramanian, Rema A. Oliver, Christine A. Lucas, Julie A. I. Thoms, Feng Yan, Jake Olivier, Diego Chacon, Melinda L. Tursky, Pallavi Srivastava, Jason R. Potas, Tzongtyng Hung, Carl Power, Philip Hardy, David D. Ma, Kristopher A. Kilian, Joshua McCarroll, Maria Kavallaris, Luke B. Hesson, Dominik Beck, David J. Curtis, Jason W. H. Wong, Edna C. Hardeman, William R. Walsh, Ralph

    Terminally differentiated murine osteocytes and adipocytes can be reprogrammed using platelet-derived growth factor–AB and 5-azacytidine into multipotent stem cells with stromal cell characteristics. We have now optimized culture conditions to reprogram human adipocytes into induced multipotent stem (iMS) cells and characterized their molecular and functional properties. Although the basal transcriptomes

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Highly sensitive VOC detectors using insect olfactory receptors reconstituted into lipid bilayers
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Tetsuya Yamada, Hirotaka Sugiura, Hisatoshi Mimura, Koki Kamiya, Toshihisa Osaki, Shoji Takeuchi

    This paper reports a volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor based on olfactory receptors that were reconstituted into a lipid bilayer and used in a specifically designed gas flow system for rapid parts per billion (ppb)–level detection. This VOC sensor achieves both rapid detection and high detection probability because of its gas flow system and array design. Specifically, the gas flow system includes

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • O-GlcNAcylation ameliorates the pathological manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease by inhibiting necroptosis
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Jinsu Park, Hee-Jin Ha, Eun Seon Chung, Seung Hyun Baek, Yoonsuk Cho, Hark Kyun Kim, Jihoon Han, Jae Hoon Sul, Jeongmi Lee, Eunae Kim, Junsik Kim, Yong Ryoul Yang, Mikyoung Park, Sung Hyun Kim, Thiruma V. Arumugam, Hyemin Jang, Sang Won Seo, Pann-Ghill Suh, Dong-Gyu Jo

    O-GlcNAcylation (O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation) is notably decreased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain. Necroptosis is activated in AD brain and is positively correlated with neuroinflammation and tau pathology. However, the links among altered O-GlcNAcylation, β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, and necroptosis are unclear. Here, we found that O-GlcNAcylation plays a protective role in AD by inhibiting

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • TRAF6-IRF5 kinetics, TRIF, and biophysical factors drive synergistic innate responses to particle-mediated MPLA-CpG co-presentation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    P. Pradhan, R. Toy, N. Jhita, A. Atalis, B. Pandey, A. Beach, E. L. Blanchard, S. G. Moore, D. A. Gaul, P. J. Santangelo, D. M. Shayakhmetov, K. Roy

    Innate immune responses to pathogens are driven by co-presentation of multiple pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Combinations of PAMPs can trigger synergistic immune responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms of synergy are poorly understood. Here, we used synthetic particulate carriers co-loaded with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and CpG as pathogen-like particles (PLPs) to dissect

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Oldest cave art found in Sulawesi
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Adam Brumm, Adhi Agus Oktaviana, Basran Burhan, Budianto Hakim, Rustan Lebe, Jian-xin Zhao, Priyatno Hadi Sulistyarto, Marlon Ririmasse, Shinatria Adhityatama, Iwan Sumantri, Maxime Aubert

    Indonesia harbors some of the oldest known surviving cave art. Previously, the earliest dated rock art from this region was a figurative painting of a Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis). This image from Leang Bulu’ Sipong 4 in the limestone karsts of Maros-Pangkep, South Sulawesi, was created at least 43,900 years ago (43.9 ka) based on Uranium-series dating. Here, we report the Uranium-series dating

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • The Arp1/11 minifilament of dynactin primes the endosomal Arp2/3 complex
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Artem I. Fokin, Violaine David, Ksenia Oguievetskaia, Emmanuel Derivery, Caroline E. Stone, Luyan Cao, Nathalie Rocques, Nicolas Molinie, Véronique Henriot, Magali Aumont-Nicaise, Maria-Victoria Hinckelmann, Frédéric Saudou, Christophe Le Clainche, Andrew P. Carter, Guillaume Romet-Lemonne, Alexis M. Gautreau

    Dendritic actin networks develop from a first actin filament through branching by the Arp2/3 complex. At the surface of endosomes, the WASH complex activates the Arp2/3 complex and interacts with the capping protein for unclear reasons. Here, we show that the WASH complex interacts with dynactin and uncaps it through its FAM21 subunit. In vitro, the uncapped Arp1/11 minifilament elongates an actin

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Abrupt but smaller than expected changes in surface air quality attributable to COVID-19 lockdowns
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Zongbo Shi, Congbo Song, Bowen Liu, Gongda Lu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan Van Vu, Robert J. R. Elliott, Weijun Li, William J. Bloss, Roy M. Harrison

    The COVID-19 lockdowns led to major reductions in air pollutant emissions. Here, we quantitatively evaluate changes in ambient NO2, O3, and PM2.5 concentrations arising from these emission changes in 11 cities globally by applying a deweathering machine learning technique. Sudden decreases in deweathered NO2 concentrations and increases in O3 were observed in almost all cities. However, the decline

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • CGG repeat RNA G-quadruplexes interact with FMRpolyG to cause neuronal dysfunction in fragile X-related tremor/ataxia syndrome
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Sefan Asamitsu, Yasushi Yabuki, Susumu Ikenoshita, Kosuke Kawakubo, Moe Kawasaki, Shingo Usuki, Yuji Nakayama, Kaori Adachi, Hiroyuki Kugoh, Kazuhiro Ishii, Tohru Matsuura, Eiji Nanba, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Kohji Fukunaga, Norifumi Shioda

    Fragile X-related tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by CGG triplet repeat expansions in FMR1, which elicit repeat-associated non-AUG (RAN) translation and produce the toxic protein FMRpolyG. We show that FMRpolyG interacts with pathogenic CGG repeat-derived RNA G-quadruplexes (CGG-G4RNA), propagates cell to cell, and induces neuronal dysfunction. The FMRpolyG polyglycine

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Optical selection and sorting of nanoparticles according to quantum mechanical properties
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Hideki Fujiwara, Kyosuke Yamauchi, Takudo Wada, Hajime Ishihara, Keiji Sasaki

    Optical trapping and manipulation have been widely applied to biological systems, and their cutting-edge techniques are creating current trends in nanomaterial sciences. The resonant absorption of materials induces not only the energy transfer from photons to quantum mechanical motion of electrons but also the momentum transfer between them, resulting in dissipative optical forces that drive the macroscopic

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • How volatile components catalyze vapor nucleation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Chenxi Li, Jan Krohn, Martina Lippe, Ruth Signorell

    Gas phase nucleation is a ubiquitous phenomenon in planetary atmospheres and technical processes, yet our understanding of it is far from complete. In particular, the enhancement of nucleation by the addition of a more volatile, weakly interacting gaseous species to a nucleating vapor has escaped molecular-level experimental investigation. Here, we use a specially designed experiment to directly measure

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Spin-orbit coupling suppression and singlet-state blocking of spin-triplet Cooper pairs
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Sachio Komori, James M. Devine-Stoneman, Kohei Ohnishi, Guang Yang, Zhanna Devizorova, Sergey Mironov, Xavier Montiel, Linde A. B. Olde Olthof, Lesley F. Cohen, Hidekazu Kurebayashi, Mark G. Blamire, Alexandre I. Buzdin, Jason W. A. Robinson

    An inhomogeneous magnetic exchange field at a superconductor/ferromagnet interface converts spin-singlet Cooper pairs to a spin-polarized triplet state. Although the decay envelope of triplet pairs within ferromagnetic materials is well studied, little is known about their decay in nonmagnetic metals and superconductors and, in particular, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, we investigate

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • CMOS-compatible ferroelectric NAND flash memory for high-density, low-power, and high-speed three-dimensional memory
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Min-Kyu Kim, Ik-Jyae Kim, Jang-Sik Lee

    Ferroelectric memory has been substantially researched for several decades as its potential to obtain higher speed, lower power consumption, and longer endurance compared to conventional flash memory. Despite great deal of effort to develop ferroelectric memory based on perovskite oxides on Si, formation of unwanted interfacial layer substantially compromises the performance of the ferroelectric memory

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Structures of Rhodopseudomonas palustris RC-LH1 complexes with open or closed quinone channels
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    David J. K. Swainsbury, Pu Qian, Philip J. Jackson, Kaitlyn M. Faries, Dariusz M. Niedzwiedzki, Elizabeth C. Martin, David A. Farmer, Lorna A. Malone, Rebecca F. Thompson, Neil A. Ranson, Daniel P. Canniffe, Mark J. Dickman, Dewey Holten, Christine Kirmaier, Andrew Hitchcock, C. Neil Hunter

    The reaction-center light-harvesting complex 1 (RC-LH1) is the core photosynthetic component in purple phototrophic bacteria. We present two cryo–electron microscopy structures of RC-LH1 complexes from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. A 2.65-Å resolution structure of the RC-LH114-W complex consists of an open 14-subunit LH1 ring surrounding the RC interrupted by protein-W, whereas the complex without protein-W

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Multilayered electronic transfer tattoo that can enable the crease amplification effect
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Lixue Tang, Jin Shang, Xingyu Jiang

    Electronic tattoos have great potential in health and movement sensing applications on the skin. However, existing electronic tattoos cannot be conformal, sticky, and multilayered at the same time. Here, we have achieved multilayered integration of the electronic tattoo that is highly stretchable (800%), conformal, and sticky. This electronic tattoo can enable the crease amplification effect, which

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • Cell cycle inertia underlies a bifurcation in cell fates after DNA damage
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Jenny F. Nathans, James A. Cornwell, Marwa M. Afifi, Debasish Paul, Steven D. Cappell

    The G1-S checkpoint is thought to prevent cells with damaged DNA from entering S phase and replicating their DNA and efficiently arrests cells at the G1-S transition. Here, using time-lapse imaging and single-cell tracking, we instead find that DNA damage leads to highly variable and divergent fate outcomes. Contrary to the textbook model that cells arrest at the G1-S transition, cells triggering the

    更新日期:2021-01-14
  • ITIH4 acts as a protease inhibitor by a novel inhibitory mechanism
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Rasmus Pihl, Rasmus K. Jensen, Emil C. Poulsen, Lisbeth Jensen, Annette G. Hansen, Ida B. Thøgersen, József Dobó, Péter Gál, Gregers R. Andersen, Jan J. Enghild, Steffen Thiel

    Inter-α-inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4) is a poorly characterized plasma protein that is proteolytically processed in multiple pathological conditions. However, no biological function of ITIH4 has been identified. Here, we show that ITIH4 is cleaved by several human proteases within a protease-susceptible region, enabling ITIH4 to function as a protease inhibitor. This is exemplified by its inhibition

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Rab7-harboring vesicles are carriers of the transferrin receptor through the biosynthetic secretory pathway
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Maika S. Deffieu, Ieva Cesonyte, François Delalande, Gaelle Boncompain, Cristina Dorobantu, Eli Song, Vincent Lucansky, Aurélie Hirschler, Sarah Cianferani, Franck Perez, Christine Carapito, Raphael Gaudin

    The biosynthetic secretory pathway is particularly challenging to investigate as it is underrepresented compared to the abundance of the other intracellular trafficking routes. Here, we combined the retention using selective hook (RUSH) to a CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing approach (eRUSH) and identified Rab7-harboring vesicles as an important intermediate compartment of the Golgi–to–plasma membrane transport

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Thermal stress reduces pocilloporid coral resilience to ocean acidification by impairing control over calcifying fluid chemistry
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Maxence Guillermic, Louise P. Cameron, Ilian De Corte, Sambuddha Misra, Jelle Bijma, Dirk de Beer, Claire E. Reymond, Hildegard Westphal, Justin B. Ries, Robert A. Eagle

    The combination of thermal stress and ocean acidification (OA) can more negatively affect coral calcification than an individual stressors, but the mechanism behind this interaction is unknown. We used two independent methods (microelectrode and boron geochemistry) to measure calcifying fluid pH (pHcf) and carbonate chemistry of the corals Pocillopora damicornis and Stylophora pistillata grown under

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Gene therapy for tuberous sclerosis complex type 2 in a mouse model by delivery of AAV9 encoding a condensed form of tuberin
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Pike-See Cheah, Shilpa Prabhakar, David Yellen, Roberta L. Beauchamp, Xuan Zhang, Shingo Kasamatsu, Roderick T. Bronson, Elizabeth A. Thiele, David J. Kwiatkowski, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Bence György, King-Hwa Ling, Masao Kaneki, Bakhos A. Tannous, Vijaya Ramesh, Casey A. Maguire, Xandra O. Breakefield

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) results from loss of a tumor suppressor gene - TSC1 or TSC2, encoding hamartin and tuberin, respectively. These proteins formed a complex to inhibit mTORC1-mediated cell growth and proliferation. Loss of either protein leads to overgrowth lesions in many vital organs. Gene therapy was evaluated in a mouse model of TSC2 using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector carrying

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Defects and plasticity in ultrastrong supercrystalline nanocomposites
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    D. Giuntini, S. Zhao, T. Krekeler, M. Li, M. Blankenburg, B. Bor, G. Schaan, B. Domènech, M. Müller, I. Scheider, M. Ritter, G. A. Schneider

    Supercrystalline nanocomposites are nanoarchitected materials with a growing range of applications but unexplored in their structural behavior. They typically consist of organically functionalized inorganic nanoparticles arranged into periodic structures analogous to crystalline lattices, including superlattice imperfections induced by processing or mechanical loading. Although featuring a variety

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Amorphization mechanism of SrIrO3 electrocatalyst: How oxygen redox initiates ionic diffusion and structural reorganization
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Gang Wan, John W. Freeland, Jan Kloppenburg, Guido Petretto, Jocienne N. Nelson, Ding-Yuan Kuo, Cheng-Jun Sun, Jianguo Wen, J. Trey Diulus, Gregory S. Herman, Yongqi Dong, Ronghui Kou, Jingying Sun, Shuo Chen, Kyle M. Shen, Darrell G. Schlom, Gian-Marco Rignanese, Geoffroy Hautier, Dillon D. Fong, Zhenxing Feng, Hua Zhou, Jin Suntivich

    The use of renewable electricity to prepare materials and fuels from abundant molecules offers a tantalizing opportunity to address concerns over energy and materials sustainability. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is integral to nearly all material and fuel electrosyntheses. However, very little is known about the structural evolution of the OER electrocatalyst, especially the amorphous layer

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • The nuclear piston activates mechanosensitive ion channels to generate cell migration paths in confining microenvironments
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Hong-pyo Lee, Farid Alisafaei, Kolade Adebawale, Julie Chang, Vivek B. Shenoy, Ovijit Chaudhuri

    Cell migration in confining microenvironments is limited by the ability of the stiff nucleus to deform through pores when migration paths are preexisting and elastic, but how cells generate these paths remains unclear. Here, we reveal a mechanism by which the nucleus mechanically generates migration paths for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in confining microenvironments. MSCs migrate robustly in nanoporous

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Single-crystalline epitaxial TiO film: A metal and superconductor, similar to Ti metal
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Fengmiao Li, Yuting Zou, Myung-Geun Han, Kateryna Foyevtsova, Hyungki Shin, Sangjae Lee, Chong Liu, Kidae Shin, Stephen D. Albright, Ronny Sutarto, Feizhou He, Bruce A. Davidson, Frederick J. Walker, Charles H. Ahn, Yimei Zhu, Zhi Gang Cheng, Ilya Elfimov, George A. Sawatzky, Ke Zou

    Titanium monoxide (TiO), an important member of the rock salt 3d transition-metal monoxides, has not been studied in the stoichiometric single-crystal form. It has been challenging to prepare stoichiometric TiO due to the highly reactive Ti2+. We adapt a closely lattice-matched MgO(001) substrate and report the successful growth of single-crystalline TiO(001) film using molecular beam epitaxy. This

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Structural basis for the regulation of nucleosome recognition and HDAC activity by histone deacetylase assemblies
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Jung-Hoon Lee, Daniel Bollschweiler, Tillman Schäfer, Robert Huber

    The chromatin-modifying histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetyl groups from acetyl-lysine residues in histone amino-terminal tails, thereby mediating transcriptional repression. Structural makeup and mechanisms by which multisubunit HDAC complexes recognize nucleosomes remain elusive. Our cryo–electron microscopy structures of the yeast class II HDAC ensembles show that the HDAC protomer comprises

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Tunable intraband optical conductivity and polarization-dependent epsilon-near-zero behavior in black phosphorus
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Souvik Biswas, William S. Whitney, Meir Y. Grajower, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Hans A. Bechtel, George R. Rossman, Harry A. Atwater

    Black phosphorus (BP) offers considerable promise for infrared and visible photonics. Efficient tuning of the bandgap and higher subbands in BP by modulation of the Fermi level or application of vertical electric fields has been previously demonstrated, allowing electrical control of its above-bandgap optical properties. Here, we report modulation of the optical conductivity below the bandgap (5 to

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Crystal orientation dictated epitaxy of ultrawide-bandgap 5.4- to 8.6-eV α-(AlGa)2O3 on m-plane sapphire
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Riena Jinno, Celesta S. Chang, Takeyoshi Onuma, Yongjin Cho, Shao-Ting Ho, Derek Rowe, Michael C. Cao, Kevin Lee, Vladimir Protasenko, Darrell G. Schlom, David A. Muller, Huili G. Xing, Debdeep Jena

    Ultrawide-bandgap semiconductors are ushering in the next generation of high-power electronics. The correct crystal orientation can make or break successful epitaxy of such semiconductors. Here, it is found that single-crystalline layers of α-(AlGa)2O3 alloys spanning bandgaps of 5.4 to 8.6 eV can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The key step is found to be the use of m-plane sapphire crystal. The

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Genetic switch in UV response of mimicry-related pale-yellow colors in Batesian mimic butterfly, Papilio polytes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Shinichi Yoda, Kousuke Sakakura, Tasuku Kitamura, Yûsuke KonDo, Kazuki Sato, Ryosuke Ohnuki, Itsuki Someya, Shinya Komata, Tetsuya Kojima, Shinya Yoshioka, Haruhiko Fujiwara

    In a Batesian mimic butterfly Papilio polytes, mimetic females resemble an unpalatable model, Pachliopta aristolochiae, but exhibit a different color pattern from nonmimetic females and males. In particular, the pale-yellow region on hind wings, which correspondingly sends important putative signals for mimicry and mate preference, is different in shape and chemical features between nonmimetic and

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Antiferromagnetic switching driven by the collective dynamics of a coexisting spin glass
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Eran Maniv, Nityan L. Nair, Shannon C. Haley, Spencer Doyle, Caolan John, Stefano Cabrini, Ariel Maniv, Sanath K. Ramakrishna, Yun-Long Tang, Peter Ercius, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Yaroslav Tserkovnyak, Arneil P. Reyes, James G. Analytis

    The theory behind the electrical switching of antiferromagnets is premised on the existence of a well-defined broken symmetry state that can be rotated to encode information. A spin glass is, in many ways, the antithesis of this state, characterized by an ergodic landscape of nearly degenerate magnetic configurations, choosing to freeze into a distribution of these in a manner that is seemingly bereft

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • TRIM26 is a critical host factor for HCV replication and contributes to host tropism
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Yisha Liang, Guigen Zhang, Qiheng Li, Lin Han, Xiaoyou Hu, Yu Guo, Wanyin Tao, Xiaomin Zhao, Mingzhe Guo, Tianyu Gan, Yimin Tong, Yongfen Xu, Zhuo Zhou, Qiang Ding, Wensheng Wei, Jin Zhong

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major human pathogen that requires better understanding of virus-host interactions. In this study, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening and identified TRIM26, an E3 ligase, as a critical HCV host factor. Deficiency of TRIM26 specifically impairs HCV genome replication. Mechanistic studies showed that TRIM26 interacts with HCV-encoded NS5B protein and mediates

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • The structure of enteric human adenovirus 41—A leading cause of diarrhea in children
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    K. Rafie, A. Lenman, J. Fuchs, A. Rajan, N. Arnberg, L.-A. Carlson

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) types F40 and F41 are a prominent cause of diarrhea and diarrhea-associated mortality in young children worldwide. These enteric HAdVs differ notably in tissue tropism and pathogenicity from respiratory and ocular adenoviruses, but the structural basis for this divergence has been unknown. Here, we present the first structure of an enteric HAdV—HAdV-F41—determined by cryo–electron

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • A circadian clock in a nonphotosynthetic prokaryote
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Zheng Eelderink-Chen, Jasper Bosman, Francesca Sartor, Antony N. Dodd, Ákos T. Kovács, Martha Merrow

    Circadian clocks create a 24-hour temporal structure, which allows organisms to occupy a niche formed by time rather than space. They are pervasive throughout nature, yet they remain unexpectedly unexplored and uncharacterized in nonphotosynthetic bacteria. Here, we identify in Bacillus subtilis circadian rhythms sharing the canonical properties of circadian clocks: free-running period, entrainment

    更新日期:2021-01-10
  • Perfusion, cryopreservation, and nanowarming of whole hearts using colloidally stable magnetic cryopreservation agent solutions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 13.116) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Andreina Chiu-Lam, Edward Staples, Carl J. Pepine, Carlos Rinaldi

    Nanowarming of cryopreserved organs perfused with magnetic cryopreservation agents (mCPAs) could increase donor organ utilization by extending preservation time and avoiding damage caused by slow and nonuniform rewarming. Here, we report formulation of an mCPA containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) that are stable against aggregation in the cryopreservation agent VS55 before

    更新日期:2021-01-10
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