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  • The hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations R403Q and R663H increase the number of myosin heads available to interact with actin
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Saswata S. Sarkar, Darshan V. Trivedi, Makenna M. Morck, Arjun S. Adhikari, Shaik N. Pasha, Kathleen M. Ruppel, James A. Spudich

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutations in β-cardiac myosin and myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) lead to hypercontractility of the heart, an early hallmark of HCM. We show that hypercontractility caused by the HCM-causing mutation R663H cannot be explained by changes in fundamental myosin contractile parameters, much like the HCM-causing mutation R403Q. Using enzymatic assays with purified human

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Evaluating the fake news problem at the scale of the information ecosystem
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Jennifer Allen, Baird Howland, Markus Mobius, David Rothschild, Duncan J. Watts

    “Fake news,” broadly defined as false or misleading information masquerading as legitimate news, is frequently asserted to be pervasive online with serious consequences for democracy. Using a unique multimode dataset that comprises a nationally representative sample of mobile, desktop, and television consumption, we refute this conventional wisdom on three levels. First, news consumption of any sort

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Quantum computation solves a half-century-old enigma: Elusive vibrational states of magnesium dimer found
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Stephen H. Yuwono, Ilias Magoulas, Piotr Piecuch

    The high-lying vibrational states of the magnesium dimer (Mg2), which has been recognized as an important system in studies of ultracold and collisional phenomena, have eluded experimental characterization for half a century. Until now, only the first 14 vibrational states of Mg2 have been experimentally resolved, although it has been suggested that the ground-state potential may support five additional

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Direct observation of minibands in a twisted graphene/WS2 bilayer
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Søren Ulstrup, Roland J. Koch, Simranjeet Singh, Kathleen M. McCreary, Berend T. Jonker, Jeremy T. Robinson, Chris Jozwiak, Eli Rotenberg, Aaron Bostwick, Jyoti Katoch, Jill A. Miwa

    Stacking two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals materials with different interlayer atomic registry in a heterobilayer causes the formation of a long-range periodic superlattice that may bestow the heterostructure with properties such as new quantum fractal states or superconductivity. Recent optical measurements of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterobilayers have revealed the presence of hybridized

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Layer-resolved ultrafast extreme ultraviolet measurement of hole transport in a Ni-TiO2-Si photoanode
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Scott K. Cushing, Ilana J. Porter, Bethany R. de Roulet, Angela Lee, Brett M. Marsh, Szilard Szoke, Mihai E. Vaida, Stephen R. Leone

    Metal oxide semiconductor junctions are central to most electronic and optoelectronic devices, but ultrafast measurements of carrier transport have been limited to device-average measurements. Here, charge transport and recombination kinetics in each layer of a Ni-TiO2-Si junction is measured using the element specificity of broadband extreme ultraviolet (XUV) ultrafast pulses. After silicon photoexcitation

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Role of allosteric switches and adaptor domains in long-distance cross-talk and transient tunnel formation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Nandini Sharma, Navjeet Ahalawat, Padmani Sandhu, Erick Strauss, Jagannath Mondal, Ruchi Anand

    Transient tunnels that assemble and disassemble to facilitate passage of unstable intermediates in enzymes containing multiple reaction centers are controlled by allosteric cues. Using the 140-kDa purine biosynthetic enzyme PurL as a model system and a combination of biochemical and x-ray crystallographic studies, we show that long-distance communication between ~25-Å distal active sites is initiated

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Methanotrophic bacterial symbionts fuel dense populations of deep-sea feather duster worms (Sabellida, Annelida) and extend the spatial influence of methane seepage
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Shana K. Goffredi, Ekin Tilic, Sean W. Mullin, Katherine S. Dawson, Abigail Keller, Raymond W. Lee, Fabai Wu, Lisa A. Levin, Greg W. Rouse, Erik E. Cordes, Victoria J. Orphan

    Deep-sea cold seeps are dynamic sources of methane release and unique habitats supporting ocean biodiversity and productivity. Here, we describe newly discovered animal-bacterial symbioses fueled by methane, between two species of annelid (a serpulid Laminatubus and sabellid Bispira) and distinct aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the Methylococcales, localized to the host respiratory

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • A tripartite ssDNA mycovirus from a plant pathogenic fungus is infectious as cloned DNA and purified virions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Pengfei Li, Shuangchao Wang, Lihang Zhang, Dewen Qiu, Xueping Zhou, Lihua Guo

    Here, we describe a tripartite circular single-stranded (ss) DNA mycovirus, named Fusarium graminearum gemytripvirus 1 (FgGMTV1). The genome of FgGMTV1 comprises three circular ssDNA segments (DNA-A, DNA-B, and DNA-C). Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses showed that FgGMTV1 is nested within the family Genomoviridae. We also constructed the first infectious DNA clones of a DNA mycovirus. Our

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • “Skin-like” fabric for personal moisture management
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    L. Lao, D. Shou, Y. S. Wu, J. T. Fan

    Personal moisture management fabrics that facilitate sweat transport away from the skin are highly desirable for wearer’s comfort and performance. Here, we demonstrate a “skin-like” directional liquid transport fabric, which enables continuous one-way liquid flow through spatially distributed channels acting like “sweating glands” yet repels external liquid contaminants. The water transmission rate

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Massive generation of metastable bulk nanobubbles in water by external electric fields
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Mohammad Reza Ghaani, Peter G. Kusalik, Niall J. English

    Nanobubbles (NBs) are nanoscopic gaseous domains than can exist on solid surfaces or in bulk liquids. They have attracted substantial attention due to their long-time (meta)stability and a high potential for real-world applications. Using an approach not previously investigated, we exploit surface-electrostatic NB formation and stabilization via application of external electric fields in gas-liquid

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • A metal-free blue chromophore derived from plant pigments
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    B. C. Freitas-Dörr, C. O. Machado, A. C. Pinheiro, A. B. Fernandes, F. A. Dörr, E. Pinto, M. Lopes-Ferreira, M. Abdellah, J. Sá, L. C. Russo, F. L. Forti, L. C. P. Gonçalves, E. L. Bastos

    Blue natural pigments are rare, especially among plants. However, flowering species that evolved to attract Hymenoptera pollinators are colored by blue anthocyanin-metal complexes. Plants lacking anthocyanins are pigmented by betalains but are unable to produce blue hues. By extending the π-system of betalains, we designed a photostable and metal-free blue dye named BeetBlue that did not show toxicity

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Scattering of adiabatically aligned molecules by nonresonant optical standing waves
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Lee Yeong Kim, Byung Gwun Jin, Tae Woo Kim, Ju Hyeon Lee, Bum Suk Zhao

    We study the effect of rotational state–dependent alignment in the scattering of molecules by optical fields. CS2 molecules in their lowest few rotational states are adiabatically aligned and transversely accelerated by a nonresonant optical standing wave. The width of the measured transverse velocity distribution increases to 160 m/s with the field intensity, while its central peak position moves

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Metal-free activation of molecular oxygen by covalent triazine frameworks for selective aerobic oxidation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Sara Abednatanzi, Parviz Gohari Derakhshandeh, Karen Leus, Henk Vrielinck, Freddy Callens, Johannes Schmidt, Aleksandr Savateev, Pascal Van Der Voort

    Oxygen activation is a critical step in ubiquitous heterogeneous oxidative processes, most prominently in catalysis, electrolysis, and pharmaceutical applications. We present here our findings on metal-free O2 activation on covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) as an important class of N-rich materials. The O2 activation process was studied for the formation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A detailed

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Lubricated friction around nanodefects
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Clodomiro Cafolla, William Foster, Kislon Voïtchovsky

    The lubrication properties of nanoconfined liquids underpin countless natural and industrial processes. However, our current understanding of lubricated friction is still limited, especially for nonideal interfaces exhibiting nanoscale chemical and topographical defects. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to explore the equilibrium and dynamical behavior of a model lubricant, squalane, confined between

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Quantum biology revisited
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Jianshu Cao, Richard J. Cogdell, David F. Coker, Hong-Guang Duan, Jürgen Hauer, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, Thomas L. C. Jansen, Tomáš Mančal, R. J. Dwayne Miller, Jennifer P. Ogilvie, Valentyn I. Prokhorenko, Thomas Renger, Howe-Siang Tan, Roel Tempelaar, Michael Thorwart, Erling Thyrhaug, Sebastian Westenhoff, Donatas Zigmantas

    Photosynthesis is a highly optimized process from which valuable lessons can be learned about the operating principles in nature. Its primary steps involve energy transport operating near theoretical quantum limits in efficiency. Recently, extensive research was motivated by the hypothesis that nature used quantum coherences to direct energy transfer. This body of work, a cornerstone for the field

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Symmetry breaking in hydrodynamic forces drives meiotic spindle rotation in mammalian oocytes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    HaiYang Wang, Yizeng Li, Jing Yang, Xing Duan, Petr Kalab, Sean X. Sun, Rong Li

    Patterned cell divisions require a precisely oriented spindle that segregates chromosomes and determines the cytokinetic plane. In this study, we investigated how the meiotic spindle orients through an obligatory rotation during meiotic division in mouse oocytes. We show that spindle rotation occurs at the completion of chromosome segregation, whereby the separated chromosome clusters each define a

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Goldilocks conditions required for earthquakes to trigger basaltic eruptions: Evidence from the 2015 Ambrym eruption
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    I. J. Hamling, G. Kilgour

    Observations indicate a strong correlation between the occurrence of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. While increased volcanic activity has been observed following both local and distal earthquakes, some of the largest recorded earthquakes aren’t known to have triggered an eruption. Here we investigate whether an eruption and associated dike intrusion at Ambrym volcano was triggered by an Mw 6.4

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Vaporizable endoskeletal droplets via tunable interfacial melting transitions
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Gazendra Shakya, Samuel E. Hoff, Shiyi Wang, Hendrik Heinz, Xiaoyun Ding, Mark A. Borden

    Liquid emulsion droplet evaporation is of importance for various sensing and imaging applications. The liquid-to-gas phase transformation is typically triggered thermally or acoustically by low–boiling point liquids, or by inclusion of solid structures that pin the vapor/liquid contact line to facilitate heterogeneous nucleation. However, these approaches lack precise tunability in vaporization behavior

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Genome elimination mediated by gene expression from a selfish chromosome
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Elena Dalla Benetta, Igor Antoshechkin, Ting Yang, Hoa Quang My Nguyen, Patrick M. Ferree, Omar S. Akbari

    Numerous plants and animals harbor selfish B chromosomes that “drive” or transmit themselves at super-Mendelian frequencies, despite long-term fitness costs to the organism. Currently, it is unknown how B chromosome drive is mediated, and whether B-gene expression plays a role. We used modern sequencing technologies to analyze the fine-scale sequence composition and expression of paternal sex ratio

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Fluctuation-induced force in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Vamsi Spandan, Daniel Putt, Rodolfo Ostilla-Mónico, Alpha A. Lee

    Understanding force generation in nonequilibrium systems is a notable challenge in statistical physics. We uncover a fluctuation-induced force between two plates immersed in homogeneous isotropic turbulence using direct numerical simulations. The force is a nonmonotonic function of plate separation. The mechanism of force generation reveals an intriguing analogy with fluctuation-induced forces: In

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Inhibition of protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infection by MHC-restricted immunodominance is overcome by vaccination
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Youhui Si, Fan Zhao, Pavani Beesetty, Daniela Weiskopf, Zhaotao Li, Qiaomu Tian, Maria-Luisa Alegre, Alessandro Sette, Anita S. Chong, Christopher P. Montgomery

    Recurrent Staphylococcus aureus infections are common, despite robust immune responses. S. aureus infection elicited protective antibody and T cell responses in mice that expressed the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of the H-2d haplotype, but not H-2b, demonstrating that host genetics drives individual variability. Vaccination with a-toxin or leukotoxin E (LukE) elicited similar antibody and

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Parallel PRC2/cPRC1 and vPRC1 pathways silence lineage-specific genes and maintain self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    J. A. Zepeda-Martinez, C. Pribitzer, J. Wang, D. Bsteh, S. Golumbeanu, Q. Zhao, T. R. Burkard, B. Reichholf, S. K. Rhie, J. Jude, H. F. Moussa, J. Zuber, O. Bell

    The transcriptional repressors Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 are required to maintain cell fate during embryonic development. PRC1 and PRC2 catalyze distinct histone modifications, establishing repressive chromatin at shared targets. How PRC1, which consists of canonical PRC1 (cPRC1) and variant PRC1 (vPRC1) complexes, and PRC2 cooperate to silence genes and support mouse embryonic

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Virus-host coexistence in phytoplankton through the genomic lens
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Sheree Yau, Marc Krasovec, L. Felipe Benites, Stephane Rombauts, Mathieu Groussin, Emmelien Vancaester, Jean-Marc Aury, Evelyne Derelle, Yves Desdevises, Marie-Line Escande, Nigel Grimsley, Julie Guy, Hervé Moreau, Sophie Sanchez-Brosseau, Yves van de Peer, Klaas Vandepoele, Sebastien Gourbiere, Gwenael Piganeau

    Virus-microbe interactions in the ocean are commonly described by “boom and bust” dynamics, whereby a numerically dominant microorganism is lysed and replaced by a virus-resistant one. Here, we isolated a microalga strain and its infective dsDNA virus whose dynamics are characterized instead by parallel growth of both the microalga and the virus. Experimental evolution of clonal lines revealed that

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • B cell Sirt1 deacetylates histone and non-histone proteins for epigenetic modulation of AID expression and the antibody response
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Huoqun Gan, Tian Shen, Daniel P. Chupp, Julia R. Taylor, Helia N. Sanchez, Xin Li, Zhenming Xu, Hong Zan, Paolo Casali

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), critical processes for maturation of the antibody response. Epigenetic factors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs), would underpin B cell differentiation stage–specific AID expression. Here, we showed that NAD+-dependent class III HDAC sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is highly

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • A chemically unmodified agonistic DNA with growth factor functionality for in vivo therapeutic application
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Ryosuke Ueki, Satoshi Uchida, Naoto Kanda, Naoki Yamada, Ayaka Ueki, Momoko Akiyama, Kazuko Toh, Horacio Cabral, Shinsuke Sando

    Although growth factors have great therapeutic potential because of their regenerative functions, they often have intrinsic drawbacks, such as low thermal stability and high production cost. Oligonucleotides have recently emerged as promising chemical entities for designing synthetic alternatives to growth factors. However, their applications in vivo have been recognized as a challenge because of their

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • IL-27 signaling activates skin cells to induce innate antiviral proteins and protects against Zika virus infection
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Jeffery T. Kwock, Chelsea Handfield, Jutamas Suwanpradid, Peter Hoang, Michael J. McFadden, Kevin F. Labagnara, Lauren Floyd, Jessica Shannon, Ranjitha Uppala, Mrinal K. Sarkar, Johann E. Gudjonsson, David L. Corcoran, Helen M. Lazear, Gregory Sempowski, Stacy M. Horner, Amanda S. MacLeod

    In the skin, antiviral proteins and other immune molecules serve as the first line of innate antiviral defense. Here, we identify and characterize the induction of cutaneous innate antiviral proteins in response to IL-27 and its functional role during cutaneous defense against Zika virus infection. Transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of epidermal keratinocytes treated with IL-27 demonstrated activation

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • The unconventional biogenesis of Kv7.1-KCNE1 complexes
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Anna Oliveras, Clara Serrano-Novillo, Cristina Moreno, Alicia de la Cruz, Carmen Valenzuela, Christian Soeller, Núria Comes, Antonio Felipe

    The potassium channel Kv7.1 associates with the KCNE1 regulatory subunit to trigger cardiac IKs currents. Although the Kv7.1/KCNE1 complex has received much attention, the subcellular compartment hosting the assembly is the subject of ongoing debate. Evidence suggests that the complex forms either earlier in the endoplasmic reticulum or directly at the plasma membrane. Kv7.1 and KCNE1 mutations, responsible

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • ENL initiates multivalent phase separation of the super elongation complex (SEC) in controlling rapid transcriptional activation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Chenghao Guo, Zhuanzhuan Che, Junjie Yue, Peng Xie, Shaohua Hao, Wei Xie, Zhuojuan Luo, Chengqi Lin

    Release of paused RNA polymerase II (Pol II) requires incorporation of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) into the super elongation complex (SEC), thus resulting in rapid yet synchronous transcriptional activation. However, the mechanism underlying dynamic transition of P-TEFb from inactive to active state remains unclear. Here, we found that the SEC components are able to compartmentalize

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Force-induced gene up-regulation does not follow the weak power law but depends on H3K9 demethylation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Jian Sun, Junwei Chen, Erfan Mohagheghian, Ning Wang

    Mechanical forces play important roles in development, physiology, and diseases, but how force is transduced into gene transcription remains elusive. Here, we show that transcription of transgene DHFR or endogenous genes egr-1 and Cav1 is rapidly up-regulated in response to cyclic forces applied via integrins at low frequencies but not at 100 Hz. Gene up-regulation does not follow the weak power law

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • There is no liberal media bias in which news stories political journalists choose to cover
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Hans J. G. Hassell, John B. Holbein, Matthew R. Miles

    Is the media biased against conservatives? Although a dominant majority of journalists identify as liberals/Democrats and many Americans and public officials frequently decry supposedly high and increasing levels of media bias, little compelling evidence exists as to (i) the ideological or partisan leanings of the many journalists who fail to answer surveys and/or identify as independents and (ii)

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Biomechanical simulations reveal a trade-off between adaptation to glacial climate and dietary niche versatility in European cave bears
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Alejandro Pérez-Ramos, Z. Jack Tseng, Aurora Grandal-D’Anglade, Gernot Rabeder, Francisco J. Pastor, Borja Figueirido

    The cave bear is one of the best known extinct large mammals that inhabited Europe during the “Ice Age,” becoming extinct ≈24,000 years ago along with other members of the Pleistocene megafauna. Long-standing hypotheses speculate that many cave bears died during their long hibernation periods, which were necessary to overcome the severe and prolonged winters of the Last Glacial. Here, we investigate

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Ribosome-associated vesicles: A dynamic subcompartment of the endoplasmic reticulum in secretory cells
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Stephen D. Carter, Cheri M. Hampton, Robert Langlois, Roberto Melero, Zachary J. Farino, Michael J. Calderon, Wen Li, Callen T. Wallace, Ngoc Han Tran, Robert A. Grassucci, Stephanie E. Siegmund, Joshua Pemberton, Travis J. Morgenstern, Leanna Eisenman, Jenny I. Aguilar, Nili L. Greenberg, Elana S. Levy, Edward Yi, William G. Mitchell, William J. Rice, Christoph Wigge, Jyotsna Pilli, Emily W. George

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic network of membranes. Here, we combine live-cell microscopy with in situ cryo–electron tomography to directly visualize ER dynamics in several secretory cell types including pancreatic β-cells and neurons under near-native conditions. Using these imaging approaches, we identify a novel, mobile form of ER, ribosome-associated vesicles (RAVs), found

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • A multifunctional surfactant catalyst inspired by hydrolases
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Mitchell D. Nothling, Zeyun Xiao, Nicholas S. Hill, Mitchell T. Blyth, Ayana Bhaskaran, Marc-Antoine Sani, Andrea Espinosa-Gomez, Kevin Ngov, Jonathan White, Tim Buscher, Frances Separovic, Megan L. O’Mara, Michelle L. Coote, Luke A. Connal

    The remarkable power of enzymes to undertake catalysis frequently stems from their grouping of multiple, complementary chemical units within close proximity around the enzyme active site. Motivated by this, we report here a bioinspired surfactant catalyst that incorporates a variety of chemical functionalities common to hydrolytic enzymes. The textbook hydrolase active site, the catalytic triad, is

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Designer, injectable gels to prevent transplanted Schwann cell loss during spinal cord injury therapy
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Laura M. Marquardt, Vanessa M. Doulames, Alice T. Wang, Karen Dubbin, Riley A. Suhar, Michael J. Kratochvil, Zachary A. Medress, Giles W. Plant, Sarah C. Heilshorn

    Transplantation of patient-derived Schwann cells is a promising regenerative medicine therapy for spinal cord injuries; however, therapeutic efficacy is compromised by inefficient cell delivery. We present a materials-based strategy that addresses three common causes of transplanted cell death: (i) membrane damage during injection, (ii) cell leakage from the injection site, and (iii) apoptosis due

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • MAP6 is an intraluminal protein that induces neuronal microtubules to coil
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Camille Cuveillier, Julie Delaroche, Maxime Seggio, Sylvie Gory-Fauré, Christophe Bosc, Eric Denarier, Maria Bacia, Guy Schoehn, Hervé Mohrbach, Igor Kulić, Annie Andrieux, Isabelle Arnal, Christian Delphin

    Neuronal activities depend heavily on microtubules, which shape neuronal processes and transport myriad molecules within them. Although constantly remodeled through growth and shrinkage events, neuronal microtubules must be sufficiently stable to maintain nervous system wiring. This stability is somehow maintained by various microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), but little is known about how these

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Australopithecus afarensis endocasts suggest ape-like brain organization and prolonged brain growth
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer, Dean Falk, Paul Tafforeau, Adeline Le Cabec, Tanya M. Smith, William H. Kimbel, Fred Spoor, Zeresenay Alemseged

    Human brains are three times larger, are organized differently, and mature for a longer period of time than those of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees. Together, these characteristics are important for human cognition and social behavior, but their evolutionary origins remain unclear. To study brain growth and organization in the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis more than 3 million

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Measles virus nucleo- and phosphoproteins form liquid-like phase-separated compartments that promote nucleocapsid assembly
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Serafima Guseva, Sigrid Milles, Malene Ringkjøbing Jensen, Nicola Salvi, Jean-Philippe Kleman, Damien Maurin, Rob W. H. Ruigrok, Martin Blackledge

    Many viruses are known to form cellular compartments, also called viral factories. Paramyxoviruses, including measles virus, colocalize their proteomic and genomic material in puncta in infected cells. We demonstrate that purified nucleoproteins (N) and phosphoproteins (P) of measles virus form liquid-like membraneless organelles upon mixing in vitro. We identify weak interactions involving intrinsically

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Epitope-directed antibody selection by site-specific photocrosslinking
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Longxin Chen, Chaoyang Zhu, Hui Guo, Runting Li, Limeng Zhang, Zhenzhen Xing, Yue Song, Zihan Zhang, Fuping Wang, Xiaofeng Liu, Yuhan Zhang, Runlin Z. Ma, Feng Wang

    Currently, there are no methods available offering solutions to select and identify antibodies binding to a specific conformational epitope of an antigen. Here, we developed a method to allow epitope-directed antibody selection from a phage display library by photocrosslinking bound antibodies to a site that specifically incorporates a noncanonical amino acid, p-benzoyl-l-phenylalanine (pBpa), on the

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Pretargeted delivery of PI3K/mTOR small-molecule inhibitor–loaded nanoparticles for treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Kin Man Au, Andrew Z. Wang, Steven I. Park

    Overactivation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling has been identified in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. BEZ235 is an effective dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, but it was withdrawn from early-phase clinical trials owing to poor solubility and on-target/off-tumor toxicity. Here, we developed a nanoparticle (NP)–based pretargeted system for the therapeutic delivery of BEZ235 to CD20- and HLA-DR–expressing lymphoma cells for

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Molecular targeting of FATP4 transporter for oral delivery of therapeutic peptide
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Zhenhua Hu, Sara Nizzero, Shreya Goel, Louis E. Hinkle, Xiaoyan Wu, Chao Li, Mauro Ferrari, Haifa Shen

    Low oral bioavailability of peptide drugs has limited their application to parenteral administration, which suffers from poor patient compliance. Here, we show that molecular targeting of the FATP4 transporter is an effective approach to specifically transport long-chain fatty acid (LCFA)–conjugated peptides across the enterocytic membrane and, thus, enables oral delivery of drug peptides. We packaged

    更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Scaling, rotation, and channeling behavior of helical and skyrmion spin textures in thin films of Te-doped Cu2OSeO3
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    M.-G. Han, J. A. Garlow, Y. Kharkov, L. Camacho, R. Rov, J. Sauceda, G. Vats, K. Kisslinger, T. Kato, O. Sushkov, Y. Zhu, C. Ulrich, T. Söhnel, J. Seidel

    Topologically nontrivial spin textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and monopoles are promising candidates as information carriers for future quantum information science. Their controlled manipulation including creation and annihilation remains an important challenge toward practical applications and further exploration of their emergent phenomena. Here, we report controlled evolution of the helical

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Cooperative deformation in high-entropy alloys at ultralow temperatures
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Muhammad Naeem, Haiyan He, Fan Zhang, Hailong Huang, Stefanus Harjo, Takuro Kawasaki, Bing Wang, Si Lan, Zhenduo Wu, Feng Wang, Yuan Wu, Zhaoping Lu, Zhongwu Zhang, Chain T. Liu, Xun-Li Wang

    High-entropy alloys exhibit exceptional mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures, due to the activation of twinning in addition to dislocation slip. The coexistence of multiple deformation pathways raises an important question regarding how individual deformation mechanisms compete or synergize during plastic deformation. Using in situ neutron diffraction, we demonstrate the interaction of a

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Generation of multiple ultrastable optical frequency combs from an all-fiber photonic platform
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Dohyeon Kwon, Igju Jeon, Won-Kyu Lee, Myoung-Sun Heo, Jungwon Kim

    Frequency-stabilized optical frequency combs have created many high-precision applications. Accurate timing, ultralow phase noise, and narrow linewidth are prerequisites for achieving the ultimate performance of comb-based systems. Ultrastable cavity-based comb-noise stabilization methods have enabled sub–10−15-level frequency instability. However, these methods are complex and alignment sensitive

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Mitigating cavitation erosion using biomimetic gas-entrapping microtextured surfaces (GEMS)
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Silvestre Roberto Gonzalez-Avila, Dang Minh Nguyen, Sankara Arunachalam, Eddy M. Domingues, Himanshu Mishra, Claus-Dieter Ohl

    Cavitation refers to the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles near solid boundaries in high-speed flows, such as ship propellers and pumps. During this process, cavitation bubbles focus fluid energy on the solid surface by forming high-speed jets, leading to damage and downtime of machinery. In response, numerous surface treatments to counteract this effect have been explored, including perfluorinated

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Chiral superconductivity in the alternate stacking compound 4Hb-TaS2
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    A. Ribak, R. Majlin Skiff, M. Mograbi, P. K. Rout, M. H. Fischer, J. Ruhman, K. Chashka, Y. Dagan, A. Kanigel

    Van der Waals materials offer unprecedented control of electronic properties via stacking of different types of two-dimensional materials. A fascinating frontier, largely unexplored, is the stacking of strongly correlated phases of matter. We study 4Hb-TaS2, which naturally realizes an alternating stacking of 1T-TaS2 and 1H-TaS2 structures. The former is a well-known Mott insulator, which has recently

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Atomic-scale insights into the interfacial instability of superlubricity in hydrogenated amorphous carbon films
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Xinchun Chen, Xuan Yin, Wei Qi, Chenhui Zhang, Junho Choi, Sudong Wu, Rong Wang, Jianbin Luo

    The origin of instability or even disappearance of the superlubricity state in hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film in the presence of oxygen or water molecules is still controversial. Here, we address this puzzle regarding the tribochemical activities of sliding interfaces at the nanoscale. The results reveal that gaseous oxygen molecules disable the antifriction capacity of a-C:H by surface

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Chemical boundary engineering: A new route toward lean, ultrastrong yet ductile steels
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Ran Ding, Yingjie Yao, Binhan Sun, Geng Liu, Jianguo He, Tong Li, Xinhao Wan, Zongbiao Dai, Dirk Ponge, Dierk Raabe, Chi Zhang, Andy Godfrey, Goro Miyamoto, Tadashi Furuhara, Zhigang Yang, Sybrand van der Zwaag, Hao Chen

    For decades, grain boundary engineering has proven to be one of the most effective approaches for tailoring the mechanical properties of metallic materials, although there are limits to the fineness and types of microstructures achievable, due to the rapid increase in grain size once being exposed to thermal loads (low thermal stability of crystallographic boundaries). Here, we deploy a unique chemical

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • High-frequency rectification via chiral Bloch electrons
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Hiroki Isobe, Su-Yang Xu, Liang Fu

    Rectification is a process that converts electromagnetic fields into a direct current. Such a process underlies a wide range of technologies such as wireless communication, wireless charging, energy harvesting, and infrared detection. Existing rectifiers are mostly based on semiconductor diodes, with limited applicability to small-voltage or high-frequency inputs. Here, we present an alternative approach

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Three dimensions, two microscopes, one code: Automatic differentiation for x-ray nanotomography beyond the depth of focus limit
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Ming Du, Youssef S. G. Nashed, Saugat Kandel, Doğa Gürsoy, Chris Jacobsen

    Conventional tomographic reconstruction algorithms assume that one has obtained pure projection images, involving no within-specimen diffraction effects nor multiple scattering. Advances in x-ray nanotomography are leading toward the violation of these assumptions, by combining the high penetration power of x-rays, which enables thick specimens to be imaged, with improved spatial resolution that decreases

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Demonstration of a third-order hierarchy of topological states in a three-dimensional acoustic metamaterial
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Matthew Weiner, Xiang Ni, Mengyao Li, Andrea Alù, Alexander B. Khanikaev

    Classical wave systems have constituted an excellent platform for emulating complex quantum phenomena, such as demonstrating topological phenomena in photonics and acoustics. Recently, a new class of topological states localized in more than one dimension of a D-dimensional system, referred to as higher-order topological (HOT) states, has been reported, offering an even more versatile platform to confine

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Two-photon quantum interference and entanglement at 2.1 μm
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Shashi Prabhakar, Taylor Shields, Adetunmise C. Dada, Mehdi Ebrahim, Gregor G. Taylor, Dmitry Morozov, Kleanthis Erotokritou, Shigehito Miki, Masahiro Yabuno, Hirotaka Terai, Corin Gawith, Michael Kues, Lucia Caspani, Robert H. Hadfield, Matteo Clerici

    Quantum-enhanced optical systems operating within the 2- to 2.5-μm spectral region have the potential to revolutionize emerging applications in communications, sensing, and metrology. However, to date, sources of entangled photons have been realized mainly in the near-infrared 700- to 1550-nm spectral window. Here, using custom-designed lithium niobate crystals for spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Twist again: Dynamically and reversibly controllable chirality in liquid crystalline elastomer microposts
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    James T. Waters, Shucong Li, Yuxing Yao, Michael M. Lerch, Michael Aizenberg, Joanna Aizenberg, Anna C. Balazs

    Photoresponsive liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) constitute ideal actuators for soft robots because their light-induced macroscopic shape changes can be harnessed to perform specific articulated motions. Conventional LCEs, however, do not typically exhibit complex modes of bending and twisting necessary to perform sophisticated maneuvers. Here, we model LCE microposts encompassing side-chain mesogens

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Ultra-large electric field–induced strain in potassium sodium niobate crystals
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Chengpeng Hu, Xiangda Meng, Mao-Hua Zhang, Hao Tian, John E. Daniels, Peng Tan, Fei Huang, Li Li, Ke Wang, Jing-Feng Li, Qieni Lu, Wenwu Cao, Zhongxiang Zhou

    Electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric materials allows direct conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. Here, we demonstrate lead-free (KxNa1−x)NbO3 single crystals with an ultrahigh large-signal piezoelectric coefficient d33* of 9000 pm V−1, which is superior to the highest value reported in state-of-the-art lead-based single crystals (~2500 pm V−1). The enhanced

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Soft crystal martensites: An in situ resonant soft x-ray scattering study of a liquid crystal martensitic transformation
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Hyeong Min Jin, Xiao Li, James A. Dolan, R. Joseph Kline, José A. Martínez-González, Jiaxing Ren, Chun Zhou, Juan J. de Pablo, Paul F. Nealey

    Liquid crystal blue phases (BPs) are three-dimensional soft crystals with unit cell sizes orders of magnitude larger than those of classic, atomic crystals. The directed self-assembly of BPs on chemically patterned surfaces uniquely enables detailed in situ resonant soft x-ray scattering measurements of martensitic phase transformations in these systems. The formation of twin lamellae is explicitly

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Nonreciprocal transport in gate-induced polar superconductor SrTiO3
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Yuki M. Itahashi, Toshiya Ideue, Yu Saito, Sunao Shimizu, Takumi Ouchi, Tsutomu Nojima, Yoshihiro Iwasa

    Polar conductors/superconductors with Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction are potential material platforms for quantum transport and spintronic functionalities. One of their inherent properties is the nonreciprocal transport, where the rightward and leftward currents become inequivalent, reflecting spatial inversion/time-reversal symmetry breaking. Such a rectification effect originating from the polar

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Extreme cavity expansion in soft solids: Damage without fracture
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Jin Young Kim, Zezhou Liu, Byung Mook Weon, Tal Cohen, Chung-Yuen Hui, Eric R. Dufresne, Robert W. Style

    Cavitation is a common damage mechanism in soft solids. Here, we study this using a phase separation technique in stretched, elastic solids to controllably nucleate and grow small cavities by several orders of magnitude. The ability to make stable cavities of different sizes, as well as the huge range of accessible strains, allows us to systematically study the early stages of cavity expansion. Cavities

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • A novel physical mechanism of liquid flow slippage on a solid surface
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Yuji Kurotani, Hajime Tanaka

    Viscous liquids often exhibit flow slippage on solid walls. The occurrence of flow slippage has a large impact on the liquid transport and the resulting energy dissipation, which are crucial for many applications. It is natural to expect that slippage takes place to reduce the dissipation. However, (i) how the density fluctuation is affected by the presence of the wall and (ii) how slippage takes place

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Light-triggered topological programmability in a dynamic covalent polymer network
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Weike Zou, Binjie Jin, Yi Wu, Huijie Song, Yingwu Luo, Feihe Huang, Jin Qian, Qian Zhao, Tao Xie

    Dynamic covalent polymer networks exhibit unusual adaptability while maintaining the robustness of conventional covalent networks. Typically, their network topology is statistically nonchangeable, and their material properties are therefore nonprogrammable. By introducing topological heterogeneity, we demonstrate a concept of topology isomerizable network (TIN) that can be programmed into many topological

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Four-wave mixing of topological edge plasmons in graphene metasurfaces
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Jian Wei You, Zhihao Lan, Nicolae C. Panoiu

    We study topologically protected four-wave mixing (FWM) interactions in a plasmonic metasurface consisting of a periodic array of nanoholes in a graphene sheet, which exhibits a wide topological bandgap at terahertz frequencies upon the breaking of time reversal symmetry by a static magnetic field. We demonstrate that due to the significant nonlinearity enhancement and large life time of graphene plasmons

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Targeted gene silencing in vivo by platelet membrane–coated metal-organic framework nanoparticles
    Sci. Adv. (IF 12.804) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Jia Zhuang, Hua Gong, Jiarong Zhou, Qiangzhe Zhang, Weiwei Gao, Ronnie H. Fang, Liangfang Zhang

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a powerful tool for gene silencing that has been used for a wide range of biomedical applications, but there are many challenges facing its therapeutic use in vivo. Here, we report on a platelet cell membrane–coated metal-organic framework (MOF) nanodelivery platform for the targeted delivery of siRNA in vivo. The MOF core is capable of high loading yields, and its

    更新日期:2020-03-27
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