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  • Associations between air pollution and pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma: A meta-analysis of European birth cohorts
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Elaine Fuertes; Jordi Sunyer; Ulrike Gehring; Daniela Porta; Francesco Forastiere; Giulia Cesaroni; Martine Vrijheid; Mònica Guxens; Isabella Annesi-Maesano; Rémy Slama; Dieter Maier; Manolis Kogevinas; Jean Bousquet; Leda Chatzi; Aitana Lertxundi; Mikel Basterrechea; Ana Esplugues; Amparo Ferrero; Bénédicte Jacquemin

    Background Uncertainly continues to exist regarding the role of air pollution on pediatric asthma and allergic conditions, especially as air pollution levels have started to decrease in recent decades. Objective We examined associations of long-term air pollution levels at the home address with pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma prevalences in five birth cohorts (BIB, EDEN, GASPII, RHEA and INMA) from seven areas in five European countries. Methods Current eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma were assessed in children aged four (N = 6527) and eight years (N = 2489). A multi-morbidity outcome (≥2 conditions versus none) was also defined. Individual outdoor levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides, mass of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), 10–2.5 μm (PMcoarse) and <2.5 μm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance were assigned to the birth, four- and eight-year home addresses using highly defined spatial air pollution exposure models. Cohort-specific cross-sectional associations were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and environmental covariates and combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Results The overall prevalence of pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma at four years was 15.4%, 5.9% and 12.4%. We found no increase in the prevalence of these outcomes at four or eight years with increasing air pollution exposure. For example, the meta-analysis adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma at four years were 0.94 (0.81, 1.09), 0.90 (0.75, 1.09), and 0.91 (0.74, 1.11), respectively, per 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 at the birth address, and 1.00 (0.81, 1.23), 0.70 (0.49, 1.00) and 0.88 (0.54, 1.45), respectively, per 5 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 at the birth address. Discussion In this large meta-analysis of five birth cohorts, we found no indication of adverse effects of long-term air pollution exposure on the prevalence of current pediatric eczema, rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • How microplastics affect chiral illicit drug methamphetamine in aquatic food chain? From green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) to freshwater snail (Cipangopaludian cathayensis)
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Han Qu; Ruixue Ma; Holly Barrett; Bin Wang; Jiajun Han; Fang Wang; Pin Chen; Wei Wang; Guilong Peng; Gang Yu
    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Higher circulating plasma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fit and lean children: The European youth heart study
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Sidsel L. Domazet; Anders Grøntved; Tina K. Jensen; Niels Wedderkopp; Lars B. Andersen

    Background Lipophilic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are primarily stored in adipose tissue, but exercise-induced lipolysis is able to release PCBs from the adipose tissue into the circulation. The plasma concentration, distribution and metabolism of PCBs can thus vary much among individuals due to inter-human variations in lifestyle behavior and pharmacokinetics. Objectives We examined the observational relationship of circulating plasma PCB concentrations with cardiorespiratory fitness, engagement in vigorous physical activity and fat mass in a healthy Danish child population. Methods Data on ∑PCB (PCB138, PCB153 and PCB180), cardiorespiratory fitness, skinfold thickness and objectively measured physical activity of 509 children derived from the Danish sub-study of The European Youth Heart Study. Results Higher fitness and greater leanness were associated with elevated plasma ∑PCB in both boys and girls. The associations were independent of each other and persisted after controlling for socio-economic status and duration of breastfeeding. We observed an almost three-fold increase in plasma ∑PCB level in the most fit/least fat children relative to the least fit/most fat children. The association between fatness and ∑PCB was strongest for boys as girls, and especially pubertal girls, displayed lower decrease in plasma ∑PCB with higher fat mass. Discussion Our findings suggest that increased lipolysis stimulates the release of PCBs into the vasculature. The consequence is higher plasma levels of PCB in very fit and lean subjects. This scenario is likely to cause negative confounding in epidemiological observations of PCB and cardio-metabolic health. At the same time adipose tissue may play a dual role in promoting adverse health and providing a relatively safe place to store PCB.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Hydrological application of radar rainfall nowcasting in the Netherlands
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Danny Heuvelink; Marc Berenguer; Claudia C. Brauer; Remko Uijlenhoet

    Accurate and robust short-term rainfall forecasts (nowcasts) are useful in operational flood forecasting. However, the high temporal and spatial variability of rainfall fields make rainfall nowcasting a challenging endeavour. To cope with this variability, nowcasting techniques based on weather radar imagery have been proposed. Here, we employ radar rainfall nowcasting for discharge predictions in three lowland catchments in the Netherlands, with surface areas ranging from 6.5 to 957 km2. Deterministic (Lagrangian persistence) and probabilistic (SBMcast) nowcasting techniques are used to produce short-term rainfall forecasts (up to a few hours ahead), which are used as input for the hydrological model WALRUS. Rainfall forecasts were found to deteriorate with increasing lead time, often due to underestimation. Discharge could be forecasted 25–170 min earlier than without rainfall nowcasting, with the best performance for the largest catchment. When accounting for catchment response time, the best (but most variable) relative performance was found for the smallest catchment. Probabilistic nowcasting effectively accounted for the uncertainty associated with rainfall and discharge forecasts. The uncertainty in rainfall forecasts was found to be largest for the smaller catchments. The uncertainty in how much earlier the discharge could be forecasted (the gain in lead time) ranged from 15 to 50 min.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Concentrations of bisphenol A and its alternatives in paired maternal–fetal urine, serum and amniotic fluid from an e-waste dismantling area in China
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Bo Zhang; Yuan He; Hongkai Zhu; Xiongfei Huang; Xueyuan Bai; Kurunthachalam Kannan; Tao Zhang
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • 更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Serum concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl substances in farmers living in areas affected by water contamination in the Veneto Region (Northern Italy)
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Anna Maria Ingelido; Annalisa Abballe; Simonetta Gemma; Elena Dellatte; Nicola Iacovella; Giovanna De Angelis; Valentina Marra; Francesca Russo; Marina Vazzoler; Emanuela Testai; Elena De Felip
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Thirty years of marine debris in the Southern Ocean: Annual surveys of two island shores in the Scotia Sea
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Claire M. Waluda; Iain J. Staniland; Michael J. Dunn; Sally E. Thorpe; Emily Grilly; Mari Whitelaw; Kevin A. Hughes

    We report on three decades of repeat surveys of beached marine debris at two locations in the Scotia Sea, in the Southwest Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. Between October 1989 and March 2019 10,112 items of beached debris were recovered from Main Bay, Bird Island, South Georgia in the northern Scotia Sea. The total mass of items (data from 1996 onwards) was 101 kg. Plastic was the most commonly recovered item (97.5% by number; 89% by mass) with the remainder made up of fabric, glass, metal, paper and rubber. Mean mass per item was 0.01 kg and the rate of accumulation was 100 items km−1 month−1. Analyses showed an increase in the number of debris items recovered (5.7 per year) but a decline in mean mass per item, suggesting a trend towards more, smaller items of debris at Bird Island. At Signy Island, South Orkney Islands, located in the southern Scotia Sea and within the Antarctic Treaty area, debris items were collected from three beaches, during the austral summer only, between 1991 and 2019. In total 1304 items with a mass of 268 kg were recovered. Plastic items contributed 84% by number and 80% by mass, with the remainder made up of metal (6% by number; 14% by mass), rubber (4% by number; 3% by mass), fabric, glass and paper (<1% by number; 3% by mass). Mean mass per item was 0.2 kg and rate of accumulation was 3 items km−1 month−1. Accumulation rates were an order of magnitude higher on the western (windward) side of the island (13–17 items km−1 month−1) than the eastern side (1.5 items km−1 month−1). Analyses showed a slight decline in number and slight increase in mean mass of debris items over time at Signy Island. This study highlights the prevalence of anthropogenic marine debris (particularly plastic) in the Southern Ocean. It shows the importance of long-term monitoring efforts in attempting to catalogue marine debris and identify trends, and serves warning of the urgent need for a wider understanding of the extent of marine debris across the whole of the Southern Ocean.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • PM2.5-induced inflammation and lipidome alteration associated with the development of atherosclerosis based on a targeted lipidomic analysis
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Jingyi Zhang; Shuang Liang; Ruihong Ning; Jinjin Jiang; Jie Zhang; Heqing Shen; Rui Chen; Junchao Duan; Zhiwei Sun

    Epidemiological studies have confirmed that PM2.5 could contribute to the development of atherosclerosis accompanied with lipids dysregulation. However, the lipids biomarkers involved in this progress remain largely unknown. In this study, a targeted lipidomic approach was used to find out the possible lipid biomarkers involved in the development of atherosclerosis after PM2.5 exposure or during a recovery period. Also, we assessed the pro-atherosclerosis effects of PM2.5 and follow-up influence using pulse wave (PW) Doppler ultrasound, oil red O staining and H&E staining. The vascular stiffness was elevated after 2-month PM2.5 exposure and might persist after 1-month recovery. While the lesions mostly concentrated in the aortic arch was significantly increased in 2-month PM2.5 exposure group and remained an increasing trend after 1-month recovery. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines detected by Mouse Inflammation Array were elevated after ApoE−/− mice treated with PM2.5 for 2-month and restored following 1-month recovery. Yet, IL-10 was significantly decreased during 1-month recovery. Additionally, the targeted lipidomic analysis demonstrated that cholesterol ester (CE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin (SM) were significantly increased while lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), diacylglycerol (DG), triacylglycerol (TG) were reduced after 2-month PM2.5 exposure, indicating that PM2.5 could disrupt glycerophospholipids, glycerolipids and sphingolipids metabolism. And a persistent impact of PM2.5 on glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids metabolism was found after 1-month recovery. Our study demonstrated that PM2.5-induced inflammation response might promote atherosclerotic lesions probably through lipid dysregulation, and the influence probably persisted after 1-month recovery.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Pathway-based assessment of single chemicals and mixtures by a high-throughput transcriptomics approach
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Pu Xia; Hanxin Zhang; Ying Peng; Wei Shi; Xiaowei Zhang

    The ever-increasing number of chemicals and complex mixtures demands a high-throughput and cost-effective approach for chemical safety assessment. High-throughput transcriptomics (HTT) is promising in investigating genome-scale perturbation of chemical exposure in concentration-dependent manner. However, the application of HTT has been limited due to lack of methodology for single chemicals and mixture assessment. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a newly-developed human reduced transcriptomics (RHT) approach to assess pathway-based profiles of single chemicals, and to develop a biological pathway-based approach for benchmarking mixture potency using single chemical-based prediction model. First, concentration-dependent RHT were used to qualitatively and quantitatively differentiate pathway-based patterns of different chemicals, using three model toxicants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), triclosan (TCS) and 5-Chloro-6-hydroxy-2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-Cl-6-OH-BDE-47). AHR-regulated genes and pathways were most sensitively induced by TCDD, while TCS and 5-Cl-6-OH-BDE-47 were much less potent in AHR-associated activation, which was concordant with known MoA of each single chemical. Second, two artificial mixtures and their components of twelve individual chemicals were performed with concentration-dependent RHT. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models were used to predict transcriptional potency of mixtures from transcriptomics of individual chemicals. For overall bioactivity, CA and IA models can both predict potency of observed responses within 95% confidence interval. For specific biological processes, multiple biological processes such as hormone signaling and DNA damage can be predicted using CA models for mixtures. The concentration-dependent RHT can provide a powerful approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of biological pathway perturbated by environment chemical and mixtures.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Occurrence of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in raw dairy cow milk from five Chinese provinces
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Shujun Dong; Su Zhang; Xiaomin Li; Shulin Wei; Tong Li; Yun Zou; Wei Zhang; Jie Cheng; Ruiguo Wang; Peilong Wang; Xiaoou Su
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Benefit of China’s reduction in nitrogen oxides emission to natural ecosystems in East Asia with respect to critical load exceedance
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Danni Xie; Bin Zhao; Shuxiao Wang; Lei Duan

    The emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in China decreased by 15% from 2010 to 2015 (without a significant decrease in NH3 emission), resulting in the decline of nitrogen (N) deposition in East Asia. Empirical N critical load exceedance was used to assess the benefit of the NOx emission reduction in China to natural ecosystems in East Asia. Empirical N critical loads for major forest and grassland types in East Asia were assigned based on field manipulation experiments for N effects. The critical load map based on the minimum of the critical load range of each vegetation type showed that empirical critical loads were generally lower in the Tibetan Plateau and some parts of northeastern China (≤5 kgN·ha−1·a−1), and higher in northern and southern China (≥20 kgN·ha−1·a−1). Empirical critical loads were also low in some parts of central and northern Japan (≤5 kgN·ha−1·a−1) and the south Korean Peninsula (5–10 kgN·ha−1·a−1). As a benefit of NOx emission reduction in China, N deposition in East Asia decreased significantly from 2010 to 2015. The total area and total amount of critical load exceedance in East Asia declined 4.6% and 14.3% respectively, suggesting great benefits to natural ecosystems.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution attenuated the association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in rural Chinese adults: A cross-sectional study
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Jian Hou; Xiaotian Liu; Runqi Tu; Xiaokang Dong; Zhihan Zhai; Zhenxing Mao; Wenqian Huo; Gongbo Chen; Hao Xiang; Yuming Guo; Shanshan Li; Chongjian Wang

    Background Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and physical activity are linked to metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the joint effect of physical activity and ambient air pollution on MetS remains largely unknown in rural Chinese adult population. Methods In this study, 39 089 individuals were included from the Henan Rural Cohort study that recruited 39 259 individuals at the baseline. Participants' exposure to air pollutants (including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), or ≤ 10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were evaluated by using a spatiotemporal model based on satellites data. Individuals were defined as MetS according to the recommendation of the Joint Interim Societies. Physical activity-metabolic equivalent (MET) was calculated based on the formula of MET coefficient of activity × duration (hour per time) × frequency (times per week). Generalized linear models were used to analyze the individual air pollutant or physical activity and their interaction on MetS. Interaction effects of individual air pollutant and physical activity on MetS were assessed by using Interaction plots which exhibited the estimated effect of physical activity on MetS as a function of individual air pollutant. Results The prevalence of MetS was 30.8%. The adjusted odd ratio of MetS with a per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM1, PM2.5, PM10, NO2 or a 10 MET (hour/day) of physical activity increment was 1.251(1.199, 1.306), 1.424(1.360, 1.491), 1.228(1.203, 1.254), 1.408(1.363, 1.455) or 0.814(0.796, 0.833). The protective effect of physical activity on MetS was decreased with accompanying air pollutant concentrations increased. Conclusions The results indicated that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants related to increased risk of MetS and physical activity attenuated the effects of ambient air pollutants on increased risk for MetS.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Albatrosses and petrels at South Georgia as sentinels of marine debris input from vessels in the southwest Atlantic Ocean
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Richard A. Phillips; Claire M. Waluda

    Increasing amounts of anthropogenic debris enter the ocean because of mismanagement in coastal communities and, despite a global ban on deliberate dumping, also from vessels, endangering wildlife. Assessing marine plastic pollution directly is challenging, and an alternative is to use seabirds as bioindicators. Our analyses of long time-series (26-years) revealed substantial variation in the amount, characteristics and origin of marine debris (mainly macroplastics and mesoplastics, and excluding fishing gear) associated with seabirds at South Georgia, and, for two species, long-term increases in incidence since 1994. Annual debris recovery rates (items per capita) were 14 × higher in wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans, and 6 × higher in grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma and giant petrels Macronectes spp., than in black-browed albatrosses T. melanophris, partly related to differences in egestion (regurgitation), which clears items from the proventriculus. Although some debris types were common in all species, wandering albatrosses and giant petrels ingested higher proportions that were food-related or generic wrapping, gloves, clear or mixed colour, and packaged in South America. This was highly likely to originate from vessels, including the large South American fishing fleets with which they overlap. Debris associated with the two smaller albatrosses was more commonly shorter, rigid (miscellaneous plastic and bottle/tube caps), and packaged in East Asia. Grey-headed albatrosses are exposed to large and increasing amounts of user plastics transported from coastal South America in the Subantarctic Current, or discarded from vessels and circulating in the South Atlantic Gyre, whereas the lower debris ingestion by black-browed albatrosses suggests that plastic pollution in Antarctic waters remains relatively low. Current plastic loads in our study species seem unlikely to have an impact at the population level, but the results nevertheless affirm that marine plastics are a major, trans-boundary animal-welfare and environmental issue that needs to be addressed by much-improved waste-management practices and compliance-monitoring both on land and on vessels in the south Atlantic.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Associations between organophosphate esters and sex hormones among 6–19-year old children and adolescents in NHANES 2013–2014
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Kai Luo; Jihong Liu; Yuqing Wang; Ruxianguli Aimuzi; Fei Luo; Junjie Ao; Jun Zhang

    Background Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are a class of alternative replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that OPEs may disrupt the homeostasis of sex steroid hormones. However, human evidence in children and adolescents is limited. Objectives We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the associations between OPE biomarkers and sex steroid hormones among children (6–11 years) and adolescents (12–19 years) in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013–2014. Methods Participants aged 6–19 years who had available data on urinary OPE metabolites, serum sex hormones [total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2)] and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were included (n = 544). Free androgen index (FAI) calculated as TT divided by SHBG and a ratio of TT to E2 (TT/E2) were generated. Five urinary OPE metabolites were examined. A constructed puberty status was defined as either high steroid hormone levels (TT ≥ 50 ng/dL in males and E2 ≥ 20 pg/ml in females) or onset of menarche. Multiple linear regression and weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression analyses stratified by sex-age and sex-puberty-status groups were conducted to examine the associations of OPE metabolites and its mixture with sex hormone levels. Results After adjusting for covariates, dibutyl phosphate (DBUP) and dibutyl phosphate (DPHP) were significantly inversely associated with TT (or FAI) and E2; DBUP was negatively associated with SHBG; and DPHP was positively associated with SHBG and TT/E2 in female adolescents. In male adolescents, we observed monotonic negative associations of bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), DBUP or DPHP with TT (or FAI) and E2, and positive associations of BDCPP and DPHP with SHBG. Among adolescents, the OPEs index was negatively associated with TT [WQS beta = −0.29 (95% confidence interval: −0.51, −0.07) in males and −0.15 (−0.28, −0.01) in females ], FAI [−0.46 (−0.71, −0.2) in males and −0.23 (−0.41, −0.05) in females] and E2 [−0.25 (−0.41, −0.1) in males and −0.33 (−0.59, −0.08) in females], with stronger associations with TT and FAI in males and a slightly stronger association with E2 in females. In addition, the OPEs index presented a comparable positive association with SHBG in both sexes of adolescents. In contrast, significant associations of individual OPE metabolites or OPEs index with sex hormones were sparse in children. Results by sex-puberty status in single pollutant and WQS regression analyses presented a similar pattern, where most of the significant associations were limited to the pubertal individuals. Of note, stronger inverse associations of the OPEs index with TT and FAI remained in pubertal boys. But the association between the OPEs index and E2 was non-significant in pubertal girls, and only in pubertal boys did the OPEs index show a significant and stronger inverse association with E2. Conclusions Exposure to OPEs, either individually or as a mixture, was associated with decreased levels of certain sex steroid hormones (TT, FAI, and E2) and increased levels of SHBG in adolescents or pubertal individuals, with the associations presenting somewhat sex-dependent pattern. However, there is little evidence of the significant associations in children or prepubescent ones. Given the cross-sectional nature of the analysis, our findings need further confirmation.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Comparative fate of CrAssphage with culturable and molecular fecal pollution indicators during activated sludge wastewater treatment
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Zhenyu Wu; Justin Greaves; Lillian Arp; Daniel Stone; Kyle Bibby

    Wastewater treatment plants are typically monitored using fecal indicator bacteria to ensure adequate microbial water quality of the treated effluent. Fecal indicator bacteria exhibit poor correlation with virus fate in the environment, including during wastewater treatment. Viral-based microbial source tracking methods have the potential to overcome this limitation. The recently discovered human gut bacteriophage crAssphage is a promising viral human fecal indicator. In this current study, primary influent, primary effluent, secondary effluent, and final effluent of a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for a suite of fecal indicators to evaluate the suitability of crAssphage as a wastewater process indicator for virus removal. CrAssphage was the most abundant fecal indicator measured through the wastewater treatment process. Culturable and molecular bacterial fecal pollution indicators showed higher removal than viral fecal pollution indicators, including crAssphage, confirming the necessity of a viral-specific fecal monitoring target. CrAssphage was strongly correlated with adenovirus and polyomavirus molecular indicators through the wastewater treatment process. Literature comparison demonstrated site-specific removal of molecular fecal indicators during wastewater treatment highlighting the need for local performance validation. The high abundance of crAssphage and correlation with pathogenic viruses suggests the potential suitability of crAssphage as a viral fecal pollution process indicator during wastewater treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Associations between pro-environmental behaviour and neighbourhood nature, nature visit frequency and nature appreciation: Evidence from a nationally representative survey in England
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Ian Alcock; Mathew P White; Sabine Pahl; Raquel Duarte-Davidson; Lora E Fleming

    Progress on changing human behaviour to meet the challenges of regional and global sustainability has been slow. Building on theory as well as small-scale survey and experimental evidence that exposure to nature may be associated with greater pro-environmentalism, the aim of the current study was to quantify relationships between exposure to nature (operationalised as neighbourhood greenspace, coastal proximity, and recreational nature visits) as well as appreciation of the natural world, and self-reported pro-environmental behaviour for the adult population of England. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 24,204), and controlling for potential confounders, a structural equation model was used to estimate relationships. Indirect effects of neighbourhood exposures via nature visits and nature appreciation were accounted for. We found positive relationships between both recreational nature visits and nature appreciation and pro-environmental behaviour across both the whole sample and key socio-demographic groups. The more individuals visited nature for recreation and the more they appreciated the natural world, the more pro-environmental behaviour they reported. Although rural and coastal dwellers tended to also be more pro-environmental on average, patterns were complex, potentially reflecting situational constraints and opportunities. Importantly, positive associations between pro-environmental behaviours and high neighbourhood greenspace and coastal proximity were present for both high and low socio-economic status households. Improving access to, and contact with, nature, e.g., through better urban planning, may be one approach for meeting sustainability targets.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Onset and tempo of sexual maturation is differentially associated with gestational phthalate exposure between boys and girls in a Mexico City birth cohort
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Amber Cathey; Deborah J. Watkins; Brisa N. Sánchez; Marcela Tamayo-Ortiz; Maritsa Solano-Gonzalez; Libni Torres-Olascoaga; Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo; Karen E. Peterson; John D. Meeker

    Phthalates are endocrine disrupting compounds commonly found in consumer products, exposure to which may influence reproductive maturation. Effects from exposure in utero on the onset and progression of sexual development are understudied. We examined longitudinal associations between gestational phthalate exposure and sexual maturation at two points in adolescence (8–14, 9–18 years). Gestational exposure was quantified using the geometric mean of 3 trimester-specific urinary phthalate metabolite measurements. Sexual maturation was assessed using Tanner stages and menarche onset for girls and Tanner stages and testicular volume for boys. Generalized estimating equations for correlated ordinal multinomial responses were used to model relationships between phthalates and odds of transitioning to the next Tanner stage, while generalized additive (GA) mixed models were used to assess the odds of menarche. All models were adjusted for child age (centered around the mean), BMI z-score, change in BMI between visits, time (years) between visits (ΔT), and interactions between ΔT and mean-centered child age and the natural log of exposure metabolite concentration. Among girls, a doubling of gestational MBzP concentrations was associated with increased odds of being at a higher Tanner stage for breast development at 8–14 years (OR = 4.62; 95% CI: 1.38, 15.5), but with slower progression of breast development over the follow-up period (OR = 0.65 per year; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.92) after adjustment for child age and BMI z-score. Similar results were found for ∑DEHP levels and breast development. In boys, a doubling of gestational MBP concentrations was associated with lower odds of being at a higher Tanner stage for pubic hair growth at 8–14 years (OR = 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.95) but with faster progression (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.69). These results indicate that gestational phthalate exposures may impact the onset and progression of sexual development, and that these relationships differ between boys and girls.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Air pollution is associated with depressive symptoms in elderly women with cognitive impairment
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Hicran Altuğ; Kateryna B. Fuks; Anke Hüls; Anne-Kathrin Mayer; Rachel Tham; Jean Krutmann; Tamara Schikowski

    Background Studies on air pollution and depression in the elderly are limited and the results are heterogeneous. Objectives We examined the association of ambient air pollution exposure and diagnosis and symptoms of depression in the elderly; and whether any associations were confounded or modified by cognitive decline. Methods We enrolled 821 elderly women from the German SALIA cohort (follow-up examination, 2007–2010). Self-reported depressive symptoms and level of cognition were evaluated using the CESD-R Scale and the CERAD-Plus test, respectively. We used two depression endpoints for analyses: self-reported doctor diagnosis of depression and frequency of depressive symptoms (CESD-R score). Long-term concentrations of particulate matter (PM) size fractions and nitrogen oxides (NOx) modeled by land-use regression were assigned to home addresses. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using adjusted logistic and linear regression models. Results Concentrations of coarse particles (PMcoarse), fine particles (PM2.5 and PM2.5 abs) and NO2 were significantly associated with diagnosis of depression (e.g. for PM2.5 OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.06, 2.46 and for NO2 OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.19). Similarly, an increase of one interquartile range in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and NOx was associated with depressive symptoms assessed with the CESD-R score (e.g. for PM2.5 16.2% difference in the mean; 95% CI: 5.8%, 26.5% and for NO2 14.5%; 95% CI: 4.8%, 24.2%). These associations were stronger in women with cognitive decline (e.g. Pint for PM2.5:0.022 and NO2:0.017) compared to women with normal cognition. In addition, living less than 100 m distance to major roads was significantly associated with diagnosis (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and symptoms (19.7%; 95% CI: 4.3%, 35.1%) of depression. We did not observe any interaction effect of cognition on prior diagnosis of depression. Conclusions Exposure to air pollution was associated with diagnosis of depression and depressive symptoms in elderly women. Women with impaired cognition may be at greater risk of depressive symptoms when exposed to air pollution.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • 更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Variation of antibiotic resistome during commercial livestock manure composting
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Min Zhang; Liang-Ying He; You-Sheng Liu; Jian-Liang Zhao; Jin-Na Zhang; Jun Chen; Qian-Qian Zhang; Guang-Guo Ying
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Current understanding of potential ecological risks of retinoic acids and their metabolites in aquatic environments
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Katie Wan Yee Yeung; Guang-Jie Zhou; Klára Hilscherová; John P. Giesy; Kenneth Mei Yee Leung
    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Association of blood metal exposure with testosterone and hemoglobin: A cross-sectional study in Hangzhou Birth Cohort Study
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Qiong Luo; Hao Zhao; Ying Jiang; Jing Guo; Na Lv; Jun Tang; Shuai Li; Dan Zhang; Rongpan Bai; Guangdi Chen

    Background Few epidemiological studies have investigated associations of exposure to multiple metals with testosterone homeostasis and erythropoiesis, especially for the pregnant women. Methods Among all the 1644 participants enrolled in Hangzhou Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) at baseline, a total of 918 pregnant women with complete data of interest were analyzed. The whole blood metals levels were examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and serum testosterone level was evaluated by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), and erythropoietic parameters values were extracted from medical record. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to estimate the relationships between metals levels and testosterone level, and between metals levels and erythropoietic parameters, and potential confounders were adjusted. Results Single metal model analysis revealed a significant association of blood As, Mn and Pb level with serum testosterone level. After controlling for multiple testing, the dose-response trend with statistical significance (FDR-adjusted p trend <0.05) was observed across tertiles of Pb with testosterone. This association, when by stratified by gender, remained in pregnant women with a male fetus but did not reach significant in those with a female fetus. Furthermore, blood Pb level was positively associated with red blood cell counts, hemoglobin level and hematocrit. Serum testosterone level was positively associated with red blood cell counts, hemoglobin level and hematocrit. Mediation analyses indicated that testosterone might act as a mediator in the association between Pb exposure and erythropoietic parameters. Conclusions Serum testosterone level and hemoglobin level was positively related to blood Pb level among Chinese pregnant women, and testosterone might mediate the effect of Pb exposure on hemoglobin. Additional prospective studies are warranted to confirm the causality.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Association of urinary metabolites of organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, and phenoxy herbicides with endometriosis
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Adela Jing Li; Zhen Chen; Tzu-Chun Lin; Germaine M. Buck Louis; Kurunthachalam Kannan
    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Metagenomic insights into the profile of antibiotic resistomes in a large drinking water reservoir
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Chenyuan Dang; Yu Xia; Maosheng Zheng; Tang Liu; Wen Liu; Qian Chen; Jinren Ni

    Reservoirs play a vital role in the control and management of surface water resources. However, the long water residence time in the reservoir potentially increases the storage and accumulation of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). The full profiles and potential health risks of antibiotic resistomes in reservoirs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the antibiotic resistomes of water and sediment during different seasons in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, which is one of the largest reservoirs in China, using a metagenomic sequencing approach. A total of 436 ARG subtypes belonging to 20 ARG types were detected from 24 water and 18 sediment samples, with an average abundance of 0.138 copies/cell. The overall ARG abundance in the sediment was higher than that in the water, and bacitracin and vancomycin resistance genes were the predominant ARG types in the water and sediment, respectively. The overall ARG abundance in the dry season was higher than that in the wet season, and a significant difference in ARG subtype compositions was observed in water, but not in the sediment, between the different seasons. The potential horizontal gene transfer frequency in the water was higher than that in the sediment, and the ARGs in water mainly came from the sediment upstream of the reservoir. The metagenomic assembly identified 14 contigs as ARG-carrying pathogens including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 3 of 14 carried virulence factors. Overall, the potential public health risks posed by resistomes in the water of the Danjiangkou Reservoir were higher in the dry season than in the wet season. Based on these results, strategies including sediment control and pathogen monitoring are suggested for water safety management in drinking water reservoirs.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Association between serum concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and expression of serum microRNAs in a cohort highly exposed to PFAS from drinking water
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Yiyi Xu; Simona Jurkovic-Mlakar; Ying Li; Karin Wahlberg; Kristin Scott; Daniela Pineda; Christian H. Lindh; Kristina Jakobsson; Karin Engström

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread synthetic substances with various adverse health effects. Not much is known about the modes of action of PFAS toxicity, but one likely mechanism is alteration of microRNA expression. Objectives To investigate whether PFAS exposure is associated with altered microRNA expression in serum. Methods We selected women from the Ronneby cohort, with high exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), emanating from drinking water contaminated by firefighting foam, and a control group of women from a neighbouring municipality without drinking water contamination. Serum levels of PFAS were analysed using LC/MS/MS. High coverage microRNA expression was analysed by next generation sequencing (NGS) in 53 individuals to screen for microRNAs associated with PFAS exposure. After verification by qPCR, associations between PFAS exposure and expression of 18 selected microRNAs were validated by qPCR in 232 individuals. In silico functional analyses were performed using Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). Results Three microRNAs were consistently associated with PFAS exposure in the different steps of the study: miR-101-3p, miR-144-3p and miR-19a-3p (all downregulated with increasing exposure). In silico functional analyses suggested that these PFAS-associated microRNAs were annotated to e.g. cardiovascular function and disease, Alzheimer’s disease, growth of cancer cell lines and cancer. Seven predicted target genes for the downregulated microRNAs were annotated to PFAS in IPA knowledge database: DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3a), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 3 (NR1H3), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and tumour growth factor alpha (TGFα). Discussion PFAS exposure was associated with downregulation of specific microRNAs. Further, in silico functional analyses suggest potential links between the specific PFAS-associated microRNAs, specific microRNA target genes and possibly also health effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution, APOE-ε4 status, and cognitive decline in a cohort of older adults in northern Manhattan
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Erin R. Kulick; Mitchell S.V. Elkind; Amelia K. Boehme; Nina R. Joyce; Nicole Schupf; Joel D. Kaufman; Richard Mayeux; Jennifer J. Manly; Gregory A. Wellenius

    Background There is mounting evidence that long-term exposure to air pollution is related to accelerated cognitive decline in aging populations. Factors that influence individual susceptibility remain largely unknown, but may involve the apolipoprotein E genotype E4 (APOE-ε4) allele. Objectives We assessed whether the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cognitive decline differed by APOE-ε4 status and cognitive risk factors. Methods The Washington Heights Inwood Community Aging Project (WHICAP) is a prospective study of aging and dementia. Neuropsychological testing and medical examinations occur every 18–24 months. We used mixed-effects models to evaluate whether the association between markers of ambient air pollution (nitrogen dioxide [NO2]), fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter) and the rate of decline in global and domain-specific cognition differed across strata defined by APOE-ε4 genotypes and cognitive risk factors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and temporal trends. Results Among 4821 participants with an average of 6 years follow-up, higher concentrations of ambient air pollution were associated with more rapid cognitive decline. This association was more pronounced among APOE-ε4 carriers (p < 0.001). A one interquartile range increase in NO2 was associated with an additional decline of 0.09 standard deviations (SD) (95%CI −0.1, −0.06) in global cognition across biennial visits among APOE-ε4 positive individuals and a 0.07 SD (95%CI −0.09, −0.05) decline among APOE-ε4 negative individuals. Results for PM2.5, PM10 and cognitive domains were similar. The association between air pollutants and rate of cognitive decline also varied across strata of race-ethnicity with the association strongest among White non-Hispanic participants. Conclusions These results add to the body of evidence on the adverse impact of ambient air pollution on cognitive aging and brain health and provide new insights into the genetic and behavioral factors that may impact individual susceptibility.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Epigenetic effects of (nano)materials in environmental species – Cu case study in Enchytraeus crypticus
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Rita C. Bicho; Dick Roelofs; Janine Mariën; Janeck J. Scott-Fordsmand; Mónica J.B. Amorim
    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Occurrence of multiple classes of emerging photoinitiators in indoor dust from E-waste recycling facilities and adjacent communities in South China and implications for human exposure
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Juan Li; Wenzheng Li; Xiaoming Gao; Liangying Liu; Mingjie Shen; Hui Chen; Mingshan Zhu; Lixi Zeng; Eddy Y. Zeng
    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • 更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Insights into the effects of long-term biochar loading on water-soluble organic matter in soil: Implications for the vertical co-migration of heavy metals
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Qinya Fan; Jianxiong Sun; Guixiang Quan; Jinlong Yan; Jianhua Gao; Xinqing Zou; Liqiang Cui

    Although interest in biochar remediation is growing, the effects of long-term biochar loading on soil environments have not been clearly confirmed. The contents and characteristics of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) from soils after eight years of biochar remediation were investigated, and the vertical co-migration of heavy metals controlled by interactions between WSOM, soil and contaminants were also analyzed. The results showed that biochar-leaching WSOM featured high aromaticity. Fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectrophotometry was employed, and three primary components, including fulvic-acid-like (FA-like), tryptophan, and humic-acid-like (HA-like) compounds, were identified in the EEM spectra via parallel factor analysis models. With increasing biochar loading, FA-like and HA-like greatly increased, but tryptophan showed a weak response. Furthermore, the WSOM was freeze dried and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the results demonstrated that the BC treatment increased oxygen-containing functional groups and enhanced the complexation capability of the WSOM. Finally, the Cd and Pb concentrations in the WSOM were investigated, and Cd was found to decrease in top-soil WSOM with added BC because of increased complexation, but the Pb content increased because exchangeable and carbonate Pb converted into organic Pb. Further, the Cd and Pb concentrations decreased in sub-soil WSOM. These findings suggest that more efforts should be devoted to studying the effects of long-term biochar loading on soil environments.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Exposure to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and its relationship with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: The Aragon Workers' Health Study
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Carolina Donat-Vargas; Belén Moreno-Franco; Martín Laclaustra; Helena Sandoval-Insausti; Estibaliz Jarauta; Pilar Guallar-Castillon

    Background Experimental evidence has revealed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins directly impairs endothelial function and induces atherosclerosis progression. In the general population, despite a small number of recent studies finding a link between PCBs, and stroke and myocardial infraction, the association with early coronary atherosclerosis has not been examined yet. Objective To examine whether dietary exposure to PCBs and dioxins is associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in a middle-aged men. Design Cross-sectional analysis comprising 1844 men in their 50 s and free of cardiovascular disease, who participated in the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS). Individual dietary exposures to PCBs and dioxins were estimated by the contaminant’s concentration in food coupled with the corresponding consumption and then participants were classified into quartiles of consumption. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was assessed by computerized tomography. We conducted ordered logistic regressions to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for progression to the categories of more coronary artery calcium, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among the participants, coronary calcium was not shown in 60.1% (n = 1108), 29.8% had a CACS > 0 and <100 (n = 550), and the remaining 10.1% (n = 186) had a CACS ≥ 100. Compared with those in the first quartile of PCBs exposure, those in the fourth one had an increased odds for having coronary calcium (OR 2.02, 95% CI [1.18, 3.47], p trend 0.019) and for having progressed to categories of more intense calcification (OR 2.03, 95% CI [1.21, 3.40], p trend 0.012). However, no association was found between dietary dioxins exposure and prevalent coronary artery calcium. Conclusions In this general male population, dietary exposure to PCBs, but not to dioxins, was associated with a higher prevalence of coronary calcium and to more intense subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. PCBs exposure seems to increase the risk of coronary disease in men from the very early stages.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • 更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Association between triclocarban and triclosan exposures and the risks of type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2013–2014)
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Xin Xie; Congying Lu; Min Wu; Jiayu Liang; Yuting Ying; Kailiang Liu; Xiuxia Huang; Shaoling Zheng; Xiuben Du; Dandan Liu; Zihao Wen; Guang Hao; Guang Yang; Liping Feng; Chunxia Jing

    Background There has been increasing interest in the concept that exposure to environmental chemicals may be contributing factors to epidemics of diabetes mellitus (DM). Triclocarban and triclosan (TCs) are synthetic antibacterial chemicals that are widely used in personal care products. Studies have shown that TCs are endocrine disruptors that alter metabolic conditions. However, it remains unclear whether exposure to TCs is a risk factor for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Objective We explored the hypothesis that TCs exposure is associated with an increased risk of IGT and T2DM. Method To test our hypothesis, we analyzed the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cross-sectional data from 2013 to 2014. IGT and T2DM were diagnosed based on an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the WHO standards. The levels of urinary TCs were measured using an HPLC-MS/MS method that NHANES investigators developed. The association between urinary TCs status and IGT and T2DM was examined separately in men and women using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, race, BMI, education, ratio of family income to poverty, smoking, exercise and hypertension. Results Nine hundred US participants (429 men and 471 women) were included in the analysis, of whom 242 (26.89%) were diagnosed with T2DM and 117 (13.00%) had IGT. Among women, there was a significant positive association between triclocarban, but not triclosan exposure and T2DM (OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Among men, no significant association between TCs exposure and IGT or T2DM was observed. Conclusions Triclocarban exposure may increase the risk of T2DM in the women, although additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this study and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • PI3K/Akt/FoxO pathway mediates glycolytic metabolism in HepG2 cells exposed to triclosan (TCS)
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Jing An; Huixin He; Weiwei Yao; Yu Shang; Yun Jiang; Zhiqiang Yu
    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Polychlorinated naphthalenes in human milk: Health risk assessment to nursing infants and source analysis
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Cui Li; Lei Zhang; Jingguang Li; Yihao Min; Lili Yang; Minghui Zheng; Yongning Wu; Yuanping Yang; Linjun Qin; Guorui Liu

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes are teratogenic environmental contaminants. Mother milk is the most important food for nursing infants. The World Health Organization actively promotes breastfeeding for its immunological, psychological, and economic advantages. We firstly measured concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes in human milk from 19 provinces in China and estimated their potential health risks to nursing infants and their possible sources. Concentrations ranged from 211.07 to 2497.43 pg/g lipid. The high prevalence of highly toxic hexachlorinated naphthalenes (Hexa-CN66/67) in human milk samples indicated a higher health risk in the sampling areas. Cancer risk posed to nursing infants was not significant, but potential non-carcinogenic adverse health effects were suggested and should be emphasized in some sampling areas. Unintentional emission of polychlorinated naphthalenes from industries that employ thermal processes appears to be the main source for PCNs in human milk in most sampling areas. Correlation analysis also suggested PCNs as impurities in polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures as a previously unrecognized source of polychlorinated naphthalenes in human milk.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Atmospheric microplastic deposition in an urban environment and an evaluation of transport
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    S.L. Wright; J. Ulke; A. Font; K.L.A. Chan; F.J. Kelly

    Microplastics are a global environmental issue contaminating aquatic and terrestrial environments. They have been reported in atmospheric deposition, and indoor and outdoor air, raising concern for public health due to the potential for exposure. Moreover, the atmosphere presents a new vehicle for microplastics to enter the wider environment, yet our knowledge of the quantities, characteristics and pathways of airborne microplastics is sparse. Here we show microplastics in atmospheric deposition in a major population centre, central London. Microplastics were found in all samples, with deposition rates ranging from 575 to 1008 microplastics/m2/d. They were found in various shapes, of which fibrous microplastics accounted for the great majority (92%). Across all samples, 15 different petrochemical-based polymers were identified. Bivariate polar plots indicated dependency on wind, with different source areas for fibrous and non-fibrous airborne microplastics. This is the first evidence of airborne microplastics in London and confirms the need to include airborne pathways when consolidating microplastic impacts on the wider environment and human health.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Cholestatic liver injury induced by food additives, dietary supplements and parenteral nutrition
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Vânia Vilas-Boas; Eva Gijbels; Joop Jonckheer; Elisabeth De Waele; Mathieu Vinken
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Comprehensive assessment of the indoor air quality in a chlorinated Olympic-size swimming pool
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Fátima Felgueiras; Zenaida Mourão; Catarina Morais; Hugo Santos; Marta Fonseca Gabriel; Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes

    Elite swimmers and swimming pool employees are likely to be at greater health risk due to their regular and intense exposure to air stressors in the indoor swimming pool environment. Since data on the real long-term exposure is limited, a long-term monitoring and sampling plan (22 non-consecutive days, from March to July 2017) was carried out in an indoor Olympic-size pool with a chlorine-based disinfection method to characterize indoor environments to which people involved in elite swimming and maintenance staff may be exposed to. A comprehensive set of parameters related with comfort and environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity (RH), carbon dioxide (CO2) and monoxide and ultrafine particles (UFP)) were monitored both indoors and outdoors in order to determine indoor-to-outdoor (I/O) ratios. Additionally, an analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) concentration and its dynamics was implemented in three 1-hr periods: early morning, evening elite swimmers training session and late evening. Samplings were simultaneously carried out in the air layer above the water surface and in the air surrounding the pool, selected to be representative of swimmers and coaches/employees’ breathing zones, respectively. The results of this work showed that the indoor climate was very stable in terms of air temperature, RH and CO2. In terms of the other measured parameters, mean indoor UFP number concentrations (5158 pt/cm3) were about 50% of those measured outdoors whereas chloroform was the predominant substance detected in all samples collected indoors (13.0–369.3 µg/m3), among a varied list of chemical compounds. An I/O non-trihalomethanes (THM) VOC concentration ratio of 2.7 was also found, suggesting that, beyond THM, other potentially hazardous VOC have also their source(s) indoors. THM and non-THM VOC concentration were found to increase consistently during the evening training session and exhibited a significant seasonal pattern. Compared to their coaches, elite swimmers seemed to be exposed via inhalation to significantly higher total THM levels, but to similar concentrations of non-THM VOC, during routine training activities. Regarding swimming employees, the exposure to THM and other VOC appeared to be significantly minimized during the early morning period. The air/water temperature ratio and RH were identified as important parameters that are likely to trigger the transfer processes of volatile substances from water to air and of their accumulation in the indoor environment of the swimming pool, respectively.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The contribution of improved air quality to reduced cardiovascular mortality: Declines in socioeconomic differences over time
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Lauren H. Wyatt; Geoffrey C.L. Peterson; Timothy J. Wade; Lucas M. Neas; Ana G. Rappold
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Influence of hydrotherapy pool water recirculation regime on Staphylococcus species concentration at subsurface: Preliminary experimental data from a pilot
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Joël Lagière; Sébastien Labarthe; Karine Dubourg; Frédéric Bauduer

    Pools are prone to contamination from microbial pathogens from human external microbiota, including mainly Staphylococcus species. These bacteria originate mainly from the skin and rhinopharynx and tend to concentrate at the surface/subsurface. Being protected by films derived from mucus and sebum, they are markedly resistant to biocides. Our study aimed to evaluate the respective impact of mixed and reverse hydraulicity techniques on the concentration of Staphylococcus species at the subsurface following bathing by four individuals in an experimental pool. Disinfection, filtration and water renewal of the pool were stopped in order to study only the influence of the water recirculation regime. We found a significant reduction of 31.7% (Test 1), 50.9% (Test 2) and 41.9% (Test 3) in total Staphylococcus species counts at the subsurface when using reverse versus mixed hydraulicity. However, this reduction is not a pollution cut but a pollution shift, resulting from an increase in the outlet water flow rate by overflow channel from 49.3 to 100%. This experimental model was far removed from real life conditions and associated with a series of limitations. However, it seems that the type of water recirculation regime is a critical factor in the bacterial quality of pool water. These preliminary findings need to be confirmed in additional studies using more realistic conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • The EuroMix human biomonitoring study: Source-to-dose modeling of cumulative and aggregate exposure for the bisphenols BPA, BPS, and BPF and comparison with measured urinary levels
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Cecile Karrer; Monica Andreassen; Natalie von Goetz; Friederike Sonnet; Amrit Kaur Sakhi; Konrad Hungerbühler; Hubert Dirven; Trine Husøy
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Insights into biomonitoring of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with hair analysis: A case study in e-waste recycling area
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Meiqing Lin; Jian Tang; Shengtao Ma; Yingxin Yu; Guiying Li; Ruifang Fan; Bixian Mai; Taicheng An
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Fire Phoenix facilitates phytoremediation of PAH-Cd co-contaminated soil through promotion of beneficial rhizosphere bacterial communities
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Yuanyuan Dai; Rui Liu; Yuemei Zhou; Na Li; Liqun Hou; Qiang Ma; Bin Gao
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Rapid recovery of coastal environment and ecosystem to the Hebei Spirit oil spill’s impact
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Un Hyuk Yim; Seongjin Hong; Changkeun Lee; Moonkoo Kim; Jee-Hyun Jung; Sung Yong Ha; Joon Geon An; Bong-Oh Kwon; Taewoo Kim; Chang-Hoon Lee; Ok Hwan Yu; Hyun Woo Choi; Jongseong Ryu; Jong Seong Khim; Won Joon Shim
    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Acute respiratory effects of livestock-related air pollution in a panel of COPD patients
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Warner van Kersen; Marieke Oldenwening; Bernadette Aalders; Lizan D. Bloemsma; Floor Borlée; Dick Heederik; Lidwien A.M. Smit

    Living close to livestock farms has been associated with increased symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The causes of these effects are still poorly understood. This panel study attempts to assess the acute effects of livestock-related air pollution in patients with COPD living in an area with intensive livestock farming in the Netherlands. Between February 2015 and July 2016, 82 participants took spirometry measurements twice daily (morning and evening) during a 3-month period, resulting in 12,672 FEV1 and PEF records. Participants also kept a diary on respiratory symptoms as well as livestock-related odor annoyance. Daily average ammonia (NH3) (a proxy for livestock-related air pollution) and fine particulate matter (PM10) levels were collected from monitoring stations in the area. Lung function was analyzed as decrements of >10% and >20% from their median as well as absolute values. Self-reported odor annoyance was analyzed as a dichotomous variable. All analyses were done using generalized estimated equations. We adjusted for humidity, temperature, linear trend, and took multiple testing into account. We found an odds ratio of 1.14 95%CI [1.05; 1.25] for decrements >20% in morning FEV1 per interquartile range (12 µg/m3) increase in NH3 concentration (lag 2). Odor annoyance was negatively associated with evening PEF (−4.46 l/min 95%CI [−7.59; −1.33]). Sensitivity analyses showed a stronger effect in participants with worse baseline lung function. No associations with symptoms were found. Our results show acute effects of livestock-related air pollution on lung function in COPD patients living in close proximity to livestock farms.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Perinatal phthalates exposure decreases fine-motor functions in 11-year-old girls: Results from weighted Quantile sum regression
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Sharon Daniel; Arin A. Balalian; Robin M. Whyatt; Xinhua Liu; Virginia Rauh; Julie Herbstman; Pam Factor-Litvak

    Introduction Phthalates are a group of high production chemicals, generally used as plasticizers and odor enhancers. Phthalates cross the blood-placenta barrier and are associated with deficits in cognitive functions and behavior problems in offspring. We previously reported sex-specific associations with motor function when phthalates are considered singly. Because exposure to phthalates usually occurs as mixtures, here we assess these associations between a mixture of phthalates and motor function at age 11 years. Methods Data come from the prospective cohort study of mothers and offspring who participated in the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health birth cohort (CCCEH). Seven phthalate metabolites were measured in maternal spot urine obtained during the third trimester and motor function was evaluated using the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2) at the age of 11 years. We used Weighted Quartile Sum (WQS) regression models to examine the effect of phthalate metabolites in males and females separately. The models were adjusted for child age in months, child BMI, maternal race (African-American vs. Dominican), prenatal alcohol consumption, maternal demoralization score, HOME score, and urine specific gravity. In a secondary analysis we used linear regression models to examine the association between the sum of molar concentrations of both DEHP and non-DEHP metabolites, and outcomes of gross and fine motor functions. Results 209 mother-child pairs were eligible for this analysis. A significant decrease in fine-motor functions was observed among females, but not among males, following exposure to high levels of weighted quartile sum of seven phthalate metabolites (Covariates-adjusted coefficient estimate B = −2.7, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] −4.64 to −0.75, p = 0.01 for females [n = 116] and B = −1.63, 95%CI −3.94 to 0.69, p = 0.16 for males [n = 93]). The most highly weighted phthalate metabolites, associated with fine-motor functions among females, were MBP, MBZP, and MIBP, all non-DEHP phthalates. No significant associations were found between the weighted quartile sum of seven phthalate metabolites and gross-motor functions at the age of 11 years for males (B = −0.81, 95%CI −1.17 to 1.96, p = 0.23). With the molar sum of four non-DEHP phthalates as main predictor of linear regression models, we found significant decrease in gross and fine motor functions among females prenatally exposed to non-DEHP phthalates B = −0.98, 95%CI −1.98 to 0.03, p = 0.05 and B = −0.85, 95%CI −1.49 to −0.20, p = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions Phthalate exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased motor functions among 11-year-old girls.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Effects of biophilic indoor environment on stress and anxiety recovery: A between-subjects experiment in virtual reality
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Jie Yin; Jing Yuan; Nastaran Arfaei; Paul J. Catalano; Joseph G. Allen; John D. Spengler

    Previous research has demonstrated the positive associations between outdoor nature contact and stress reduction. However, similar effects of incorporating natural elements into indoor environment (i.e. biophilic design) have been less well studied. We hypothesize that exposure to biophilic indoor environments help people recover from stress and anxiety and those effects differ among different types of biophilic elements. To test these hypotheses, we conducted a between-subjects experiment with 100 participants using virtual reality (VR). Participants were randomly assigned to experience one of four virtual offices (i.e. one non-biophilic base office and three similar offices enhanced with different biophilic design elements) after stressor tasks. Their physiological indicators of stress reaction, including heart rate variability, heart rate, skin conductance level and blood pressure, were measured by bio-monitoring sensors. Their anxiety level was measured by using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test (short version). We found that participants in biophilic indoor environments had consistently better recovery responses after stressor compare to those in the non-biophilic environment, in terms of reduction on stress and anxiety. Effects on physiological responses are immediate after exposure to biophilic environments with the larger impacts in the first four minutes of the 6-minute recovery process. Additionally, these restorative effects differ among three different types of indoor biophilic environments. This research provides evidence that biophilic design elements that impact stress recovery and anxiety. It also demonstrated the potential that virtual reality may be a way to bring nature and its therapeutic benefits to patients in hospitals.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Deciphering the particle specific effects on metabolism in rat liver and plasma from ZnO nanoparticles versus ionic Zn exposure
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Zhiling Guo; Yali Luo; Peng Zhang; Andrew J. Chetwynd; Heidi Qunhui Xie; Fazel Abdolahpur Monikh; Wunqun Tao; Changjian Xie; Yiyun Liu; Li Xu; Zhiyong Zhang; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Iseult Lynch; Bin Zhao
    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on ovarian function and embryo quality in mice
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Bao-Qiong Liao; Chao-Bin Liu; Shu-Juan Xie; Yu Liu; Ya-Bin Deng; Shu-Wen He; Xian-Pei Fu; Bin-Bin Fu; Ya-Long Wang; Ming-Huang Chen; Yan-Hong Lin; Fei-Ping Li; Xi Xie; Xin-Ru Hong; Hai-Long Wang
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants in the freshwater system: Relative distribution, contamination trends, and bioaccumulation
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Gyojin Choo; Wenting Wang; Hyeon-Seo Cho; Kyungtae Kim; Kyunghwa Park; Jeong-Eun Oh
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Association between ambient temperature and semen quality: A longitudinal study of 10 802 men in China
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Yun Zhou; Tianqing Meng; Li Wu; Yonggang Duan; Guo Li; Chunxiang Shi; Hai Zhang; Zhe Peng; Chuangang Fan; Jixuan Ma; Chengliang Xiong; Wei Bao; Yuewei Liu
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Inhibitory effects of metal ions on reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls and perchloroethene in distinct organohalide-respiring bacteria
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Qihong Lu; Xueqi Zou; Jinting Liu; Zhiwei Liang; Hojae Shim; Rongliang Qiu; Shanquan Wang

    Bioremediation of sites co-contaminated with organohalides and metal pollutants may have unsatisfactory performance, since metal ions can potentially inhibit organohalide respiration. To understand the detailed impact of metals on organohalide respiration, we tested the effects of four metal ions (i.e., Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+), as well as their mixtures, on reductive dechlorination of perchloroethene (PCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in three different cultures, including a pure culture of Dehalococcoides mccartyi CG1, a Dehalococcoides-containing microcosm and a Dehalococcoides-Geobacter coculture. Results showed that the inhibitive impact on organohalide respiration depended on both the type and concentration of metal ions. Interestingly, the metal ions might indirectly inhibit organohalide respiration through affecting non-dechlorinating populations in the Dehalococcoides-containing microcosm. Nonetheless, compared to the CG1 pure culture, the Dehalococcoides-containing microcosm had higher tolerance to the individual metal ions. In addition, no synergistic inhibition was observed for reductive dechlorination of PCE and PCBs in cultures amended with metal ion mixtures. These results provide insights into the impact of metal ions on organohalide respiration, which may be helpful for future in situ bioremediation of organohalide-metal co-contaminated sites.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Longitudinal trends in perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances among multiethnic midlife women from 1999 to 2011: The Study of Women′s Health Across the Nation
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Ning Ding; Siobán D. Harlow; Stuart Batterman; Bhramar Mukherjee; Sung Kyun Park

    Background Limited information exists regarding longitudinal trends in midlife women’s exposure to perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Further, little is known about how patterns of exposure differ by race/ethnicity and reproductive characteristics including parity and menopause. Objective We aimed to examine temporal variations in serum PFAS concentrations among midlife women from the Study of Women′s Health Across the Nation. Methods Serum concentrations of 11 PFAS homologues were measured in 75 White, Black and Chinese women with blood samples collected in 1999–2000, 2002–2003, 2005–2006, and 2009–2011. Rates of changes in PFAS concentrations were calculated assuming a first-order elimination model. Associations between PFAS concentrations and race/ethnicity, menstruation and parity were evaluated with linear mixed models, adjusting for age, body mass index and study site. Results Serum concentrations of linear-chain perfluorooctanoic acid (n-PFOA), linear- and branched-chain perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (n-PFOS and sm-PFOS) decreased significantly (-6.0%, 95% CI: −8.3%, −3.6% per year for n-PFOA; −14.8%, 95% CI: −17.3%, −12.3% per year for n-PFOS; −16.9%, 95% CI: −19.1%, −14.6% per year for sm-PFOS); whereas perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) increased (16.0%, 95% CI: 10.6%, 21.6% per year). Detection rates of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) doubled. Temporal trends varied significantly by race/ethnicity. Chinese women tended to have consistently higher PFNA concentrations at each follow-up visit, compared with White and Black women. Serum PFHxS concentrations significantly decreased in White and Black women, but not in Chinese. Menstruating women consistently had lower concentrations. Parity was associated with lower concentrations at baseline but the differences between nulliparous and parous women became smaller over time. Conclusions Our results suggest longitudinal declines in serum concentrations of legacy PFAS and increases in serum concentrations of emerging compounds from 1999 to 2011 in midlife women. Temporal trends in PFAS concentrations are not uniform across race/ethnicity and parity groups.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Landfills represent significant atmospheric sources of exposure to halogenated flame retardants for urban-adapted gulls
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Manon Sorais; Marc J. Mazerolle; Jean-François Giroux; Jonathan Verreault
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Blood lead levels among Chinese children: The shifting influence of industry, traffic, and e-waste over three decades
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Yunhui Zhang; David O'Connor; Wendi Xu; Deyi Hou

    In China, data relating to the historic prevalence of childhood lead poisoning suggest its pervasiveness. This review analysed published epidemiological data on blood lead levels (BLLs) of 735,271 Chinese children aged 0–6 between 1987 and 2017. Among these children, the geometric mean (GM) BLL was 95.1 μg/L (geometric SD = 1.62), and 24.1% suffered lead poisoning (BLL ≥ 100 μg/L). Importantly, there was a temporal decrease in the GM BLL value, from 182.9 μg/L in 1987–1991 to 42.4 μg/L in 2012–2017. However, a rebound was seen in the most recent two years (2016 and 2017). Moreover, the GM BLL among Chinese children has not fallen as low as U.S. children. This indicates that either (1) leaded petrol or lead based-paint exposure sources have not been adequately controlled in China, or (2) other pollution sources, such as industry, traffic, and e-waste, are impacting Chinese children. Drivers behind spatio-temporal variations were explored to provide scientific evidence regarding the prevention of childhood lead poisoning. We found that BLLs among children in the central and eastern areas of China have dropped lower than those in the western area, and that the GM BLL of children living in rural areas now exceeds children in urban areas. These reversals may be associated with the industrial decentralization policy of the late 1980s, when many heavily polluting industries and manufacturers moved away from cities on the east coast. It was discovered that the BLLs of children living in areas associated with mining have remained high (GM BLL = 155.0 μg/L for 2007–2017), and that the lead poisoning rate (LPR) has become exceptionally high in areas associated with e–waste. Finally, the review offers a data comparison with other countries, an overview of potentially influencing factors and sources, as well as some suggested prevention strategies to reduce childhood lead exposure.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Surrogates for the removal by ozonation of the cytotoxicity and DNA double-strand break effects of wastewater on mammalian cells
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Ye Du; Yang Yang; Wen-Long Wang; Yu-Ting Zhou; Qian-Yuan Wu
    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • 更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Biowaste-source-dependent synthetic pathways of redox functional groups within humic acids favoring pentachlorophenol dechlorination in composting process
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Xinyu Zhao; Wenbing Tan; Jingjing Peng; Qiuling Dang; Hui Zhang; Beidou Xi

    Humic acids (HAs) can function as electron mediators for contaminants transformation in different environments. The humus respiration can facilitate pentachlorophenol (PCP) dechlorination during different biowastes composting. However, different characteristics of synthetic pathways of redox functional groups within HAs during different biowastes composting have never been characterized. Herein, we assessed the synthetic pathways of redox functional groups within HAs from protein-, lignocellulose-, and lignin-rich composts that facilitated the microbially reductive dechlorination of PCP, respectively. The results show that the aromatic systems are the major electron-accepting moieties of HAs and function as electron shuttles to facilitate the PCP dechlorination. Amino acid and reducing sugar are the major precursors for the synthesis of redox functional groups within HAs in protein-rich composts, and polyphenols and amino acids are discerned as the significant components to synthesize redox functional groups of HAs in lignocellulose- and lignin-rich composts. Seven groups of bacterial communities based on relationships among remarkable precursors, key bacterial communities, and redox functional groups within HAs are classified as participants in the precursors’ catabolism and aromatic system’ anabolism. Furthermore, the significant environmental factors on the synthetic pathways of redox functional groups within HAs in composting are confirmed by structural equation models. Conclusively, the regulating methods for promoting PCP dechlorination by HAs during different biowastes composting are proposed. Our results can help in understanding the distinct formative mechanisms of redox functional groups within HAs during different biowastes composting, providing insights into a classification-oriented approach for recycling utilization of different biowastes.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Evaluation of the splenic injury following exposure of mice to bisphenol S: A mass spectrometry-based lipidomics and imaging analysis
    Environ. Int. (IF 7.943) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Chao Zhao; Ting Yong; Yinbin Zhang; Yaofeng Jin; Yu Xiao; Hailin Wang; Bin Zhao; Zongwei Cai
    更新日期:2019-12-13
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