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  • Two-photon frequency comb spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Alexey Grinin, Arthur Matveev, Dylan C. Yost, Lothar Maisenbacher, Vitaly Wirthl, Randolf Pohl, Theodor W. Hänsch, Thomas Udem

    We have performed two-photon ultraviolet direct frequency comb spectroscopy on the 1S-3S transition in atomic hydrogen to illuminate the so-called proton radius puzzle and to demonstrate the potential of this method. The proton radius puzzle is a significant discrepancy between data obtained with muonic hydrogen and regular atomic hydrogen that could not be explained within the framework of quantum

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Increased growing-season productivity drives earlier autumn leaf senescence in temperate trees
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Deborah Zani, Thomas W. Crowther, Lidong Mo, Susanne S. Renner, Constantin M. Zohner

    Changes in the growing-season lengths of temperate trees greatly affect biotic interactions and global carbon balance. Yet future growing-season trajectories remain highly uncertain because the environmental drivers of autumn leaf senescence are poorly understood. Using experiments and long-term observations, we show that increases in spring and summer productivity due to elevated carbon dioxide, temperature

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Capturing roaming molecular fragments in real time
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Tomoyuki Endo, Simon P. Neville, Vincent Wanie, Samuel Beaulieu, Chen Qu, Jude Deschamps, Philippe Lassonde, Bruno E. Schmidt, Hikaru Fujise, Mizuho Fushitani, Akiyoshi Hishikawa, Paul L. Houston, Joel M. Bowman, Michael S. Schuurman, François Légaré, Heide Ibrahim

    Since the discovery of roaming as an alternative molecular dissociation pathway in formaldehyde (H2CO), it has been indirectly observed in numerous molecules. The phenomenon describes a frustrated dissociation with fragments roaming at relatively large interatomic distances rather than following conventional transition-state dissociation; incipient radicals from the parent molecule self-react to form

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Exceptional nexus with a hybrid topological invariant
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Weiyuan Tang, Xue Jiang, Kun Ding, Yi-Xin Xiao, Zhao-Qing Zhang, C. T. Chan, Guancong Ma

    Branch-point singularities known as exceptional points (EPs), which carry a nonzero topological charge, can emerge in non-Hermitian systems. We demonstrate with both theory and acoustic experiments an “exceptional nexus” (EX), which is not only a higher-order EP but also the cusp singularity of multiple exceptional arcs (EAs). Because the parameter space is segmented by the EAs, the EX possesses a

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Critical instability at moving keyhole tip generates porosity in laser melting
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Cang Zhao, Niranjan D. Parab, Xuxiao Li, Kamel Fezzaa, Wenda Tan, Anthony D. Rollett, Tao Sun

    Laser powder bed fusion is a dominant metal 3D printing technology. However, porosity defects remain a challenge for fatigue-sensitive applications. Some porosity is associated with deep and narrow vapor depressions called keyholes, which occur under high-power, low–scan speed laser melting conditions. High-speed x-ray imaging enables operando observation of the detailed formation process of pores

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Individual heterozygosity predicts translocation success in threatened desert tortoises
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Peter A. Scott, Linda J. Allison, Kimberleigh J. Field, Roy C. Averill-Murray, H. Bradley Shaffer

    Anthropogenic environmental modification is placing as many as 1 million species at risk of extinction. One management action for reducing extinction risk is translocation of individuals to locations from which they have disappeared or to new locations where biologists hypothesize they have a good chance of surviving. To maximize this survival probability, the standard practice is to move animals from

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Structural analysis of full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from an advanced vaccine candidate
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Sandhya Bangaru, Gabriel Ozorowski, Hannah L. Turner, Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Deli Huang, Xiaoning Wang, Jonathan L. Torres, Jolene K. Diedrich, Jing-Hui Tian, Alyse D. Portnoff, Nita Patel, Michael J. Massare, John R. Yates, David Nemazee, James C. Paulson, Greg Glenn, Gale Smith, Andrew B. Ward

    Vaccine efforts to combat the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, are focused on SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, the primary target for neutralizing antibodies. We performed cryo–election microscopy and site-specific glycan analysis of one of the leading subunit vaccine candidates from Novavax

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Abrupt shift to hotter and drier climate over inner East Asia beyond the tipping point
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Peng Zhang, Jee-Hoon Jeong, Jin-Ho Yoon, Hyungjun Kim, S.-Y. Simon Wang, Hans W. Linderholm, Keyan Fang, Xiuchen Wu, Deliang Chen

    Unprecedented heatwave-drought concurrences in the past two decades have been reported over inner East Asia. Tree-ring–based reconstructions of heatwaves and soil moisture for the past 260 years reveal an abrupt shift to hotter and drier climate over this region. Enhanced land-atmosphere coupling, associated with persistent soil moisture deficit, appears to intensify surface warming and anticyclonic

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Precise T cell recognition programs designed by transcriptionally linking multiple receptors
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Jasper Z. Williams, Greg M. Allen, Devan Shah, Igal S. Sterin, Ki H. Kim, Vivian P. Garcia, Gavin E. Shavey, Wei Yu, Cristina Puig-Saus, Jennifer Tsoi, Antoni Ribas, Kole T. Roybal, Wendell A. Lim

    Living cells often identify their correct partner or target cells by integrating information from multiple receptors, achieving levels of recognition that are difficult to obtain with individual molecular interactions. In this study, we engineered a diverse library of multireceptor cell-cell recognition circuits by using synthetic Notch receptors to transcriptionally interconnect multiple molecular

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Elongational stalling activates mitoribosome-associated quality control
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Nirupa Desai, Hanting Yang, Viswanathan Chandrasekaran, Razina Kazi, Michal Minczuk, V. Ramakrishnan

    The human mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) and associated proteins regulate the synthesis of 13 essential subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. We report the discovery of a mitoribosome-associated quality control pathway that responds to interruptions during elongation, and we present structures at 3.1- to 3.3-angstrom resolution of mitoribosomal large subunits trapped during ribosome

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • REGN-COV2 antibodies prevent and treat SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques and hamsters
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Alina Baum, Dharani Ajithdoss, Richard Copin, Anbo Zhou, Kathryn Lanza, Nicole Negron, Min Ni, Yi Wei, Kusha Mohammadi, Bret Musser, Gurinder S. Atwal, Adelekan Oyejide, Yenny Goez-Gazi, John Dutton, Elizabeth Clemmons, Hilary M. Staples, Carmen Bartley, Benjamin Klaffke, Kendra Alfson, Michal Gazi, Olga Gonzalez, Edward Dick, Ricardo Carrion, Laurent Pessaint, Maciel Porto, Anthony Cook, Renita Brown

    An urgent global quest for effective therapies to prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. We previously described REGN-COV2, a cocktail of two potent neutralizing antibodies (REGN10987 and REGN10933) that targets nonoverlapping epitopes on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. In this report, we evaluate the in vivo efficacy of this

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • A chimeric gene paternally instructs female sex determination in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Yuan Zou, Elzemiek Geuverink, Leo W. Beukeboom, Eveline C. Verhulst, Louis van de Zande

    Various primary signals direct insect sex determination. In hymenopteran insects, the presence of a paternal genome is needed to initiate female development. When absent, uniparental haploid males develop. We molecularly and functionally identified the instructor sex-determination gene, wasp overruler of masculinization (wom), of the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. This gene contains a P53-like

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Protein storytelling through physics
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Emiliano Brini, Carlos Simmerling, Ken Dill

    Every protein has a story—how it folds, what it binds, its biological actions, and how it misbehaves in aging or disease. Stories are often inferred from a protein’s shape (i.e., its structure). But increasingly, stories are told using computational molecular physics (CMP). CMP is rooted in the principled physics of driving forces and reveals granular detail of conformational populations in space and

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Viral epitope profiling of COVID-19 patients reveals cross-reactivity and correlates of severity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Ellen Shrock, Eric Fujimura, Tomasz Kula, Richard T. Timms, I-Hsiu Lee, Yumei Leng, Matthew L. Robinson, Brandon M. Sie, Mamie Z. Li, Yuezhou Chen, Jennifer Logue, Adam Zuiani, Denise McCulloch, Felipe J. N. Lelis, Stephanie Henson, Daniel R. Monaco, Meghan Travers, Shaghayegh Habibi, William A. Clarke, Patrizio Caturegli, Oliver Laeyendecker, Alicja Piechocka-Trocha, Jonathan Z. Li, Ashok Khatri,

    Understanding humoral responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical for improving diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. Deep serological profiling of 232 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 190 pre–COVID-19 era controls using VirScan revealed more than 800 epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome, including 10 epitopes likely recognized by neutralizing

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Abl and Canoe/Afadin mediate mechanotransduction at tricellular junctions
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Huapeng H. Yu, Jennifer A. Zallen

    Epithelial structure is generated by the dynamic reorganization of cells in response to mechanical forces. Adherens junctions transmit forces between cells, but how cells sense and respond to these forces in vivo is not well understood. We identify a mechanotransduction pathway involving the Abl tyrosine kinase and Canoe/Afadin that stabilizes cell adhesion under tension at tricellular junctions in

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Identification of Integrator-PP2A complex (INTAC), an RNA polymerase II phosphatase
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Hai Zheng, Yilun Qi, Shibin Hu, Xuan Cao, Congling Xu, Zhinang Yin, Xizi Chen, Yan Li, Weida Liu, Jie Li, Jiawei Wang, Gang Wei, Kaiwei Liang, Fei Xavier Chen, Yanhui Xu

    The 14-subunit metazoan-specific Integrator contains an endonuclease that cleaves nascent RNA transcripts. Here, we identified a complex containing Integrator and protein phosphatase 2A core enzyme (PP2A-AC), termed INTAC. The 3.5-angstrom-resolution structure reveals that nine human Integrator subunits and PP2A-AC assemble into a cruciform-shaped central scaffold formed by the backbone and shoulder

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • In vivo Perturb-Seq reveals neuronal and glial abnormalities associated with autism risk genes
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Xin Jin, Sean K. Simmons, Amy Guo, Ashwin S. Shetty, Michelle Ko, Lan Nguyen, Vahbiz Jokhi, Elise Robinson, Paul Oyler, Nathan Curry, Giulio Deangeli, Simona Lodato, Joshua Z. Levin, Aviv Regev, Feng Zhang, Paola Arlotta

    The number of disease risk genes and loci identified through human genetic studies far outstrips the capacity to systematically study their functions. We applied a scalable genetic screening approach, in vivo Perturb-Seq, to functionally evaluate 35 autism spectrum disorder/neurodevelopmental delay (ASD/ND) de novo loss-of-function risk genes. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we introduced frameshift mutations in

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Mechanism of spliceosome remodeling by the ATPase/helicase Prp2 and its coactivator Spp2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Rui Bai, Ruixue Wan, Chuangye Yan, Qi Jia, Jianlin Lei, Yigong Shi

    Spliceosome remodeling, executed by conserved ATPase/helicases including Prp2, enables pre-mRNA splicing. However, the structural basis for the function of the ATPase/helicases remains poorly understood. Here, we report atomic structures of Prp2 in isolation, Prp2 complexed with its coactivator Spp2, and Prp2-loaded activated spliceosome, and results of structure-guided biochemical analysis. Prp2 weakly

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Steps toward translocation-independent RNA polymerase inactivation by terminator ATPase ρ
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Nelly Said, Tarek Hilal, Nicholas D. Sunday, Ajay Khatri, Jörg Bürger, Thorsten Mielke, Georgiy A. Belogurov, Bernhard Loll, Ranjan Sen, Irina Artsimovitch, Markus C. Wahl

    Factor-dependent transcription termination mechanisms are poorly understood. We determined a series of cryo-electron microscopy structures portraying the hexameric ATPase ρ on path to terminating NusA/NusG-modified elongation complexes. An open ρ ring contacts NusA, NusG, and multiple regions of RNA polymerase, trapping and locally unwinding proximal upstream DNA. NusA wedges into the ρ ring, initially

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Human NLRP1 is a sensor for double-stranded RNA
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Stefan Bauernfried, Matthias J. Scherr, Andreas Pichlmair, Karl E. Duderstadt, Veit Hornung

    Inflammasomes function as intracellular sensors of pathogen infection or cellular perturbation and thereby play a central role in numerous diseases. Given the high abundance of NLRP1 in epithelial barrier tissues, we screened a diverse panel of viruses for inflammasome activation in keratinocytes. We identified Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a positive-strand RNA virus, as a potent activator of human

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Mechanism of protein-guided folding of the active site U2/U6 RNA during spliceosome activation
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Cole Townsend, Majety N. Leelaram, Dmitry E. Agafonov, Olexandr Dybkov, Cindy L. Will, Karl Bertram, Henning Urlaub, Berthold Kastner, Holger Stark, Reinhard Lührmann

    Spliceosome activation involves extensive protein and RNA rearrangements that lead to formation of a catalytically-active U2/U6 RNA structure. At present, little is known about the assembly pathway of the latter and the mechanism whereby proteins aid its proper folding. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of two human pre-Bact complexes at core resolutions of 3.9-4.2 Å. These structures

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Transmission heterogeneities, kinetics, and controllability of SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Kaiyuan Sun, Wei Wang, Lidong Gao, Yan Wang, Kaiwei Luo, Lingshuang Ren, Zhifei Zhan, Xinghui Chen, Shanlu Zhao, Yiwei Huang, Qianlai Sun, Ziyan Liu, Maria Litvinova, Alessandro Vespignani, Marco Ajelli, Cécile Viboud, Hongjie Yu

    A long-standing question in infectious disease dynamics concerns the role of transmission heterogeneities, driven by demography, behavior and interventions. Based on detailed patient and contact tracing data in Hunan, China we find 80% of secondary infections traced back to 15% of SARS-CoV-2 primary infections, indicating substantial transmission heterogeneities. Transmission risk scales positively

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • How directed evolution reshapes the energy landscape in an enzyme to boost catalysis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Renee Otten, Ricardo A. P. Pádua, H. Adrian Bunzel, Vy Nguyen, Warintra Pitsawong, MacKenzie Patterson, Shuo Sui, Sarah L. Perry, Aina E. Cohen, Donald Hilvert, Dorothee Kern

    The advent of biocatalysts designed computationally and optimized by laboratory evolution provides an opportunity to explore molecular strategies for augmenting catalytic function. Applying a suite of NMR, crystallographic, and stopped-flow techniques to an enzyme designed for an elementary proton transfer reaction, we show how directed evolution gradually altered the conformational ensemble of the

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Fire and biodiversity in the Anthropocene
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Luke T. Kelly, Katherine M. Giljohann, Andrea Duane, Núria Aquilué, Sally Archibald, Enric Batllori, Andrew F. Bennett, Stephen T. Buckland, Quim Canelles, Michael F. Clarke, Marie-Josée Fortin, Virgilio Hermoso, Sergi Herrando, Robert E. Keane, Frank K. Lake, Michael A. McCarthy, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez, Catherine L. Parr, Juli G. Pausas, Trent D. Penman, Adrián Regos, Libby Rumpff, Julianna L. Santos

    Fire has been a source of global biodiversity for millions of years. However, interactions with anthropogenic drivers such as climate change, land use, and invasive species are changing the nature of fire activity and its impacts. We review how such changes are threatening species with extinction and transforming terrestrial ecosystems. Conservation of Earth’s biological diversity will be achieved

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • A human tissue screen identifies a regulator of ER secretion as a brain-size determinant
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Christopher Esk, Dominik Lindenhofer, Simon Haendeler, Roelof A. Wester, Florian Pflug, Benoit Schroeder, Joshua A. Bagley, Ulrich Elling, Johannes Zuber, Arndt von Haeseler, Jürgen A. Knoblich

    Loss-of-function (LOF) screens provide a powerful approach to identify regulators in biological processes. Pioneered in laboratory animals, LOF screens of human genes are currently restricted to two-dimensional cell cultures, which hinders the testing of gene functions requiring tissue context. Here, we present CRISPR–lineage tracing at cellular resolution in heterogeneous tissue (CRISPR-LICHT), which

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Fetal mast cells mediate postnatal allergic responses dependent on maternal IgE
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Rasha Msallam, Jozef Balla, Abhay P. S. Rathore, Hassen Kared, Benoit Malleret, Wilfried A. A. Saron, Zhaoyuan Liu, Jing Wen Hang, Charles Antoine Dutertre, Anis Larbi, Jerry K. Y. Chan, Ashley L. St. John, Florent Ginhoux

    Mast cells (MCs) are central effector cells in allergic reactions that are often mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE). Allergies commonly start at an early age, and both MCs and IgE are detectable in fetuses. However, the origin of fetal IgE and whether fetal MCs can degranulate in response to IgE-dependent activation are presently unknown. Here, we show that human and mouse fetal MCs phenotypically

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Ultrapotent human antibodies protect against SARS-CoV-2 challenge via multiple mechanisms.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    M Alejandra Tortorici,Martina Beltramello,Florian A Lempp,Dora Pinto,Ha V Dang,Laura E Rosen,Matthew McCallum,John Bowen,Andrea Minola,Stefano Jaconi,Fabrizia Zatta,Anna De Marco,Barbara Guarino,Siro Bianchi,Elvin J Lauron,Heather Tucker,Jiayi Zhou,Alessia Peter,Colin Havenar-Daughton,Jason A Wojcechowskyj,James Brett Case,Rita E Chen,Hannah Kaiser,Martin Montiel-Ruiz,Marcel Meury,Nadine Czudnochowski

    Efficient therapeutic options are needed to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has caused more than 922,000 fatalities as of 13 September 2020. We report the isolation and characterization of two ultrapotent SARS-CoV-2 human neutralizing antibodies (S2E12 and S2M11) that protect hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Cryo–electron microscopy structures

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Control of long-distance motion of single molecules on a surface
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Donato Civita, Marek Kolmer, Grant J. Simpson, An-Ping Li, Stefan Hecht, Leonhard Grill

    Spatial control over molecular movement is typically limited because motion at the atomic scale follows stochastic processes. We used scanning tunneling microscopy to bring single molecules into a stable orientation of high translational mobility where they moved along precisely defined tracks. Single dibromoterfluorene molecules moved over large distances of 150 nanometers with extremely high spatial

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Artificial multimodal receptors based on ion relaxation dynamics
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Insang You, David G. Mackanic, Naoji Matsuhisa, Jiheong Kang, Jimin Kwon, Levent Beker, Jaewan Mun, Wonjeong Suh, Tae Yeong Kim, Jeffrey B.-H. Tok, Zhenan Bao, Unyong Jeong

    Human skin has different types of tactile receptors that can distinguish various mechanical stimuli from temperature. We present a deformable artificial multimodal ionic receptor that can differentiate thermal and mechanical information without signal interference. Two variables are derived from the analysis of the ion relaxation dynamics: the charge relaxation time as a strain-insensitive intrinsic

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Nanomesh pressure sensor for monitoring finger manipulation without sensory interference
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Sunghoon Lee, Sae Franklin, Faezeh Arab Hassani, Tomoyuki Yokota, Md Osman Goni Nayeem, Yan Wang, Raz Leib, Gordon Cheng, David W. Franklin, Takao Someya

    Monitoring of finger manipulation without disturbing the inherent functionalities is critical to understand the sense of natural touch. However, worn or attached sensors affect the natural feeling of the skin. We developed nanomesh pressure sensors that can monitor finger pressure without detectable effects on human sensation. The effect of the sensor on human sensation was quantitatively investigated

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • An extremely metal-deficient globular cluster in the Andromeda Galaxy
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Søren S. Larsen, Aaron J. Romanowsky, Jean P. Brodie, Asher Wasserman

    Globular clusters (GCs) are dense, gravitationally bound systems of thousands to millions of stars. They are preferentially associated with the oldest components of galaxies, so measurements of their composition can constrain the build-up of chemical elements in galaxies during the early Universe. We report a massive GC in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31), RBC EXT8, that is extremely depleted in heavy elements

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • A marine microbiome antifungal targets urgent-threat drug-resistant fungi
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Fan Zhang, Miao Zhao, Doug R. Braun, Spencer S. Ericksen, Jeff S. Piotrowski, Justin Nelson, Jian Peng, Gene E. Ananiev, Shaurya Chanana, Kenneth Barns, Jen Fossen, Hiram Sanchez, Marc G. Chevrette, Ilia A. Guzei, Changgui Zhao, Le Guo, Weiping Tang, Cameron R. Currie, Scott R. Rajski, Anjon Audhya, David R. Andes, Tim S. Bugni

    New antifungal drugs are urgently needed to address the emergence and transcontinental spread of fungal infectious diseases, such as pandrug-resistant Candida auris. Leveraging the microbiomes of marine animals and cutting-edge metabolomics and genomic tools, we identified encouraging lead antifungal molecules with in vivo efficacy. The most promising lead, turbinmicin, displays potent in vitro and

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Experimental observation of the liquid-liquid transition in bulk supercooled water under pressure
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Kyung Hwan Kim, Katrin Amann-Winkel, Nicolas Giovambattista, Alexander Späh, Fivos Perakis, Harshad Pathak, Marjorie Ladd Parada, Cheolhee Yang, Daniel Mariedahl, Tobias Eklund, Thomas. J. Lane, Seonju You, Sangmin Jeong, Matthew Weston, Jae Hyuk Lee, Intae Eom, Minseok Kim, Jaeku Park, Sae Hwan Chun, Peter H. Poole, Anders Nilsson

    We prepared bulk samples of supercooled liquid water under pressure by isochoric heating of high-density amorphous ice to temperatures of 205 ± 10 kelvin, using an infrared femtosecond laser. Because the sample density is preserved during the ultrafast heating, we could estimate an initial internal pressure of 2.5 to 3.5 kilobar in the high-density liquid phase. After heating, the sample expanded rapidly

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Oceanic plateau of the Hawaiian mantle plume head subducted to the uppermost lower mantle
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Songqiao Shawn Wei, Peter M. Shearer, Carolina Lithgow-Bertelloni, Lars Stixrude, Dongdong Tian

    The Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain that includes the Hawaiian volcanoes was created by the Hawaiian mantle plume. Although the mantle plume hypothesis predicts an oceanic plateau produced by massive decompression melting during the initiation stage of the Hawaiian hot spot, the fate of this plateau is unclear. We discovered a megameter-scale portion of thickened oceanic crust in the uppermost lower

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Tissue topography steers migrating Drosophila border cells
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Wei Dai, Xiaoran Guo, Yuansheng Cao, James A. Mondo, Joseph P. Campanale, Brandon J. Montell, Haley Burrous, Sebastian Streichan, Nir Gov, Wouter-Jan Rappel, Denise J. Montell

    Moving cells can sense and respond to physical features of the microenvironment; however, in vivo, the significance of tissue topography is mostly unknown. Here, we used Drosophila border cells, an established model for in vivo cell migration, to study how chemical and physical information influences path selection. Although chemical cues were thought to be sufficient, live imaging, genetics, modeling

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Enhanced Zika virus susceptibility of globally invasive Aedes aegypti populations
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Fabien Aubry, Stéphanie Dabo, Caroline Manet, Igor Filipović, Noah H. Rose, Elliott F. Miot, Daria Martynow, Artem Baidaliuk, Sarah H. Merkling, Laura B. Dickson, Anna B. Crist, Victor O. Anyango, Claudia M. Romero-Vivas, Anubis Vega-Rúa, Isabelle Dusfour, Davy Jiolle, Christophe Paupy, Martin N. Mayanja, Julius J. Lutwama, Alain Kohl, Veasna Duong, Alongkot Ponlawat, Massamba Sylla, Jewelna Akorli

    The drivers and patterns of zoonotic virus emergence in the human population are poorly understood. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major arbovirus vector native to Africa that invaded most of the world’s tropical belt over the past four centuries, after the evolution of a “domestic” form that specialized in biting humans and breeding in water storage containers. Here, we show that human specialization

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Divergent impacts of warming weather on wildlife disease risk across climates
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Jeremy M. Cohen, Erin L. Sauer, Olivia Santiago, Samuel Spencer, Jason R. Rohr

    Disease outbreaks among wildlife have surged in recent decades alongside climate change, although it remains unclear how climate change alters disease dynamics across different geographic regions. We amassed a global, spatiotemporal dataset describing parasite prevalence across 7346 wildlife populations and 2021 host-parasite combinations, compiling local weather and climate records at each location

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Rotavirus induces intercellular calcium waves through ADP signaling
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Alexandra L. Chang-Graham, Jacob L. Perry, Melinda A. Engevik, Kristen A. Engevik, Francesca J. Scribano, J. Thomas Gebert, Heather A. Danhof, Joel C. Nelson, Joseph S. Kellen, Alicia C. Strtak, Narayan P. Sastri, Mary K. Estes, Robert A. Britton, James Versalovic, Joseph M. Hyser

    Rotavirus causes severe diarrheal disease in children by broadly dysregulating intestinal homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of rotavirus-induced dysregulation remains unclear. We found that rotavirus-infected cells produce paracrine signals that manifested as intercellular calcium waves (ICWs), observed in cell lines and human intestinal enteroids. Rotavirus ICWs were caused by the

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Architecture of the photosynthetic complex from a green sulfur bacterium
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Jing-Hua Chen, Hangjun Wu, Caihuang Xu, Xiao-Chi Liu, Zihui Huang, Shenghai Chang, Wenda Wang, Guangye Han, Tingyun Kuang, Jian-Ren Shen, Xing Zhang

    The photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria (GSB) contains a peripheral antenna chlorosome, light-harvesting Fenna-Matthews-Olson proteins (FMO), and a reaction center (GsbRC). We used cryo–electron microscopy to determine a 2.7-angstrom structure of the FMO-GsbRC supercomplex from Chlorobaculum tepidum. The GsbRC binds considerably fewer (bacterio)chlorophylls [(B)Chls] than other known

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Gene regulatory networks controlling vertebrate retinal regeneration
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Thanh Hoang, Jie Wang, Patrick Boyd, Fang Wang, Clayton Santiago, Lizhi Jiang, Sooyeon Yoo, Manuela Lahne, Levi J. Todd, Meng Jia, Cristian Saez, Casey Keuthan, Isabella Palazzo, Natalie Squires, Warren A. Campbell, Fatemeh Rajaii, Trisha Parayil, Vickie Trinh, Dong Won Kim, Guohua Wang, Leah J. Campbell, John Ash, Andy J. Fischer, David R. Hyde, Jiang Qian, Seth Blackshaw

    Injury induces retinal Müller glia of certain cold-blooded vertebrates, but not those of mammals, to regenerate neurons. To identify gene regulatory networks that reprogram Müller glia into progenitor cells, we profiled changes in gene expression and chromatin accessibility in Müller glia from zebrafish, chick, and mice in response to different stimuli. We identified evolutionarily conserved and species-specific

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Autosomal dominant VCP hypomorph mutation impairs disaggregation of PHF-tau
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Nabil F. Darwich, Jessica M. Phan, Boram Kim, EunRan Suh, John D. Papatriantafyllou, Lakshmi Changolkar, Aivi T. Nguyen, Caroline M. O’Rourke, Zhuohao He, Sílvia Porta, Garrett S. Gibbons, Kelvin C. Luk, Sokratis G. Papageorgiou, Murray Grossman, Lauren Massimo, David J. Irwin, Corey T. McMillan, Ilya M. Nasrallah, Camilo Toro, Geoffrey K. Aguirre, Vivianna M. Van Deerlin, Edward B. Lee

    Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is closely associated with the accumulation of pathologic tau aggregates in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. We found that a p.Asp395Gly mutation in VCP (valosin-containing protein) was associated with dementia characterized neuropathologically by neuronal vacuoles and neurofibrillary tangles. Moreover, VCP appeared to exhibit tau disaggregase activity

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Recapitulation of HIV-1 Env-antibody coevolution in macaques leading to neutralization breadth
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Ryan S. Roark, Hui Li, Wilton B. Williams, Hema Chug, Rosemarie D. Mason, Jason Gorman, Shuyi Wang, Fang-Hua Lee, Juliette Rando, Mattia Bonsignori, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Kevin O. Saunders, Kevin Wiehe, M. Anthony Moody, Peter T. Hraber, Kshitij Wagh, Elena E. Giorgi, Ronnie M. Russell, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Weimin Liu, Jesse Connell, Andrew G. Smith, Julia DeVoto, Alexander I. Murphy, Jessica Smith, Wenge

    Neutralizing antibodies elicited by HIV-1 coevolve with viral envelope proteins (Env) in distinctive patterns, in some cases acquiring substantial breadth. We report that primary HIV-1 envelope proteins—when expressed by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses in rhesus macaques—elicited patterns of Env-antibody coevolution strikingly similar to those in humans. This included conserved immunogenetic

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • De novo design of potent and resilient hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Thomas W. Linsky, Renan Vergara, Nuria Codina, Jorgen W. Nelson, Matthew J. Walker, Wen Su, Christopher O. Barnes, Tien-Ying Hsiang, Katharina Esser-Nobis, Kevin Yu, Z. Beau Reneer, Yixuan J. Hou, Tanu Priya, Masaya Mitsumoto, Avery Pong, Uland Y. Lau, Marsha L. Mason, Jerry Chen, Alex Chen, Tania Berrocal, Hong Peng, Nicole S. Clairmont, Javier Castellanos, Yu-Ru Lin, Anna Josephson-Day, Ralph S.

    We developed a de novo protein design strategy to swiftly engineer decoys for neutralizing pathogens that exploit extracellular host proteins to infect the cell. Our pipeline allowed the design, validation, and optimization of de novo hACE2 decoys to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. The best decoy, CTC-445.2, binds with low nanomolar affinity and high specificity to the RBD of the spike protein. Cryo-EM shows

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Tailored quinones support high-turnover Pd catalysts for oxidative C–H arylation with O2
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Chase A. Salazar, Kaylin N. Flesch, Brandon E. Haines, Philip S. Zhou, Djamaladdin G. Musaev, Shannon S. Stahl

    Palladium(II)-catalyzed C–H oxidation reactions could streamline the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and other complex organic molecules. Existing methods, however, commonly exhibit poor catalyst performance with high Pd loading (e.g., 10 mol %) and a need for (super)stoichiometric quantities of undesirable oxidants, such as benzoquinone and silver(I) salts. The present study probes the

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Coordination between microbiota and root endodermis supports plant mineral nutrient homeostasis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Isai Salas-González, Guilhem Reyt, Paulina Flis, Valéria Custódio, David Gopaulchan, Niokhor Bakhoum, Tristan P. Dew, Kiran Suresh, Rochus Benni Franke, Jeffery L. Dangl, David E. Salt, Gabriel Castrillo

    Plant roots and animal guts have evolved specialized cells layers to control mineral nutrient homeostasis that must tolerate the resident microbiota while keeping homeostatic integrity. Whether and how the root diffusion barriers in the endodermis, critical for the mineral nutrient balance of plants, coordinates with the microbiota, is unknown. We demonstrate that genes controlling endodermal function

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Terrestrial radiative cooling: Using the cold universe as a renewable and sustainable energy source
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Xiaobo Yin, Ronggui Yang, Gang Tan, Shanhui Fan

    Photonic materials designed at wavelength scales have enabled a range of emerging energy technologies, from solid-state lighting to efficient photovoltaics that have transformed global energy landscapes. Daytime passive radiative cooling materials shed heat from the ground to the cold universe by taking advantage of the terrestrial thermal radiation that is as large as the renewable solar energy. Newly

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • New refrigerants and system configurations for vapor-compression refrigeration
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Mark O. McLinden, Christopher J. Seeton, Andy Pearson

    The high global warming potential of current refrigerants in cooling equipment based on the vapor-compression cycle has triggered a major effort to find and implement more environmentally benign alternatives. Here, we review the basics of the vapor-compression cycle together with the safety, environmental, and thermodynamic constraints that have led to the current and next generation of refrigerants

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Caloric materials for cooling and heating
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    X. Moya, N. D. Mathur

    Magnetically driven thermal changes in magnetocaloric materials have, for several decades, been exploited to pump heat near room temperature. By contrast, their electrocaloric and mechanocaloric counterparts have only been intensively studied and exploited for little more than a decade. These different caloric strands have recently been unified to yield a single field of research that could help combat

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Immune life history, vaccination, and the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 over the next 5 years.
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Chadi M Saad-Roy,Caroline E Wagner,Rachel E Baker,Sinead E Morris,Jeremy Farrar,Andrea L Graham,Simon A Levin,Michael J Mina,C Jessica E Metcalf,Bryan T Grenfell

    The future trajectory of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic hinges on the dynamics of adaptive immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); however, salient features of the immune response elicited by natural infection or vaccination are still uncertain. We use simple epidemiological models to explore estimates for the magnitude and timing of future COVID-19

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Cell wall remodeling and vesicle trafficking mediate the root clock in Arabidopsis
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Guy Wachsman, Jingyuan Zhang, Miguel A. Moreno-Risueno, Charles T. Anderson, Philip N. Benfey

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral roots initiate in a process preceded by periodic gene expression known as the root clock. We identified the vesicle-trafficking regulator GNOM and its suppressor, ADENOSINE PHOSPHATE RIBOSYLATION FACTOR GTPase ACTIVATION PROTEIN DOMAIN3, as root clock regulators. GNOM is required for the proper distribution of pectin, a mediator of intercellular adhesion, whereas the

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Hydrogen escape from Mars is driven by seasonal and dust storm transport of water
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Shane W. Stone, Roger V. Yelle, Mehdi Benna, Daniel Y. Lo, Meredith K. Elrod, Paul R. Mahaffy

    Mars has lost most of its once-abundant water to space, leaving the planet cold and dry. In standard models, molecular hydrogen produced from water in the lower atmosphere diffuses into the upper atmosphere where it is dissociated, producing atomic hydrogen, which is lost. Using observations from the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft, we

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Constrained minimal-interface structures in polycrystalline copper with extremely fine grains
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    X. Y. Li, Z. H. Jin, X. Zhou, K. Lu

    Metals usually exist in the form of polycrystalline solids, which are thermodynamically unstable because of the presence of disordered grain boundaries. Grain boundaries tend to be eliminated through coarsening when heated or by transforming into metastable amorphous states when the grains are small enough. Through experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we discovered a different type of metastable

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Astronomical context of Solar System formation from molybdenum isotopes in meteorite inclusions
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Gregory A. Brennecka, Christoph Burkhardt, Gerrit Budde, Thomas S. Kruijer, Francis Nimmo, Thorsten Kleine

    Calcium-aluminum–rich inclusions (CAIs) in meteorites are the first solids to have formed in the Solar System, defining the epoch of its birth on an absolute time scale. This provides a link between astronomical observations of star formation and cosmochemical studies of Solar System formation. We show that the distinct molybdenum isotopic compositions of CAIs cover almost the entire compositional

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Nano-acoustic resonator with ultralong phonon lifetime
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Gregory S. MacCabe, Hengjiang Ren, Jie Luo, Justin D. Cohen, Hengyun Zhou, Alp Sipahigil, Mohammad Mirhosseini, Oskar Painter

    The energy damping time in a mechanical resonator is critical to many precision metrology applications, such as timekeeping and force measurements. We present measurements of the phonon lifetime of a microwave-frequency, nanoscale silicon acoustic cavity incorporating a phononic bandgap acoustic shield. Using pulsed laser light to excite a colocalized optical mode of the cavity, we measured the internal

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • A thalamocortical top-down circuit for associative memory
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    M. Belén Pardi, Johanna Vogenstahl, Tamas Dalmay, Teresa Spanò, De-Lin Pu, Laura B. Naumann, Friedrich Kretschmer, Henning Sprekeler, Johannes J. Letzkus

    The sensory neocortex is a critical substrate for memory. Despite its strong connection with the thalamus, the role of direct thalamocortical communication in memory remains elusive. We performed chronic in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of thalamic synapses in mouse auditory cortex layer 1, a major locus of cortical associations. Combined with optogenetics, viral tracing, whole-cell recording, and

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Stretchable distributed fiber-optic sensors
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Hedan Bai, Shuo Li, Jose Barreiros, Yaqi Tu, Clifford R. Pollock, Robert F. Shepherd

    Silica-based distributed fiber-optic sensor (DFOS) systems have been a powerful tool for sensing strain, pressure, vibration, acceleration, temperature, and humidity in inextensible structures. DFOS systems, however, are incompatible with the large strains associated with soft robotics and stretchable electronics. We develop a sensor composed of parallel assemblies of elastomeric lightguides that incorporate

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • A phosphorylation-regulated eIF3d translation switch mediates cellular adaptation to metabolic stress
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Adam M. Lamper, Rebecca H. Fleming, Kayla M. Ladd, Amy S. Y. Lee

    Shutoff of global protein synthesis is a conserved response to cellular stresses. This general phenomenon is accompanied by the induction of distinct gene programs tailored to each stress. Although the mechanisms driving repression of general protein synthesis are well characterized, how cells reprogram the translation machinery for selective gene expression remains poorly understood. Here, we found

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and infectivity
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Ludovico Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ravi Ojha, Liliana D. Pedro, Minou Djannatian, Jonas Franz, Suvi Kuivanen, Franziska van der Meer, Katri Kallio, Tuğberk Kaya, Maria Anastasina, Teemu Smura, Lev Levanov, Leonora Szirovicza, Allan Tobi, Hannimari Kallio-Kokko, Pamela Österlund, Merja Joensuu, Frédéric A. Meunier, Sarah J. Butcher, Martin Sebastian Winkler, Brit Mollenhauer, Ari Helenius, Ozgun Gokce, Tambet

    The causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For many viruses, tissue tropism is determined by the availability of virus receptors and entry cofactors on the surface of host cells. In this study, we found that neuropilin-1 (NRP1), known to bind furin-cleaved substrates, significantly potentiates SARS-CoV-2 infectivity

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Neuropilin-1 is a host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    James L. Daly, Boris Simonetti, Katja Klein, Kai-En Chen, Maia Kavanagh Williamson, Carlos Antón-Plágaro, Deborah K. Shoemark, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Michael Bauer, Reka Hollandi, Urs F. Greber, Peter Horvath, Richard B. Sessions, Ari Helenius, Julian A. Hiscox, Tambet Teesalu, David A. Matthews, Andrew D. Davidson, Brett M. Collins, Peter J. Cullen, Yohei Yamauchi

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), uses the viral spike (S) protein for host cell attachment and entry. The host protease furin cleaves the full-length precursor S glycoprotein into two associated polypeptides: S1 and S2. Cleavage of S generates a polybasic Arg-Arg-Ala-Arg carboxyl-terminal sequence on S1, which

    更新日期:2020-11-13
  • Prebiotic synthesis of cysteine peptides that catalyze peptide ligation in neutral water
    Science (IF 41.845) Pub Date : 2020-11-13
    Callum S. Foden, Saidul Islam, Christian Fernández-García, Leonardo Maugeri, Tom D. Sheppard, Matthew W. Powner

    Peptide biosynthesis is performed by ribosomes and several other classes of enzymes, but a simple chemical synthesis may have created the first peptides at the origins of life. α-Aminonitriles—prebiotic α–amino acid precursors—are generally produced by Strecker reactions. However, cysteine’s aminothiol is incompatible with nitriles. Consequently, cysteine nitrile is not stable, and cysteine has been

    更新日期:2020-11-13
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