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  • Satellite Observations of the Tropical Terrestrial Carbon Balance and Interactions with the Water Cycle During the 21st Century
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    John Worden; Sassan Saatchi; Michael Keller; Anthony Bloom; Rong Fu; Sarah Worden; Junjie Liu; Nicholas Parazoo; Joshua B. Fisher; Helen Worden; Yi Yin; Kevin Bowman; Pierre Gentine; Alexandra G. Konings; Gregory R. Quetin; Mathew Williams; John.T. Reager; Armineh Barkhordarian; Kristen Fahy; Mingjie Shi; David Schimel

    A constellation of satellites are now in orbit providing information about terrestrial carbon and water storage and fluxes. These combined observations show that the tropical biosphere has changed significantly in the last two decades from the combined effects of climate variability and land use. Large areas of forest have been cleared in both wet and dry forests, increasing the source of carbon to

  • Sudden Stratospheric Warmings
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Mark P. Baldwin; Blanca Ayarzagüena; Thomas Birner; Neal Butchart; Amy H. Butler; Andrew J. Charlton‐Perez; Daniela I. V. Domeisen; Chaim I. Garfinkel; Hella Garny; Edwin P. Gerber; Michaela I. Hegglin; Ulrike Langematz; Nicholas M. Pedatella

    Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are impressive fluid dynamical events in which large and rapid temperature increases in the winter polar stratosphere (∼10–50 km) are associated with a complete reversal of the climatological wintertime westerly winds. SSWs are caused by the breaking of planetary‐scale waves that propagate upwards from the troposphere. During an SSW, the polar vortex breaks down

  • Offshore Freshened Groundwater in Continental Margins
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Aaron Micallef; Mark Person; Christian Berndt; Claudia Bertoni; Denis Cohen; Brandon Dugan; Rob Evans; Amir Haroon; Christian Hensen; Marion Jegen; Kerry Key; Henk Kooi; Volker Liebetrau; Johanna Lofi; Brian J. Mailloux; Renée Martin‐Nagle; Holly A. Michael; Thomas Müller; Mark Schmidt; Katrin Schwalenberg; Elizabeth Trembath‐Reichert; Bradley Weymer; Yipeng Zhang; Ariel T. Thomas

    First reported in the 1960s, offshore freshened groundwater (OFG) has now been documented in most continental margins around the world. In this review we compile a database documenting OFG occurrences and analyze it to establish the general characteristics and controlling factors. We also assess methods used to map and characterize OFG, identify major knowledge gaps, and propose strategies to address

  • Geomorphic and Sedimentary Effects of Modern Climate Change: Current and Anticipated Future Conditions in the Western United States
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-10-23
    Amy E. East; Joel B. Sankey

    Hydroclimatic changes associated with global warming over the past 50 years have been documented widely, but physical landscape responses are poorly understood thus far. Detecting sedimentary and geomorphic signals of modern climate change presents challenges owing to short record lengths, difficulty resolving signals in stochastic natural systems, influences of land use and tectonic activity, long‐lasting

  • Monsoons, ITCZs, and the Concept of the Global Monsoon
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Ruth Geen; Simona Bordoni; David S. Battisti; Katrina Hui

    Earth's tropical and subtropical rainbands, such as Intertropical Convergence Zones (ITCZs) and monsoons, are complex systems, governed by both large‐scale constraints on the atmospheric general circulation and regional interactions with continents and orography, and coupled to the ocean. Monsoons have historically been considered as regional large‐scale sea breeze circulations, driven by land‐sea

  • Exposure and Possible Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Environment—Current Knowledge and Directions for the Future
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Henning Wigger; Ralf Kägi; Mark Wiesner; Bernd Nowack

    The consequences that engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may cause in the environment have been under investigation for more than 15 years. Hundreds of millions of euros/dollars have been invested into safety issues of ENMs, and much progress has been made in the understanding of their fate and effects in the environment. After an initial phase of “observing the effects,” research has shifted toward elucidating

  • Faulting Processes Unveiled by Magnetic Properties of Fault Rocks
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-10-03
    Tao Yang; Yu‐Min Chou; Eric C. Ferré; Mark J. Dekkers; Jianye Chen; En‐Chao Yeh; Wataru Tanikawa

    As iron‐bearing minerals—ferrimagnetic minerals in particular—are sensitive to stress, temperature, and presence of fluids in fault zones, their magnetic properties provide valuable insights into physical and chemical processes affecting fault rocks. Here, we review the advances made in magnetic studies of fault rocks in the past three decades. We provide a synthesis of the mechanisms that account

  • Impact Forecasting to Support Emergency Management of Natural Hazards
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Bruno Merz; Christian Kuhlicke; Michael Kunz; Massimiliano Pittore; Andrey Babeyko; David N. Bresch; Daniela I. V. Domeisen; Frauke Feser; Inga Koszalka; Heidi Kreibich; Florian Pantillon; Stefano Parolai; Joaquim G. Pinto; Heinz Jürgen Punge; Eleonora Rivalta; Kai Schröter; Karen Strehlow; Ralf Weisse; Andreas Wurpts

    Forecasting and early warning systems are important investments to protect lives, properties, and livelihood. While early warning systems are frequently used to predict the magnitude, location, and timing of potentially damaging events, these systems rarely provide impact estimates, such as the expected amount and distribution of physical damage, human consequences, disruption of services, or financial

  • An Assessment of Earth's Climate Sensitivity Using Multiple Lines of Evidence
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    S. C. Sherwood; M. J. Webb; J. D. Annan; K. C. Armour; P. M. Forster; J. C. Hargreaves; G. Hegerl; S. A. Klein; K. D. Marvel; E. J. Rohling; M. Watanabe; T. Andrews; P. Braconnot; C. S. Bretherton; G. L. Foster; Z. Hausfather; A. S. von der Heydt; R. Knutti; T. Mauritsen; J. R. Norris; C. Proistosescu; M. Rugenstein; G. A. Schmidt; K. B. Tokarska; M. D. Zelinka

    We assess evidence relevant to Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity per doubling of atmospheric CO2, characterized by an effective sensitivity S. This evidence includes feedback process understanding, the historical climate record, and the paleoclimate record. An S value lower than 2 K is difficult to reconcile with any of the three lines of evidence. The amount of cooling during the Last Glacial

  • Issue Information
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-09-24

    No abstract is available for this article.

  • Updated Global Warming Potentials and Radiative Efficiencies of Halocarbons and Other Weak Atmospheric Absorbers
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Ø. Hodnebrog, B. Aamaas, J. S. Fuglestvedt, G. Marston, G. Myhre, C. J. Nielsen, M. Sandstad, K. P. Shine, T. J. Wallington

    Human activity has led to increased atmospheric concentrations of many gases, including halocarbons, and may lead to emissions of many more gases. Many of these gases are, on a per molecule basis, powerful greenhouse gases, although at present‐day concentrations their climate effect is in the so‐called weak limit (i.e., their effect scales linearly with concentration). We published a comprehensive

  • The Sensitivity of the Antarctic Ice Sheet to a Changing Climate: Past, Present, and Future
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-08-15
    T. L. Noble; E. J. Rohling; A. R. A. Aitken; H. C. Bostock; Z. Chase; N. Gomez; L. M. Jong; M. A. King; A. N. Mackintosh; F. S. McCormack; R. M. McKay; L. Menviel; S. J. Phipps; M. E. Weber; C. J. Fogwill; B. Gayen; N. R. Golledge; D. E. Gwyther; A. McC. Hogg; Y. M. Martos; B. Pena‐Molino; J. Roberts; T. van de Flierdt; T. Williams

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) is out of equilibrium with the current anthropogenic‐enhanced climate forcing. Paleoenvironmental records and ice sheet models reveal that the AIS has been tightly coupled to the climate system during the past and indicate the potential for accelerated and sustained Antarctic ice mass loss into the future. Modern observations by contrast suggest that the AIS has only just

  • A Review on Multiphase Underwater Jets and Plumes: Droplets, Hydrodynamics, and Chemistry
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-08-09
    Michel C. Boufadel, Scott Socolofsky, Joseph Katz, Di Yang, Cosan Daskiran, William Dewar

    Jets and plumes have been the focus of quantitative investigations since the mid‐1950s. These investigations intensified following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in which thousands of tons of oil and natural gas were released into the Gulf of Mexico. This review focuses on plume dynamics that apply to both single‐phase and multiphase liquid‐in‐liquid and liquid plus gas into liquid plumes, including

  • Ocean Alkalinity, Buffering and Biogeochemical Processes.
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Jack J Middelburg,Karline Soetaert,Mathilde Hagens

    Alkalinity, the excess of proton acceptors over donors, plays a major role in ocean chemistry, in buffering and in calcium carbonate precipitation and dissolution. Understanding alkalinity dynamics is pivotal to quantify ocean carbon dioxide uptake during times of global change. Here we review ocean alkalinity and its role in ocean buffering as well as the biogeochemical processes governing alkalinity

  • Hydraulic Fracturing‐Induced Seismicity
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Ryan Schultz, Robert J. Skoumal, Michael R. Brudzinski, Dave Eaton, Brian Baptie, William Ellsworth

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a technique that is used for extracting petroleum resources from impermeable host rocks. In this process, fluid injected under high pressure causes fractures to propagate. This technique has been transformative for the hydrocarbon industry, unlocking otherwise stranded resources; however, environmental concerns make HF controversial. One concern is HF‐induced seismicity

  • Four Theories of the Madden-Julian Oscillation.
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    C Zhang,Á F Adames,B Khouider,B Wang,D Yang

    Studies of the Madden‐Julian Oscillation (MJO) have progressed considerably during the past decades in observations, numerical modeling, and theoretical understanding. Many theoretical attempts have been made to identify the most essential processes responsible for the existence of the MJO. Criteria are proposed to separate a hypothesis from a theory (based on the first principles with quantitative

  • Understanding of Contemporary Regional Sea-Level Change and the Implications for the Future.
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Benjamin D Hamlington,Alex S Gardner,Erik Ivins,Jan T M Lenaerts,J T Reager,David S Trossman,Edward D Zaron,Surendra Adhikari,Anthony Arendt,Andy Aschwanden,Brian D Beckley,David P S Bekaert,Geoffrey Blewitt,Lambert Caron,Don P Chambers,Hrishikesh A Chandanpurkar,Knut Christianson,Beata Csatho,Richard I Cullather,Robert M DeConto,John T Fasullo,Thomas Frederikse,Jeffrey T Freymueller,Daniel M Gilford

    Global sea level provides an important indicator of the state of the warming climate, but changes in regional sea level are most relevant for coastal communities around the world. With improvements to the sea‐level observing system, the knowledge of regional sea‐level change has advanced dramatically in recent years. Satellite measurements coupled with in situ observations have allowed for comprehensive

  • Issue Information
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-07-13

    No abstract is available for this article.

  • Spaceborne Cloud and Precipitation Radars: Status, Challenges, and Ways Forward.
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Alessandro Battaglia,Pavlos Kollias,Ranvir Dhillon,Richard Roy,Simone Tanelli,Katia Lamer,Mircea Grecu,Matthew Lebsock,Daniel Watters,Kamil Mroz,Gerald Heymsfield,Lihua Li,Kinji Furukawa

    Spaceborne radars offer a unique three‐dimensional view of the atmospheric components of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Existing and planned spaceborne radar missions provide cloud and precipitation information over the oceans and land difficult to access in remote areas. A careful look into their measurement capabilities indicates considerable gaps that hinder our ability to detect and probe key

  • Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis at Regional and National Scales: State of the Art and Future Challenges
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    M. C. Gerstenberger, W. Marzocchi, T. Allen, M. Pagani, J. Adams, L. Danciu, E. H. Field, H. Fujiwara, N. Luco, K.‐F. Ma, C. Meletti, M. D. Petersen

    Seismic hazard modeling is a multidisciplinary science that aims to forecast earthquake occurrence and its resultant ground shaking. Such models consist of a probabilistic framework that quantifies uncertainty across a complex system; typically, this includes at least two model components developed from Earth science: seismic source and ground motion models. Although there is no scientific prescription

  • Issue Information
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-04-01

    No abstract is available for this article.

  • The Structure of Climate Variability Across Scales
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Christian L. E. Franzke, Susana Barbosa, Richard Blender, Hege‐Beate Fredriksen, Thomas Laepple, Fabrice Lambert, Tine Nilsen, Kristoffer Rypdal, Martin Rypdal, Manuel G, Scotto, Stéphane Vannitsem, Nicholas W. Watkins, Lichao Yang, Naiming Yuan

    One of the most intriguing facets of the climate system is that it exhibits variability across all temporal and spatial scales; pronounced examples are temperature and precipitation. The structure of this variability, however, is not arbitrary. Over certain spatial and temporal ranges, it can be described by scaling relationships in the form of power laws in probability density distributions and autocorrelation

  • Bounding Global Aerosol Radiative Forcing of Climate Change.
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    N Bellouin,J Quaas,E Gryspeerdt,S Kinne,P Stier,D Watson-Parris,O Boucher,K S Carslaw,M Christensen,A-L Daniau,J-L Dufresne,G Feingold,S Fiedler,P Forster,A Gettelman,J M Haywood,U Lohmann,F Malavelle,T Mauritsen,D T McCoy,G Myhre,J Mülmenstädt,D Neubauer,A Possner,M Rugenstein,Y Sato,M Schulz,S E Schwartz,O Sourdeval,T Storelvmo,V Toll,D Winker,B Stevens

    Aerosols interact with radiation and clouds. Substantial progress made over the past 40 years in observing, understanding, and modeling these processes helped quantify the imbalance in the Earth's radiation budget caused by anthropogenic aerosols, called aerosol radiative forcing, but uncertainties remain large. This review provides a new range of aerosol radiative forcing over the industrial era based

  • The Tides They Are A‐Changin': A Comprehensive Review of Past and Future Nonastronomical Changes in Tides, Their Driving Mechanisms, and Future Implications
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-03-11
    Ivan D. Haigh, Mark D. Pickering, J. A. Mattias Green, Brian K. Arbic, Arne Arns, Sönke Dangendorf, David F. Hill, Kevin Horsburgh, Tom Howard, Déborah Idier, David A. Jay, Leon Jänicke, Serena B. Lee, Malte Müller, Michael Schindelegger, Stefan A. Talke, Sophie‐Berenice Wilmes, Philip L. Woodworth

    Scientists and engineers have observed for some time that tidal amplitudes at many locations are shifting considerably due to nonastronomical factors. Here we review comprehensively these important changes in tidal properties, many of which remain poorly understood. Over long geological time scales, tectonic processes drive variations in basin size, depth, and shape and hence the resonant properties

  • Dry Deposition of Ozone Over Land: Processes, Measurement, and Modeling
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Olivia E. Clifton, Arlene M. Fiore, William J. Massman, Colleen B. Baublitz, Mhairi Coyle, Lisa Emberson, Silvano Fares, Delphine K. Farmer, Pierre Gentine, Giacomo Gerosa, Alex B. Guenther, Detlev Helmig, Danica L. Lombardozzi, J. William Munger, Edward G. Patton, Sally E. Pusede, Donna B. Schwede, Sam J. Silva, Matthias Sörgel, Allison L. Steiner, Amos P. K. Tai

    Dry deposition of ozone is an important sink of ozone in near‐surface air. When dry deposition occurs through plant stomata, ozone can injure the plant, altering water and carbon cycling and reducing crop yields. Quantifying both stomatal and nonstomatal uptake accurately is relevant for understanding ozone's impact on human health as an air pollutant and on climate as a potent short‐lived greenhouse

  • Understanding Hail in the Earth System
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    John T. Allen, Ian M. Giammanco, Matthew R. Kumjian, Heinz Jurgen Punge, Qinghong Zhang, Pieter Groenemeijer, Michael Kunz, Kiel Ortega

    The processes leading to the development of hail and the distribution of these events worldwide are reviewed. Microphysical and physical characteristics of hail development are described to provide context of the notable gaps in our understanding of what drives hail to grow large, or what determines how it falls to the ground. Distributional characteristics of hail are explored, utilizing both surface

  • Thank You to Our Peer Reviewers for 2019
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Fabio Florindo, Ann Marie Carlton, Paolo D'Odorico, Qingyun Duan, Jasper S. Halekas, Gesine Mollenhauer, Eelco J. Rohling

    On behalf of the authors and readers of Reviews of Geophysics (RoG), the American Geophysical Union (AGU), and the broader scientific community, the editors wish to wholeheartedly thank those who reviewed manuscripts for RoG in 2019.

  • The Physics of Sediment Transport Initiation, Cessation, and Entrainment Across Aeolian and Fluvial Environments
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Thomas Pähtz, Abram H. Clark, Manousos Valyrakis, Orencio Durán

    Predicting the morphodynamics of sedimentary landscapes due to fluvial and aeolian flows requires answering the following questions: Is the flow strong enough to initiate sediment transport, is the flow strong enough to sustain sediment transport once initiated, and how much sediment is transported by the flow in the saturated state (i.e., what is the transport capacity)? In the geomorphological and

  • Methane Mitigation: Methods to Reduce Emissions, on the Path to the Paris Agreement
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    E. G. Nisbet, R. E. Fisher, D. Lowry, J. L. France, G. Allen, S. Bakkaloglu, T. J. Broderick, M. Cain, M. Coleman, J. Fernandez, G. Forster, P. T. Griffiths, C. P. Iverach, B. F. J. Kelly, M. R. Manning, P. B. R. Nisbet‐Jones, J. A. Pyle, A. Townsend‐Small, A. al‐Shalaan, N. Warwick, G. Zazzeri

    The atmospheric methane burden is increasing rapidly, contrary to pathways compatible with the goals of the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement. Urgent action is required to bring methane back to a pathway more in line with the Paris goals. Emission reduction from “tractable” (easier to mitigate) anthropogenic sources such as the fossil fuel industries and landfills

  • Issue Information
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-02-12

    No abstract is available for this article.

  • Recent Advances and Challenges of Waveform‐Based Seismic Location Methods at Multiple Scales
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Lei Li, Jingqiang Tan, Benjamin Schwarz, František Staněk, Natalia Poiata, Peidong Shi, Leon Diekmann, Leo Eisner, Dirk Gajewski

    Source locations provide fundamental information on earthquakes and lay the foundation for seismic monitoring at all scales. Seismic source location as a classical inverse problem has experienced significant methodological progress during the past century. Unlike the conventional traveltime‐based location methods that mainly utilize kinematic information, a new category of waveform‐based methods, including

  • Issue Information
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-01-24

    No abstract is available for this article.

  • Space‐Based Observations for Understanding Changes in the Arctic‐Boreal Zone
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Bryan N. Duncan, Lesley E. Ott, James B. Abshire, Ludovic Brucker, Mark L. Carroll, James Carton, Josefino C. Comiso, Emmanuel P. Dinnat, Bruce C. Forbes, Alemu Gonsamo, Watson W. Gregg, Dorothy K. Hall, Iolanda Ialongo, Randi Jandt, Ralph A. Kahn, Alexey Karpechko, Stephan R. Kawa, Seiji Kato, Timo Kumpula, Erkki Kyrölä, Tatiana V. Loboda, Kyle C. McDonald, Paul M. Montesano, Ray Nassar, Christopher

    Observations taken over the last few decades indicate that dramatic changes are occurring in the Arctic‐Boreal Zone (ABZ), which are having significant impacts on ABZ inhabitants, infrastructure, flora and fauna, and economies. While suitable for detecting overall change, the current capability is inadequate for systematic monitoring and for improving process‐based and large‐scale understanding of

  • Sustainable Observations of the AMOC: Methodology and Technology
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    G. D. McCarthy, P. J. Brown, C. N. Flagg, G. Goni, L. Houpert, C. W. Hughes, R. Hummels, M. Inall, K. Jochumsen, K. M. H. Larsen, P. Lherminier, C. S. Meinen, B. I. Moat, D. Rayner, M. Rhein, A. Roessler, C. Schmid, D. A. Smeed

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is a key mechanism of heat, freshwater, and carbon redistribution in the climate system. The precept that the AMOC has changed abruptly in the past, notably during and at the end of the last ice age, and that it is “very likely” to weaken in the coming century due to anthropogenic climate change is a key motivation for sustained observations of

  • Material Transport in the Ocean Mixed Layer: Recent Developments Enabled by Large Eddy Simulations
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Marcelo Chamecki, Tomas Chor, Di Yang, Charles Meneveau

    Material transport in the ocean mixed layer (OML) is an important component of natural processes such as gas and nutrient exchanges. It is also important in the context of pollution (oil droplets, microplastics, etc.). Observational studies of small‐scale three‐dimensional turbulence in the OML are difficult, especially if one aims at a systematic coverage of relevant parameters and their effects,

  • One Hundred Thousand Years of Geomagnetic Field Evolution
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    S. Panovska, M. Korte, C. G. Constable

    Paleomagnetic records from sediments, archeological artifacts, and lava flows provide the foundation for studying geomagnetic field changes over 0–100 ka. Late Quaternary time‐varying spherical harmonic models for 0–100 ka produce a global view used to evaluate new data records, study the paleomagnetic secular variation on centennial to multimillennial timescales, and investigate extreme regional or

  • Ionospheric Detection of Natural Hazards
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Elvira Astafyeva

    Natural hazards (NH), such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and severe tropospheric weather events, generate acoustic and gravity waves that propagate upward and cause perturbations in the atmosphere and ionosphere. The first NH‐related ionospheric disturbances were detected after the great 1964 Alaskan earthquake by ionosondes and Doppler sounders. Since then, many other observations

  • Scientific Merits and Analytical Challenges of Tree‐Ring Densitometry
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    J. Björklund, G. von Arx, D. Nievergelt, R. Wilson, J. Van den Bulcke, B. Günther, N. J. Loader, M. Rydval, P. Fonti, T. Scharnweber, L. Andreu‐Hayles, U. Büntgen, R. D'Arrigo, N. Davi, T. De Mil, J. Esper, H. Gärtner, J. Geary, B. E. Gunnarson, C. Hartl, A. Hevia, H. Song, K. Janecka, R. J. Kaczka, A. V. Kirdyanov, M. Kochbeck, Y. Liu, M. Meko, I. Mundo, K. Nicolussi, R. Oelkers, T. Pichler, R. Sánchez‐Salguero

    X‐ray microdensitometry on annually resolved tree‐ring samples has gained an exceptional position in last‐millennium paleoclimatology through the maximum latewood density (MXD) parameter, but also increasingly through other density parameters. For 50 years, X‐ray based measurement techniques have been the de facto standard. However, studies report offsets in the mean levels for MXD measurements derived

  • Major Ice Sheet Change in the Weddell Sea Sector of West Antarctica Over the Last 5,000 Years
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Martin J. Siegert, Jonathan Kingslake, Neil Ross, Pippa L. Whitehouse, John Woodward, Stewart S. R. Jamieson, Michael J. Bentley, Kate Winter, Martin Wearing, Andrew S. Hein, Hafeez Jeofry, David E. Sugden

    Until recently, little was known about the Weddell Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. In the last 10 years, a variety of expeditions and numerical modelling experiments have improved knowledge of its glaciology, glacial geology and tectonic setting. Two of the sector's largest ice streams rest on a steep reverse‐sloping bed yet, despite being vulnerable to change, satellite observations show

  • Issue Information
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-10-23

    No abstract is available for this article.

  • Mechanisms of Methane Hydrate Formation in Geological Systems
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    K. You, P.B. Flemings, A. Malinverno, T.S. Collett, K. Darnell

    Natural gas hydrate is ice‐like mixture of gas (mostly methane) and water that is widely found in sediments along the world's continental margins and within and beneath permafrost and glaciers in a near‐surface depth interval where the pressure is sufficiently high and temperature sufficiently low for gas hydrate to be stable. We categorize the myriad of geological gas hydrate deposits into five characteristic

  • The Solar Clock
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    C.T. Russell, L.K. Jian, J.G. Luhmann

    The Sun is powered by a very stable source of fusion energy in its core that radiates that energy outward in a constant flow. Yet it has a cycle of magnetic dynamo activity whose strength and duration are variable. This variability, which affects the Earth's “space climate,” points to temporal changes in the convective and diffusive transport of magnetic flux above the tachocline, where the flux is

  • The Role of Chemistry in Fracture Pattern Development and Opportunities to Advance Interpretations of Geological Materials
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    S. E. Laubach, R. H. Lander, L. J. Criscenti, L. M. Anovitz, J. L. Urai, R. M. Pollyea, J. N. Hooker, W. Narr, M. A. Evans, S. N. Kerisit, J. E. Olson, T. Dewers, D. Fisher, R. Bodnar, B. Evans, P. Dove, L. M. Bonnell, M. P. Marder, L. Pyrak‐Nolte

    Fracture pattern development has been a challenging area of research in the Earth sciences for more than 100 years. Much has been learned about the spatial and temporal complexity inherent to these systems, but severe challenges remain. Future advances will require new approaches. Chemical processes play a larger role in opening‐mode fracture pattern development than has hitherto been appreciated.

  • Understanding the Seasonal Cycle of Antarctic Sea Ice Extent in the Context of Longer‐Term Variability
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Clare Eayrs, David Holland, Diana Francis, Till Wagner, Rajesh Kumar, Xichen Li

    Over the 40‐year satellite record, there has been a slight increasing trend in total annual mean Antarctic sea ice extent of approximately 1.5% per decade that is made up of the sum of significantly larger opposing regional trends. However, record increases in total Antarctic sea ice extent were observed during 2012–2014, followed by record lows (for the satellite era) through 2018. There is still

  • Burrowing Invasive Species: An Unquantified Erosion Risk at the Aquatic‐Terrestrial Interface
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Gemma L. Harvey, Alexander J. Henshaw, James Brasington, Judy England

    Invasive nonnative species acting as “ecosystem engineers” or “geomorphic agents” can represent a major landscape disturbance. Quantification of their biogeomorphic impacts remains a key knowledge gap, and aquatic‐terrestrial transition zones may be particularly exposed to impacts. We demonstrate how burrowing invasive species represent a potentially significant but unquantified erosion risk at aquatic

  • Luminescence as a Sediment Tracer and Provenance Tool
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Harrison J. Gray, Mayank Jain, Andre O. Sawakuchi, Shannon A. Mahan, Gregory E. Tucker

    Luminescence holds unique potential as a sediment tracer and provenance method. The tracer application of luminescence has key advantages including ease of measurement, relatively low cost, and applicability to geologically ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand and silt. These advantages can help answer fundamental questions about geomorphology, sediment transport, sediment production, and the tectonic/climatic

  • The Molecular Basis for Understanding the Impacts of Ocean Warming
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Peter G. Brewer

    A grand challenge for ocean chemists in the years ahead lies in the need to tackle the chemical consequences of ocean warming with the same rigor and intensity that has been brought to bear on the physical chemistry of ocean acidification. For over 50 years ocean chemistry has been dominated by the study of pH‐dependent processes, but to address the biogeochemical impacts of ocean warming, we will

  • Global Isotope Hydrogeology―Review
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-08-12
    Scott Jasechko

    Groundwater 18O/16O, 2H/1H, 13C/12C, 3H, and 14C data can help quantify molecular movements and chemical reactions governing groundwater recharge, quality, storage, flow, and discharge. Here, commonly applied approaches to isotopic data analysis are reviewed, involving groundwater recharge seasonality, recharge elevations, groundwater ages, paleoclimate conditions, and groundwater discharge. Reviewed

  • The Demographics of Water: A Review of Water Ages in the Critical Zone
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Matthias Sprenger, Christine Stumpp, Markus Weiler, Werner Aeschbach, Scott T. Allen, Paolo Benettin, Maren Dubbert, Andreas Hartmann, Markus Hrachowitz, James W. Kirchner, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, Natalie Orlowski, Daniele Penna, Stephan Pfahl, Michael Rinderer, Nicolas Rodriguez, Maximilian Schmidt, Christiane Werner

    The time that water takes to travel through the terrestrial hydrological cycle and the critical zone is of great interest in Earth system sciences with broad implications for water quality and quantity. Most water age studies to date have focused on individual compartments (or subdisciplines) of the hydrological cycle such as the unsaturated or saturated zone, vegetation, atmosphere, or rivers. However

  • Process Understanding of Soil BVOC Fluxes in Natural Ecosystems: A Review
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    J. Tang, G. Schurgers, R. Rinnan

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can be released from soils to the atmosphere through microbial decomposition of plant residues or soil organic carbon, root emission, evaporation of litter‐stored BVOCs, and other physical processes. Soils can also act as a sink of BVOCs through biotic and abiotic uptake. Currently, the source and sink capabilities of soils have not been explicitly accounted

  • Issue Information
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-07-16

    No abstract is available for this article.

  • An Overview of Global Leaf Area Index (LAI): Methods, Products, Validation, and Applications
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Hongliang Fang, Frédéric Baret, Stephen Plummer, Gabriela Schaepman‐Strub

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a critical vegetation structural variable and is essential in the feedback of vegetation to the climate system. The advancement of the global Earth Observation has enabled the development of global LAI products and boosted global Earth system modeling studies. This overview provides a comprehensive analysis of LAI field measurements and remote sensing estimation methods, the

  • The Role of Geomagnetic Field Intensity in Late Quaternary Evolution of Humans and Large Mammals
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-07-06
    J. E. T. Channell, L. Vigliotti

    It has long been speculated that biological evolution was influenced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reaching the Earth's surface, despite imprecise knowledge of the timing of both UVR flux and evolutionary events. The past strength of Earth's dipole field provides a proxy for UVR flux because of its role in maintaining stratospheric ozone. The timing of Quaternary evolutionary events has become better

  • The Weddell Gyre, Southern Ocean: Present Knowledge and Future Challenges
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    M. Vernet, W. Geibert, M. Hoppema, P. J. Brown, C. Haas, H. H. Hellmer, W. Jokat, L. Jullion, M. Mazloff, D. C. E. Bakker, J. A. Brearley, P. Croot, T. Hattermann, J. Hauck, C.‐D. Hillenbrand, C. J. M. Hoppe, O. Huhn, B. P. Koch, O. J. Lechtenfeld, M. P. Meredith, A. C. Naveira Garabato, E.‐M. Nöthig, I. Peeken, M. M. Rutgers van der Loeff, S. Schmidtko, M. Schröder, V. H. Strass, S. Torres‐Valdés

    The Weddell Gyre (WG) is one of the main oceanographic features of the Southern Ocean south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which plays an influential role in global ocean circulation as well as gas exchange with the atmosphere. We review the state‐of‐the art knowledge concerning the WG from an interdisciplinary perspective, uncovering critical aspects needed to understand this system's role in

  • Ground, Proximal, and Satellite Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-06-19
    Ebrahim Babaeian, Morteza Sadeghi, Scott B. Jones, Carsten Montzka, Harry Vereecken, Markus Tuller

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key hydrologic state variable that is of significant importance for numerous Earth and environmental science applications that directly impact the global environment and human society. Potential applications include, but are not limited to, forecasting of weather and climate variability; prediction and monitoring of drought conditions; management and allocation of water resources;

  • Synthesis of Oceanic Crustal Structure From Two‐Dimensional Seismic Profiles
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    G. L. Christeson, J. A. Goff, R. S. Reece

    We present a new synthesis of oceanic crustal structure from two‐dimensional seismic profiles to explore differences related to spreading rate and age. Primary results are as follows: (1) Layer 2 has an average thickness of 1.84 km but is thicker for young slow‐spreading crust and thinner for young superfast‐spreading crust. At faster‐spreading rates the layer 2/3 boundary likely corresponds to the

  • Earthquake‐Induced Chains of Geologic Hazards: Patterns, Mechanisms, and Impacts
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Xuanmei Fan, Gianvito Scaringi, Oliver Korup, A. Joshua West, Cees J. van Westen, Hakan Tanyas, Niels Hovius, Tristram C. Hales, Randall W. Jibson, Kate E. Allstadt, Limin Zhang, Stephen G. Evans, Chong Xu, Gen Li, Xiangjun Pei, Qiang Xu, Runqiu Huang

    Large earthquakes initiate chains of surface processes that last much longer than the brief moments of strong shaking. Most moderate‐ and large‐magnitude earthquakes trigger landslides, ranging from small failures in the soil cover to massive, devastating rock avalanches. Some landslides dam rivers and impound lakes, which can collapse days to centuries later, and flood mountain valleys for hundreds

  • Observing and Modeling Ice Sheet Surface Mass Balance
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Brooke Medley, Michiel R. van den Broeke, Bert Wouters

    Surface mass balance (SMB) provides mass input to the surface of the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets and therefore comprises an important control on ice sheet mass balance and resulting contribution to global sea level change. As ice sheet SMB varies highly across multiple scales of space (meters to hundreds of kilometers) and time (hourly to decadal), it is notoriously challenging to observe and

  • A Review of the Role of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation in Atlantic Multidecadal Variability and Associated Climate Impacts
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Rong Zhang, Rowan Sutton, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Young‐Oh Kwon, Robert Marsh, Stephen G. Yeager, Daniel E. Amrhein, Christopher M. Little

    By synthesizing recent studies employing a wide range of approaches (modern observations, paleo reconstructions, and climate model simulations), this paper provides a comprehensive review of the linkage between multidecadal Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) variability and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) and associated climate impacts. There is strong observational and modeling

  • Utilizing the Impact of Earth and Atmospheric Tides on Groundwater Systems: A Review Reveals the Future Potential
    Rev. Geophys. (IF 21.449) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Timothy C. McMillan, Gabriel C. Rau, Wendy A. Timms, Martin S. Andersen

    Groundwater extraction is increasing rapidly in many areas of the world, causing serious impacts such as falling water tables, ground surface subsidence, water quality degradation, and reduction of stream baseflow on which many ecosystems depend. Methods for understanding and predicting the impacts of groundwater extraction generally lack detailed spatial and temporal knowledge of the subsurface hydrogeomechanical

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