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  • A Novel Approach to Carrying Capacity: From a priori Prescription to a posteriori Derivation Based on Underlying Mechanisms and Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Safa Mote; Jorge Rivas; Eugenia Kalnay

    The Human System is within the Earth System. They should be modeled bidirectionally coupled, as they are in reality. The Human System is rapidly expanding, mostly due to consumption of fossil fuels (approximately one million times faster than Nature accumulated them) and fossil water. This threatens not only other planetary subsystems but also the Human System itself. Carrying Capacity is an important

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Moist Heat Stress on a Hotter Earth
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Jonathan R. Buzan; Matthew Huber

    As the world overheats—potentially to conditions warmer than during the three million years over which modern humans evolved—suffering from heat stress will become widespread. Fundamental questions about humans’ thermal tolerance limits are pressing. Understanding heat stress as a process requires linking a network of disciplines, from human health and evolutionary theory to planetary atmospheres and

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Dynamic Topography and Ice Age Paleoclimate
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    J.X. Mitrovica; J. Austermann; S. Coulson; J.R. Creveling; M.J. Hoggard; G.T. Jarvis; F.D. Richards

    The connection between the geological record and dynamic topography driven by mantle convective flow has been established over widely varying temporal and spatial scales. As observations of the process have increased and numerical modeling of thermochemical convection has improved, a burgeoning direction of research targeting outstanding issues in ice age paleoclimate has emerged. This review focuses

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • The Role of Diagenesis in Shaping the Geochemistry of the Marine Carbonate Record
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Matthew S. Fantle; B. Davis Barnes; Kimberly V. Lau

    Carbonate sediments and rocks are valuable archives of Earth's past whose geochemical compositions inform our understanding of Earth's surface evolution. Yet carbonates are also reactive minerals and often undergo compositional alteration between the time of deposition and sampling and analysis. These changes may be mineralogical, structural, and/or chemical, and they are broadly referred to as diagenesis

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Climate Extremes and Compound Hazards in a Warming World
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Amir AghaKouchak; Felicia Chiang; Laurie S. Huning; Charlotte A. Love; Iman Mallakpour; Omid Mazdiyasni; Hamed Moftakhari; Simon Michael Papalexiou; Elisa Ragno; Mojtaba Sadegh

    Climate extremes threaten human health, economic stability, and the well-being of natural and built environments (e.g., 2003 European heat wave). As the world continues to warm, climate hazards are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. The impacts of extreme events will also be more severe due to the increased exposure (growing population and development) and vulnerability (aging infrastructure)

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Trace Metal Substitution in Marine Phytoplankton
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    François M.M. Morel; Phoebe J. Lam; Mak A. Saito

    The sinking of organic matter to the deep ocean leaves extremely low concentrations of major and trace nutrients for photosynthetic organisms at the sunlit surface. As a result, marine phytoplankton make use of alternative sources of essential elements and have evolved to substitute some elements by others in various biochemical processes. A particularly intriguing example is that of Zn, which is used

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Jupiter's Interior as Revealed by Juno
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    David J. Stevenson

    Jupiter is in the class of planets that we call gas giants, not because they consist of gas but because they were primarily made from hydrogen-helium gas, which upon gravitational compression becomes a metallic fluid. Juno, in orbit about Jupiter since 2016, has changed our view: The gravity data are much improved, and the simplest interpretation of the higher order even harmonics implies that the

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Global Groundwater Sustainability, Resources, and Systems in the Anthropocene
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Tom Gleeson; Mark Cuthbert; Grant Ferguson; Debra Perrone

    Groundwater is a crucial resource for current and future generations, but it is not being sustainably used in many parts of the world. The objective of this review is to provide a clear portrait of global-scale groundwater sustainability, systems, and resources in the Anthropocene to inspire a pivot toward more sustainable pathways of groundwater use. We examine groundwater from three different but

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Ecological Response of Plankton to Environmental Change: Thresholds for Extinction
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Christopher M. Lowery; Paul R. Bown; Andrew J. Fraass; Pincelli M. Hull

    Severe climatic and environmental changes are far more prevalent in Earth history than major extinction events, and the relationship between environmental change and extinction severity has important implications for the outcome of the ongoing anthropogenic extinction event. The response of mineralized marine plankton to environmental change offers an interesting contrast to the overall record of marine

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Heterogeneity of Seismic Wave Velocity in Earth's Mantle
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Jeroen Ritsema; Vedran Lekić

    Seismology provides important constraints on the structure and dynamics of the deep mantle. Computational and methodological advances in the past two decades improved tomographic imaging of the mantle and revealed the fine-scale structure of plumes ascending from the core-mantle boundary region and slabs of oceanic lithosphere sinking into the lower mantle. We discuss the modeling aspects of global

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Reconstructing Vertebrate Paleocolor
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Jakob Vinther

    Melanin and other pigments are now well known to be important in exceptional preservation of soft tissues in vertebrates and other animals. Because pigments confer coloration and even structural colors, they have opened a new field of paleocolor reconstruction. Since its inception about a decade ago, reconstruction of color patterns has been performed on several vertebrates, including feathered and

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Large Coseismic Slip to the Trench During the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Shuichi Kodaira; Toshiya Fujiwara; Gou Fujie; Yasuyuki Nakamura; Toshiya Kanamatsu

    The strong ground motions, large crustal deformation, and tsunami generated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.1) reveal that a large coseismic slip likely propagated to shallow depth in the Japan Trench. Although data acquired by onshore networks cannot resolve the slip behavior of the updip fault rupture, marine geophysical and geological studies provide direct evidence of coseismic slip to

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Plate Tectonics and the Archean Earth
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Michael Brown; Tim Johnson; Nicholas J. Gardiner

    If we accept that a critical condition for plate tectonics is the creation and maintenance of a global network of narrow boundaries separating multiple plates, then to argue for plate tectonics during the Archean requires more than a local record of subduction. A case is made for plate tectonics back to the early Paleoproterozoic, when a cycle of breakup and collision led to formation of the supercontinent

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Splendid Innovation: The Extinct South American Native Ungulates
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Darin A. Croft; Javier N. Gelfo; Guillermo M. López

    A remarkable diversity of plant-eating mammals known as South American native ungulates (SANUs) flourished in South America for most of the Cenozoic. Although some of these species likely filled ecological niches similar to those of modern hoofed mammals, others differed substantially from extant artiodactyls and perissodactyls in their skull and limb anatomy and probably also in their ecology. Notoungulates

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Advances in Cosmochemistry Enabled by Antarctic Meteorites
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Meenakshi Wadhwa; Timothy J. McCoy; Devin L. Schrader

    At present, meteorites collected in Antarctica dominate the total number of the world's known meteorites. We focus here on the scientific advances in cosmochemistry and planetary science that have been enabled by access to, and investigations of, these Antarctic meteorites. A meteorite recovered during one of the earliest field seasons of systematic searches, Elephant Moraine (EET) A79001, was identified

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • The Geology and Biogeochemistry of Hydrocarbon Seeps
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Samantha B. Joye

    Hydrocarbon seeps, deep sea extreme environments where deeply sourced fluids discharge at the seabed, occur along continental margins across the globe. Energy-rich reduced substrates, namely hydrocarbons, support accelerated biogeochemical dynamics, creating unique geobiological habitats. Subseafloor geology dictates the surficial expression of seeps, generating hydrocarbon (gas and/or oil) seeps,

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Slow Slip Events in New Zealand
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Laura M. Wallace

    Continuously operating global positioning system sites in the North Island of New Zealand have revealed a diverse range of slow motion earthquakes on the Hikurangi subduction zone. These slow slip events (SSEs) exhibit diverse characteristics, from shallow (<15 km), short (<1 month), frequent (every 1–2 years) events in the northern part of the subduction zone to deep (>30 km), long (>1 year), less

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Mechanisms and Implications of Deep Earthquakes
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Zhongwen Zhan

    Deep earthquakes behave like shallow earthquakes but must have fundamentally different physical processes. Their rupture behaviors, magnitude-frequency statistics, and aftershocks are diverse and imperfectly dependent on various factors, such as slab temperature, depth, and magnitude. The three leading mechanisms for deep earthquakes (i.e., transformational faulting, dehydration embrittlement, and

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Tsunami Modeling for the Deep Sea and Inside Focal Areas
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Tatsuhiko Saito; Tatsuya Kubota

    This article reviews tsunami modeling and its relation to recent developments of deep-ocean observations. Unlike near-coast observations, deep-ocean observations have enabled the capture of short-wavelength dispersive tsunamis and reflected waves from the coast. By analyzing these waves, researchers can estimate tsunami sources and earthquake slip distributions more reliably with higher spatial resolution

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Ab Initio Study on the Lower Mantle Minerals
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Taku Tsuchiya; Jun Tsuchiya; Haruhiko Dekura; Sebastian Ritterbex

    Recent progress in theoretical mineral physics based on the ab initio quantum mechanical computation method has been dramatic in conjunction with the rapid advancement of computer technologies. It is now possible to predict stability, elasticity, and transport properties of complex minerals quantitatively with uncertainties that are comparable to or even smaller than those attached in experimental

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • The Stratigraphy of Mass Extinctions and Recoveries
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Steven M. Holland

    Interpretations of the tempo of mass extinctions and recoveries often rely on the distribution of fossils in a stratigraphic column. These interpretations are generally compromised when they are not based on a knowledge of marine ecological gradients and sequence-stratigraphic architecture. Crucially, last and first occurrences of species do not record times of extinction and origination. A face-value

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • The State of Stress on the Fault Before, During, and After a Major Earthquake
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Emily E. Brodsky; James J. Mori; Louise Anderson; Frederick M. Chester; Marianne Conin; Eric M. Dunham; Nobu Eguchi; Patrick M. Fulton; Ryota Hino; Takehiro Hirose; Matt J. Ikari; Tsuyoshi Ishikawa; Tamara Jeppson; Yasuyuki Kano; James Kirkpatrick; Shuichi Kodaira; Weiren Lin; Yasuyuki Nakamura; Hannah S. Rabinowitz; Christine Regalla; Francesca Remitti; Christie Rowe; Demian M. Saffer; Saneatsu Saito;

    Earthquakes occur by overcoming fault friction; therefore, quantifying fault resistance is central to earthquake physics. Values for both static and dynamic friction are required, and the latter is especially difficult to determine on natural faults. However, large earthquakes provide signals that can determine friction in situ. The Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST), an Integrated Ocean Discovery

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Glacier Change and Paleoclimate Applications of Cosmogenic-Nuclide Exposure Dating
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Greg Balco

    Surface exposure dating using cosmic-ray-produced nuclides has been applied to determine the age of thousands of landforms produced by alpine glaciers in mountain areas worldwide. These data are potentially an extensive, easily accessible, and globally distributed paleoclimate record. In particular, exposure-dated glacier chronologies are commonly applied to study the dynamics of massive, abrupt climate

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • In Pursuit
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Inez Fung

    The atmosphere is the synthesizer, transformer, and communicator of exchanges at its boundaries with the land and oceans. These exchanges depend on and, in turn, alter the states of the atmosphere, land, and oceans themselves. To a large extent, the interactions between the carbon cycle and climate have mapped, and will map, the trajectory of the Earth system. My quest to understand climate dynamics

    更新日期:2020-05-29
  • Exoplanet Clouds
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Christiane Helling

    Clouds, which are common features in Earth's atmosphere, form in atmospheres of planets that orbit other stars than our Sun, in so-called extrasolar planets or exoplanets. Exoplanet atmospheres can be chemically extremely rich. Exoplanet clouds are therefore composed of a mix of materials that changes throughout the atmosphere. They affect atmospheres through element depletion and through absorption

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Droughts, Wildfires, and Forest Carbon Cycling: A Pantropical Synthesis
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Paulo M. Brando; Lucas Paolucci; Caroline C. Ummenhofer; Elsa M. Ordway; Henrik Hartmann; Megan E. Cattau; Ludmila Rattis; Vincent Medjibe; Michael T. Coe; Jennifer Balch

    Tropical woody plants store ∼230 petagrams of carbon (PgC) in their aboveground living biomass. This review suggests that these stocks are currently growing in primary forests at rates that have decreased in recent decades. Droughts are an important mechanism in reducing forest C uptake and stocks by decreasing photosynthesis, elevating tree mortality, increasing autotrophic respiration, and promoting

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Mesozoic Biogeographic History of Gondwanan Terrestrial Vertebrates: Insights from Madagascar's Fossil Record
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    David W. Krause; Joseph J.W. Sertich; Patrick M. O'Connor; Kristina Curry Rogers; Raymond R. Rogers

    The Mesozoic plate tectonic and paleogeographic history of Gondwana had a profound effect on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates. As the supercontinent fragmented into a series of large landmasses (South America, Africa-Arabia, Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian subcontinent, and Madagascar), particularly during the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, its terrestrial vertebrates became

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Marsh Processes and Their Response to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Duncan M. FitzGerald; Zoe Hughes

    In addition to their being vital components of mid- to high-latitude coastal ecosystems, salt marshes contain 0.1% of global sequestered terrestrial carbon. Their sustainability is now threatened by accelerating sea-level rise (SLR) that has reached a rate that is many times greater than the rate at which they formed and evolved. Modeling studies have been instrumental in predicting how marsh systems

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Regional- to Global-Scale Patterns and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Gabriel J. Bowen; Zhongyin Cai; Richard P. Fiorella; Annie L. Putman

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen have been applied to water cycle research for over 60 years. Over the past two decades, however, new data, data compilations, and quantitative methods have supported the application of isotopic data to address large-scale water cycle problems. Recent results have demonstrated the impact of climate variation on atmospheric water cycling, provided constraints

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Supraglacial Streams and Rivers
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Lincoln H Pitcher; Laurence C. Smith

    Supraglacial meltwater channels that flow on the surfaces of glaciers, ice sheets, and ice shelves connect ice surface climatology with subglacial processes, ice dynamics, and eustatic sea level changes. Their important role in transferring water and heat across and into ice is currently absent from models of surface mass balance and runoff contributions to global sea level rise. Furthermore, relatively

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Noble Gases: A Record of Earth's Evolution and Mantle Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Sujoy Mukhopadhyay; Rita Parai

    Noble gases have played a key role in our understanding of the origin of Earth's volatiles, mantle structure, and long-term degassing of the mantle. Here we synthesize new insights into these topics gained from high-precision noble gas data. Our analysis reveals new constraints on the origin of the terrestrial atmosphere, the presence of nebular neon but chondritic krypton and xenon in the mantle,

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Earthquake Early Warning: Advances, Scientific Challenges, and Societal Needs
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Richard M. Allen; Diego Melgar

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is the delivery of ground shaking alerts or warnings. It is distinguished from earthquake prediction in that the earthquake has nucleated to provide detectable ground motion when an EEW is issued. Here we review progress in the field in the last 10 years. We begin with EEW users, synthesizing what we now know about who uses EEW and what information they need and can digest

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Soil Functions: Connecting Earth's Critical Zone
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Steven A. Banwart; Nikolaos P. Nikolaidis; Yong-Guan Zhu; Caroline L. Peacock; Donald L. Sparks

    Soil is the central interface of Earth's critical zone—the planetary surface layer extending from unaltered bedrock to the vegetation canopy—and is under intense pressure from human demand for biomass, water, and food resources. Soil functions are flows and transformations of mass, energy, and genetic information that connect soil to the wider critical zone, transmitting the impacts of human activity

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Repeating Earthquakes
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Naoki Uchida; Roland Bürgmann

    Repeating earthquakes, or repeaters, are identical in location and geometry but occur at different times. They appear to represent recurring seismic energy release from distinct structures such as slip on a fault patch. Repeaters are most commonly found on creeping plate boundary faults, where seismic patches are loaded by surrounding slow slip, and they can be used to track fault creep at depth. Their

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Flood Basalts and Mass Extinctions
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Matthew E. Clapham; Paul R. Renne

    Flood basalts were Earth's largest volcanic episodes that, along with related intrusions, were often emplaced rapidly and coincided with environmental disruption: oceanic anoxic events, hyperthermals, and mass extinction events. Volatile emissions, both from magmatic degassing and vaporized from surrounding rock, triggered short-term cooling and longer-term warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Permeability of Clays and Shales
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    C.E. Neuzil

    The low permeability of clays, shales, and other argillaceous lithologies makes them key controls of transport and deformation processes in the crust but is known for being challenging to characterize. As muds are modified by compaction and diagenesis to low-porosity shales, permeability can decrease by six or more orders of magnitude, but at large scales it is often dramatically and unpredictably

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Variability from Satellite Observations
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Xun Jiang; Yuk L. Yung

    Advanced satellite technology has been providing unique observations of global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. These observations have revealed important CO2 variability at different timescales and over regional and planetary scales. Satellite CO2 retrievals have revealed that stratospheric sudden warming and the Madden-Julian Oscillation can modulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the mid-troposphere

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Seawater Chemistry Through Phanerozoic Time
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Alexandra V. Turchyn; Donald J. DePaolo

    The major ion balance of the ocean, particularly the concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and sulfate (SO4), has evolved over the Phanerozoic (last 550 million years) in concert with changes in sea level and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). We review these changes, along with changes in Mg/Ca and strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) of the ocean; how the changes were reconstructed; and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Destruction of the North China Craton in the Mesozoic
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Fu-Yuan Wu; Jin-Hui Yang; Yi-Gang Xu; Simon A. Wilde; Richard J. Walker

    The North China Craton (NCC) was originally formed by the amalgamation of the eastern and western blocks along an orogenic belt at ∼1.9 Ga. After cratonization, the NCC was essentially stable until the Mesozoic, when intense felsic magmatism and related mineralization, deformation, pull-apart basins, and exhumation of the deep crust widely occurred, indicative of destruction or decratonization. Accompanying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Compositional Diversity of Low-Mass Exoplanets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Daniel Jontof-Hutter

    Low-mass planets have an extraordinarily diverse range of bulk compositions, from primarily rocky worlds to those with deep gaseous atmospheres. As techniques for measuring the masses of exoplanets advance the field toward the regime of rocky planets, from ultrashort orbital periods to Venus-like distances, we identify the bounds on planet compositions, where sizes and incident fluxes inform bulk planet

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • New Horizons Observations of the Atmosphere of Pluto
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    G. Randall Gladstone; Leslie A. Young

    New Horizons data provide a snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. Winds are slow and mostly controlled by sublimation of surface ices. Molecular nitrogen is the primary constituent below 1,800 km, while methane and carbon monoxide are important minor species. Photolysis of these gases leads to a thin haze that encompasses Pluto from the surface up to >500-km altitude and is important

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Sedimentary Cycle on Early Mars
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Scott M. McLennan; John P. Grotzinger; Joel A. Hurowitz; Nicholas J. Tosca

    Two decades of intensive research have demonstrated that early Mars (2 Gyr) had an active sedimentary cycle, including well-preserved stratigraphic records, understandable within a source-to-sink framework with remarkable fidelity. This early cycle exhibits first-order similarities to (e.g., facies relationships, groundwater diagenesis, recycling) and first-order differences from (e.g., greater aeolian

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Atmospheric Escape and the Evolution of Close-In Exoplanets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    James E. Owen

    Exoplanets with substantial hydrogen/helium atmospheres have been discovered in abundance, many residing extremely close to their parent stars. The extreme irradiation levels that these atmospheres experience cause them to undergo hydrodynamic atmospheric escape. Ongoing atmospheric escape has been observed to be occurring in a few nearby exoplanet systems through transit spectroscopy both for hot

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Dynamics in the Uppermost Lower Mantle: Insights into the Deep Mantle Water Cycle Based on the Numerical Modeling of Subducted Slabs and Global-Scale Mantle Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Takashi Nakagawa; Tomoeki Nakakuki

    In this review, we address the current status of numerical modeling of the mantle transition zone and uppermost lower mantle, focusing on the hydration mechanism in these areas. The main points are as follows: (a) Slab stagnation and penetration may play significant roles in transporting the water in the whole mantle, and (b) a huge amount of water could be absorbed into the deep mantle to preserve

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Unanticipated Uses of the Global Positioning System
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Kristine M. Larson

    Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments are routinely used today to measure crustal deformation signals from tectonic plate motions, faulting, and glacial isostatic adjustment. In parallel with the expansion of GPS networks around the world, several new and unexpected applications of GPS have been developed. For example, GPS instruments are now being used routinely to measure ground motions during

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Big Time
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Paul F. Hoffman

    The Proterozoic Eon was once regarded as the neglected middle half of Earth history. The name refers to early animals, but they did not appear until the eon (2.5–0.54 Ga) was nearly over. Eukaryotic cells and sexual reproduction evolved much earlier in the eon, as did chloroplasts. Molecular dioxygen, the presence of which altered the geochemical behavior of nearly every element essential to life,

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Understanding oblique impacts from experiments, observations, and modeling.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2001-10-05
    E Pierazzo,H J Melosh

    Natural impacts in which the projectile strikes the target vertically are virtually nonexistent. Nevertheless, our inherent drive to simplify nature often causes us to suppose most impacts are nearly vertical. Recent theoretical, observational, and experimental work is improving this situation, but even with the current wealth of studies on impact cratering, the effect of impact angle on the final

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stromatolites in Precambrian carbonates: evolutionary mileposts or environmental dipsticks?
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    J P Grotzinger,A H Knoll

    Stromatolites are attached, lithified sedimentary growth structures, accretionary away from a point or limited surface of initiation. Though the accretion process is commonly regarded to result from the sediment trapping or precipitation-inducing activities of microbial mats, little evidence of this process is preserved in most Precambrian stromatolites. The successful study and interpretation of stromatolites

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sediment bacteria: who's there, what are they doing, and what's new?
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 1997-01-01
    K H Nealson

    The prokaryotes (bacteria) comprise the bulk of the biomass and chemical activity in sediments. They are well suited to their role as sediment chemists, as they are the right size and have the required metabolic versatility to oxidize the organic carbon in a variety of different ways. The characteristic vertical nutrient (electron donor and electron acceptor) profiles seen in sediments are produced

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origin of life in the solar system: current issues.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 1995-01-01
    C F Chyba,G D McDonald

    The authors review current issues in the study of biogenesis and exobiology research. Topics include definitions of life; exobiological environments in the solar system, including the planets and their satellites, comets, and asteroids; energy sources for prebiotic chemistry, and the concept of the RNA world.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origin and early evolution of life on Earth.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 1990-01-01
    J Oró,S L Miller,A Lazcano

    We do not have a detailed knowledge of the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth. In this review we bring together some of the most important results that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive Earth environments, particularly those environments in which life is thought to have originated. To do so, we first discuss the evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on our

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Geologist Reflects on a Long Career
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Dan McKenzie

    Fifty years ago Jason Morgan and I proposed what is now known as the theory of plate tectonics, which brought together the ideas of continental drift and sea floor spreading into what is probably their final form. I was twenty-five and had just finished my PhD. The success of the theory marked the beginning of a change of emphasis in the Earth sciences, which I have spent the rest of my career exploring

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Low-Temperature Alteration of the Seafloor: Impacts on Ocean Chemistry
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Laurence A. Coogan, Kathryn M. Gillis

    Over 50% of Earth is covered by oceanic crust, the uppermost portion of which is a high-permeability layer of basaltic lavas through which seawater continuously circulates. Fluid flow is driven by heat lost from the oceanic lithosphere; the global fluid flux is dependent on plate creation rates and the thickness and distribution of overlying sediment, which acts as a low-permeability layer impeding

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The Thermal Conductivity of Earth's Core: A Key Geophysical Parameter's Constraints and Uncertainties
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Q. Williams

    The thermal conductivity of iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is a critical parameter in governing (a) the present-day heat flow out of Earth's core, (b) the inferred age of Earth's inner core, and (c) the thermal evolution of Earth's core and lowermost mantle. It is, however, one of the least well-constrained important geophysical parameters, with current estimates for end-member iron

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Fluids of the Lower Crust: Deep Is Different
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Craig E. Manning

    Deep fluids are important for the evolution and properties of the lower continental and arc crust in tectonically active settings. They comprise four components: H2O, nonpolar gases, salts, and rock-derived solutes. Contrasting behavior of H2O-gas and H2O-salt mixtures yields immiscibility and potential separation of phases with different chemical properties. Equilibrium thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Commercial Satellite Imagery Analysis for Countering Nuclear Proliferation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    David Albright, Sarah Burkhard, Allison Lach

    High-resolution commercial satellite imagery from a growing number of private satellite companies allows nongovernmental analysts to better understand secret or opaque nuclear programs of countries in unstable or tense regions, called proliferant states. They include North Korea, Iran, India, Pakistan, and Israel. By using imagery to make these countries’ aims and capabilities more transparent, nongovernmental

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Controls on O2 Production in Cyanobacterial Mats and Implications for Earth's Oxygenation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Gregory J. Dick, Sharon L. Grim, Judith M. Klatt

    Cyanobacterial mats are widely assumed to have been globally significant hot spots of biogeochemistry and evolution during the Archean and Proterozoic, but little is known about their quantitative contributions to global primary productivity or Earth's oxygenation. Modern systems show that mat biogeochemistry is the outcome of concerted activities and intimate interactions between various microbial

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Induced Seismicity
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Katie M. Keranen, Matthew Weingarten

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Superrotation on Venus, on Titan, and Elsewhere
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Peter L. Read, Sebastien Lebonnois

    The superrotation of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan has puzzled dynamicists for many years and seems to put these planets in a very different dynamical regime from most other planets. In this review, we consider how to define superrotation objectively and explore the constraints that determine its occurrence. Atmospheric superrotation also occurs elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond, and we

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The Origin and Evolutionary Biology of Pinnipeds: Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.089) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Annalisa Berta, Morgan Churchill, Robert W. Boessenecker

    The oldest definitive pinniped fossils date from approximately 30.6–23 million years ago (Ma) in the North Pacific. Pinniped monophyly is consistently supported; the group shares a common ancestry with arctoid carnivorans, either ursids or musteloids. Crown pinnipeds comprise the Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), Odobenidae (walruses), and Phocidae (seals), with paraphyletic “enaliarctines” falling

    更新日期:2018-05-30
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