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  • The vertical structure of CO in the Martian atmosphere from the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    K. S. Olsen; F. Lefèvre; F. Montmessin; A. A. Fedorova; A. Trokhimovskiy; L. Baggio; O. Korablev; J. Alday; C. F. Wilson; F. Forget; D. A. Belyaev; A. Patrakeev; A. V. Grigoriev; A. Shakun

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the main product of CO2 photolysis in the Martian atmosphere. Production of CO is balanced by its loss reaction with OH, which recycles CO into CO2. CO is therefore a sensitive tracer of the OH-catalysed chemistry that contributes to the stability of CO2 in the atmosphere of Mars. To date, CO has been measured only in terms of vertically integrated column abundances, and the

  • Postseismic geodetic signature of cold forearc mantle in subduction zones
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Haipeng Luo; Kelin Wang

    A sharp thermal contrast between the cold forearc and the hot arc and backarc is considered fundamental to various subduction-zone processes. However, direct observational evidence for this contrast is rather limited. If this contrast is present, it must cause a rheological contrast in the mantle wedge: elastic in the forearc and viscoelastic in the arc and backarc for the timescale of earthquake cycles

  • Author Correction: Glacial deep ocean deoxygenation driven by biologically mediated air–sea disequilibrium
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Ellen Cliff; Samar Khatiwala; Andreas Schmittner

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Disproportionate control on aerosol burden by light rain
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-11
    Yong Wang; Wenwen Xia; Xiaohong Liu; Shaocheng Xie; Wuyin Lin; Qi Tang; Hsi-Yen Ma; Yiquan Jiang; Bin Wang; Guang J. Zhang

    Atmospheric aerosols are of great climatic and environmental importance due to their effects on the Earth’s radiative energy balance and air quality. Aerosol concentrations are strongly influenced by rainfall via wet removal. Global climate models have been used to quantify their climate and health effects. However, they commonly suffer from a well-known problem of ‘too much light rain and too little

  • Opening up
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-06

    From January 2021, authors will now have the option to publish their research open access.

  • Glacial deep ocean deoxygenation driven by biologically mediated air–sea disequilibrium
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Ellen Cliff; Samar Khatiwala; Andreas Schmittner

    Deep ocean deoxygenation inferred from proxies has been used to support the hypothesis that a lower atmospheric carbon dioxide during glacial times was due to an increase in the strength of the ocean’s biological pump. This relies on the assumption that surface ocean oxygen (O2) is equilibrated with the atmosphere such that any O2 deficiency observed in deep waters is a result of organic matter respiration

  • Nonlinear forcing of climate on mountain denudation during glaciations
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Apolline Mariotti; Pierre-Henri Blard; Julien Charreau; Samuel Toucanne; Stephan J. Jorry; Stéphane Molliex; Didier L. Bourlès; Georges Aumaître; Karim Keddadouche

    Denudation is one of the main processes that shapes landscapes. Because temperature, precipitation and glacial extents are key factors involved in denudation, climatic fluctuations are thought to exert a strong control on this parameter over geological timescales. However, the direct impacts of climatic variations on denudation remain controversial, particularly those involving the Quaternary glacial

  • Archaean seafloors shallowed with age due to radiogenic heating in the mantle
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Juan Carlos Rosas; Jun Korenaga

    Given the scarcity of geological data, knowledge of Earth’s landscape during the Archaean eon is limited. Although the continental crust may have been as massive as present by 4 Gyr ago, the extent to which it was submerged or exposed is unclear. One key component in understanding the amount of exposed landmasses in the early Earth is the evolution of the oceanic lithosphere. Whereas the present-day

  • Eleven-year solar cycles over the last millennium revealed by radiocarbon in tree rings
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2021-01-04
    Nicolas Brehm; Alex Bayliss; Marcus Christl; Hans-Arno Synal; Florian Adolphi; Jürg Beer; Bernd Kromer; Raimund Muscheler; Sami K. Solanki; Ilya Usoskin; Niels Bleicher; Silvia Bollhalder; Cathy Tyers; Lukas Wacker

    The Sun provides the principal energy input into the Earth system and solar variability represents a significant external climate forcing. Although observations of solar activity (sunspots) cover only the last about 400 years, radionuclides produced by cosmic rays and stored in tree rings or ice cores serve as proxies for solar activity extending back thousands of years. However, the presence of weather-induced

  • Author Correction: Record of modern-style plate tectonics in the Palaeoproterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-12-24
    O. M. Weller; M. R. St-Onge

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-00685-x.

  • Author Correction: Instantaneous rock transformations in the deep crust driven by reactive fluid flow
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    A. Beinlich; T. John; J. C. Vrijmoed; M. Tominaga; T. Magna; Y. Y. Podladchikov

    A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-00683-z.

  • Extensive wetland development in mid-latitude North America during the Bølling–Allerød
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    Eunji Byun; Hiromitsu Sato; Sharon A. Cowling; Sarah A. Finkelstein

    Palaeoecological reconstructions of the American Midwest during the last deglaciation suggest the expansion of parkland biomes lacking modern analogues. Despite their spatial extent and persistence over several millennia, the landscape configuration and environmental drivers for the ‘no analogue’ biomes remain speculative. Here we use regression analysis linking settlement-era forest composition and

  • Deforestation-induced warming over tropical mountain regions regulated by elevation
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Zhenzhong Zeng; Dashan Wang; Long Yang; Jie Wu; Alan D. Ziegler; Maofeng Liu; Philippe Ciais; Timothy D. Searchinger; Zong-Liang Yang; Deliang Chen; Anping Chen; Laurent Z. X. Li; Shilong Piao; David Taylor; Xitian Cai; Ming Pan; Liqing Peng; Peirong Lin; Drew Gower; Yu Feng; Chunmiao Zheng; Kaiyu Guan; Xu Lian; Tao Wang; Lang Wang; Su-Jong Jeong; Zhongwang Wei; Justin Sheffield; Kelly Caylor; Eric

    Agriculture is expanding in tropical mountainous areas, yet its climatic effect is poorly understood. Here, we investigate how elevation regulates the biophysical climate impacts of deforestation over tropical mountainous areas by integrating satellite-observed forest cover changes into a high-resolution land–atmosphere coupled model. We show that recent forest conversion between 2000 and 2014 increased

  • Atlantic and Pacific tropics connected by mutually interactive decadal-timescale processes
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Gerald A. Meehl; Aixue Hu; Frederic Castruccio; Matthew H. England; Susan C. Bates; Gokhan Danabasoglu; Shayne McGregor; Julie M. Arblaster; Shang-Ping Xie; Nan Rosenbloom

    Decadal climate prediction presumes there are decadal-timescale processes and mechanisms that, if initialized properly in models, potentially provide predictive skill more than one or two years into the future. Candidate mechanisms involve Pacific decadal variability and Atlantic multidecadal variability, elements of which involve slow fluctuations of tropical Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures

  • Biogenic particles formed in the Himalaya as an important source of free tropospheric aerosols
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-12-07
    F. Bianchi; H. Junninen; A. Bigi; V. A. Sinclair; L. Dada; C. R. Hoyle; Q. Zha; L. Yao; L. R. Ahonen; P. Bonasoni; S. Buenrostro Mazon; M. Hutterli; P. Laj; K. Lehtipalo; J. Kangasluoma; V.-M. Kerminen; J. Kontkanen; A. Marinoni; S. Mirme; U. Molteni; T. Petäjä; M. Riva; C. Rose; K. Sellegri; C. Yan; D. R. Worsnop; M. Kulmala; U. Baltensperger; J. Dommen

    Aerosols of biogenic and anthropogenic origin affect the total radiative forcing of global climate. Poor knowledge of the pre-industrial aerosol concentration and composition, in particular of particles formed directly in the atmosphere from gaseous precursors, constitutes a large uncertainty in the anthropogenic radiative forcing. Investigations of new particle formation at pre-industrial-like conditions

  • When permafrost thaws
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-30

    Thawing permafrost mobilizes concerning amounts of carbon into the wider environment. Piecing together carbon sources and sinks in this complex system is important to understanding its overall climate impact.

  • Carbon and nitrogen cycling in Yedoma permafrost controlled by microbial functional limitations
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Sylvain Monteux; Frida Keuper; Sébastien Fontaine; Konstantin Gavazov; Sara Hallin; Jaanis Juhanson; Eveline J. Krab; Sandrine Revaillot; Erik Verbruggen; Josefine Walz; James T. Weedon; Ellen Dorrepaal

    Warming-induced microbial decomposition of organic matter in permafrost soils constitutes a climate-change feedback of uncertain magnitude. While physicochemical constraints on soil functioning are relatively well understood, the constraints attributable to microbial community composition remain unclear. Here we show that biogeochemical processes in permafrost can be impaired by missing functions in

  • The role of environmental factors in the long-term evolution of the marine biological pump
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Mojtaba Fakhraee; Noah J. Planavsky; Christopher T. Reinhard

    The biological pump—the transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the ocean interior and marine sediments as organic carbon—plays a critical role in regulating the long-term carbon cycle, atmospheric composition and climate. Despite its centrality in the Earth system, the response of the biological pump to biotic innovation and climatic fluctuations through most stages of Earth’s history has been largely

  • Opportunities and challenges in using remaining carbon budgets to guide climate policy
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    H. Damon Matthews; Katarzyna B. Tokarska; Zebedee R. J. Nicholls; Joeri Rogelj; Josep G. Canadell; Pierre Friedlingstein; Thomas L. Frölicher; Piers M. Forster; Nathan P. Gillett; Tatiana Ilyina; Robert B. Jackson; Chris D. Jones; Charles Koven; Reto Knutti; Andrew H. MacDougall; Malte Meinshausen; Nadine Mengis; Roland Séférian; Kirsten Zickfeld

    The remaining carbon budget represents the total amount of CO2 that can still be emitted in the future while limiting global warming to a given temperature target. Remaining carbon budget estimates range widely, however, and this uncertainty can be used to either trivialize the most ambitious mitigation targets by characterizing them as impossible, or to argue that there is ample time to allow for

  • Coupled anaerobic methane oxidation and reductive arsenic mobilization in wetland soils
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Ling-Dong Shi; Ting Guo; Pan-Long Lv; Zi-Fan Niu; Yu-Jie Zhou; Xian-Jin Tang; Ping Zheng; Li-Zhong Zhu; Yong-Guan Zhu; Andreas Kappler; He-Ping Zhao

    Anaerobic methane oxidation is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors, such as sulfate, and contributes to their biogeochemical cycling in the environment. However, whether arsenate acts as an alternative electron acceptor of anaerobic methane oxidation and how this influences global arsenic transformations remains elusive. Here, we present incubations of arsenate-contaminated wetland soils

  • Synergistic effects of four climate change drivers on terrestrial carbon cycling
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Peter B. Reich; Sarah E. Hobbie; Tali D. Lee; Roy Rich; Melissa A. Pastore; Kally Worm

    Disentangling impacts of multiple global changes on terrestrial carbon cycling is important, both in its own right and because such impacts can dampen or accelerate increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here we report on an eight-year grassland experiment, TeRaCON, in Minnesota, United States, that factorially manipulated four drivers: temperature, rainfall, CO2 and nitrogen deposition. Net primary

  • Paleofloods stage a comeback
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Scott St. George; Amanda M. Hefner; Judith Avila

    Geological and botanical archives can preserve evidence of exceptional floods going back centuries to millennia. Updated risk guidelines offer a new opportunity to apply lessons from paleoflood hydrology to judge the odds of future floods.

  • Increased typhoon activity in the Pacific deep tropics driven by Little Ice Age circulation changes
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    James F. Bramante; Murray R. Ford; Paul S. Kench; Andrew D. Ashton; Michael R. Toomey; Richard M. Sullivan; Kristopher B. Karnauskas; Caroline C. Ummenhofer; Jeffrey P. Donnelly

    The instrumental record reveals that tropical cyclone activity is sensitive to oceanic and atmospheric variability on inter-annual and decadal scales. However, our understanding of the influence of climate on tropical cyclone behaviour is restricted by the short historical record and the sparseness of prehistorical reconstructions, particularly in the western North Pacific, where coastal communities

  • Recent recovery of Antarctic Bottom Water formation in the Ross Sea driven by climate anomalies
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Alessandro Silvano; Annie Foppert; Stephen R. Rintoul; Paul R. Holland; Takeshi Tamura; Noriaki Kimura; Pasquale Castagno; Pierpaolo Falco; Giorgio Budillon; F. Alexander Haumann; Alberto C. Naveira Garabato; Alison M. Macdonald

    Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) supplies the lower limb of the global overturning circulation, ventilates the abyssal ocean and sequesters heat and carbon on multidecadal to millennial timescales. AABW originates on the Antarctic continental shelf, where strong winter cooling and brine released during sea ice formation produce Dense Shelf Water, which sinks to the deep ocean. The salinity, density and

  • Distinct slab interfaces imaged within the mantle transition zone
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Xin Wang; Qi-Fu Chen; Fenglin Niu; Shengji Wei; Jieyuan Ning; Juan Li; Weijun Wang; Johannes Buchen; Lijun Liu

    Oceanic lithosphere descends into Earth’s mantle at subduction zones and drives material exchange between Earth’s surface and its deep interior. The subduction process creates chemical and thermal heterogeneities in the mantle, with the strongest gradients located at the interfaces between subducted slabs and the surrounding mantle. Seismic imaging of slab interfaces is key to understanding slab compositional

  • Continuum of earthquake rupture speeds enabled by oblique slip
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Huihui Weng; Jean-Paul Ampuero

    Earthquake rupture speed can affect ground shaking and therefore seismic hazard. Seismological observations show that large earthquakes span a continuum of rupture speeds, from slower than Rayleigh waves up to P-wave speed, and include speeds that are predicted to be unstable by two-dimensional theory. This discrepancy between observations and theory has not yet been reconciled by a quantitative model

  • Between a cloud and a hot place
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-29

    Low climate sensitivity has been ruled out, but the door remains open for alarmingly high estimates. Improved understanding of cloud feedbacks is vital for better constraining the upper limit of future warming.

  • Equilibrium climate sensitivity above 5 °C plausible due to state-dependent cloud feedback
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Jenny Bjordal; Trude Storelvmo; Kari Alterskjær; Tim Carlsen

    The equilibrium climate sensitivity of Earth is defined as the global mean surface air temperature increase that follows a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. For decades, global climate models have predicted it as between approximately 2 and 4.5 °C. However, a large subset of models participating in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project predict values exceeding 5 °C. The difference has

  • Biological nitrogen fixation detected under Antarctic sea ice
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Takuhei Shiozaki; Amane Fujiwara; Keisuke Inomura; Yuu Hirose; Fuminori Hashihama; Naomi Harada

    Nitrogen fixation is the primary source of reactive nitrogen in the ocean. Most ecological models do not predict nitrogen fixation in the Antarctic Ocean because of the low availability of iron and high abundance of nitrogen. Here we extensively examined nitrogen fixation in the Antarctic Ocean, and found substantial nitrogen fixation (maximum: 44.4 nmol N l−1 d−1) near the Antarctic coast, especially

  • Moist heat stress extremes in India enhanced by irrigation
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Vimal Mishra; Anukesh Krishnankutty Ambika; Akarsh Asoka; Saran Aadhar; Jonathan Buzan; Rohini Kumar; Matthew Huber

    Intensive irrigation in India has been demonstrated to decrease surface temperature, but the influence of irrigation on humidity and extreme moist heat stress is not well understood. Here we analysed a combination of in situ and satellite-based datasets and conducted meteorological model simulations to show that irrigation modulates extreme moist heat. We found that intensive irrigation in the region

  • Spatial pattern of super-greenhouse warmth controlled by elevated specific humidity
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Joep van Dijk; Alvaro Fernandez; Stefano M. Bernasconi; Jeremy K. Caves Rugenstein; Simon R. Passey; Tim White

    Earth’s climate sensitivity, defined as the temperature increase for a doubling of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (\(p_{\mathrm{CO}_2}\)), and the mechanisms responsible for amplification of high-latitude warming remain controversial. The latest Palaeocene/earliest Eocene (LPEE; 57–55 million years ago) is a time when atmospheric CO2 concentrations peaked between 1,400 and 4,000 ppm, which allows

  • Permian–Triassic mass extinction pulses driven by major marine carbon cycle perturbations
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Hana Jurikova; Marcus Gutjahr; Klaus Wallmann; Sascha Flögel; Volker Liebetrau; Renato Posenato; Lucia Angiolini; Claudio Garbelli; Uwe Brand; Michael Wiedenbeck; Anton Eisenhauer

    The Permian/Triassic boundary approximately 251.9 million years ago marked the most severe environmental crisis identified in the geological record, which dictated the onwards course for the evolution of life. Magmatism from Siberian Traps is thought to have played an important role, but the causational trigger and its feedbacks are yet to be fully understood. Here we present a new boron-isotope-derived

  • Persistently well-ventilated intermediate-depth ocean through the last deglaciation
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Tianyu Chen; Laura F. Robinson; Andrea Burke; Louis Claxton; Mathis P. Hain; Tao Li; James W. B. Rae; Joseph Stewart; Timothy D. J. Knowles; Daniel J. Fornari; Karen S. Harpp

    During the last deglaciation (~18–11 thousand years ago), existing radiocarbon (14C) reconstructions of intermediate waters in the mid- to low-latitude oceans show widely diverging trends, with some broadly tracking the atmosphere and others suggesting extreme depletions. These discrepancies cloud our understanding of the deglacial carbon cycle because of the diversity of hypotheses needed to explain

  • Active crustal differentiation beneath the Rio Grande Rift
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Jacob H. Cipar; Joshua M. Garber; Andrew R. C. Kylander-Clark; Andrew J. Smye

    Silicon-rich continental crust is unique to Earth. Partial melting during high- to ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (700 °C to >900 °C) promotes the long-term stability of this crust because it redistributes key elements between the crust and mantle and ultimately produces cooler, more-differentiated continents. Granulites—rocks formerly at high- to ultrahigh-temperature conditions—preserve a record

  • Up in smoke
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-29

    Where there is smoke, there are radiative feedbacks. With wildfires becoming a growing problem in the Anthropocene, we need to better understand the influence of fire on the climate system.

  • Marine organic carbon burial increased forest fire frequency during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    F. Garrett Boudinot; Julio Sepúlveda

    Volcanic-driven nutrient flux to the oceans stimulated marine productivity and organic matter burial during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2; ~94 million years ago). While the preferential burial of 13C-depleted organic matter led to a general 13C enrichment of sediments during the event, a 2‰ 13C depletion punctuated the first half of the event (known as the Plenus), raising questions about carbon cycle

  • Future warming exacerbated by aged-soot effect on cloud formation
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Ulrike Lohmann; Franz Friebel; Zamin A. Kanji; Fabian Mahrt; Amewu A. Mensah; David Neubauer

    Clouds play a critical role in modulating the Earth’s radiation balance and climate. Anthropogenic aerosol particles that undergo aging processes, such as soot, aid cloud droplet and ice crystal formation and thus influence the microphysical structure of clouds. However, the associated changes in cloud radiative properties and climate effects remain uncertain and are largely omitted in climate models

  • Arctic fires re-emerging
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Jessica L. McCarty; Thomas E. L. Smith; Merritt R. Turetsky

    Underground smouldering fires resurfaced early in 2020, contributing to the unprecedented wildfires that tore through the Arctic this spring and summer. An international effort is needed to manage a changing fire regime in the vulnerable Arctic.

  • The magmatic forge
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    James M. Brenan

    Time capsules of fluid, trapped within the oxide minerals from two iron ore deposits reveal an important role for sediment-derived carbonate–sulfate-rich melts in the concentration of iron, a crucial element for humanity’s development.

  • Homogenization of the terrestrial water cycle
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Delphis F. Levia; Irena F. Creed; David M. Hannah; Kazuki Nanko; Elizabeth W. Boyer; Darryl E. Carlyle-Moses; Nick van de Giesen; Domenico Grasso; Andrew J. Guswa; Janice E. Hudson; Sean A. Hudson; Shin’ichi Iida; Robert B. Jackson; Gabriel G. Katul; Tomo’omi Kumagai; Pilar Llorens; Flavio Lopes Ribeiro; Diane E. Pataki; Catherine A. Peters; Daniel Sanchez Carretero; John S. Selker; Doerthe Tetzlaff;

    Land-use and land-cover changes are accelerating. Such changes can homogenize the water cycle and undermine planetary resilience. Policymakers and practitioners must consider water–vegetation interactions in their land-management decisions.

  • Longwave radiative effect of the cloud twilight zone
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Eshkol Eytan; Ilan Koren; Orit Altaratz; Alexander B. Kostinski; Ayala Ronen

    Clouds play a key role in Earth’s radiation budget, covering more than 50% of the planet. However, the binary delineation of cloudy and clear sky is not clearly defined due to the presence of a transitionary zone, known as the cloud twilight zone, consisting of liquid droplets and humidified to dry aerosols. The twilight zone is an inherent component of cloud fields, yet its influence on longwave-infrared

  • Global nitrous acid emissions and levels of regional oxidants enhanced by wildfires
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    N. Theys; R. Volkamer; J.-F. Müller; K. J. Zarzana; N. Kille; L. Clarisse; I. De Smedt; C. Lerot; H. Finkenzeller; F. Hendrick; T. K. Koenig; C. F. Lee; C. Knote; H. Yu; M. Van Roozendael

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is a precursor of the hydroxyl radical in the atmosphere, which controls the degradation of greenhouse gases, contributes to photochemical smog and ozone production, and influences air quality. Although biomass burning is known to contribute substantially to global aerosols and reactive gas emissions, pyrogenic contributions to HONO emissions are poorly constrained and often omitted

  • A fundamental role of carbonate–sulfate melts in the formation of iron oxide–apatite deposits
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Wyatt M. Bain; Matthew Steele-MacInnis; Kan Li; Long Li; Frank K. Mazdab; Erin E. Marsh

    Genetic models for iron oxide–apatite deposits are controversial and span a spectrum from orthomagmatic to hydrothermal endmembers. This lack of consensus is rooted in uncertainties as to the nature and origin of ore-forming fluids in these systems. Here, we present a fluid-inclusion study of mineralizing fluids at two iron oxide–apatite deposits (Buena Vista, Nevada and Iron Springs, Utah). We found

  • Molecular trade-offs in soil organic carbon composition at continental scale
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Steven J. Hall; Chenglong Ye; Samantha R. Weintraub; William C. Hockaday

    The molecular composition of soil organic carbon remains contentious. Microbial-, plant- and fire-derived compounds may each contribute, but whether they vary predictably among ecosystems remains unclear. Here we present carbon functional groups and molecules from a diverse spectrum of North American surface mineral soils, collected primarily from the National Ecological Observatory Network and quantified

  • Inelastic earthquake damage
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Wanpeng Feng; Rafael V. Almeida

    Permanent surface deformation caused by the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes has been directly measured, constraining the mechanics of surface damage in earthquakes.

  • Localized fault-zone dilatancy and surface inelasticity of the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquakes
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    William D. Barnhart; Ryan D. Gold; James Hollingsworth

    Earthquakes produce a spectrum of elastic and inelastic deformation processes that are reflected across various length and time scales. While elasticity has long dominated research assumptions in active tectonics, increasing interest has focused on the inelastic characteristics of earthquakes, particularly those of the surface fault rupture zone itself, and how they relate to ground rupture hazard

  • Slip-rate-dependent friction as a universal mechanism for slow slip events
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Kyungjae Im; Demian Saffer; Chris Marone; Jean-Philippe Avouac

    A growing body of observations worldwide has documented fault slip transients that radiate little or no seismic energy. The mechanisms that govern these slow slip events (SSEs) and their wide range of depths, slip rates, durations, stress drops and recurrence intervals remain poorly known. Here we show that slow slip can be explained by a transition from rate-weakening frictional sliding at low slip

  • Author Correction: Shape of (101955) Bennu indicative of a rubble pile with internal stiffness
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    O. S. Barnouin; M. G. Daly; E. E. Palmer; R. W. Gaskell; J. R. Weirich; C. L. Johnson; M. M. Al Asad; J. H. Roberts; M. E. Perry; H. C. M. Susorney; R. T. Daly; E. B. Bierhaus; J. A. Seabrook; R. C. Espiritu; A. H. Nair; L. Nguyen; G. A. Neumann; C. M. Ernst; W. V. Boynton; M. C. Nolan; C. D. Adam; M. C. Moreau; B. Rizk; C. Y. Drouet D’Aubigny; E. R. Jawin; K. J. Walsh; P. Michel; S. R. Schwartz; R

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Author Correction: Two decades of glacier mass loss along the Andes
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    I. Dussaillant; E. Berthier; F. Brun; M. Masiokas; R. Hugonnet; V. Favier; A. Rabatel; P. Pitte; L. Ruiz

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Authors on the rise
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-01

    We look at changes in authorship and cross-institutional links in the papers we publish. Both are increasing as the geosciences continue to become more collaborative.

  • Rethinking groundwater age
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Grant Ferguson; Mark O. Cuthbert; Kevin Befus; Tom Gleeson; Jennifer C. McIntosh

    It is commonly thought that old groundwater cannot be pumped sustainably, and that recently recharged groundwater is inherently sustainable. We argue that both old and young groundwaters can be used in physically sustainable or unsustainable ways.

  • Pacific push into the Atlantic
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Brian A. Haley

    Deep, carbon-rich Pacific waters intruded into the South Atlantic some 38 to 28 thousand years ago. This deep Pacific expansion could have represented a considerable sink of atmospheric CO2, one that helped initiate the Last Glacial Maximum.

  • Coupled Southern Ocean cooling and Antarctic ice sheet expansion during the middle Miocene
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Thomas J. Leutert; Alexandra Auderset; Alfredo Martínez-García; Sevasti Modestou; A. Nele Meckler

    The middle Miocene climate transition (~14 million years ago) was characterized by a dramatic increase in the volume of the Antarctic ice sheet. The driving mechanism of this transition remains under discussion, with hypotheses including circulation changes, declining carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and orbital forcing. Southern Ocean records of planktic foraminiferal Mg/Ca have previously been interpreted

  • A nutrient control on marine anoxia during the end-Permian mass extinction
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Martin Schobben; William J. Foster; Arve R. N. Sleveland; Valentin Zuchuat; Henrik H. Svensen; Sverre Planke; David P. G. Bond; Fons Marcelis; Robert J. Newton; Paul B. Wignall; Simon W. Poulton

    Oxygen deprivation and hydrogen sulfide toxicity are considered potent kill mechanisms during the mass extinction just before the Permian–Triassic boundary (~251.9 million years ago). However, the mechanism that drove vast stretches of the ocean to an anoxic state is unclear. Here, we present palaeoredox and phosphorus speciation data for a marine bathymetric transect from Svalbard. This shows that

  • Publisher Correction: The state of rock debris covering Earth’s glaciers
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Sam Herreid; Francesca Pellicciotti

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Post-impact cryo-hydrologic formation of small mounds and hills in Ceres’s Occator crater
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    B. E. Schmidt; H. G. Sizemore; K. H. G. Hughson; K. D. Duarte; V. N. Romero; J. E. C. Scully; P. M. Schenk; D. L. Buczkowski; D. A. Williams; A. Nathues; K. Udell; J. C. Castillo-Rogez; C. A. Raymond; C. T. Russell

    The intimate mixture of ice and silicate within the uppermost few kilometres of Ceres influences its geology and the evolution of its subsurface. Both ground ice and cryovolcanic processes have been hypothesized to form geologic terrains on Ceres, including within Occator crater, where they have been suggested to influence the post-impact surface evolution. Both types of processes involve the presence

  • Back-propagating supershear rupture in the 2016 M w 7.1 Romanche transform fault earthquake
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Stephen P. Hicks; Ryo Okuwaki; Andreas Steinberg; Catherine A. Rychert; Nicholas Harmon; Rachel E. Abercrombie; Petros Bogiatzis; David Schlaphorst; Jiri Zahradnik; J-Michael Kendall; Yuji Yagi; Kousuke Shimizu; Henriette Sudhaus

    How an earthquake rupture propagates strongly influences the potentially destructive ground shaking. Complex ruptures often involve slip along multiple faults, which masks information on the frictional behaviour of fault zones. Geometrically smooth ocean transform fault plate boundaries offer a favourable environment to study fault dynamics, because strain is accommodated along a single, wide fault

  • A shift in sulfur-cycle manipulation from atmospheric emissions to agricultural additions
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Eve-Lyn S. Hinckley; John T. Crawford; Habibollah Fakhraei; Charles T. Driscoll

    Burning fossil fuels has resulted in a prominent yet unintended manipulation of the global sulfur cycle. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and reactive sulfur to the atmosphere have caused widespread health and environmental impacts and have led, ultimately, to calls to decrease sulfur emissions. However, anthropogenic modification of the sulfur cycle is far from over. Using four contrasting case studies

  • Interannual variations in meltwater input to the Southern Ocean from Antarctic ice shelves.
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Susheel Adusumilli,Helen Amanda Fricker,Brooke Medley,Laurie Padman,Matthew R Siegfried

    Ocean-driven basal melting of Antarctica’s floating ice shelves accounts for about half of their mass loss in steady state, where gains in ice-shelf mass are balanced by losses. Ice-shelf thickness changes driven by varying basal melt rates modulate mass loss from the grounded ice sheet and its contribution to sea level, and the changing meltwater fluxes influence climate processes in the Southern

  • Heavy iron isotope composition of iron meteorites explained by core crystallization.
    Nat. Geosci. (IF 13.566) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Peng Ni,Nancy L Chabot,Caillin J Ryan,Anat Shahar

    Similar to Earth, many large planetesimals in the Solar System experienced planetary-scale processes such as accretion, melting and differentiation. As their cores cooled and solidified, substantial chemical fractionation occurred due to solid metal–liquid metal fractionation. Iron meteorites—core remnants of these ancient planetesimals—record a history of this process. Recent iron isotope analyses

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