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  • 更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Propagation of distinct Love-wave pulses from regional to teleseismic distances in continental and oceanic environments
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Furumura T, Kennett B.

    SUMMARYSurface waves are usually dispersive with long wavetrains and steady decay of amplitude with distance. However, if the group velocity is nearly constant for a span of periods a strong pulse is produced that retains its amplitude for large distances. This situation arises for the fundamental mode of Love waves in the period band 40–500 s for crust and mantle structures with a positive gradient of S wavespeed in the uppermost mantle. Such a distinct Love-wave pulse with limited dispersion observed at teleseismic distance is termed the G-wave in honour of Gutenberg. The long-period G-wave pulse caused by large earthquakes carries a large amount of energy to substantial distances, with significant effects across the globe e.g. event triggering. A similar G-type Love-wave pulse with a much shorter-period of 10–20 s is generated for crustal structures without thick sediment. Such pulses produce anomalously large ground displacement at near-regional distances with, e.g. an overestimate of surface-wave magnitude. We investigate the generation and propagation mechanism of the G-type Love-wave pulses in the crust and upper-mantle with the analysis of observed strong motion records from the Mw 6.2 2016 Central Tottori earthquake and the Mw 9.0 2011 Off Tohoku earthquake in Japan, in conjunction with three-dimensional finite-difference simulation of seismic wave propagation and analysis of dispersion curves.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Invariant TE and TM impedances in marine magnetotelluric method
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Montiel-Álvarez A, Romo J, Constable S, et al.

    ABSTRACTThe magnetotelluric (MT) impedance tensor has a nil diagonal when one of the axes of the coordinate system coincides with the strike of a two-dimensional (2D) structure. In general, real data are full tensors either because of 3D effects or measurements not aligned to the geological strike. The usual practice to adapt the field tensor to the 2D assumption is to rotate to a new system of coordinates. In most cases, there is no single angle of rotation that warranties that the diagonal elements become zeros as in the ideal 2D case. Even maximizing the off-diagonal elements does not necessarily produce a nil diagonal. Consequently, the 2D inversions proceed by neglecting whatever there is left in the diagonals. In this work, we explore an alternative that places no constraints on direction but assures a nil diagonal. We use two rotational invariants that compact the four elements of the tensor into only two and reduce in 2D to the TE and TM impedances. These are obtained readily by solving a quadratic equation. We explore four different scenarios: 1) using the invariants, 2) rotating the tensor perpendicular to the profile, 3) rotating to the average maximum orientation for each station, and 4) maximizing the off-diagonal elements of the tensor for each site, frequency to frequency. These approaches were applied to 3D synthetic and field data. The field data correspond to two marine magnetotelluric surveys in the Gulf of California. In one of them, there is no information on the instrument orientation because the compasses failed. In this case, the rotational invariants come handy to overcome the problem. In the other survey, there was orientation information and the 2D inversions illustrate the better performance of the invariants relative to the traditional approaches.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • The Static and Time-dependent Signature of Ocean-Continent and Ocean-Ocean Subduction: the case studies of Sumatra and Mariana complexes
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Marotta A, Restelli F, Bollino A, et al.

    SUMMARYThe anomalous density structure at subduction zones, both in the wedge and in the upper mantle, is analysed to shed light on the processes that are responsible for the characteristic gravity fingerprints of two types of subduction: ocean-continent and ocean-ocean. Our modelling is then performed within the frame of the EIGEN-6C4 gravitational disturbance pattern of two subductions representative of the above two types, the Sumatra and Mariana complexes, finally enabling the different characteristics of the two patterns to be observed and understood on a physical basis, including some small-scale details. A 2D viscous modelling perpendicular to the trench accounts for the effects on the gravity pattern caused by a wide range of parameters in terms of convergence velocity, subduction dip angle and lateral variability of the crustal thickness of the overriding plate, as well as compositional differentiation, phase changes and hydration of the mantle. Plate coupling, modelled within a new scheme where the relative velocity at the plate contact results self-consistently from the thermo-mechanical evolution of the system, is shown to have an important impact on the gravity signature. Beyond the already understood general bipolar fingerprint of subduction, perpendicular to the trench, we obtain the density and gravity signatures of the processes occurring within the wedge and mantle that are responsible for the two different gravity patterns. To be compliant with the geodetic EIGEN-6C4 gravitational disturbance and to compare our predictions with the gravity at Sumatra and Mariana, we define a model normal Earth. Although the peak-to-peak gravitational disturbance is comparable for the two types of subductions, approximately 250 mGal, from both observations and modelling, encompassing the highest positive maximum on the overriding plates and the negative minimum on the trench, the trough is wider for the ocean-ocean subduction: approximately 300 km compared to approximately 180 km for the ocean-continent subduction. Furthermore, the gravitational disturbance pattern is more symmetric for the ocean-ocean subduction compared to the ocean-continent subduction in terms of the amplitudes of the two positive maxima over the overriding and subducting plates. Their difference is, for the ocean-ocean type, approximately one half of the ocean-continent one. These different characteristics of the two types of subductions are exploited herein in terms of the different crustal thicknesses of the overriding plate and of the different dynamics in the wedge and in the mantle for the two types of subduction, in close agreement with the gravity data.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Peak Ground Motions and Site Response at Anza and Imperial Valley, California
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jon B. Fletcher, John Boatwright

    Abstract Power spectra of shear-waves for eighteen earthquakes from the Anza-Imperial Valley region were inverted for source, mid-path Q, site attenuation and site response. The motivation was whether differences in site attenuation (parameterized as t*, r/cQ, where r is distance along ray path near the site, c is shear velocity and Q is the quality factor that parameterizes attenuation) and site response could be correlated with residuals in peak values of velocity or acceleration after removing the affect of distance-dependent attenuation. We decomposed spectra of S-waves from horizontal components of 18 earthquakes from 2010 to 2018 into a common source for each event with ω−2 spectral fall-off at high frequencies and then projected the residuals onto path and site terms following the methodology of Boatwright et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 81:1754–1782, 1991). The site terms were constrained to have an amplification at a particular frequency governed by VS30 at two of the sites which had downhole shear-wave logs. The 18 events, 3 < M < 4, had moments between approximately 1020 and 1022 dyne-cm, and stress drops between 1 and 100 bars. Average mid-crust attenuation had a Q of 844 reflecting the average path through the crystalline rock of the San Jacinto Mountains. t* for each station corresponded to the geologic environment such that stations on hard rock had low t* (e.g. stations KNW, PFO and RDM) a station in the San Jacinto fault zone (station SND) had a moderate t* of 0.035 s and stations in the Imperial Valley usually had higher t*s. Generally t* correlated with average amplification suggesting that sites characterized by low surface velocities and higher attenuation also have more amplification in the 1–6 Hz band. Residuals of peak values were determined by subtracting the prediction of Boore and Atkinson (2008). There is a correlation between average amplification and peak velocity, but not peak acceleration. Interestingly, there is less scatter at high values of amplification although there is also less data. Scatter in values of peak velocity and peak acceleration are higher at shorter compared to longer durations. When using a frequency-dependent form for Q, variances are higher, sometimes much higher; the dataset does not support frequency-dependent Q, which is not similar to results from the Imperial Valley and northeastern North America.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Study of the PGV, Strong Motion and Intensity Distribution of the February 1969 (Ms 8.0) Offshore Cape St. Vincent (Portugal) Earthquake Using Synthetic Ground Velocities
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    C. Pro, E. Buforn, A. Udías, J. Borges, C. S. Oliveira

    The 28 February 1969 (Ms 8.0) Cape St. Vincent earthquake is the largest shock to have occurred in the region after the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. However, the study of the rupture process has been limited due to the characteristics of the available seismic data which were analogue records that were generally saturated at both regional and teleseismic distances. Indeed, these data consist of just one accelerograph record at the 25th April Bridge in Lisbon (Portugal) and the observed intensities in the Iberian Peninsula and northern part of Morocco. We have used these data to simulate the distribution of PGV (Peak Ground Velocity) for the 1969 event at regional distances (less than 600 km) by using a 3D velocity model. The PGV values are very important in seismic hazard studies. The velocity model and the methodological approach were tested by comparing synthetic and observed ground velocities at regional distances for two recent, well-studied earthquakes that occurred in this region, namely, the 2007 (Mw = 5.9) and the 2009 (Mw = 5.5) earthquakes. By comparing the synthetic and observed PGA (Peak Ground Acceleration) at Lisbon, the focal depth was estimated equal to 25 km and the seismic moment equal to 6.4 × 1020 N m (Mw = 7.8) for 1969 earthquake. With these parameters, PGV values were obtained for 159 sites located in the Iberian Peninsula and northern region of Morocco where we have felt intensity values. Using different empirical relations, the instrumental intensity values were calculated and compared with the felt intensities. As a result, the synthetic PGV values obtained in this study for the 1969 earthquake could be used as reference values, and the methodological approach would allow the PGV and intensity to be simulated for other events in the region.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Present-day Tectonic Stress Field and GPS Observations in Hubei Province, Central China
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Yanjun Dong, Fanxi Liao, Dongzhen Wang, Chengchen Du, Kai He

    Here, we show the present-day tectonic stress field and regional GPS velocity and strain rate fields in Hubei Province, central China. Our results are calculated based on the digital observation data from 01 January 2010, to 31 December 2017, by using the seis-CAP, P-wave first motion, and grid search methods and the software GAMIT/GLOBK10.4. The results show that the P axis azimuths of focal mechanism solutions, the principal compressional stress field, and the regional velocity and strain rate fields are conformably compressional in a NW–SE direction. The regional stress shape ratio R values are relatively low, and the faults are dominantly compressive-shear or compresso-shear faults. The average velocity modulus value for the GPS observation stations in western Hubei is 6.1 mm/a, which is higher than that in eastern Hubei (5.4 mm/a). The average velocity modulus value in the Jianghan Basin interior is relatively low (4.4 mm/a), while that in the northwestern Jianghan Basin is higher (7.6 mm/a). The strain rate field is characterized by NW–SE compression accompanied by NE–SW tension. The results suggest that the present-day crustal movement in Hubei Province is mainly controlled by collisions with the Indian Plate in the west and the Philippine Plate in the east and the consequent crustal shortening induced by western Hubei wedging into the Jianghan Basin. Further, the resistance by the thrust-and-fold belt in eastern Hubei contributes to the principal compressional movement in the study area. The T axis azimuth of focal mechanism solutions is consistent with the principal extensional stress field direction. In the central and northern Jianghan Basin, the R values are relatively high, the faults are mainly transtensional, and the crustal deformation is mainly extensional, which may be affected by the denudation, thinning and rapid rebound of the Dabie Orogen, resulting in tectonic extrusion and flow in the Jianghan Basin to both the NE and SW sides.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • New Updated World Maps of Sea-Surface Salinity
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Aleksandar Valjarević, Dejan Filipović, Miško Milanović, Dragana Valjarević

    Sea surface salinity presents one of the most important chemical elements in the water. Climatic variables, included in new view of salinity distribution at a global scale, were used in this research. For the purpose of this research newly updated climate parameters for the period until 2100 were used along with (CMIP5) climatological model. The new distribution of surface salinity may show water desalination and energy potential. This map can be useful in the determination of new littoral areas or for fishermen’s routes. These data are presented in geo-tiff raster extension with the resolution of 0.1. This map could be updated with climatological parameters with obtained medium climate change effects. Some places in the world sea have low, some have high salinity. Salinity increases in accordance with the increase of precipitation and decreases with the decrease of it. The paper presents following maps; salinity world map when there is no climate change; the moderate one, if the temperature increases for 2.0 °C until 2100, and high if the increase of temperature was between 2.0 °C and 5.0 °C. The three scenarios were taken to show updated maps of world salinity in comparison with climate change effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Statistical Method of Forecasting of Seasonal Precipitation over the Northwest Himalayas: North Atlantic Oscillation as Precursor
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Usha Devi, M. S. Shekhar, G. P. Singh, S. K. Dash

    Abstract Dynamical and Statistical models are operationally used by Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) for winter precipitation forecasting over the Northwest Himalayas (NWH). In this paper, a statistical regression model developed for seasonal (December–April) precipitation forecast over Northwest Himalaya is discussed. After carrying out the analysis of various atmospheric parameters that affect the winter precipitation over the NWH two parameters are selected such as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Outgoing Long wave Radiation (OLR) over specific areas of North Atlantic Ocean for the development of statistical regression model. A set of 27 years (1990–1991 to 2016–2017) of observed precipitation data and parameters (NAO and OLR) are utilized. Out of 27 years of data, first 20 years (1990–1991 to 2009–2010) are used for the development of regression model and remaining 7 years (2010–2011 to 2016–2017) are used for the validation purpose. Precipitation over NWH mainly associated with Western Disturbances (WDs) and the results of the present study reveal that NAO during SON has negative relationship with WDs and also with the winter precipitation over same region. Quantitative validation of the multiple regression model, result shows good Skill Score and RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR) which is 0.79 and 0.45 respectively and BIAS − 0.92.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Improvement of the Efficiency of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Measurement
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Chong Liu, LiZhen Cheng, Xueping Dai, Mamadou Cherif Diallo

    The long-term sustainable development of mineral exploration under covers require effective deep detection techniques and methods. Start from enhancing the surface-borehole time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) technique, the present study established a new relationship between the pulse width (Δ), the target time constant (τ) and the measurement time (t). Under certain conditions, the new formula has been extended to all TEM systems that use square or trapezoidal waveforms. A series of numerical simulations illustrate the consistent behaviors of the surface-borehole, ground and airborne TEM fields. The new relationship allows us to evaluate optimal pulse widths for different off-times and to help TEM survey design.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Utilizing the Geophysical and Hydrogeological Data for the Assessment of the Groundwater Occurrences in Gallaba Plain, Western Desert, Egypt
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Sayed Mosaad, Alhussein Adham Basheer

    Abstract The investigated region is located in the western desert fringes of the Nile Valley which requires studies of groundwater related to the many projects of land reclamation. The key objective of this paper is to estimate the qualitative and geometrical features of the investigated aquifer. Using 60 vertical electrical sounding and time-domain electromagnetic soundings allows us to suggest one possible model of the geometrical features of the local aquifer. A hydrogeological monitoring has been undertaken to investigate the current groundwater situation at the Gallaba plain. Such hydrological monitoring has not been undertaken before in detail. The results show that the investigated region has high groundwater potentialities in two main aquifers which belong to Pleistocene: shallow fresh water and deep brackish water. The lithological and structural elements contribute mainly to recharge and store the groundwater in the western part of the River Nile in Kom Ombo graben. The geochemical properties of the groundwater of the studied aquifers reflect meteoric water, which is a fresh to slightly brackish water. The small amount of groundwater salinity arises from silicate weathering and evaporation processes occurring in the aquifer matrix. Moreover, most of the studied groundwater samples are unfit for human consumption. Such samples are very satisfactory for livestock and poultry purposes and they can be used for irrigation using modern and improved irrigation methods e.g. sprinkler and drip methods. Furthermore, the hydrogeological monitoring of the concerned area indicates that it has high groundwater potentialities which will support its sustainable development.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The Subsurface Structure on the CE-3 Landing Site: LPR CH-1 Data Processing by Shearlet Transform
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Ling Zhang, Bin Hu, Zhuo Jia, Yi Xu

    Abstract The Lunar penetrating radar (LPR) carried by Chang’E-3 (CE-3) mission is an important application of radar in lunar exploration. An opportunity of significance to detect the information of regolith and the subsurface structure on the landing site is offered by LPR aboard the Yutu rover. On the basis of a data processing flow, a low-frequency radar image has been available for mapping subsurface structure. The noise interfered data give a huge challenge for geological stratification and interpretation. To solve the limitation imposed by noise, we adopt the shearlet transform as a promising tool for data analysis and noise attenuation. The different distributions of the noise and signal in the shearlet domain decrease the difficulty of noise attenuation. To optimize the denosing strategy, we replace a local adaptive thresholding function with the conventional hard threshold. The quality of the processed data is improved, which is helpful for geological stratification and interpretation. Finally, by combining these data with the regional geology and previous research, especially the LPR data, we can provide an interpretation of the LPR CH-1.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Machine Learning Using U-Net Convolutional Neural Networks for the Imaging of Sparse Seismic Data
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jiayuan Huang, Robert L. Nowack

    Machine learning using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is investigated for the imaging of sparsely sampled seismic reflection data. A limitation of traditional imaging methods is that they often require seismic data with sufficient spatial sampling. Using CNNs for imaging, even if the spatial sampling of the data is sparse, good imaging results can still be obtained. Therefore, CNNs applied to seismic imaging have the potential of producing improved imaging results when spatial sampling of the data is sparse. The imaged model can then be used to generate more densely sampled data and in this way be used to interpolate either regularly or irregularly sampled data. Although there are many approaches for the interpolation of seismic data, here seismic imaging is performed directly with sparse seismic data once the CNN model has been trained. The CNN model is found to be relatively robust to small variations from the training dataset. For greater deviations, a larger training dataset would likely be required. If the CNN is trained with a sufficient amount of data, it has the potential of imaging more complex seismic profiles.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Upper mantle slab under Alaska: Contribution to anomalous core-phase observations on south-Sandwich to Alaska paths
    Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. (IF 2.615) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Daniel A. Frost; Barbara Romanowicz; Steve Roecker

    Observations of travel time anomalies of inner core-sensitive PKPdf seismic body waves, as a function of path orientation with respect to the earth's rotation axis, have been interpreted as evidence of anisotropy in the inner core. Paths from earthquakes in the South Sandwich Islands to stations in Alaska show strongly anomalous travel times, with a large spread that is not compatible with simple models of anisotropy. Here we assess the impact of strong velocity heterogeneity under Alaska on the travel times, directions of arrival and amplitudes of PKPdf. We use 3D ray-tracing and 2.5D waveform modelling through a new, high-resolution tomography model of the upper mantle beneath Alaska. We find that the structure beneath Alaska, notably the subducting slab, is reflected in the patterns of these PKPdf observations, and this can be replicated by our model. We also find similar patterns in observed teleseismic P waves that can likewise be explained by our slab model. We conclude that at least 2 s of the travel time anomaly often attributed to inner core anisotropy is due to slab effects in the upper mantle beneath Alaska.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Source parameters of the 1926 and 1927 Jersey earthquakes from historical, instrumental, and macroseismic data
    Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. (IF 2.615) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    D. Amorèse; J. Benjumea; M. Cara

    English Channel Islands are located off Normandy coast of France within an intraplate area not associated with high seismicity rate and active tectonics. However, in July 1926 a damaging and well-documented earthquake occurred there, followed by a strongly felt event in February 1927. In this paper, we reprocess macroseismic observations, analog seismograms and bulletin data in order to re-appraise the location and magnitude of these two earthquakes. We find that the macroseismic epicentre of the 1926 Jersey earthquake is shifted to the East when compared with the location offshore South of Jersey given in both the French database SisFrance and the recent French catalog FCAT-17. Arrival-times from published data, together with our own onset-time readings, are processed in order to obtain probabilistic hypocentral locations. The maximum-likelihood instrumental epicentre of the 1926 event is located about 15 km East of Jersey Island (49.20°N, 1.82°W). This epicentre is well constrained within a 10 km radius area. The location of the 1927 epicentre is slightly south of Jersey, at a location similar to that of SisFrance, but this latter epicentre is less constrained as fewer observations are available (the Probability Density Function for the 1927 epicentre is relatively “diluted”). Focal depth remains very poorly determined for both the 1926 and 1927 events. Analysis of historical seismograms is also performed in order to determine both surface-wave and moment magnitudes, MS and MW. We find MS = 5.6 ± 0.2 for the 1926 event and Ms. = 5.0 for the 1927 event. Waveform fitting of some of the highest quality seismograms of the 1926 event gives us MW in the range [5.0, 5.5], depending on the chosen focal depth and focal mechanism. The 1927 Jersey earthquake is expected with an intensity magnitude MI about 0.6 smaller.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Love-to-Rayleigh scattering across the eastern North American passive margin
    Tectonophysics (IF 2.764) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Andrea Servali; Maureen D. Long; Jeffrey Park; Margaret H. Benoit; John C. Aragon

    This study presents observations of Love-to-Rayleigh scattering beneath the eastern North American passive margin that place new constraints on seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle. The scattering of Love-wave energy to Rayleigh waves is generated via sharp lateral gradients in anisotropic structure along the source-receiver path. The scattered phases, known as quasi-Love (QL) waves, exhibit amplitude behavior that depends on the strength of the anisotropic contrast as well as the geometrical relationship between the propagation azimuth and the anisotropic symmetry axis. Previous studies of seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath eastern North America have revealed evidence for a mix of lithospheric and asthenospheric contributions, but the interpretation of indicators such as SKS splitting is hampered by a lack of vertical resolution. Complementary constraints on the depth distribution of anisotropy can be provided by surface waves, which have the additional advantage of sampling portions of the margin that lie offshore. Here we present measurements of QL phases using data from several hundred broadband seismic stations in eastern North America, including stations of the USArray Transportable Array, the Central and Eastern U.S. Network, and the MAGIC experiment in the central Appalachians. We find evidence for clear QL arrivals at stations in eastern North America, consistent with a region of particularly strong and coherent scattering inferred just offshore the central portion of the margin. The coherent scattering near the Eastern North American Margin likely reflects lateral transitions in seismic anisotropy in the asthenospheric mantle, associated with locally complex three-dimensional flow, with possible additional contributions from anisotropy in the mantle lithosphere. A second region of strong QL scattering near the southern coast of Greenland is enigmatic in origin, but may be due to pre-existing lithospheric fabric.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • A study of the monsoonal hydrology contribution using a 8 year record (2010-2018) from superconducting gravimeter OSG-060 at Djougou (Benin, West Africa)
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Hinderer J, Hector B, Riccardi U, et al.

    We analyze a nearly 8-year record (2010–2018) of the superconducting gravimeter OSG-060 located at Djougou (Benin, West Africa). After tidal analysis removing all solid Earth and ocean loading tidal contributions and correcting for the long term instrumental drift and atmospheric loading, we obtain a gravity residual signal which is essentially a hydrological signal due to the monsoon. This signal is first compared to several global hydrology models (ERA, GLDAS, MERRA). Our superconducting gravimeter residual signal is also superimposed onto episodic absolute gravity measurements and to space gravimetry GRACE data. A further comparison is done using local hydrological data like soil moisture in the very superficial layer (0–1.2 m), water table depth and rainfall. The temporal evolution of the correlation coefficient between the gravity observation and both the soil moisture and the water table is well explained by the direct infiltration process of rain water together with the lateral transfer discharging the water table.Finally we compute the water storage changes (WSC) using a simulation based on the physically- based Parflow-CLM numerical model of the catchment, which solves the water and energy budget from the impermeable bedrock to the top of the canopy layer using the 3D Richards equation for the water transfers in the ground, the kinematic wave equation for the surface runoff, and a land surface model (CLM) for the energy budget and evapotranspiration calculation.This model forced by rain is in agreement with evapotranspiration and stream flow data and leads to simulated water storage changes that nicely fit to the observed gravity signal. This study points out the important role played by surface gravity changes in terms of a reliable proxy for water storage changes occurring in small catchments.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • On the importance of benchmarking algorithms under realistic noise conditions
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Birnie C, Chambers K, Angus D, et al.

    SUMMARYTesting with synthetic datasets is a vital stage in an algorithm’s development for benchmarking the algorithm’s performance. A common addition to synthetic datasets is White, Gaussian Noise (WGN) which is used to mimic noise that would be present in recorded datasets. The first section of this paper focusses on comparing the effects of WGN and realistic modelled noise on standard microseismic event detection and imaging algorithms using synthetic datasets with recorded noise as a benchmark. The datasets with WGN under-perform on the trace-by-trace algorithm whilst over-performing on algorithms utilising the full array. Throughout, the datasets with realistic modelled noise perform near identically to the recorded noise datasets. The study concludes by testing an algorithm which simultaneously solves for the source location and moment tensor of a microseismic event. Not only does the algorithm fail to perform at the signal-to-noise ratios indicated by the WGN results but the results with realistic modelled noise highlight pitfalls of the algorithm not previously identified. The misleading results from the WGN datasets highlight the need to test algorithms under realistic noise conditions to gain an understanding of the conditions under which an algorithm can perform and to minimise the risk of misinterpretation of the results.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The reduction of source effect for reliable estimation of geomagnetic transfer functions
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Ernst T, Nowozynski K, Jozwiak W.

    We have analyzed the literature suggestions regarding possible changes in vertical magnetic transfer function (VTF) over time. We have shown that for periods above 1500 s the observed changes in VTF are caused by the source effect and we proposed how to reduce this negative impact. For calculations we used one-minute recordings of geomagnetic variations registered between 2002 and 2017 in various geomagnetic observatories. In data processing we used frequency-domain Egbert's algorithm and our original algorithm based on the method of least squares in the time domain for some comparisons and tests. We have shown that for periods over 1500 s the VTFs calculated separately from summer and winter data are different. However, our analysis shows that the variability of the VTF values obtained is misleading and results from time-changing presence of magnetic field variations that do not fulfill the assumption of plane wave (there is a vertical component in the incident magnetic field). These variations are much more numerous in summer than in winter. More detailed analysis has shown also that they are usually small at night and big during the day. The vertical components of these variations constitute an error correlated with input signals (horizontal components), which alters the values of the determined VTF. Furthermore, error bars do not take this effect into account. It makes it impossible to improve the accuracy of calculations by increasing the amount of data. Analyzing the estimated external parts of vertical components the Central European observatories we noticed a great similarity of these signals even if the induction components were clearly different, which indicates that this is a regional effect. On this basis, we proposed a procedure to improve the accuracy of VTF determination by means of pre-selection of data.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Fast Collocation for Moho Estimation from GOCE Gravity Data: the Iran Case Study
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Shali H, Sampietro D, Safari A, et al.

    SUMMARYThe study of the discontinuity between crust and mantle beneath Iran is still an open issue in the geophysical community due to its various tectonic features created by the collision between the Iranian and Arabian Plate. For instance in regions such as Zagros, Alborz or Makran, despite the number of studies performed, both by exploiting gravity or seismic data, the depth of the Moho and also interior structure is still highly uncertain. This is due to the complexity of the crust and to the presence of large short wavelength signals in the Moho depth. GOCE observations are capable and useful products to describe the Earth’s crust structure either at the regional or global scale. Furthermore, it is plausible to retrieve important information regarding the structure of the Earth’s crust by combining the GOCE observations with seismic data and considering additional information. In the current study, we used as observation a grid of second radial derivative of the anomalous gravitational potential computed at an altitude of 221 km by means of the space-wise approach, to study the depth of the Moho. The observations have been reduced for the gravitational effects of topography, bathymetry, and sediments. The residual gravity has been inverted accordingly to a simple two-layer model. In particular, this guarantees the uniqueness of the solution of the inverse problem which has been regularized by means of a collocation approach in the frequency domain. Although results of this study show a general good agreement with seismically derived depths with a root mean square deviation of 6 km, there are some discrepancies under the Alborz zone and also Oman sea with a root mean square deviation up 10 km for the former and an average difference of 3 km for the latter. Further comparisons with the natural feature of the study area, for instance, active faults, show that the resulting Moho features can be directly associated with geophysical and tectonic blocks.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Monumental articulated ancient Greek and Roman columns and temples and earthquakes: archaeological, historical, and engineering approaches
    J. Seismol. (IF 1.494) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Stathis C. Stiros

    Structural analyses indicate that monumental articulated ancient Greek and Roman (MAGR) columns and temples have a very particular seismic response, differing from rigid structures (made with mortar); tall columns in particular, have an excellent seismic performance, favoring anthropogenic effects as causes of their destruction. Archeoseismological studies, on the other hand, provide evidence of seismic damage in MAGR structures. To investigate this apparent conflict, we analyzed the conditions and limitations of structural models, as well as historical and archeological evidence of response of such structures to natural and anthropogenic effects. In addition, we examined two groups of MAGR structures: first, structures damaged or destroyed by known causes, including earthquakes and wind; second, structures damaged by unknown causes, based on comparative damage analyses with emphasis on geotechnical (soil dynamics) effects. This analysis indicates that reports of deliberate destructions of MAGR structures are exaggerated, and in addition, (i) these structures seem safe against earthquakes only if structurally healthy, concerning both their superstructure and foundations; this condition is not always satisfied, and hence, no controversy exists between structural engineering and archeoseismological approaches; (ii) their seismic response is sensitive to small changes of the source- and site-specific parameters; and (iii) no deterministic evidence of absence or of occurrence of critical earthquakes can be derived from their survival or damage, because the latter reflects superimposition of natural and anthropogenic destructive effects, some with apparently similar outcomes, and rarely only single event destructions. These results are important for palaeoseismology (paleoseismology), seismic risk assessment, archaeology (archeology), and restoration of ancient monuments.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Data-driven control over short-period internal multiples in media with a horizontally layered overburden
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Elison P, Dukalski M, de Vos K, et al.

    SummaryShort-period internal multiples, resulting from closely-spaced interfaces, may interfere with their generating (bandlimited) primaries, and hence they pose a long-standing challenge in their prediction and removal. A recently proposed method based on the Marchenko equation enables removal of the entire overburden-related scattering by means of calculating an inverse transmission response. However, the method relies on time windowing and can thus be inexact in the presence of short-period internal scattering. In this work, we present a detailed analysis of the impact of band-limitation on the Marchenko method. We show the influence of an incorrect first guess, and that adding multidimensional energy conservation and a minimum phase principle may be used to correctly account for both long- and short-period internal multiple scattering. The proposed method can currently only be solved for media with a laterally invariant overburden, since a multidimensional minimum phase condition is not well understood for truly 2-D and 3-D media. We demonstrate the virtue of the proposed scheme with a complex acoustic numerical model that is based on sonic log measurements in the Middle East. The results suggest not only that the conventional scheme can be robust in this setting, but that the ‘augmented’ Marchenko method is superior, as the latter produces a structural image identical to one where the finely layered overburden is missing. This is the first demonstration of a data-driven method to account for short-period internal multiples beyond 1-D.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Pseudo-linear-array analysis of passive surface waves based on beamforming
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Liu Y, Xia J, Cheng F, et al.

    SummaryLinear arrays are usually deployed for passive surface-wave investigations because of their high efficiency and convenience. In populated urban areas, it is almost impossible to set up a two-dimensional array in terms of the restriction from the existing infrastructures. The limited azimuthal coverage, however, lacks the ability to attenuate velocity overestimation caused by directional noise sources. We came up with a novel idea to compensate the azimuthal coverage by adding two more offline receivers to a conventional linear array, which is called pseudo-linear-array analysis of passive surface waves (PLAS). We employed a beamforming algorithm to capture noise sources distribution and extract accurate dispersion curves. We used array response function to explain the superiority of the pseudo-linear array over the linear array and present the basic workflow of PLAS. Synthetic tests and field examples demonstrated the feasibility of PLAS to measure unbiased dispersion image. Comparison with mostly used passive surface-wave methods (refraction microtremor, multichannel analysis of passive surface waves, spatial autocorrelation method, frequency-wavenumber analysis) suggested that PLAS can serve as an alternative passive surface wave method, especially in urban areas with restricted land accessibility and short-time acquisition demands.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Atmospheric infrasound generation by ocean waves in finite depth: unified theory and application to radiation patterns
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    De Carlo M, Ardhuin F, Le Pichon A.

    SummaryBetween 0.1 and 0.5 Hz, infrasound signals recorded in the atmosphere are dominated by ocean-generated noise called microbaroms. Microbaroms propagate through the atmosphere over thousands of kilometers due to low absorption and efficient ducting between the ground and the stratopause. Different theoretical models have been developed to characterize the source of microbaroms, all based on the second-order non-linear interaction of ocean waves. While early theories considered an infinite ocean depth and a source radiation depending on the acoustic wave elevation angle, other works have approximated the radiation pattern as a monopole, and found a considerable effect of the water depth. This paper reviews these models and extends the previous theories to the combined effects of both finite depth ocean and source directivity in both elevation and azimuth angles. It is found that the water depth has a negligible effect for the near-horizontally propagating acoustic waves that should dominate the measured microbarom records. Another important result is that the microbarom azimuthal variation can be highly directive locally, but it generally becomes isotropic when integrated over a realistic source region.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Evaluating temporal stability of the New Zealand quasigeoid following the 2016 Kaikōura earthquake using satellite radar remote sensing
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    McCubbine J, Stagpoole V, Caratori Tontini F, et al.

    SUMMARYQuasigeoid models can be determined from surface gravity anomalies, so are sensitive to changes in the shape of the topography as well as changes in gravity. Here we present results of forward modelling gravity/quasigeoid changes from synthetic aperture radar data following the 2016 Mw 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake with land uplift of up to 10 m. We assess the impact of the topographic deformation on the reference surface of the New Zealand vertical datum in lieu of costly field gravity field measurements. The most significant modelled gravity and quasigeoid changes are—2.9 mGal and 5–7 mm, respectively. We compare our forward modelled gravity signal to terrestrial gravity observation data and show that differences between the data sets have a standard deviation of ±0.1 mGal. The largest modelled change in the quasigeoid is an order of magnitude smaller than the 57.7 mm estimated precision of the most recently computed NZGeoid model over the Kaikōura region. Modelled quasigeoid changes implied by this particular deformation event are not statistically significant with respect to estimated precision of the New Zealand quasigeoid model.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Finite-frequency imaging of the global 410- and 660-km discontinuities using SS precursors
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Guo Z, Zhou Y.

    SUMMARYWe report finite-frequency imaging of the global 410- and 660-km discontinuities using boundary sensitivity kernels for traveltime measurements made on SS precursors. The application of finite-frequency sensitivity kernels overcomes resolution limits in previous studies associated with large Fresnel zones of SS precursors and their interferences with other seismic phases. In this study, we calculate the finite-frequency sensitivities of SS waves and their precursors based on a single-scattering (Born) approximation in the framework of travelling-wave mode summation. The global discontinuity surface is parametrized using a set of triangular gridpoints with a lateral spacing of about 4°, and we solve the linear finite-frequency inverse problem (2-D tomography) based on singular value decomposition (SVD). The new global models start to show a number of features that were absent (or weak) in ray-theoretical back-projection models at spherical harmonic degree l > 6. The thickness of the mantle transition zone correlates well with wave speed perturbations at a global scale, suggesting dominantly thermal origins for the lateral variations in the mantle transition zone. However, an anticorrelation between the topography of the 410-km discontinuity and wave speed variations is not observed at a global scale. Overall, the mantle transition zone is about 2–3 km thicker beneath the continents than in oceanic regions. The new models of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities show better agreement with the finite-frequency study by Lawrence & Shearer than other global models obtained using SS precursors. However, significant discrepancies between the two models exist in the Pacific Ocean and major subduction zones at spherical harmonic degree >6. This indicates the importance of accounting for wave interactions in the calculations of sensitivity kernels as well as the use of finite-frequency sensitivities in data quality control.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Ambient seismic noise tomography in west-central and Southern Brazil, characterizing the crustal structure of the Chaco-Paraná, Pantanal and Paraná basins
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Shirzad T, Assumpcao M, Bianchi M.

    SUMMARYSurface wave analysis provides important information on crustal structure, but it is challenging to obtain accurate/robust models in aseismic regions because of the lack of local earthquake records. In this paper, interstation empirical Green's functions retrieved by ambient seismic noise in 75 broad-band stations from 2016 January to 2018 September were used to study crustal structure in west-central Brazil. Fast marching method was applied to calculate the 2-D surface wave tomographic maps, and local dispersion curves were estimated in the period range of 4–80 s for each geographic cell. 1-D damped least squares inversion method was then conducted to obtained shear wave velocity model. Finally, the average ($\tilde{\rm V}$S) of the calculated VSV and VSH quasi 3-D models were used to characterize the crustal structure. Besides the checkerboard test resolution, a stochastic test with the effect of errors in the dispersion curves and choice of inversion parameters were carried out to better evaluate model uncertainties. Our results show a clear relation between the sedimentary thickness and geological units with the shorter period tomographic maps. Agreement has also been observed in longer periods such as the clear N–S anomaly along the Asuncion and Rio Grande Arches representing the boundary between the Chaco-Paraná and the Paraná basins. A 3-D composite velocity model shows a crustal structure consisting of three main layers. Some differences in lower crustal properties were found between the Paraná and Chaco-Paraná basins, consistent with a recently postulated, gravity-derived Western Paraná suture zone. However, no high velocities along the SW–NE axis of the Paraná basin were found to confirm proposed underplating. At the eastern edge of the Pantanal basin, the thin crust seems to be associated with a very thin (or lack of) lower crustal layer, consistent with a recently proposed crustal delamination hypothesis for the formation of the Pantanal basin.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Interaction between P, S1 and S2 waves in multilayered periodic monoclinic media at low frequencies
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Stovas A, Roganov Y, Roganov V.

    SUMMARYApplication of the Floquet theorem and the matrix propagator method reduces the problem of the plane wave propagation in a periodically layered anisotropic media, to analysis of the properties of stationary envelopes of different wave modes propagating up- and downwards. We analyse the interchanging of stop- and pass-bands and their structure at low frequencies for a periodically layered medium with monoclinic symmetry. The analysis shows the effect of interaction between P,S1 and S2 wave multipliers for stop- and pass-band structure and gives insight into the wave propagation in vertically heterogeneous anisotropic media which is important in modelling and interpretation of seismic data.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Structural joint inversion on irregular meshes
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Jordi C, Doetsch J, Günther T, et al.

    SUMMARYStructural joint inversion of several data sets on an irregular mesh requires appropriate coupling operators. To date, joint inversion algorithms are primarily designed for the use on regular rectilinear grids and impose structural similarity in the direct neighbourhood of a cell only. We introduce a novel scheme for calculating cross-gradient operators based on a correlation model that allows to define the operator size by imposing physical length scales. We demonstrate that the proposed cross-gradient operators are largely decoupled from the discretization of the modelling domain, which is particularly important for irregular meshes where cell sizes vary. Our structural joint inversion algorithm is applied to a synthetic electrical resistivity tomography and ground penetrating radar 3-D cross-well experiment aiming at imaging two anomalous bodies and extracting the parameter distribution of the geostatistical background models. For both tasks, joint inversion produced superior results compared with individual inversions of the two data sets. Finally, we applied structural joint inversion to two field data sets recorded over a karstified limestone area. By including geological a priori information via the correlation-based operators into the joint inversion, we find P-wave velocity and electrical resistivity tomograms that are in accordance with the expected subsurface geology.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • What can P-wave polarization direction data tell us about subsurface velocity structures?
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Jing X, Li L.

    SUMMARYAs seismic waves propagate in the Earth, the directions of particle motions are affected by the media that they encounter, and thus seismic wave polarization direction carries the information on the media. So far there remains unclear about what can be inferred from the P-wave polarization direction data. For clarifying it, we discuss the mapping relation between polarization direction and velocity distribution. It is found that the velocity model cannot be derived uniquely from the polarization direction data. By analysing the relation between slowness vectors of the seismic ray at the source and the receiver, we find that relative velocity gradient is the physical quantity that describes the capability to deflect seismic rays in a continuous medium. The equation describing the relation between polarization direction and relative velocity gradient is given. For imaging relative velocity gradients, we derive the calculation formula for the partial derivative of polarization direction with respect to velocity gradient parameters. Synthetic experiments are conducted. The test results demonstrate that the absolute velocity model cannot be recovered from P-wave polarization direction data, but the relative velocity gradient model can. Polarization direction tomography gives a way to build gradient maps for the geometric characteristic of the subsurface velocity structures.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • On the use of the coda of seismic noise autocorrelations to compute H/V spectral ratios
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Tchawe F, Froment B, Campillo M, et al.

    SUMMARYThe horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) of seismic ambient noise has been proven to be a fast and efficient method for characterizing the 1-D resonance frequency of the local subsurface in a practical framework. Over the last decades, theories have been developed in order to extend the exploitation of HVSR beside the frequency of its first peak, notably the diffuse field assumption (DFA) which links the HVSR to the Green’s function of the local medium assuming the diffuseness of the seismic ambient noise wavefield. However, the underlying assumption of the seismic ambient noise being a diffuse, equipartitioned field may not be satisfied under certain circumstances. In order to exploit the contribution of scattering in forging diffuse wave fields, we leverage the advantages of coda waves and present a novel procedure for computing the HVSR, using the coda part of ambient noise correlations. We applied this technique to data gathered at the plio-quaternary sedimentary basin of Argostoli, Greece. Results on this data set show the potential of the method to improve the temporal stability of the HVSR measurements compared to the classical computation, and the fit with the theoretical HVSR curve derived from the DFA theory. These results suggest that this procedure could help in extracting physical information from the HVSR and thus could lead to an extended use of these measurements to characterize the mechanical properties of the medium.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • A simple and general macroscopic model for local-deformation effects in fluid-saturated porous rock
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Deng W, Morozov I.

    SUMMARYWave-induced fluid flows (WIFF) can be viewed as cases of broader local-deformation (LD) phenomena and represent the principal causes of seismic-wave attenuation in fluid-saturated porous rock. Most existing WIFF models refer to greatly simplified microstructures and specific flow patterns, such as planar divergent flows within thin cracks (squirt flows, SF) or flows within patchy-saturation zones. However, such microstructures represent only idealized mathematical models that may be impossible to consistently identify within a given rock. At the same time, most details of such microstructures are insignificant for seismic waves, which are only sensitive to averaged properties of the medium. To perform microstructure-independent modelling of LD effects, we develop a simple yet general approach based entirely on a macroscopic local-deformation variable. This variable is broadly analogous to Biot's fluid content and is illustrated for two specific microstructural models. The macroscopic model is Biot-consistent and uses only time- and frequency-independent material properties. Both local and global (Biot's) pore flows and all types of waves and deformations are explained in a rigorous and consistent manner. The model allows constraining a minimal set of material properties responsible for all observed elastic and anelastic effects in porous rock. Because of making no assumptions about the microstructures and their spatial scales, this approach should comprise at least some of the existing WIFF models. In particular, this model accurately reproduces all attenuation and velocity dispersion spectra predicted by a broadly used SF model. The model also contains effects not considered previously, such as bulk viscosity of pore fluid and viscous coupling between the rock frame and fluid-filled pores. The model offers straightforward extensions to multiple porosities and cases of viscous fluids in primary pores. Based on the resulting differential equations, physically consistent schemes for numerical modelling of seismic wavefields can be developed for porous rock with arbitrary LD effects.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Strain energy released by earthquake faulting with random slip components
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Saito T, Noda A.

    SUMMARYThis study investigates the strain energy change caused by earthquake faulting. While conventional theories often assumed uniform stress change on the fault plane, this study supposed the slip fluctuation and non-uniform stress change on the fault. By using a stochastic modelling of the slip distribution, we represent the ensemble average of the strain energy change by using the power spectral density function of the slip fluctuation. This yields the following results. (1) When the initial stress is uniform and the earthquake contains a fluctuating slip distribution, the released strain energy is less than the one by an earthquake with the uniform stress change on the fault with the same seismic moment. (2) On the other hand, when the initial stress is fluctuating, the earthquake contains a fluctuating slip distribution, and the final stress is uniform, the released strain energy is more than the one by an earthquake with the uniform stress change on the fault. (3) The stress drop becomes large due to the fluctuating slip distribution from the viewpoint of the strain energy release. We derived the analytical solution of the stress change by using the power spectral density function of the random slip fluctuation. (4) The strain energy change is proportional to the seismic moment when ${\epsilon ^2}/a \propto {( {{M_0}} )^{ - 1/3}}$ (${\epsilon ^2}$ is the variance of the fractional slip fluctuation and $a$ is the correlation distance). (5) The energy balance gives the value of initial stress that is required for the earthquake generation. In order to generate an earthquake, the initial stress needs to be larger than the sum of half of the stress drop and the apparent stress. In other words, earthquakes having rich short-wavelength components in the slip distribution are not generated under a low initial stress level.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Electromagnetic modelling with topography on regular grids with equivalent materials
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Kamm J, Becken M, Abreu R.

    SUMMARYMaxwell’s equations are valid regardless of the choice of the coordinate system. By this property a change of coordinates can be equivalently expressed as a change of the material parameters. This idea opens a new approach to the problem of accurate electromagnetic modelling in the vicinity of steep topography or bathymetry. Via a change of coordinates, any earth model with complicated layer interfaces can be represented by an equivalent model where those interfaces are flat, but with its materials correspondingly altered. This new model could then be discretized on a regular mesh and fields could be computed by an appropriate finite difference or integral equation code. Unfortunately, this is not straightforward because both the new electric and magnetic materials are fully anisotropic. By instead applying a finite element secondary field approach to the equivalent model, we can completely account for the topography interface in the planar layered background model. The only modification required to existing finite element formulations is a slightly more complicated right-hand side of the linear system of equations, whereas the system matrix is unchanged in any coordinate system. In a numerical modelling experiment we confirm that our technique gives increased accuracy when compared with a recently published technique for dealing with topography in a secondary field formulation for the case of a magnetotelluric source field. In turn, in the vicinity of conductivity anomalies, accuracy can also be negatively affected.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Ultra-low palaeointensities from East European Craton, Ukraine support a globally anomalous palaeomagnetic field in the Ediacaran
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Shcherbakova V, Bakhmutov V, Thallner D, et al.

    SUMMARYThe time-averaged geomagnetic field is generally purported to be uniformitarian across Earth history—close to a geocentric axial dipole, with average strength within one order of magnitude of that at present. Nevertheless, recent studies have reported that the field was approximately ten times weaker than present in the mid-Palaeozoic (∼410–360 Ma) and late Ediacaran (∼565 Ma). Here we present the first whole-rock palaeointensity determinations of Ediacaran age outside of Laurentia. These were obtained by the Thellier-Coe, Wilson and microwave methods for basaltic rocks of 560–580 Ma age of the Ediacaran traps, southwestern margin of the East European Craton, Ukraine. All four studied sites showed extremely low instantaneous field values of (3–7) μT with corresponding VDMs of (0.4–1) × 1022 Am2. Summarizing all available data, the Ediacaran field appears to be anomalously characterized by ultra-low dipole moment and ultra-high reversal frequency. According to some geodynamo models, this state could indicate a weak dipole field regime prior to the nucleation of the solid inner core. However, given that ultra-low field intensities have also been detected in the Devonian, and that virtually no palaeointensity data exist for the intervening ∼150 Ma, the date of inner core nucleation remains extremely uncertain. Our new evidence of persistent ultra-weak magnetospheric shielding in the Ediacaran may be considered consistent with the recently hypothesized link between enhanced UV-B radiation in this interval and the subsequent Cambrian evolutionary radiation.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Geodetic evidence for shallow creep along the Quito fault, Ecuador
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Mariniere J, Nocquet J, Beauval C, et al.

    SUMMARYQuito, the capital city of Ecuador hosting ∼2 million inhabitants, lies on the hanging wall of a ∼60-km-long reverse fault offsetting the Inter-Andean Valley in the northern Andes. Such an active fault poses a significant risk, enhanced by the high density of population and overall poor building construction quality. Here, we constrain the present-day strain accumulation associated with the Quito fault with new Global Positioning System (GPS) data and Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) analysis. Far field GPS data indicate 3–5 mm yr–1 of horizontal shortening accommodated across the fault system. In the central segment of the fault, both GPS and PS-InSAR results highlight a sharp velocity gradient, which attests for creep taking place along the shallowest portion of the fault. Smoother velocity gradients observed along the other segments indicate that the amount of shallow creep decreases north and south of the central segment. 2-D elastic models using GPS horizontal velocity indicate very shallow (<1 km) locking depth for the central segment, increasing to a few kilometres south and north of it. Including InSAR results in the inversion requires locking to vary both along dip and along strike. 3-D spatially variable locking models show that shallow creep occurs along the central 20-km-long segment. North and south of the central segment, the interseismic coupling is less resolved, and data still allows significant slip deficit to accumulate. Using the interseismic moment deficit buildup resulting from our inversions and the seismicity rate, we estimate recurrence time for magnitude 6.5 + earthquake to be between 200 and 1200 yr. Finally, PS-InSAR time-series identify a 2 cm transient deformation that occurred on a secondary thrust, east of the main Quito fault between 1995 and 1997.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Upper-plate structure in Ecuador coincident with the subduction of the Carnegie Ridge and the southern extent of large mega-thrust earthquakes
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Lynner C, Koch C, Beck S, et al.

    SUMMARYThe Ecuadorian convergent margin has experienced many large mega-thrust earthquakes in the past century, beginning with a 1906 event that propagated along as much as 500 km of the plate interface. Many subsections of the 1906 rupture area have subsequently produced Mw ≥ 7.7 events, culminating in the 16 April 2016, Mw 7.8 Pedernales earthquake. Interestingly, no large historic events Mw ≥ 7.7 appear to have propagated southward of ∼1°S, which coincides with the subduction of the Carnegie Ridge. We combine data from temporary seismic stations deployed following the Pedernales earthquake with data recorded by the permanent stations of the Ecuadorian national seismic network to discern the velocity structure of the Ecuadorian forearc and Cordillera using ambient noise tomography. Ambient noise tomography extracts Vsv information from the ambient noise wavefield and provides detailed constraints on velocity structures in the crust and upper mantle. In the upper 10 km of the Ecuadorian forearc, we see evidence of the deepest portions of the sedimentary basins in the region, the Progreso and Manabí basins. At depths below 30 km, we observe a sharp delineation between accreted fast forearc terranes and the thick crust of the Ecuadorian Andes. At depths ∼20 km, we see a strong fast velocity anomaly that coincides with the subducting Carnegie Ridge as well as the southern boundary of large mega-thrust earthquakes. Our observations raise the possibility that upper-plate structure, in addition to the subducting Carnegie Ridge, plays a role in the large event segmentation seen along the Ecuadorian margin.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Mitigating elastic effects in marine 3-D full-waveform inversion
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Agudo Ò, da Silva N, Stronge G, et al.

    SUMMARYThe potential of full-waveform inversion (FWI) to recover high-resolution velocity models of the subsurface has been demonstrated in the last decades with its application to field data. But in certain geological scenarios, conventional FWI using the acoustic wave equation fails in recovering accurate models due to the presence of strong elastic effects, as the acoustic wave equation only accounts for compressional waves. This becomes more critical when dealing with land data sets, in which elastic effects are generated at the source and recorded directly by the receivers. In marine settings, in which sources and receivers are typically within the water layer, elastic effects are weaker but can be observed most easily as double mode conversions and through their effect on P-wave amplitudes. Ignoring these elastic effects can have a detrimental impact on the accuracy of the recovered velocity models, even in marine data sets. Ideally, the elastic wave equation should be used to model wave propagation, and FWI should aim to recover anisotropic models of velocity for P waves (vp) and S waves (vs). However, routine three-dimensional elastic FWI is still commercially impractical due to the elevated computational cost of modelling elastic wave propagation in regions with low S-wave velocity near the seabed. Moreover, elastic FWI using local optimization methods suffers from cross-talk between different inverted parameters. This generally leads to incorrect estimation of subsurface models, requiring an estimate of vp/vs that is rarely known beforehand. Here we illustrate how neglecting elasticity during FWI for a marine field data set that contains especially strong elastic heterogeneities can lead to an incorrect estimation of the P-wave velocity model. We then demonstrate a practical approach to mitigate elastic effects in 3-D yielding improved estimates, consisting of using a global inversion algorithm to estimate a model of vp/vs, employing matching filters to remove elastic effects from the field data, and performing acoustic FWI of the resulting data set. The quality of the recovered models is assessed by exploring the continuity of the events in the migrated sections and the fit of the latter with the recovered velocity model.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Thermal softening induced subduction initiation at a passive margin
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Kiss D, Candioti L, Duretz T, et al.

    SUMMARYWe present 2-D numerical simulations of convergence at a hyperextended passive margin with exhumed subcontinental mantle. We consider viscoelasto-plastic deformation, heat transfer and thermomechanical coupling by shear heating and associated thermal softening due to temperature dependent viscosity. The simulations show subduction initiation for convergence velocities of 2 cm yr−1, initial Moho temperatures of 525 °C and maximal deviatoric stresses of ca. 800 MPa, around the Moho, prior to localization. Subduction initiates in the region with thinned continental crust and is controlled by a thermally activated ductile shear zone in the mantle lithosphere. The shear zone temperature can be predicted with a recently published analytical expression. The criterion for subduction initiation is a temperature difference of at least 225 °C between predicted temperature and initial Moho temperature. The modelled forced subduction broadly agrees with geological data and reconstructions of subduction during closure of the Piemont-Liguria basin, caused by convergence of the European and Adriatic plates during the Alpine orogeny.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Erratum: Exploratory use of periodic pumping tests for hydraulic characterization of faults
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Cheng Y, Renner J.

    AddendaErrataEuropeFourier analysisFracture and flowHydrothermal systemsMechanicsand ModellingNumerical modellingTheory

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Upper mantle deformation signatures of craton–orogen interaction in the Carpathian–Pannonian region from SKS anisotropy analysis
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Petrescu L, Stuart G, Houseman G, et al.

    SUMMARYSince the Mesozoic, central and eastern European tectonics have been dominated by the closure of the Tethyan Ocean as the African and European plates collided. In the Miocene, the edge of the East European Craton and Moesian Platform were reworked in collision during the Carpathian orogeny and lithospheric extension formed the Pannonian Basin. To investigate the mantle deformation signatures associated with this complex collisional-extensional system, we carry out SKS splitting analysis at 123 broad-band seismic stations in the region. We compare our measurements with estimates of lithospheric thickness and recent seismic tomography models to test for correlation with mantle heterogeneities. Reviewing splitting delay times in light of xenolith measurements of anisotropy yields estimates of anisotropic layer thickness. Fast polarization directions are mostly NW–SE oriented across the seismically slow West Carpathians and Pannonian Basin and are independent of geological boundaries, absolute plate motion direction or an expected palaeo-slab roll-back path. Instead, they are systematically orthogonal to maximum stress directions, implying that the indenting Adria Plate, the leading deformational force in Central Europe, reset the upper-mantle mineral fabric in the past 5 Ma beneath the Pannonian Basin, overprinting the anisotropic signature of earlier tectonic events. Towards the east, fast polarization directions are perpendicular to steep gradients of lithospheric thickness and align along the edges of fast seismic anomalies beneath the Precambrian-aged Moesian Platform in the South Carpathians and the East European Craton, supporting the idea that craton roots exert a strong influence on the surrounding mantle flow. Within the Moesian Platform, SKS measurements become more variable with Fresnel zone arguments indicating a shallow fossil lithospheric source of anisotropy likely caused by older tectonic deformation frozen in the Precambrian. In the Southeast Carpathian corner, in the Vrancea Seismic Zone, a lithospheric fragment that sinks into the mantle is sandwiched between two slow anomalies, but smaller SKS delay times reveal weaker anisotropy occurs mainly to the NW side, consistent with asymmetric upwelling adjacent to a slab, slower mantle velocities and recent volcanism.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Accounting for spatiotemporal correlations of GNSS coordinate time series to estimate station velocities
    J. Geodyn. (IF 2.813) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    C. Benoist; X. Collilieux; P. Rebischung; Z. Altamimi; O. Jamet; L. Métivier; K. Chanard; L. Bel

    It is well known that GNSS permanent station coordinate time series exhibit time-correlated noise. Spatial correlations between coordinate time series of nearby stations are also long-established and generally handled by means of spatial filtering techniques. Accounting for both the temporal and spatial correlations of the noise via a spatiotemporal covariance model is however not yet a common practice. We demonstrate in this paper the interest of using such a spatiotemporal covariance model of the stochastic variations in GNSS time series in order to estimate long-term station coordinates and especially velocities. We provide a methodology to rigorously assess the covariances between horizontal coordinate variations and use it to derive a simple exponential spatiotemporal covariance model for the stochastic variations in the IGS repro2 station coordinate time series. We then use this model to estimate station velocities for two selected datasets of 10 time series in Europe and 11 time series in the USA. We show that coordinate prediction as well as velocity determination from short time series are improved when using this spatiotemporal model, as compared with the case where spatiotemporal correlations are ignored.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Simple hysteresis loop model for rock magnetic analysis
    Stud. Geophys. Geod. (IF 1.293) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Carlos A. Vasquez, Sabrina Y. Fazzito

    Abstract A simple phenomenological model founded on Lorentzian functions is evaluated on the first derivative of magnetic hysteresis loops from several artificial samples with iron oxide/oxyhydroxide mixtures imitating natural sediments. The approach, which shows that hysteresis loops can be described by elementary analytical functions and provides estimates of magnetization parameters to a satisfactory degree of confidence, is applied with the help of standard data analysis software. Distorted hysteresis loops (wasp-waisted, goose-necked and pot-bellied shaped) from simulations and artificial samples from a previous work are reproduced by the model which allows to straightforwardly unmix the ferromagnetic signal from different minerals like magnetite, greigite, haematite and goethite. The analyses reveal that the contribution from the ferrimagnetic fraction, though present in a minor concentration (≤2.15 wt%), dominates the magnetization.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Use of the radiocarbon method for dating of skeletal remains of a mass grave (Brno, the Czech Republic)
    Stud. Geophys. Geod. (IF 1.293) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Kateřina Vymazalová, Lenka Vargová, Ladislava Horáčková, Jiří Kala, Michal Přichystal, Ivo Světlík, Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová, Veronika Brychová

    The dating of skeletal remains in archaeology is difficult, especially at findings without burial equipment. In this case, apart from literary and iconographic sources, anthropological and palaeopathological analyses, the radiocarbon dating method can also be used. We present an example where we used this procedure in the dating of the skeletal remains of an anonymous recent mass grave, found in the cellars of one of the houses in Brno (Czech Republic). On the basis of an assessment of the archaeological and anthropological context, in combination with radiocarbon dating, it could be concluded that the found skeletal remains were most likely of soldiers who died in the provisional military hospital as a result of injury or infection after the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. An alternative hypothesis, that they are the remains of soldiers who died in the Battle of Hradec Králové in 1866, was excluded by radiocarbon dating.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Geodynamic nature of the Okhotsk Sea lithosphere. An overview of seismic constraints
    Tectonophysics (IF 2.764) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Nina I. Pavlenkova; Sergey N. Kashubin; Tamara S. Sakoulina; Galina A. Pavlenkova

    A combined interpretation of the geological, seismological and active-source seismic data in the Okhotsk Sea (Sea of Okhotsk) region allows describing the structure and geodynamics of this transition zone between the continent and the ocean. The interpreted data on the crust and uppermost mantle structure of this region are based on the recent seismic profiles with detailed system of observation carried out during the last decades in the Okhotsk Sea. Large air guns and 119 ocean bottom stations were used to study the lithosphere structure of beneath the sea down to 70 km depth. Detailed P- and S-waves interpretation methods were applied for these profiles. The study shows the Okhotsk Sea crust to be of the continental type composed mainly of the felsic rocks. Only within the elongated basin along the Kuril island arc, the crust thickness is reduced and the velocities increased to the values typical for the oceanic crust. The new seismic data are also obtained on the upper mantle structure. The detailed mathematical modeling of the observed mantle waves revealed unusual type of the wide angle reflections recorded at the first arrivals which previously interpreted as refractions. As a result, two reflective boundaries M and M1 are revealed beneath the sea depression, with velocities of 7.9 and 8.0 km/s. Along the Sakhalin Island a deep mantle fault was traced down to the depth of 70 km. This deep fault is traced in the north-south direction far into the Pacific ocean and into the east Asia. The seismological data show the Okhotsk Sea to be surrounded by deep faults of global nature. In addition to the Kuril arc zone limiting the sea depression in the eastern part, the deep Magadan fault separates the depression from the continent. These data suggest the Okhotsk Sea region as a separate micro-plate of the continental type.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Heterogeneous oceanic mass distribution in GRACE observations and its leakage effect
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Yi S, Heki K.

    SummarySignal leakage between the land and ocean is a challenge in using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observation data to study global mass redistributions. Although the leakage occurs in both directions, more attention has been paid to the land-to-ocean leakage and less to the ocean-to-land leakage. Here, we show that the ocean-to-land leakage is non-uniform and non-negligible and propose a new forward modeling method to fully consider bi-directional leakages with the help of the global Ocean ReAnalysis System ORAS5. This observation-driven model could significantly reduce the variations in ocean grids and thus decrease the ocean-to-land leakage. The results with different treatment of the ocean signal leakage are compared. We find that failing to consider the ocean-to-land leakage will cause an underestimation of ∼20 per cent in the seasonal variation and will introduce a bias of several giga-tons in the secular trend. Although the uniform and non-uniform model have similar results in the global average of seasonal mass variations, the non-uniform ocean model is necessary in most places, especially near the Arctic Ocean, the Sea of Japan and the Gulf of Carpentaria. Despite these achievements, we also point out that there is still much room for improvement in ocean mass models, particularly in long-term trends. Our results indicate the importance of the ocean-to-land leakage correction in the mass estimation in coastal land areas using the GRACE data.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • A Rapid Four-Dimensional Resistivity Data Inversion Method using Temporal Segmentation
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Liu B, Pang Y, Mao D, et al.

    SummaryFour-dimensional (4D) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), an important geophysical method, is widely used to observe dynamic processes within static subsurface structures. However, because data acquisition and inversion consume large amounts of time, rapid changes that occur in the medium during a single acquisition cycle are difficult to detect in a timely manner via 4D inversion. To address this issue, a scheme is proposed in this paper for restructuring continuously measured datasets and performing GPU-parallelized inversion. In this scheme, multiple reference time points are selected in an acquisition cycle, which allows all of the acquired data to be sequentially utilized in a 4D inversion. In addition, the response of the 4D inversion to changes in the medium has been enhanced by increasing the weight of new data being added dynamically to the inversion process. To improve the reliability of the inversion, our scheme uses actively varied time-regularization coefficients, which are adjusted according to the range of the changes in model resistivity; this range is predicted by taking the ratio between the independent inversion of the current dataset and historical 4D inversion model. Numerical simulations and experiments show that this new 4D inversion method is able to locate and depict rapid changes in medium resistivity with a high level of accuracy.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • A database of damaging small-to-medium magnitude earthquakes
    J. Seismol. (IF 1.494) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Cecilia I. Nievas, Julian J. Bommer, Helen Crowley, Jan van Elk, Michail Ntinalexis, Marialuigia Sangirardi

    Interest in small-to-medium magnitude earthquakes and their potential consequences has increased significantly in recent years, mostly due to the occurrence of some unusually damaging small events, the development of seismic risk assessment methodologies for existing building stock, and the recognition of the potential risk of induced seismicity. As part of a clear ongoing effort of the earthquake engineering community to develop knowledge on the risk posed by smaller events, a global database of earthquakes with moment magnitudes in the range from 4.0 to 5.5 for which damage and/or casualties have been reported has been compiled and is made publicly available. The two main purposes were to facilitate studies on the potential for earthquakes in this magnitude range to cause material damage and to carry out a statistical study to characterise the frequency with which earthquakes of this size cause damage and/or casualties (published separately). The present paper describes the data sources and process followed for the compilation of the database, while providing critical discussions on the challenges encountered and decisions made, which are of relevance for its interpretation and use. The geographic, temporal, and magnitude distributions of the 1958 earthquakes that make up the database are presented alongside the general statistics on damage and casualties, noting that these stem from a variety of sources of differing reliability. Despite its inherent limitations, we believe it is an important contribution to the understanding of the extent of the consequences that may arise from earthquakes in the magnitude range of study.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Volcanic edifice slip events recorded on the fault plane of the San Andrés Landslide, El Hierro, Canary Islands
    Tectonophysics (IF 2.764) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jan Blahůt; Ivanka Mitrovic-Woodell; Ivo Baroň; Miloš René; Matt Rowberry; Pierre-Henri Blard; Filip Hartvich; Jan Balek; Stavros Meletlidis

    Volcanic flank collapses often result in giant debris avalanches that are capable of travelling tens of kilometres across the ocean floor and generating tsunamis that devastate distant communities. The San Andrés Landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, represents one of the few places in the world where it is possible to investigate the landslide mass and fault planes of a volcanic collapse structure. In this study, a new conceptual model for the development of this enormous slump is presented on the basis of structural geological and geomorphological measurements, petrological and microstructural analyses, and cosmogenic radionuclide dating. Structural geological and geomorphological measurements indicate that the fault plane records two distinct events. Petrological and microstructural analyses demonstrate that a thin layer of frictionite covers the surface of the fault in contact with an oxidised tectonic breccia that transitions into the underlying undeformed basanite host rock. This frictionite comprises a heterogeneous cataclastic layer and a translucent silica layer that are interpreted to represent two separate slip events on the basis of their architecture and crosscutting relationships. Cosmogenic 3He dating reveals a maximum exposure age of 183 ± 17 ka to 52 ± 17 ka. Arguments are presented in support of the idea that the first slip event took place between 545 ka and 430 ka, prior to significant clockwise rotation of El Hierro, and the second slip event took place between 183 ka and 52 ka, perhaps in association with one of the giant debris avalanches that occurred around that time. This is the first time that more than one slip event has been recognised from the fault plane of the San Andrés Landslide. It is also believed to be the first time a silica layer resulting from frictional melt has been described in a volcanic setting.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Crustal structure and erosion of the Lofoten/Vesterålen shelf, northern Norwegian margin
    Tectonophysics (IF 2.764) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Asbjørn Johan Breivik; Jan Inge Faleide; Rolf Mjelde; Ernst R. Flueh; Yoshio Murai

    The Norwegian continental shelf has been through several rift phases since the Caledonian orogeny. Early Cretaceous rifting created the largest sedimentary basins, and Early Cenozoic continental breakup between East Greenland and Europe affected the continental shelf to various degrees. The Lofoten/Vesterålen shelf is located off Northern Norway, bordering the epicontinental Barents Sea to the northeast, and the deep-water Lofoten Basin to the west. An ocean bottom seismometer/hydrophone (OBS) survey was conducted over the shelf and margin areas in 2003 to constrain crustal structure and margin development. This study presents Profile 8-03, located between the islands of Lofoten/Vesterålen and the shelf edge. The wide-angle seismic data were modeled using forward raytracing to build a crustal velocity-depth transect. Gravity modeling was used to resolve an ambiguity in seismic Moho identification in the southwestern part. Results show a crustal thickness of ∼31 km, significantly thicker than what a vintage land station based study suggested. Profile 8-03 and other OBS profiles to the southwest show high sedimentary velocities at or near the seafloor, increasing rapidly with depth. Sedimentary velocities were compared to the velocity-depth function derived from an OBS profile at the Barents Sea margin, tied to a coincident well log, where there is little erosion. Results from this profile and the crossing Profile 6-03 (Breivik et al. 2017) indicate three major erosion episodes; Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, tentatively mid-Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous-early Cenozoic, and a minor late glacial erosion episode off Vesterålen.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Age of metamorphism and deformation in the Montagne Noire dome (French Massif Central): Tapping into the memory of fine-grained gneisses using monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology
    Tectonophysics (IF 2.764) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Françoise Roger; Christian Teyssier; Donna L. Whitney; Jean-Patrick Respaut; Jean-Louis Paquette; Patrice F. Rey
    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Paleoslab and plume signatures in the mantle transition zone beneath Eastern Himalaya and adjoining regions
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Saikia D, Kumar M, Singh A.

    SummaryA comprehensive data set of 73876 high quality receiver functions computed using waveforms recorded by 327 broadband seismic stations is used to investigate the mantle transition zone (MTZ) structure beneath the eastern Himalaya, southern Tibet, Assam valley and the previously unexplored Burmese arc and Bengal basin regions. A highly variable and perturbed mantle transition zone, with depressed 410 and 660 km discontinuities, is observed beneath the Bengal basin and to the east of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. The 410 is elevated by ∼10 km along the Himalayan collision front, while it deviates in the range of ± 5 km beneath most parts of Tibet and the Himalayan Foredeep. In northern Tibet and along the Red River Fault, delayed conversions from the 410 reveal a deepening of more than 10 km. The 410 and 660 km discontinuities are uplifted by nearly 10 km beneath the Arunachal Himalaya, due to the presence of a subducting Indian lithosphere, as evident in the regional tomographic images. We observe a thick (> 20 km) transition zone beneath the Burmese Arc and close to the Tengchong volcano. An uplifted 410 together with a depressed 660 km discontinuity requires presence of lithospheric slabs within the MTZ. Delayed P-to-s conversions from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities in the proximity of the Jinsha suture zone seem to be consistent with the earlier results that invoke flow of a hot Tibetan asthenosphere into the mantle transition zone, as an explanation. Interestingly, results from the Bengal basin reveal a deepening (∼ 10 km) of both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities. Similar results from other plume affected regions prompt us to interpret this as a signature of the Kergulean plume.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Transition from continental rift to back-arc basin in the southern Japan Sea deduced from seismic velocity structures
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Sato T, No T, Arai R, et al.

    SummaryWe obtain the crustal structure from active-source seismic surveys using ocean bottom seismographs and seismic shots to elucidate the evolutionary process from continental rifting to the back-arc basin opening in the Yamato Basin and Oki Trough in the southern Japan Sea. Results show that the crust changes from approximately 14–15 km thick in the basin (the southern Yamato Basin) to 16.5–17 km in the margin of the basin (the southwestern edge of the Yamato Basin). The P-wave velocity distribution in the crust of the southern Yamato Basin is missing a typical continental upper crust with P-wave velocities of 5.4–6.0 km/s, and is thought be a thicker oceanic crust formed by a back-arc basin opening. By contrast, the crust of the southwestern edge of the Yamato Basin might have been formed by continental rifting because there is an unit with P-wave velocities of 5.4–6.0 km/s and with a gentle velocity gradients, corresponding to the continental upper crust in this area. This variation might reflect differences in mantle properties from continental rifting to back-arc basin opening of the Yamato Basin. Because the Oki Trough has a crustal thickness of 17–19 km and having a unit with P-wave velocities of 5.4–6.0 km/s, corresponding to the continental upper crust with a high-velocity lower crust, we infer that this trough was formed by continental rifting with magmatic intrusion or underplating. These crustal variations might reflect transitional stages from continental rifting to back-arc basin opening in the southern Japan Sea.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Inelastic strain rate and stress fields in and around an aseismic zone of Kyushu Island, Japan, inferred from seismic and GNSS data
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yuasa Y, Matsumoto S, Nakao S, et al.

    SummaryUnderstanding earthquake processes and crustal deformation requires knowledge of the stress concentration process in the crust. With the enhancement of observation networks, it has become possible to consider in detail the relationships between localized deformation and seismic activity in island arcs and the process of stress concentration. According to previous studies, inelastic deformation in localized weak zones in the crust is considered to play an important role in the stress concentration process. Kyushu, located in southwest Japan, has a 20–30 km band-like active seismic activity and an enclosed aseismic zone. In particular, a part of the seismic active region called the Beppu-Simahara Graben, which is dominated by north-south extensional deformation, is characterized by high seismic activity and a remarkable aseismic zone. We identified the relationship between inelastic deformation and stress concentration processes in this area by using analyses of geodetic and seismic data. The results inverted from both the strain rate field obtained by the geodetic observations and the deviatoric stress field estimated from focal mechanism data reveal a large inelastic deformation zone ($\sim {10^{ - 7}}/yr$) beneath the area of active seismicity. From comparison with previous works, the inelastic deformation zone in the lower crust may correspond to an area with high temperature and/or fluid. This may suggest that inelastic deformation is in progress in the area where the strength of lower crustal rocks has reduced due to the presence of geothermics and/or fluids. Furthermore, we confirmed that this inelastic deformation causes stress concentrations of up to $10$ ${\rm{kPa}}/{\rm{yr}}$ in the upper crust. These results show that stress concentration occurs locally in the upper crust, above the inelastic deformation zone in the weakened lower crust, owing to the presence of geothermal and/or fluid; this stress concentration induces seismic activity and crustal deformation.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Dynamic Time Warping of Paleomagnetic Secular Variation Data
    Geophys. J. Int. (IF 2.777) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Hagen C, Reilly B, Stoner J, et al.

    SummaryWe present and make publicly available a dynamic programming algorithm to simultaneously align the inclination and declination vector directions of sedimentary paleomagnetic secular variation data.This algorithmgenerates a library of possible alignments through the systematic variation of assumptions about the relative accumulation rate and shared temporal overlap of two or more time-series. The paleomagnetist can then evaluate this library of reproducible and objective alignments using available geologic constraints, statistical methods, and expert knowledge.We apply the algorithm to align previously (visually) correlated medium to high accumulation rate northern North Atlantic Holocene deposits (101– 102 cm/ka) with strong radiocarbon control. The algorithm generates plausible alignments that largely conform with radiocarbon and magnetic acquisition process uncertainty. These alignments illustrate the strengths and limitations of this numerical approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • The Role of Atmospheric Processes Associated with a Flash-Flood Event Over Northwestern Turkey
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Hakki Baltaci

    This study investigates the atmospheric mechanisms triggering flash-flood event in Thrace Basin of Turkey on November 27, 2018. Underestimation of this extreme precipitation amounts by NWP global and regional models (i.e. ECMWF, ALARO, WRF) and other meteorological difficulties (i.e. complex topography, land-sea interactions) in weather forecasting disabled disaster risk reduction before the event occurred. Detailed synoptic, thermodynamic, in-situ, and remote sensing analyzing results showed that significant amount of moisture during the afternoon times of the day was transferred to the atmosphere (from ground to 300-hPa) as a consequence of the excessive heating of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) of the Aegean Sea (16.5 °C in Ayvacik-Gulpinar place, 0.9 °C above its long-term normals). Strong southwesterly wind speeds associated with slow meridional movement of mid-latitude cyclone from its origin to the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) enabled transferring of relatively warm moist air to the land areas of Thrace Region (> 300 km fetch distance). Strong updraft and instability conditions under developed a supercell resulted with lightning (totally 63 cloud-to-ground and 59 intra cloud) and heavy rainfall especially Suloglu, Kofcaz, and Edirne settlements with the 12-hour total amounts 160.0, 123.0, and 97.4 mm (rainfall return period ~ 100 years), respectively. Flash-flood event caused numerous injuries and the death of a person and damaged, automobiles, houses, crops, and infrastructure of the Edirne and its neighboring settlements. From Showalter, K, Total of Totals, SWEAT, and CAPE instability indices; SWEAT is most appropriate to represent high possibility of occurrence of severe thunderstorms over the Edirne province owing to low-level moisture, warm air advection and low and mid-level wind speed terms in its equation.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Closed-Form Expressions of Plane-Wave Reflection and Transmission Coefficients at a Planar Interface of Porous Media with a Normal Incident Fast P-Wave
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Dongyong Zhou, Xingyao Yin, Zhaoyun Zong

    Abstract A porous medium is composed of a rock skeleton and pore fluids, and seismic wave propagation in it will produce complex and diverse variations influenced by pores and fluids filling. It is very important to carry out the study of closed-form expressions of the plane-wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a planar interface between porous media for analyzing the properties of pores and its fluids and eventually revealing underground oil-bearing reservoirs. In this paper, based on the relationships among seismic wave functions, displacements and stresses in porous media, an exact equation of plane-wave reflection and transmission coefficients with a normal incident fast P-wave is first derived. Considering the characteristics of the parameters in a coefficient matrix of an exact equation, the closed-form expressions with clear geophysical meaning are further derived, which include three parts, the rock skeleton term, the fluid–solid coupling term and the pore fluid term. Through the establishment of two porous media models, the influence of each term in the approximate expression on the reflection characteristics of a fast P-wave is analyzed. Different approximate expressions of the reflection coefficient of a fast P-wave can be selected for oil and gas prediction of different reservoirs, which lays a foundation for the identification of gas, oil and brine.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Frequency-Domain Finite-Difference Elastic Wave Modeling in the Presence of Surface Topography
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Zhencong Zhao, Jingyi Chen, Xiaobo Liu

    Seismic numerical modeling in the presence of surface topography has become a valuable tool to characterize seismic wave propagation in basin or mountain areas. Regarding advantages of frequency-domain seismic wavefield simulations (e.g., easy implementation of multiple sources and straightforward extension of adding attenuation factors), we propose a frequency-domain finite-difference seismic wavefield simulation in 2D elastic media with an irregular free surface. In the frequency domain, we first transform second-order elastic wave equations and first-order free surface boundary conditions from the Cartesian coordinate system to the curvilinear coordinate system. Then we apply complex frequency-shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) absorbing boundary condition to second-order elastic wave equations in the curvilinear coordinate. To better couple free surface boundary conditions and CFS-PML absorbing boundary condition, we also apply the complex coordinate stretching method used in CFS-PML to free surface boundary conditions in the curvilinear coordinate. In the first numerical test, the comparison of the seismograms calculated by our algorithm with an analytical solution indicates that our algorithm can accurately simulate seismic wavefield in the frequency domain. Finally, we choose three more elastic models with different types of surface topographies to further characterize seismic wave propagation.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Spatio-temporal Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature: A Case Study Over the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Baohui Men, Zhijian Wu, Huanlong Liu, Wei Tian, Yong Zhao

    Climate change have a profound impact on the production and life of the people in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region. Precipitation and temperature are regarded as two basic components of climate. This study investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation and temperature over the region from 1960 to 2013. Different methods were used to analyze temporal variation and the results are mutually verified. Wavelet analysis was adopted to analyze the abrupt changes of precipitation and temperature. Empirical orthogonal function decomposition method was utilized to analyze the spatial distribution of temperature and precipitation. The study yielded three major findings: First, the inter-annual decrease and increase of precipitation appeared alternately in the region. Temperature was rising significantly in the last 50 years, apart from a slow reduction in the late 1970s. Second, the spatial distribution characteristics of precipitation vary due to the distance from the ocean. The increasing trend of temperature in Beijing-centered region was more obvious than that in areas away from the sea. Third, precipitation and temperature show strong correlations in change. When temperature increased, the rainfall decreased. What is more, when the temperature mutated, the precipitation also changed rapidly. The results can guide local agriculture production and provide reference for the further study of climate change.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Radiological Impact and Environmental Monitoring of Gamma Radiations Along the Public Beach of Port Said, Egypt
    Pure Appl. Geophys. (IF 1.466) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Akram Aziz, Tamer Attia, Mahmoud Hanafi

    Abstract Port Said is an Egyptian coastal city, laying on Mediterranean Sea. The city is a world-renowned international harbor and a free-trade zone. Therefore, it is one of the most popular shopping destinations in Egypt, where people can buy duty-free goods and enjoy the city’s free public beaches in summer vacations. Recent radiological hazards studies had located several high radioactive lenses along the Nile Delta coastline, resulted from accumulations of black sand deposits. Concerns had been raised regarding the safety of individuals who might be exposed to high doses of radiations due to the presence of black sand deposits along Port Said beach, especially when the beach is characterized by positive accretion rates. Detailed ground radioactivity surveys were conducted at the beach aiming to measure the activity concentrations of the naturally occurring radioelements (238U, 232Th and 40K). Spatial distributions of the three elements were mapped. Dose Rate (DR) and Annual Effective Dose Rates (AEDR) were calculated. Although the results of AEDR revealed that the radiations levels are fallen within the allowed limits, the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) factor exceeded the world’s average of 0.25. For public awareness, high-risk areas were delineated on a risk map, showing the locations where gamma radiation emissions exceeded the allowed exposure limits for humans. It is recommended to apply the same surveying procedures at all of the public beaches along Sinai coasts, where larger quantities of Black Sands had been detected along its shoreline.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
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