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  • Production of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species by Marine Biota.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Colleen M Hansel,Julia M Diaz

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced ubiquitously across the tree of life. Far from being synonymous with toxicity and harm, biological ROS production is increasingly recognized for its essential functions in signaling, growth, biological interactions, and physiochemical defense systems in a diversity of organisms, spanning microbes to mammals. Part of this shift in thinking can be attributed

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers of Acidification in Large Estuaries.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Wei-Jun Cai,Richard A Feely,Jeremy M Testa,Ming Li,Wiley Evans,Simone R Alin,Yuan-Yuan Xu,Greg Pelletier,Anise Ahmed,Dana J Greeley,Jan A Newton,Nina Bednaršek

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has changed ocean biogeochemistry and threatened the health of organisms through a process known as ocean acidification (OA). Such large-scale changes affect ecosystem functions and can have effects on societal uses, fisheries resources, and economies. In many large estuaries, anthropogenic CO2-induced acidification is enhanced

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • The Complexity of Spills: The Fate of the Deepwater Horizon Oil.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Uta Passow,Edward B Overton

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest, longest-lasting, and deepest oil accident to date in US waters. As oil and natural gas jetted from release points at 1,500-m depth in the northern Gulf of Mexico, entrainment of the surrounding ocean water into a buoyant plume, rich in soluble hydrocarbons and dispersed microdroplets of oil, created a deep (1,000-m) intrusion layer. Larger droplets of

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • The Dissolution Rate of CaCO3 in the Ocean.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Jess F Adkins,John D Naviaux,Adam V Subhas,Sijia Dong,William M Berelson

    The dissolution of CaCO3 minerals in the ocean is a fundamental part of the marine alkalinity and carbon cycles. While there have been decades of work aimed at deriving the relationship between dissolution rate and mineral saturation state (a so-called rate law), no real consensus has been reached. There are disagreements between laboratory- and field-based studies and differences in rates for inorganic

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Combining Modern and Paleoceanographic Perspectives on Ocean Heat Uptake.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Geoffrey Gebbie

    Monitoring Earth's energy imbalance requires monitoring changes in the heat content of the ocean. Recent observational estimates indicate that ocean heat uptake is accelerating in the twenty-first century. Examination of estimates of ocean heat uptake over the industrial era, the Common Era of the last 2,000 years, and the period since the Last Glacial Maximum, 20,000 years ago, permits a wide perspective

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Emerging Solutions to Return Nature to the Urban Ocean.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Laura Airoldi,Michael W Beck,Louise B Firth,Ana B Bugnot,Peter D Steinberg,Katherine A Dafforn

    Urban and periurban ocean developments impact 1.5% of the global exclusive economic zones, and the demand for ocean space and resources is increasing. As we strive for a more sustainable future, it is imperative that we better design, manage, and conserve urban ocean spaces for both humans and nature. We identify three key objectives for more sustainable urban oceans: reduction of urban pressures,

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Incorporating Biological Traits into Conservation Strategies.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Marta Miatta,Amanda E Bates,Paul V R Snelgrove

    Implementation of marine conservation strategies, such as increasing the numbers, extent, and effectiveness of protected areas (PAs), can help achieve conservation and restoration of ocean health and associated goods and services. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of including aspects of ecological functioning in PA design, the physical characteristics of habitats and simple measures

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Turbulence and Coral Reefs.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Kristen A Davis,Geno Pawlak,Stephen G Monismith

    The interaction of coral reefs, both chemically and physically, with the surrounding seawater is governed, at the smallest scales, by turbulence. Here, we review recent progress in understanding turbulence in the unique setting of coral reefs-how it influences flow and the exchange of mass and momentum both above and within the complex geometry of coral reef canopies. Flow above reefs diverges from

    更新日期:2020-08-07
  • Physiological Responses of Fish to Oil Spills.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Martin Grosell,Christina Pasparakis

    Millions of tons of oil are spilled in aquatic environments every decade, and this oil has the potential to greatly impact fish populations. Here, we review available information on the physiological effects of oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on fish. Oil toxicity affects multiple biological systems, including cardiac function, cholesterol biosynthesis, peripheral and central nervous system

    更新日期:2020-08-04
  • New Microbial Biodiversity in Marine Sediments.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Brett J Baker,Kathryn E Appler,Xianzhe Gong

    Microbes in marine sediments represent a large portion of the biosphere, and resolving their ecology is crucial for understanding global ocean processes. Single-gene diversity surveys have revealed several uncultured lineages that are widespread in ocean sediments and whose ecological roles are unknown, and advancements in the computational analysis of increasingly large genomic data sets have made

    更新日期:2020-08-03
  • The Biogeochemistry of Marine Polysaccharides: Sources, Inventories, and Bacterial Drivers of the Carbohydrate Cycle.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    C Arnosti,M Wietz,T Brinkhoff,J-H Hehemann,D Probandt,L Zeugner,R Amann

    Polysaccharides are major components of macroalgal and phytoplankton biomass and constitute a large fraction of the organic matter produced and degraded in the ocean. Until recently, however, our knowledge of marine polysaccharides was limited due to their great structural complexity, the correspondingly complicated enzymatic machinery used by microbial communities to degrade them, and a lack of readily

    更新日期:2020-07-29
  • Amazon Sediment Transport and Accumulation Along the Continuum of Mixed Fluvial and Marine Processes.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Charles A Nittrouer,David J DeMaster,Steven A Kuehl,Alberto G Figueiredo,Richard W Sternberg,L Ercilio C Faria,Odete M Silveira,Mead A Allison,Gail C Kineke,Andrea S Ogston,Pedro W M Souza Filho,Nils E Asp,Daniel J Nowacki,Aaron T Fricke

    Sediment transfer from land to ocean begins in coastal settings and, for large rivers such as the Amazon, has dramatic impacts over thousands of kilometers covering diverse environmental conditions. In the relatively natural Amazon tidal river, combinations of fluvial and marine processes transition toward the ocean, affecting the transport and accumulation of sediment in floodplains and tributary

    更新日期:2020-07-07
  • Variations in Ocean Mixing from Seconds to Years.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    James N Moum

    Over the past several decades, there has developed a community-wide appreciation for the importance of mixing at the smallest scales to geophysical fluid dynamics on all scales. This appreciation has spawned greater participation in the investigation of ocean mixing and new ways to measure it. These are welcome developments given the tremendous separation in scales between the basins, 𝒪(107) m, and

    更新日期:2020-06-29
  • The Hydrodynamics of Jellyfish Swimming.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    John H Costello,Sean P Colin,John O Dabiri,Brad J Gemmell,Kelsey N Lucas,Kelly R Sutherland

    Jellyfish have provided insight into important components of animal propulsion, such as suction thrust, passive energy recapture, vortex wall effects, and the rotational mechanics of turning. These traits are critically important to jellyfish because they must propel themselves despite severe limitations on force production imposed by rudimentary cnidarian muscular structures. Consequently, jellyfish

    更新日期:2020-06-29
  • Marine Parasites and Disease in the Era of Global Climate Change.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    James E Byers

    Climate change affects ecological processes and interactions, including parasitism. Because parasites are natural components of ecological systems, as well as agents of outbreak and disease-induced mortality, it is important to summarize current knowledge of the sensitivity of parasites to climate and identify how to better predict their responses to it. This need is particularly great in marine systems

    更新日期:2020-06-10
  • Ocean Optimism: Moving Beyond the Obituaries in Marine Conservation.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Nancy Knowlton

    While the ocean has suffered many losses, there is increasing evidence that important progress is being made in marine conservation. Examples include striking recoveries of once-threatened species, increasing rates of protection of marine habitats, more sustainably managed fisheries and aquaculture, reductions in some forms of pollution, accelerating restoration of degraded habitats, and use of the

    更新日期:2020-06-05
  • Right Place, Right Time: An Informal Memoir.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Carl Wunsch

    My career spanned the revolution in understanding of the large-scale fluid ocean, as modern electronics produced vast new capabilities. I started in the days of almost purely mechanical instruments operated by seagoing scientists, ones not so different from those used more than a century earlier. Elegant theories existed of hypothetical steady-state oceans. Today, we understand that the ocean is a

    更新日期:2020-06-05
  • The Biological Pump During the Last Glacial Maximum.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Eric D Galbraith,Luke C Skinner

    Much of the global cooling during ice ages arose from changes in ocean carbon storage that lowered atmospheric CO2. A slew of mechanisms, both physical and biological, have been proposed as key drivers of these changes. Here we discuss the current understanding of these mechanisms with a focus on how they altered the theoretically defined soft-tissue and biological disequilibrium carbon storage at

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Glacial–Interglacial Precipitation Changes
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    David McGee

    Glacial–interglacial cycles have constituted a primary mode of climate variability over the last 2.6 million years of Earth's history. While glacial periods cannot be seen simply as a reverse analogue of future warming, they offer an opportunity to test our understanding of the response of precipitation patterns to a much wider range of conditions than we have been able to directly observe. This review

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Ocean Acidification and Coastal Marine Invertebrates: Tracking CO2 Effects from Seawater to the Cell
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Frank Melzner; Felix C. Mark; Brad A. Seibel; Lars Tomanek

    In the last few decades, numerous studies have investigated the impacts of simulated ocean acidification on marine species and communities, particularly those inhabiting dynamic coastal systems. Despite these research efforts, there are many gaps in our understanding, particularly with respect to physiological mechanisms that lead to pathologies. In this review, we trace how carbonate system disturbances

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Vascular Plants Are Globally Significant Contributors to Marine Carbon Fluxes and Sinks
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Simon M. Cragg; Daniel A. Friess; Lucy G. Gillis; Stacey M. Trevathan-Tackett; Oliver M. Terrett; Joy E.M. Watts; Daniel L. Distel; Paul Dupree

    More than two-thirds of global biomass consists of vascular plants. A portion of the detritus they generate is carried into the oceans from land and highly productive blue carbon ecosystems—salt marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows. This large detrital input receives scant attention in current models of the global carbon cycle, though for blue carbon ecosystems, increasingly well-constrained

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • NanoSIMS: Microscale Quantification of Biogeochemical Activity with Large-Scale Impacts
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Xavier Mayali

    One major objective of aquatic microbial ecology is to understand the distribution of microbial populations over space and time and in response to environmental factors. Perhaps more importantly, it is crucial to quantify how those microbial cells affect biogeochemical processes of interest, such as primary production, nitrogen cycling, or the breakdown of pollutants. One valuable approach to link

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Upwelling Bays: How Coastal Upwelling Controls Circulation, Habitat, and Productivity in Bays
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    John L. Largier

    Bays in coastal upwelling regions are physically driven and biochemically fueled by their interaction with open coastal waters. Wind-driven flow over the shelf imposes a circulation in the bay, which is also influenced by local wind stress and thermal bay–ocean density differences. Three types of bays are recognized based on the degree of exposure to coastal currents and winds (wide-open bays, square

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Improving Predictions of Salt Marsh Evolution Through Better Integration of Data and Models
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Patricia L. Wiberg; Sergio Fagherazzi; Matthew L. Kirwan

    Salt marshes are recognized as valuable resources that are threatened by climate change and human activities. Better management and planning for these ecosystems will depend on understanding which marshes are most vulnerable, what is driving their change, and what their future trajectory is likely to be. Both observations and models have provided inconsistent answers to these questions, likely in part

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Nutritional Ecology of Marine Apex Predators
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Gabriel E. Machovsky-Capuska; David Raubenheimer

    Apex predators play pivotal roles in marine ecosystems, mediated principally through diet and nutrition. Yet, compared with terrestrial animals, the nutritional ecology of marine predators is poorly understood. One reason is that the field has adhered to an approach that evaluates diet principally in terms of energy gain. Studies in terrestrial systems, by contrast, increasingly adopt a multidimensional

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The North Atlantic Ecosystem, from Plankton to Whales
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Andrew J. Pershing; Karen Stamieszkin

    Compared with terrestrial ecosystems, marine ecosystems have a higher proportion of heterotrophic biomass. Building from this observation, we define the North Atlantic biome as the region where the large, lipid-rich copepod Calanus finmarchicus is the dominant mesozooplankton species. This species is superbly adapted to take advantage of the intense pulse of productivity associated with the North Atlantic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Emerging Ecological and Biogeochemical Importance of Sponges on Coral Reefs
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Joseph R. Pawlik; Steven E. McMurray

    With the decline of reef-building corals on tropical reefs, sponges have emerged as an important component of changing coral reef ecosystems. Seemingly simple, sponges are highly diverse taxonomically, morphologically, and in terms of their relationships with symbiotic microbes, and they are one of nature's richest sources of novel secondary metabolites. Unlike most other benthic organisms, sponges

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Role of Symbioses in the Adaptation and Stress Responses of Marine Organisms
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Amy Apprill

    Ocean ecosystems are experiencing unprecedented rates of climate and anthropogenic change, which can often initiate stress in marine organisms. Symbioses, or associations between different organisms, are plentiful in the ocean and could play a significant role in facilitating organismal adaptations to stressful ocean conditions. This article reviews current knowledge about the role of symbiosis in

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Combining Molecular Observations and Microbial Ecosystem Modeling: A Practical Guide
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Ferdi L. Hellweger

    Advances in technologies for molecular observation are leading to novel types of data, including gene, transcript, protein, and metabolite levels, which are fundamentally different from the types traditionally compared with microbial ecosystem models, such as biomass (e.g., chlorophyll a) and nutrient concentrations. A grand challenge is to use these data to improve predictive models and use models

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Phytoplankton in the Tara Ocean.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Juan José Pierella Karlusich,Federico M Ibarbalz,Chris Bowler

    Photosynthesis evolved in the ocean more than 2 billion years ago and is now performed by a wide range of evolutionarily distinct organisms, including both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Our appreciation of their abundance, distributions, and contributions to primary production in the ocean has been increasing since they were first discovered in the seventeenth century and has now been enhanced by data

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Marine Microbial Assemblages on Microplastics: Diversity, Adaptation, and Role in Degradation
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sonja Oberbeckmann; Matthias Labrenz

    We have known for more than 45 years that microplastics in the ocean are carriers of microbially dominated assemblages. However, only recently has the role of microbial interactions with microplastics in marine ecosystems been investigated in detail. Research in this field has focused on three main areas: (a) the establishment of plastic-specific biofilms (the so-called plastisphere); (b) enrichment

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Evolution, Microbes, and Changing Ocean Conditions
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sinéad Collins; Philip W. Boyd; Martina A. Doblin

    Experimental evolution and the associated theory are underutilized in marine microbial studies; the two fields have developed largely in isolation. Here, we review evolutionary tools for addressing four key areas of ocean global change biology: linking plastic and evolutionary trait changes, the contribution of environmental variability to determining trait values, the role of multiple environmental

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Climate-Driven Shifts in Marine Species Ranges: Scaling from Organisms to Communities
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Malin L. Pinsky; Rebecca L. Selden; Zoë J. Kitchel

    The geographic distributions of marine species are changing rapidly, with leading range edges following climate poleward, deeper, and in other directions and trailing range edges often contracting in similar directions. These shifts have their roots in fine-scale interactions between organisms and their environment—including mosaics and gradients of temperature and oxygen—mediated by physiology, behavior

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Changing Tides: The Role of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Stefan A. Talke; David A. Jay

    Tides are changing worldwide at rates not explained by astronomical forcing. Rather, the observed evolution of tides and other long waves, such as storm surges, is influenced by shelf processes and changes to the roughness, depth, width, and length of embayments, estuaries, and tidal rivers. In this review, we focus on processes in estuaries and tidal rivers, because that is where the largest changes

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Antarctic Futures: An Assessment of Climate-Driven Changes in Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Service Provisioning in the Southern Ocean
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    A.D. Rogers; B.A.V. Frinault; D.K.A. Barnes; N.L. Bindoff; R. Downie; H.W. Ducklow; A.S. Friedlaender; T. Hart; S.L. Hill; E.E. Hofmann; K. Linse; C.R. McMahon; E.J. Murphy; E.A. Pakhomov; G. Reygondeau; I.J. Staniland; D.A. Wolf-Gladrow; R.M. Wright

    In this article, we analyze the impacts of climate change on Antarctic marine ecosystems. Observations demonstrate large-scale changes in the physical variables and circulation of the Southern Ocean driven by warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, and a positive Southern Annular Mode. Alterations in the physical environment are driving change through all levels of Antarctic marine food webs, which

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • GEOTRACES: Accelerating Research on the Marine Biogeochemical Cycles of Trace Elements and Their Isotopes
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Robert F. Anderson

    The biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) constitute an active area of oceanographic research due to their role as essential nutrients for marine organisms and their use as tracers of oceanographic processes. Selected TEIs also provide diagnostic information about the physical, geological, and chemical processes that supply or remove solutes in the ocean. Many of these same

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Observing the Global Ocean with Biogeochemical-Argo
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Hervé Claustre; Kenneth S. Johnson; Yuichiro Takeshita

    Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) is a network of profiling floats carrying sensors that enable observation of as many as six essential biogeochemical and bio-optical variables: oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll a, suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance. This sensor network represents today's most promising strategy for collecting temporally and vertically resolved observations of biogeochemical

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • A 50-Year Journey from Phosphate to Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Mary Jane Perry

    This narrative is a personal account of my evolution as a student of phytoplankton and the ocean. Initially I focused on phytoplankton nutrient physiology and uptake, later switching to photosynthetic physiology. Better models of photosynthesis naturally require a better understanding of spectral underwater light fields and absorption coefficients, which precipitated my involvement in the nascent field

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Upwelling Bays: How Coastal Upwelling Controls Circulation, Habitat, and Productivity in Bays.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    John L Largier

    Bays in coastal upwelling regions are physically driven and biochemically fueled by their interaction with open coastal waters. Wind-driven flow over the shelf imposes a circulation in the bay, which is also influenced by local wind stress and thermal bay-ocean density differences. Three types of bays are recognized based on the degree of exposure to coastal currents and winds (wide-open bays, square

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A 50-Year Journey from Phosphate to Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Mary Jane Perry

    This narrative is a personal account of my evolution as a student of phytoplankton and the ocean. Initially I focused on phytoplankton nutrient physiology and uptake, later switching to photosynthetic physiology. Better models of photosynthesis naturally require a better understanding of spectral underwater light fields and absorption coefficients, which precipitated my involvement in the nascent field

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vascular Plants Are Globally Significant Contributors to Marine Carbon Fluxes and Sinks.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Simon M Cragg,Daniel A Friess,Lucy G Gillis,Stacey M Trevathan-Tackett,Oliver M Terrett,Joy E M Watts,Daniel L Distel,Paul Dupree

    More than two-thirds of global biomass consists of vascular plants. A portion of the detritus they generate is carried into the oceans from land and highly productive blue carbon ecosystems-salt marshes, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows. This large detrital input receives scant attention in current models of the global carbon cycle, though for blue carbon ecosystems, increasingly well-constrained

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Climate-Driven Shifts in Marine Species Ranges: Scaling from Organisms to Communities.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Malin L Pinsky,Rebecca L Selden,Zoë J Kitchel

    The geographic distributions of marine species are changing rapidly, with leading range edges following climate poleward, deeper, and in other directions and trailing range edges often contracting in similar directions. These shifts have their roots in fine-scale interactions between organisms and their environment-including mosaics and gradients of temperature and oxygen-mediated by physiology, behavior

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Nutritional Ecology of Marine Apex Predators.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Gabriel E Machovsky-Capuska,David Raubenheimer

    Apex predators play pivotal roles in marine ecosystems, mediated principally through diet and nutrition. Yet, compared with terrestrial animals, the nutritional ecology of marine predators is poorly understood. One reason is that the field has adhered to an approach that evaluates diet principally in terms of energy gain. Studies in terrestrial systems, by contrast, increasingly adopt a multidimensional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Changing Tides: The Role of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Stefan A Talke,David A Jay

    Tides are changing worldwide at rates not explained by astronomical forcing. Rather, the observed evolution of tides and other long waves, such as storm surges, is influenced by shelf processes and changes to the roughness, depth, width, and length of embayments, estuaries, and tidal rivers. In this review, we focus on processes in estuaries and tidal rivers, because that is where the largest changes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution, Microbes, and Changing Ocean Conditions.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Sinéad Collins,Philip W Boyd,Martina A Doblin

    Experimental evolution and the associated theory are underutilized in marine microbial studies; the two fields have developed largely in isolation. Here, we review evolutionary tools for addressing four key areas of ocean global change biology: linking plastic and evolutionary trait changes, the contribution of environmental variability to determining trait values, the role of multiple environmental

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Glacial-Interglacial Precipitation Changes.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    David McGee

    Glacial-interglacial cycles have constituted a primary mode of climate variability over the last 2.6 million years of Earth's history. While glacial periods cannot be seen simply as a reverse analogue of future warming, they offer an opportunity to test our understanding of the response of precipitation patterns to a much wider range of conditions than we have been able to directly observe. This review

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ocean Acidification and Coastal Marine Invertebrates: Tracking CO2 Effects from Seawater to the Cell.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Frank Melzner,Felix C Mark,Brad A Seibel,Lars Tomanek

    In the last few decades, numerous studies have investigated the impacts of simulated ocean acidification on marine species and communities, particularly those inhabiting dynamic coastal systems. Despite these research efforts, there are many gaps in our understanding, particularly with respect to physiological mechanisms that lead to pathologies. In this review, we trace how carbonate system disturbances

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Observing the Global Ocean with Biogeochemical-Argo.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Hervé Claustre,Kenneth S Johnson,Yuichiro Takeshita

    Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) is a network of profiling floats carrying sensors that enable observation of as many as six essential biogeochemical and bio-optical variables: oxygen, nitrate, pH, chlorophyll a, suspended particles, and downwelling irradiance. This sensor network represents today's most promising strategy for collecting temporally and vertically resolved observations of biogeochemical

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • GEOTRACES: Accelerating Research on the Marine Biogeochemical Cycles of Trace Elements and Their Isotopes.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Robert F Anderson

    The biogeochemical cycles of trace elements and their isotopes (TEIs) constitute an active area of oceanographic research due to their role as essential nutrients for marine organisms and their use as tracers of oceanographic processes. Selected TEIs also provide diagnostic information about the physical, geological, and chemical processes that supply or remove solutes in the ocean. Many of these same

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antarctic Futures: An Assessment of Climate-Driven Changes in Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Service Provisioning in the Southern Ocean.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    A D Rogers,B A V Frinault,D K A Barnes,N L Bindoff,R Downie,H W Ducklow,A S Friedlaender,T Hart,S L Hill,E E Hofmann,K Linse,C R McMahon,E J Murphy,E A Pakhomov,G Reygondeau,I J Staniland,D A Wolf-Gladrow,R M Wright

    In this article, we analyze the impacts of climate change on Antarctic marine ecosystems. Observations demonstrate large-scale changes in the physical variables and circulation of the Southern Ocean driven by warming, stratospheric ozone depletion, and a positive Southern Annular Mode. Alterations in the physical environment are driving change through all levels of Antarctic marine food webs, which

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The North Atlantic Ecosystem, from Plankton to Whales.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-07-21
    Andrew J Pershing,Karen Stamieszkin

    Compared with terrestrial ecosystems, marine ecosystems have a higher proportion of heterotrophic biomass. Building from this observation, we define the North Atlantic biome as the region where the large, lipid-rich copepod Calanus finmarchicus is the dominant mesozooplankton species. This species is superbly adapted to take advantage of the intense pulse of productivity associated with the North Atlantic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • NanoSIMS: Microscale Quantification of Biogeochemical Activity with Large-Scale Impacts.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Xavier Mayali

    One major objective of aquatic microbial ecology is to understand the distribution of microbial populations over space and time and in response to environmental factors. Perhaps more importantly, it is crucial to quantify how those microbial cells affect biogeochemical processes of interest, such as primary production, nitrogen cycling, or the breakdown of pollutants. One valuable approach to link

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Role of Symbioses in the Adaptation and Stress Responses of Marine Organisms.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Amy Apprill

    Ocean ecosystems are experiencing unprecedented rates of climate and anthropogenic change, which can often initiate stress in marine organisms. Symbioses, or associations between different organisms, are plentiful in the ocean and could play a significant role in facilitating organismal adaptations to stressful ocean conditions. This article reviews current knowledge about the role of symbiosis in

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Improving Predictions of Salt Marsh Evolution Through Better Integration of Data and Models.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Patricia L Wiberg,Sergio Fagherazzi,Matthew L Kirwan

    Salt marshes are recognized as valuable resources that are threatened by climate change and human activities. Better management and planning for these ecosystems will depend on understanding which marshes are most vulnerable, what is driving their change, and what their future trajectory is likely to be. Both observations and models have provided inconsistent answers to these questions, likely in part

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Combining Molecular Observations and Microbial Ecosystem Modeling: A Practical Guide.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Ferdi L Hellweger

    Advances in technologies for molecular observation are leading to novel types of data, including gene, transcript, protein, and metabolite levels, which are fundamentally different from the types traditionally compared with microbial ecosystem models, such as biomass (e.g., chlorophyll a) and nutrient concentrations. A grand challenge is to use these data to improve predictive models and use models

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Emerging Ecological and Biogeochemical Importance of Sponges on Coral Reefs.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Joseph R Pawlik,Steven E McMurray

    With the decline of reef-building corals on tropical reefs, sponges have emerged as an important component of changing coral reef ecosystems. Seemingly simple, sponges are highly diverse taxonomically, morphologically, and in terms of their relationships with symbiotic microbes, and they are one of nature's richest sources of novel secondary metabolites. Unlike most other benthic organisms, sponges

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Marine Microbial Assemblages on Microplastics: Diversity, Adaptation, and Role in Degradation.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Sonja Oberbeckmann,Matthias Labrenz

    We have known for more than 45 years that microplastics in the ocean are carriers of microbially dominated assemblages. However, only recently has the role of microbial interactions with microplastics in marine ecosystems been investigated in detail. Research in this field has focused on three main areas: (a) the establishment of plastic-specific biofilms (the so-called plastisphere); (b) enrichment

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2018-01-04

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (IF 16.359) Pub Date : 2017-01-04

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
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