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  • Crop Origins and Phylo Food: A database and a phylogenetic tree to stimulate comparative analyses on the origins of food crops
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Rubén Milla

    Knowledge on the origins of food crops in the wild is abundant but fragmentary and unconsolidated, which hinders macroecological approaches to long‐standing questions on the phylogeography and history of crop origins.

  • Association of leaf silicon content with chronic wind exposure across and within herbaceous plant species
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Yao‐Bin Song; Yu‐Kun Hu; Xu Pan; Guo‐Fang Liu; Wei Xiong; Ming Dong; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen

    High foliar silicon (henceforth Si) concentration protects plant tissues against herbivory, but protection against several abiotic stressors has also been proposed, although the adaptive significance of these functions is still being debated. We aimed to explore the potential relationships between foliar Si content and chronic wind exposure across a large scale and multiple species and to analyse an overlooked alternative or complementary function of silicon in leaves: mechanical protection against wind.

  • Multi‐dimensional biodiversity hotspots and the future of taxonomic, ecological and phylogenetic diversity: A case study of North American rodents
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Tara M. Smiley; Pascal O. Title; Miriam L. Zelditch; Rebecca C. Terry

    We investigate geographic patterns across taxonomic, ecological and phylogenetic diversity to test for spatial (in)congruency and identify aggregate diversity hotspots in relationship to present land use and future climate. Simulating extinctions of imperilled species, we demonstrate where losses across diversity dimensions and geography are predicted.

  • Spatial variation in climate modifies effects of functional diversity on biomass dynamics in natural forests across Canada
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Masumi Hisano; Han Y. H. Chen

    Forest net biomass change (ΔAGB; the difference between biomass gain from growth and loss through mortality) determines how forests contribute to the global carbon cycle. Understanding how plant diversity affects ΔAGB in diverse abiotic conditions is crucial in the face of anthropogenic environmental change. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the effects of plant diversity on growth dependent on the abiotic context, either supporting or rejecting the stress gradient hypothesis. However, we know little about how diversity influences mortality, which prevents us from knowing how diversity affects ΔAGB in diverse abiotic conditions.

  • Unveiling geographical gradients of species richness from scant occurrence data
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Davi Mello Cunha Crescente Alves; Anderson Aires Eduardo; Eduardo Vinícius da Silva Oliveira; Fabricio Villalobos; Ricardo Dobrovolski; Taiguã Corrêa Pereira; Adauto de Souza Ribeiro; Juliana Stropp; João Fabrício Mota Rodrigues; José Alexandre F. Diniz‐Filho; Sidney F. Gouveia

    Despite longstanding investigation, the gradients of species richness remain unknown for most taxa because of shortfalls in knowledge regarding the quantity and distribution of species. Here, we explore the ability of a geostatistical interpolation model, regression‐kriging, to recover geographical gradients of species richness. We examined the technique with an in silico gradient of species richness and evaluated the effect of different configurations of knowledge shortfalls. We also took the same approach for empirical data with large knowledge gaps, the infraorder Furnariides of suboscine birds.

  • Predictability of species diversity by family diversity across global terrestrial animal taxa
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Yi Zou; Wopke van der Werf; Yunhui Liu; Jan Christoph Axmacher

    Although biodiversity is in sharp decline around the globe, collectiing precise information on changes in overall species richness remains extremely challenging. Efficient and reliable proxy methods are therefore needed, with the diversity of higher taxa representing one such potential proxy for species‐level diversity. Nonetheless, the stability of using this measure across different regions and animal taxa at the global scale has never been investigated thoroughly.

  • Functional traits explain the Hutchinsonian niches of plant species
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Martina Treurnicht; Jörn Pagel; Jeanne Tonnabel; Karen J. Esler; Jasper A. Slingsby; Frank M. Schurr

    The Hutchinsonian niche is a foundational concept in ecology and evolutionary biology that describes fundamental characteristics of any species: the global maximum population growth rate (rmax); the niche optimum (the environment for which rmax is reached); and the niche width (the environmental range for which intrinsic population growth rates are positive). We examine whether these characteristics are related to inter‐ and intraspecific variation in functional traits.

  • Local climate determines vulnerability to camouflage mismatch in snowshoe hares
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Marketa Zimova; Alexej P. K. Sirén; Joshua J. Nowak; Alexander M. Bryan; Jacob S. Ivan; Toni Lyn Morelli; Skyler L. Suhrer; Jesse Whittington; L. Scott Mills

    Phenological mismatches, when life‐events become mistimed with optimal environmental conditions, have become increasingly common under climate change. Population‐level susceptibility to mismatches depends on how phenology and phenotypic plasticity vary across a species’ distributional range. Here, we quantify the environmental drivers of colour moult phenology, phenotypic plasticity, and the extent of phenological mismatch in seasonal camouflage to assess vulnerability to mismatch in a common North American mammal.

  • Drivers of large‐scale geographical variation in sexual systems of woody plants
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Yunyun Wang; Tong Lyu; Nawal Shrestha; Lisha Lyu; Yaoqi Li; Bernhard Schmid; Robert P. Freckleton; Dimitar Dimitrov; Shuguang Liu; Zhanqing Hao; Zhiheng Wang

    Sexual systems strongly influence angiosperm evolution and play important roles in community assembly and species responses to climate change. However, geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems (dioecy, monoecy and hermaphroditism) in response to changes in climate, life‐history traits and evolutionary age remains poorly understood. Here, we map the geographical variation in proportions of different sexual systems and hypothesize that the prevalence of hermaphrodites increases with aridity owing to their advantages in colonizing harsh environments, whereas dioecy is most successful in humid regions with tall‐canopy vegetation and old floras.

  • Invasion of freshwater ecosystems is promoted by network connectivity to hotspots of human activity
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Daniel S. Chapman; Iain D. M. Gunn; Henrietta E. K. Pringle; Gavin M. Siriwardena; Philip Taylor; Stephen J. Thackeray; Nigel J. Willby; Laurence Carvalho

    Hotspots of human activity are focal points for ecosystem disturbance and non‐native introduction, from which invading populations disperse and spread. As such, connectivity to locations used by humans may influence the likelihood of invasion. Moreover, connectivity in freshwater ecosystems may follow the hydrological network. Here we tested whether multiple forms of connectivity to human recreational activities promotes biological invasion of freshwater ecosystems.

  • Distinct spread of DNA and RNA viruses among mammals amid prominent role of domestic species
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Konstans Wells; Serge Morand; Maya Wardeh; Matthew Baylis

    Emerging infectious diseases arising from pathogen spillover from mammals to humans constitute a substantial health threat. Tracing virus origin and predicting the most likely host species for future spillover events are major objectives in One Health disciplines.

  • Not a melting pot: Plant species aggregate in their non‐native range
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Gisela C. Stotz; James F. Cahill; Jonathan A. Bennett; Cameron N. Carlyle; Edward W. Bork; Diana Askarizadeh; Sandor Bartha; Carl Beierkuhnlein; Bazartseren Boldgiv; Leslie Brown; Marcelo Cabido; Giandiego Campetella; Stefano Chelli; Ofer Cohen; Sandra Díaz; Lucas Enrico; David Ensing; Batdelger Erdenetsetseg; Alessandra Fidelis; Heath W. Garris; Hugh A. L. Henry; Anke Jentsch; Mohammad Hassan Jouri; Kadri Koorem; Peter Manning; Randall Mitchell; Mari Moora; Gerhard E. Overbeck; Jason Pither; Kurt O. Reinhart; Marcelo Sternberg; Radnaakhand Tungalag; Sainbileg Undrakhbold; Margaretha van Rooyen; Camilla Wellstein; Martin Zobel; Lauchlan H. Fraser

    Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim to determine whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native‐ and alien‐rich communities. Alien species might aggregate in their non‐native range owing to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high‐biomass, species‐poor areas.

  • Alternative pathways to diversity across ecologically distinct lizard radiations
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Alexander Skeels; Damien Esquerré; Marcel Cardillo

    Lizard assemblages vary greatly in taxonomic, ecological and phenotypic diversity, yet the mechanisms that generate and maintain these patterns at a macroecological scale are not well understood. We aimed to characterize the ecological and environmental drivers of species richness patterns in the context of macroecological theory for 10 independent lizard radiations.

  • The biotic interactions hypothesis partially explains bird species turnover along a lowland Neotropical precipitation gradient
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Juan Pablo Gomez; José Miguel Ponciano; Gustavo A. Londoño; Scott K. Robinson

    We evaluated the influence of climate on the structure of bird communities along precipitation gradients. We hypothesize that mechanisms responsible for community turnover along precipitation gradients are similar to mechanisms operating along temperature and latitudinal gradients. We tested the hypothesis that environmental conditions affect community composition in dry forests, whereas biotic interactions affect community composition in wet forests.

  • Regional patterns of pastoralist migrations under the push of reduced precipitation in imperial China
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-15
    Qing Pei; Guodong Li; Bruce P. Winterhalder; Margaret Lowman

    As a response of pastoralists to climate change, nomadic migration deeply shaped Chinese history during the imperial era. Existing research on climate‐driven nomadic migration is conducted mainly on a national–continental scale. To advance the current work, we aim to resolve migratory movements at a provincial–regional scale using a large and long‐term historical dataset as a first attempt. The spatio‐temporal features of nomadic migration under climatic effects, specifically precipitation, are analysed in the theoretical context of behavioural ecology.

  • Modelling species distributions limited by geographical barriers: A case study with African and American primates
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-08
    Alisa Aliaga‐Samanez, Raimundo Real, Jan Vermeer, Jesús Olivero

    The boundaries of species distributions are often shaped by natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers, but species distribution models usually fail to include these constraints. We tested several approaches that include barriers as explanatory variables in species distribution models.

  • Effects of nitrogen enrichment on tree carbon allocation: A global synthesis
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Weibin Li, Hongxia Zhang, Guozhu Huang, Ruixue Liu, Hongjing Wu, Chuanyan Zhao, Nate G. McDowell

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition may have profound effects on tree carbon allocation dynamics. However, a comprehensive understanding of how nitrogen (N) enrichment influences carbon (C) allocation across plant functional processes and tree organs in individual trees remains elusive.

  • Similar factors underlie tree abundance in forests in native and alien ranges
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-01
    Masha T. van der Sande, Helge Bruelheide, Wayne Dawson, Jürgen Dengler, Franz Essl, Richard Field, Sylvia Haider, Mark van Kleunen, Holger Kreft, Joern Pagel, Jan Pergl, Oliver Purschke, Petr Pyšek, Patrick Weigelt, Marten Winter, Fabio Attorre, Isabelle Aubin, Erwin Bergmeier, Milan Chytrý, Matteo Dainese, Michele De Sanctis, Jaime Fagundez, Valentin Golub, Greg R. Guerin, Alvaro G. Gutiérrez, Ute Jandt, Florian Jansen, Borja Jiménez‐Alfaro, Jens Kattge, Elizabeth Kearsley, Stefan Klotz, Koen Kramer, Marco Moretti, Ülo Niinemets, Robert K. Peet, Josep Penuelas, Petr Petřík, Peter B. Reich, Brody Sandel, Marco Schmidt, Maria Sibikova, Cyrille Violle, Timothy J. S. Whitfeld, Thomas Wohlgemuth, Tiffany M. Knight

    Alien plant species can cause severe ecological and economic problems, and therefore attract a lot of research interest in biogeography and related fields. To identify potential future invasive species, we need to better understand the mechanisms underlying the abundances of invasive tree species in their new ranges, and whether these mechanisms differ between their native and alien ranges. Here, we test two hypotheses: that greater relative abundance is promoted by (a) functional difference from locally co‐occurring trees, and (b) higher values than locally co‐occurring trees for traits linked to competitive ability.

  • Deciphering the stability of grassland productivity in response to rainfall manipulation experiments
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-12-01
    Ilaíne Silveira Matos, Imma Oliveras Menor, Sami Walid Rifai, Bruno Henrique Pimentel Rosado

    Rainfall manipulation experiments are essential tools for deciphering the mechanisms leading to variation in ecosystem stability across sites. Here, we gathered articles reporting results of experimental droughts on the above‐ground biomass of grasslands to identify which indices have been used to assess stability, to evaluate the overall grassland responses to drought and to quantify the relative importance of drought characteristics and climatic conditions for explaining variation in stability.

  • Assessing the effects of artificial light at night on biodiversity across latitude – Current knowledge gaps
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Jean Secondi, Aurélie Davranche, Marc Théry, Nathalie Mondy, Thierry Lengagne

    Exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) is a risk factor for organisms. Considering the spread and increasing intensity of night brightness across the globe, and the key role of light at all biological levels, alterations of ecosystems are expected. Yet, we cannot predict the severity of the effects of ALAN in several biomes because little information is available outside the temperate zone. We reviewed current knowledge and identified traits that could be targeted to fill this knowledge gap in order to contribute to the elaboration of a biogeographical framework for the study of ALAN at the global scale.

  • A novel tool to assess the effect of intraspecific spatial niche variation on species distribution shifts under climate change
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Youri Martin, Hans Van Dyck, Pierre Legendre, Josef Settele, Oliver Schweiger, Alexander Harpke, Martin Wiemers, Aitor Ameztegui, Nicolas Titeux

    Niche‐based models often ignore spatial variation in the climatic niche of a species across its occupied range and the related variation in the response to changing climate conditions. This assumption may lead to inaccurate predictions of species distribution shifts under climate change. Models have been developed to address this issue, but most of them depend upon prior knowledge on evolutionary lineages, phenotypic traits or ecological processes underlying local adaptation or adaptive plasticity. As such information is often lacking, these models are not frequently used to predict distribution shifts for many species. This limits our ability to explore general patterns of change across species.

  • Grazing intensity significantly changes the C : N : P stoichiometry in grassland ecosystems
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Miao He, Guiyao Zhou, Tengfei Yuan, Kees Jan van Groenigen, Junjiong Shao, Xuhui Zhou

    Livestock grazing can alter carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles, thereby affecting the C : N : P stoichiometry in grasslands. In this study, we aimed to examine mechanisms underlying the impacts of grazing on grassland C : N : P stoichiometry, focusing on belowground processes and their linkages with aboveground vegetation properties.

  • Temperature drives local contributions to beta diversity in mountain streams: Stochastic and deterministic processes
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Jianjun Wang, Pierre Legendre, Janne Soininen, Chih‐Fu Yeh, Emily Graham, James Stegen, Emilio O. Casamayor, Jizhong Zhou, Ji Shen, Feiyan Pan

    Community variation (i.e. beta diversity) along geographical gradients is of substantial interest in ecology and biodiversity reserves in the face of global changes. However, the generality in beta diversity patterns and underlying processes remains less studied across trophic levels and geographical regions. We documented beta diversity patterns and underlying ecological processes of stream bacteria, diatoms and macroinvertebrates along six elevational gradients.

  • Thresholds of fire response to moisture and fuel load differ between tropical savannas and grasslands across continents
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Swanni T. Alvarado, Niels Andela, Thiago S. F. Silva, Sally Archibald

    An emerging framework for tropical ecosystems states that fire activity is either “fuel build‐up limited” or “fuel moisture limited”, that is, as you move up along rainfall gradients, the major control on fire occurrence switches from being the amount of fuel, to the moisture content of the fuel. Here we used remotely sensed datasets to assess whether interannual variability of burned area is better explained by annual rainfall totals driving fuel build‐up, or by dry season rainfall driving fuel moisture.

  • The potential role of species and functional composition in generating historical constraints on ecosystem processes
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Alejandro Ordonez, Jens‐Christian Svenning

    Biogeographical processes and past environmental conditions are known to constrain current patterns of species, functional and phylogenetic diversity. An unanswered question is whether such constraints to biodiversity also affect ecosystem processes.

  • Biological controls over the abundances of terrestrial ammonia oxidizers
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Rui Xiao, Yunpeng Qiu, Jinjin Tao, Xuelin Zhang, Huaihai Chen, S. Chris Reberg‐Horton, Wei Shi, H. David Shew, Yi Zhang, Shuijin Hu

    Ammonia‐oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) are the primary agents for nitrification, converting ammonia (NH4+) into nitrate (NO3−) and modulating plant nitrogen (N) utilization and terrestrial N retention. However, there is still lack of a unifying framework describing the patterns of global AOA and AOB distribution. In particular, biotic interactions are rarely integrated into any of the conceptual models.

  • Decoupled erosion of amphibians' phylogenetic and functional diversity due to extinction
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Brunno F. Oliveira, Brett R. Sheffers, Gabriel C. Costa

    It has been argued that the loss of phylogenetic diversity (PD) from species extinctions will result in concomitant loss of functional diversity (FD). As a result, species extinction undermines not only unique evolutionary history, but also ecosystem function and stability. Using data from > 6,000 amphibian species globally, we assess the potential erosion of PD and FD as a result of extinction.

  • Defining isoscapes in the Northeast Pacific as an index of ocean productivity
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Boris Espinasse, Brian P. V. Hunt, Sonia D. Batten, Evgeny A. Pakhomov

    We modelled isoscapes in the Northeast (NE) Pacific using satellite‐based data, with the main objective of testing whether isoscapes defined by a few key parameters can be used as a proxy for secondary productivity.

  • A global test of the subsidized island biogeography hypothesis
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    André Menegotto, Thiago Fernando Rangel, Julian Schrader, Patrick Weigelt, Holger Kreft

    The decreasing capacity of area to predict species richness on small islands (the small‐island effect; SIE) seems to be one of the few exceptions of the species–area relationship. While most studies have focused on how to detect the SIE, the underlying ecological factors determining this pattern remain largely unexplored. Here, we evaluate one of the few mechanisms proposed to explain the SIE, the subsidized island biogeography hypothesis, which posits that marine productivity around small islands may alter their expected species richness.

  • Towards a macroscope: Leveraging technology to transform the breadth, scale and resolution of macroecological data
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Maria Dornelas, Elizabeth M. P. Madin, Michael Bunce, Joseph D. DiBattista, Mark Johnson, Joshua S. Madin, Anne E. Magurran, Brian J. McGill, Nathalie Pettorelli, Oscar Pizarro, Stefan B. Williams, Marten Winter, Amanda E. Bates

    Earth‐based observations of the biosphere are spatially biased in ways that can limit our ability to detect macroecological patterns and changes in biodiversity. To resolve this problem, we need to supplement the ad hoc data currently collected with planned biodiversity monitoring, in order to approximate global stratified random sampling of the planet. We call this all‐encompassing observational system ‘the macroscope’.

  • Species niches, not traits, determine abundance and occupancy patterns: A multi‐site synthesis
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    Nicholas A. C. Marino, Régis Céréghino, Benjamin Gilbert, Jana S. Petermann, Diane S. Srivastava, Paula M. de Omena, Fabiola Ospina Bautista, Laura Melissa Guzman, Gustavo Q. Romero, M. Kurtis Trzcinski, Ignacio M. Barberis, Bruno Corbara, Vanderlei J. Debastiani, Olivier Dézerald, Pavel Kratina, Céline Leroy, Arthur Andrew M. MacDonald, Guillermo Montero, Valério D. Pillar, Barbara A. Richardson, Michael J. Richardson, Stanislas Talaga, Ana Z. Gonçalves, Gustavo C. O. Piccoli, Merlijn Jocqué, Vinicius F. Farjalla

    Locally abundant species are usually widespread, and this pattern has been related to properties of the niches and traits of species. However, such explanations fail to account for the potential of traits to determine species niches and often overlook statistical artefacts. Here, we examine how trait distinctiveness determines the abilities of species to exploit either common habitats (niche position) or a range of habitats (niche breadth) and how niche position and breadth, in turn, affect abundance and occupancy. We also examine how statistical artefacts moderate these relationships.

  • Temporal β diversity—A macroecological perspective
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-10
    Anne E. Magurran, Maria Dornelas, Faye Moyes, Peter A. Henderson

    Biodiversity change, that is how the taxonomic identities and abundances of species in ecological systems are changing over time, has two facets: temporal α diversity and temporal β diversity. To date, temporal α diversity has received most attention even though compositional shifts in assemblages exceed expectations based on ecological theory. Growing concern about the state of the world’s biodiversity highlights the need for better understanding of the extent, and consequences, of compositional reorganization in ecological systems.

  • Unifying macroecology and macroevolution to answer fundamental questions about biodiversity
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Brian J. McGill, Jonathan M. Chase, Joaquín Hortal, Isaac Overcast, Andrew J. Rominger, James Rosindell, Paulo A. V. Borges, Brent C. Emerson, Rampal Etienne, Michael J. Hickerson, D. Luke Mahler, Francois Massol, Angela McGaughran, Pedro Neves, Christine Parent, Jairo Patiño, Megan Ruffley, Catherine E. Wagner, Rosemary Gillespie

    The study of biodiversity started as a single unified field that spanned both ecology and evolution and both macro and micro phenomena. But over the 20th century, major trends drove ecology and evolution apart and pushed an emphasis towards the micro perspective in both disciplines. Macroecology and macroevolution re‐emerged as self‐consciously distinct fields in the 1970s and 1980s, but they remain largely separated from each other. Here, we argue that despite the challenges, it is worth working to combine macroecology and macroevolution. We present 25 fundamental questions about biodiversity that are answerable only with a mixture of the views and tools of both macroecology and macroevolution.

  • Global meta‐analysis of how marine upwelling affects herbivory
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Andrew J. Sellers, Brian Leung, Mark E. Torchin

    Nutrient subsidies support high primary productivity, increasing herbivore abundance and influencing their top‐down control of producers. Wind‐driven upwelling events deliver cold nutrient‐rich water to coastlines, supporting highly productive marine environments. Results from studies comparing ecological processes across upwelling regimes are mixed: some reveal weaker herbivory in upwelling regions, while others report a positive relationship between upwelling and herbivory. In this synthesis we examine the influence of upwelling on top‐down control of producers across the globe.

  • Legacy of the Last Glacial on the present‐day distribution of deciduous versus evergreen boreal forests
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Ulrike Herzschuh

    Despite their rather similar climatic conditions, eastern Eurasia and northern North America are largely covered by different plant functional types (deciduous or evergreen boreal forest) composed of larch or pine, spruce and fir, respectively. I propose that these deciduous and evergreen boreal forests represent alternative quasi‐stable states, triggered by their different northern tree refugia that reflect the different environmental conditions experienced during the Last Glacial.

  • Soil microbial biomass increases along elevational gradients in the tropics and subtropics but not elsewhere
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Xianjin He, Enqing Hou, G. F. Veen, M. D. Farnon Ellwood, Paul Dijkstra, Xinghua Sui, Shuang Zhang, Dazhi Wen, Chengjin Chu

    Our aim is to use elevational gradients to quantify the relationship between temperature and ecosystem functioning. Ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient cycling and carbon storage are linked with the amount of microbial biomass in the soil. Previous studies have shown variable relationships between elevation and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Understanding the biological mechanisms linking SMB with elevational gradients will shed light on the environmental impacts of global warming.

  • The diverse nature of island isolation and its effect on land bridge insular faunas
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Yuval Itescu, Johannes Foufopoulos, Panayiotis Pafilis, Shai Meiri

    Isolation is a key factor in island biology. It is usually defined as the distance to the geographically nearest mainland, but many other definitions exist. We explored how testing different isolation indices affects the inference of impacts of isolation on faunal characteristics. We focused on land bridge islands and compared the relationships of many spatial and temporal (i.e., through time) isolation indices with community‐, population‐ and individual‐level characteristics (species richness, population density and body size, respectively).

  • Comparing methods for mapping global parasite diversity
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Paula Pappalardo, Ignacio Morales‐Castilla, Andrew W. Park, Shan Huang, John P. Schmidt, Patrick R. Stephens

    Parasites are a major component of global ecosystems, yet spatial variation in parasite diversity is poorly known, largely because their occurrence data are limited and thus difficult to interpret. Using a recently compiled database of parasite occurrences, we compare different models which we use to infer parasite geographic ranges and parasite species richness across the globe.

  • Water and heat availability are drivers of the aboveground plant carbon accumulation rate in alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Jian Sun, Tian‐Cai Zhou, Miao Liu, You‐Chao Chen, Guo‐Hua Liu, Ming Xu, Pei‐Li Shi, Fei Peng, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Yu Liu, Xiao‐Dan Wang, Shi‐Kui Dong, Yang‐Jian Zhang, Ying‐Nian Li

    Climate change is expected to have important effects on plant phenology and carbon storage, with further shifts predicted in the future. Therefore, we proposed the community carbon accumulation rate (CAR) from the start of the growing season (SOS) to the peak of the growing season (POS) to fill the gap that the dynamic interactions between plant phenology and plant carbon research.

  • Using functional and phylogenetic diversity to infer avian community assembly along elevational gradients
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Flavia A. Montaño‐Centellas, Christy McCain, Bette A. Loiselle

    We present the first global analysis of elevational gradients in functional and phylogenetic diversity of birds and test for signals of deterministic processes (i.e., environmental filtering and limiting similarity) in community assembly. Further, we examine for latitudinal effects in the strength of these processes.

  • Reconstructing the climatic niche breadth of land use for animal production during the African Holocene
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Leanne N. Phelps, Olivier Broennimann, Katie Manning, Adrian Timpson, Hélène Jousse, Gregoire Mariethoz, Damien A. Fordham, Timothy M. Shanahan, Basil A. S. Davis, Antoine Guisan

    Domestic animals first appeared in the archaeological record in northern Africa c. 9000 years before present and subsequently spread southwards throughout the continent. This geographic expansion is well studied and can broadly be explained in terms of the movement of pastoralist populations due to climate change. However, no studies have explicitly evaluated changes in the climatic niche of these domesticates. A priori, one cannot assume a relationship between the geographic spread of animal production and changes in climatic niche breadth because their relationship is highly variable. Therefore, we investigated Holocene changes in the climatic niche of domestic animals (animal production) and compared these to changes in the climatic niche of hunted terrestrial ungulates.

  • Geographical variation in bill size provides evidence for Allen’s rule in a cosmopolitan raptor
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Andrea Romano, Robin Séchaud, Alexandre Roulin

    Avian beak morphology is a good example of how anatomical structures have evolved in response to different selective pressures, such as diet and vocalizations, but also thermoregulation. The last of these functions was neglected until recently, but convincing evidence has been provided regarding the capacity of birds to regulate heat dissipation through their highly vascularized bills. According to this adaptive function and coherently with the ecogeographical “Allen's rule”, which predicts smaller body appendages in colder climates, large beaks should be favoured in warm environments. Here, we tested this prediction in the cosmopolitan common barn owl group.

  • Lower elevation animal species do not tend to be better competitors than their higher elevation relatives
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Benjamin G. Freeman

    What factors set species' range edges? One general hypothesis, often attributed to Darwin and MacArthur, is that interspecific competition prevents species from inhabiting the warmest portions along geographic gradients (i.e., low latitudes or low elevations). A prediction arising from this Darwin–MacArthur hypothesis is that lower elevation species are better competitors than related higher elevation species. An alternative prediction is that higher elevation animal taxa will tend to be better competitors because they will tend to be larger (Bergmann's rule). Here, I test these opposing predictions.

  • Global warming and artificial shorelines reshape seashore biogeography
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Wei Wang, Jie Wang, Francis M. P. Choi, Ping Ding, Xiao‐xu Li, Guo‐dong Han, Meng‐wen Ding, Minquan Guo, Xiong‐wei Huang, Wei‐xiang Duan, Zhi‐yuan Cheng, Zhi‐yuan Chen, Stephen J. Hawkins, Yuwu Jiang, Brian Helmuth, Yun‐wei Dong

    Rapid anthropogenic warming coupled with changes in land use is altering the distributions of species, with consequences for ecosystem functioning and services. It is crucial to evaluate species range shifts based on understanding of the interaction of temperature with non‐climatic factors such as habitat availability and dispersal potential. Here, we aim to investigate roles of environmental temperature, habitat availability and population connectivity on the distributions of hard‐shore intertidal animals. We further examine potential roles of extensive artificial seawall construction in enabling poleward expansion of species in China, thus reshaping coastal biogeography.

  • Multi‐scale integration of tree recruitment and range dynamics in a changing climate
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Paige E. Copenhaver‐Parry, Charles J. W. Carroll, Patrick H. Martin, Matthew V. Talluto

    The rate and magnitude of climate‐induced tree range shifts may be influenced by range‐wide variation in recruitment, which acts as a bottleneck in tree range dynamics. Here, we compare range predictions made using standard species distribution models (SDMs) and an integrated metamodelling approach that assimilates data on adult occurrence, seedling recruitment dynamics, and seedling survival under both current and future climate, and evaluate the degree to which information provided by seedling data can improve predictions of range dynamics.

  • Geographical associations with anthropogenic noise pollution for North American breeding birds
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Brian T. Klingbeil, Frank A. La Sorte, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Daniel Fink, Curtis H. Flather

    Anthropogenic noise pollution (ANP) is a globally invasive phenomenon impacting natural systems, but most research has occurred at local scales with few species. We investigated continental‐scale breeding season associations with ANP for 322 bird species to test whether small‐scale predictions related to breeding habitat, migratory behaviour, body mass and vocal traits are consistent at broad spatial extents for an extensive group of species.

  • Nonlinear responses of soil nematode community composition to increasing aridity
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Dan Xiong, CunZheng Wei, E. R. Jasper Wubs, G. J. Veen, Wenju Liang, Xiaobo Wang, Qi Li, Wim H. Van der Putten, Xingguo Han

    Increasing aridity under global change is predicted to have a profound impact on the structure and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, yet we have a poor understanding of how belowground communities respond. In order to understand the longer term responses of different trophic levels in the soil food web to increasing aridity, we investigated the abundance, richness and community similarity of the soil nematode community along a 3,200 km aridity gradient.

  • Constraints on vertebrate range size predict extinction risk
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Thomas M. Newsome, Christopher Wolf, Dale G. Nimmo, R. Keller Kopf, Euan G. Ritchie, Felisa A. Smith, William J. Ripple

    The only factor in the fossil record that consistently buffers against extinction risk is large geographical range. We ask whether extant vertebrate species with the smallest geographical range for their body size have a higher extinction risk, and thus whether the lower bound of the modern range–body size relationship could serve as an effective conservation prioritization tool.

  • Mass–length allometry covaries with ecosystem productivity at a global scale
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Dolores Ruiz‐Lupión, José María Gómez, Jordi Moya‐Laraño

    It is still debated whether allometry, the relationship between body size and body parts, entails merely an evolutionary constraint or can itself evolve. Recently, a hypothesis has been proposed that states that static allometry (allometry measured across individuals at the same developmental stage) can evolve from differences in the developmental pathways between pairs of traits under different nutritional environments. A macroecological prediction stemming from this hypothesis is that allometric coefficients (scaling and allometric factors) should covary with ecosystem productivity. Here, we tested this prediction using a worldwide database of mass–length allometric equations.

  • Canopy height explains species richness in the largest clade of Neotropical lianas
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Leila Meyer, José Alexandre F. Diniz‐Filho, Lúcia G. Lohmann, Joaquín Hortal, Elisa Barreto, Thiago Rangel, W. Daniel Kissling

    Tall and structurally complex forests can provide ample habitat and niche space for climbing plants, supporting high liana species richness. We test to what extent canopy height (as a proxy of 3‐D habitat structure), climate and soil interact to determine species richness in the largest clade of Neotropical lianas. We expect that the effect of canopy height on species richness is higher for lianas from closed tropical rain forests compared to riparian and savanna habitats.

  • A global estimate of terrestrial net secondary production of primary consumers
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Garrett M. Street, Gordon G. McNickle

    Net secondary production (NSP) emerges from the consumption of net primary production (NPP) by all heterotrophic organisms. There has been sporadic interest in the importance of NSP, but no global estimates have been produced. Here, we examine NSP and attempt a global estimate using contemporary NPP data combined with modern metabolic scaling theory for consumption rates. We distinguish between potential NSP, as the amount of secondary production that could be supported by NPP, and realized NSP, as the amount remaining after anthropogenic habitat disruption.

  • Niche breadth and species richness: Correlation strength, scale and mechanisms
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-17
    Itai Granot, Jonathan Belmaker

    It is often assumed that species in richer sites are more specialized, but empirical studies show conflicting results. In the present study, we quantify the correlation between community‐level niche breadth and richness. We contrast three mechanisms for gradients in niche breadth: climate, community assembly and nested interactions. First, the climatic stability within the tropics enables species to specialize, resulting in high richness. Under this scenario, we predict stronger richness–niche breadth correlations over larger latitudinal extents and when using environmental niche breadth measures (e.g., habitat). Second, in species‐rich areas, biotic interactions drive species to specialize. This may yield richness–niche breadth correlations regardless of the latitudinal extent and the type of niche breadth measure examined, whether environmental or functional (e.g., diet). Third, increased richness intensifies interactions between extreme specialists and generalists. Here, we predict stronger richness–niche breadth correlations when using functional niche breadth measures.

  • On the mismatch in the strength of competition among fossil and modern species of planktonic Foraminifera
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Marina C. Rillo, Mauro T. C. Sugawara, Brenno Cabella, Lukas Jonkers, Ulrike K. Baranowski, Michal Kučera, Thomas H. G. Ezard

    Many clades display the macroevolutionary pattern of a negative relationship between standing diversity and diversification rates. Competition among species has been proposed as the main mechanism that explains this pattern. However, we currently lack empirical insight into how the effects of individual‐level ecological interactions scale up to affect species diversification. Here, we investigate a clade that shows evidence for negative diversity‐dependent diversification in the fossil record and test whether the clade's modern communities show a corresponding signal of interspecific competition.

  • Range size predicts the risk of local extinction from habitat loss
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Ingmar R. Staude, Laetitia M. Navarro, Henrique M. Pereira

    The geographical range size of species is a strong predictor of vulnerability to global extinction. However, it remains unclear whether range size is also a good predictor of extinction risk at much smaller scales. Here, we reconstruct biodiversity time series to ask whether species with small ranges have declined preferentially with habitat loss at the local scale.

  • How characteristic is the species characteristic selection scale?
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Erica F. Stuber, Joseph J. Fontaine

    The importance of framing investigations of organism–environment relationships to interpret patterns at relevant spatial scales is increasingly recognized. However, most research related to environmental relationships is single‐scaled, implicitly or explicitly assuming that a “species characteristic selection scale” exists. We tested the premise that a single characteristic scale exists to understand species–environment relationships within species by asking (a) what are the characteristic scales of species’ relationships with environmental predictors, and (b) is within‐species, cross‐predictor consistency in characteristic scales a general phenomenon.

  • Host assemblage and environment shape β‐diversity of freshwater parasites across diverse taxa at a continental scale
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Boris W. Berkhout, Michael K. Borregaard, Roland Brandl, Martin Brändle, D. Matthias Dehling, Christian Hof, Robert Poulin, David W. Thieltges

    Positive relationships in compositional similarity between consumer and resource assemblages are widely known in free‐living taxa, but less is known about parasites and their hosts. We investigated whether congruent patterns of assemblage similarity across diverse taxa of hosts and parasites exist at a continental scale and quantified the relative importance of host assemblages and environmental variables in shaping these relationships.

  • New net zooplankton geographical information system in the Far East seas and adjacent waters of the Pacific Ocean
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Igor V. Volvenko

    I describe the GIS that is based on a new database of zooplankton collected by Juday net with a 0.1 m2 opening (0.168 mm mesh).

  • Global diversity patterns are modulated by temporal fluctuations in primary productivity
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Anna Toszogyova, David Storch

    To evaluate the role of seasonal and non‐seasonal productivity fluctuations in global patterns of species richness.

  • Current climate, isolation and history drive global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Brody Sandel, Patrick Weigelt, Holger Kreft, Gunnar Keppel, Masha T. van der Sande, Sam Levin, Stephen Smith, Dylan Craven, Tiffany M. Knight

    We mapped global patterns of tree phylogenetic endemism (PE) to identify hotspots and test hypotheses about possible drivers. Specifically, we tested hypotheses related to current climate, geographical characteristics and historical conditions and assessed their relative importance in shaping PE patterns.

  • Robustness of trait connections across environmental gradients and growth forms
    Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. (IF 5.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-01
    Habacuc Flores‐Moreno, Farideh Fazayeli, Arindam Banerjee, Abhirup Datta, Jens Kattge, Ethan E. Butler, Owen K. Atkin, Kirk Wythers, Ming Chen, Madhur Anand, Michael Bahn, Chaeho Byun, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Joseph Craine, Andres Gonzalez‐Melo, Wesley N. Hattingh, Steven Jansen, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Koen Kramer, Daniel C. Laughlin, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Vladimir Onipchenko, Josep Peñuelas, Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia, Rhiannon L. Dalrymple, Peter B. Reich

    Plant trait databases often contain traits that are correlated, but for whom direct (undirected statistical dependency) and indirect (mediated by other traits) connections may be confounded. The confounding of correlation and connection hinders our understanding of plant strategies, and how these vary among growth forms and climate zones. We identified the direct and indirect connections across plant traits relevant to competition, resource acquisition and reproductive strategies using a global database and explored whether connections within and between traits from different tissue types vary across climates and growth forms.

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