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  •   Recording physiological history of cells with chemical labeling
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Magnus-Carsten Huppertz, Jonas Wilhelm, Vincent Grenier, Martin W. Schneider, Tjalda Falt, Nicola Porzberg, David Hausmann, Dirk C. Hoffmann, Ling Hai, Miroslaw Tarnawski, Gabriela Pino, Krasimir Slanchev, Ilya Kolb, Claudio Acuna, Lisa M. Fenk, Herwig Baier, Julien Hiblot, Kai Johnsson

    Recordings of the physiological history of cells provide insights into biological processes, yet obtaining such recordings is a challenge. To address this, we introduce a method to record transient cellular events for later analysis. We designed proteins that become labeled in the presence of both a specific cellular activity and a fluorescent substrate. The recording period is set by the presence

  •   Achieving sub-0.5-angstrom–resolution ptychography in an uncorrected electron microscope
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Kayla X. Nguyen, Yi Jiang, Chia-Hao Lee, Priti Kharel, Yue Zhang, Arend M. van der Zande, Pinshane Y. Huang

    Subangstrom resolution has long been limited to aberration-corrected electron microscopy, where it is a powerful tool for understanding the atomic structure and properties of matter. Here, we demonstrate electron ptychography in an uncorrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with deep subangstrom spatial resolution down to 0.44 angstroms, exceeding the conventional resolution of aberration-corrected

  •   Prebiotically plausible chemoselective pantetheine synthesis in water
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Jasper Fairchild, Saidul Islam, Jyoti Singh, Dejan-Krešimir Bučar, Matthew W. Powner

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is essential to all life on Earth, and its functional subunit, pantetheine, is important in many origin-of-life scenarios, but how pantetheine emerged on the early Earth remains a mystery. Earlier attempts to selectively synthesize pantetheine failed, leading to suggestions that “simpler” thiols must have preceded pantetheine at the origin of life. In this work, we report high-yielding

  •   Research needs for loss and damage
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Adelle Thomas

    The 28th Conference of the Parties (COP28) of the United Nations (UN) climate negotiations concluded in December against a backdrop of shattered climate records, extreme weather, and climate events in 2023 that resulted in substantial loss of life, impacts on health and wellbeing, climate-related mobility, food and water insecurity, and other socioeconomic effects worldwide. In this context, the importance

  •   Patterns of recombination in snakes reveal a tug-of-war between PRDM9 and promoter-like features
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Carla Hoge, Marc de Manuel, Mohamed Mahgoub, Naima Okami, Zachary Fuller, Shreya Banerjee, Zachary Baker, Morgan McNulty, Peter Andolfatto, Todd S. Macfarlan, Molly Schumer, Athanasia C. Tzika, Molly Przeworski

    In some mammals, notably humans, recombination occurs almost exclusively where the protein PRDM9 binds, whereas in vertebrates lacking an intact PRDM9 , such as birds and canids, recombination rates are elevated near promoter-like features. To determine whether PRDM9 directs recombination in nonmammalian vertebrates, we focused on an exemplar species with a single, intact PRDM9 ortholog, the corn snake

  •   Global and regional temperature change over the past 4.5 million years
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Peter U. Clark, Jeremy D. Shakun, Yair Rosenthal, Peter Köhler, Patrick J. Bartlein

    Much of our understanding of Cenozoic climate is based on the record of δ 18 O measured in benthic foraminifera. However, this measurement reflects a combined signal of global temperature and sea level, thus preventing a clear understanding of the interactions and feedbacks of the climate system in causing global temperature change. Our new reconstruction of temperature change over the past 4.5 million

  •   The macroevolutionary singularity of snakes
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Pascal O. Title, Sonal Singhal, Michael C. Grundler, Gabriel C. Costa, R. Alexander Pyron, Timothy J. Colston, Maggie R. Grundler, Ivan Prates, Natasha Stepanova, Marc E. H. Jones, Lucas B. Q. Cavalcanti, Guarino R. Colli, Nicolas Di-Poï, Stephen C. Donnellan, Craig Moritz, Daniel O. Mesquita, Eric R. Pianka, Stephen A. Smith, Laurie J. Vitt, Daniel L. Rabosky

    Snakes and lizards (Squamata) represent a third of terrestrial vertebrates and exhibit spectacular innovations in locomotion, feeding, and sensory processing. However, the evolutionary drivers of this radiation remain poorly known. We infer potential causes and ultimate consequences of squamate macroevolution by combining individual-based natural history observations (>60,000 animals) with a comprehensive

  •   An oxidative photocyclization approach to the synthesis of Securiflustra securifrons alkaloids
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Brandon W. Alexander, Noah M. Bartfield, Vaani Gupta, Brandon Q. Mercado, Mark Del Campo, Seth B. Herzon

    Securines and securamines are cytotoxic alkaloids that contain reactive alkene and heterocyclic residues embedded in skeletons comprising four to six oxidized rings. This structural complexity imparts a rich chemistry to the isolates but has impeded synthetic access to the structures in the nearly three decades since their isolation. We present a flexible route to eight isolates that exemplify the

  •   Homogeneous crystallization and buried interface passivation for perovskite tandem solar modules
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Han Gao, Ke Xiao, Renxing Lin, Siyang Zhao, Wenliang Wang, Sergey Dayneko, Chenyang Duan, Chenglong Ji, Hongfei Sun, Anh Dinh Bui, Chenshuaiyu Liu, Jin Wen, Wenchi Kong, Haowen Luo, Xuntian Zheng, Zhou Liu, Hieu Nguyen, Jin Xie, Ludong Li, Makhsud I. Saidaminov, Hairen Tan

    Scalable fabrication of all-perovskite tandem solar cells is challenging because the narrow-bandgap subcells made of mixed lead-tin (Pb-Sn) perovskite films suffer from nonuniform crystallization and inferior buried perovskite interfaces. We used a dopant from Good’s list of biochemical buffers, aminoacetamide hydrochloride, to homogenize perovskite crystallization and used it to extend the processing

  •   Arctic sea ice retreat fuels boreal forest advance
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Roman J. Dial, Colin T. Maher, Rebecca E. Hewitt, Amy M. Wockenfuss, Russell E. Wong, Daniel J. Crawford, Madeline G. Zietlow, Patrick F. Sullivan

    Climate-induced northward advance of boreal forest is expected to lessen albedo, alter carbon stocks, and replace tundra, but where and when this advance will occur remains largely unknown. Using data from 19 sites across 22 degrees of longitude along the tree line of northern Alaska, we show a stronger temporal correlation of tree ring growth with open water uncovered by retreating Arctic sea ice

  •   Non-Abelian physics in light and sound
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Yi Yang, Biao Yang, Guancong Ma, Jensen Li, Shuang Zhang, C. T. Chan

    Non-Abelian phenomena arise when the sequence of operations on physical systems influences their behaviors. By possessing internal degrees of freedom such as polarization, light and sound can be subjected to various manipulations, including constituent materials, structured environments, and tailored source conditions. These manipulations enable the creation of a great variety of Hamiltonians, through

  •   Chemistry-albedo feedbacks offset up to a third of forestation’s CO 2 removal benefits
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    James Weber, James A. King, Nathan Luke Abraham, Daniel P. Grosvenor, Christopher J. Smith, Youngsub Matthew Shin, Peter Lawrence, Stephanie Roe, David J. Beerling, Maria Val Martin

    Forestation is widely proposed for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) removal, but its impact on climate through changes to atmospheric composition and surface albedo remains relatively unexplored. We assessed these responses using two Earth system models by comparing a scenario with extensive global forest expansion in suitable regions to other plausible futures. We found that forestation increased aerosol scattering

  •   SOX9 switch links regeneration to fibrosis at the single-cell level in mammalian kidneys
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Shikhar Aggarwal, Zhanxiang Wang, David Rincon Fernandez Pacheco, Anna Rinaldi, Alex Rajewski, Jasper Callemeyn, Elisabet Van Loon, Baptiste Lamarthée, Ambart Ester Covarrubias, Jean Hou, Michifumi Yamashita, Haruhiko Akiyama, S. Ananth Karumanchi, Clive N. Svendsen, Paul W. Noble, Stanley C. Jordan, Joshua J. Breunig, Maarten Naesens, Pietro E. Cippà, Sanjeev Kumar

    The steps governing healing with or without fibrosis within the same microenvironment are unclear. After acute kidney injury (AKI), injured proximal tubular epithelial cells activate SOX9 for self-restoration. Using a multimodal approach for a head-to-head comparison of injury-induced SOX9 lineages, we identified a dynamic SOX9 switch in repairing epithelia. Lineages that regenerated epithelia silenced

  •   Programming memristor arrays with arbitrarily high precision for analog computing
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    Wenhao Song, Mingyi Rao, Yunning Li, Can Li, Ye Zhuo, Fuxi Cai, Mingche Wu, Wenbo Yin, Zongze Li, Qiang Wei, Sangsoo Lee, Hengfang Zhu, Lei Gong, Mark Barnell, Qing Wu, Peter A. Beerel, Mike Shuo-Wei Chen, Ning Ge, Miao Hu, Qiangfei Xia, J. Joshua Yang

    In-memory computing represents an effective method for modeling complex physical systems that are typically challenging for conventional computing architectures but has been hindered by issues such as reading noise and writing variability that restrict scalability, accuracy, and precision in high-performance computations. We propose and demonstrate a circuit architecture and programming protocol that

  •   Emission lines due to ionizing radiation from a compact object in the remnant of Supernova 1987A
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-22
    C. Fransson, M. J. Barlow, P. J. Kavanagh, J. Larsson, O. C. Jones, B. Sargent, M. Meixner, P. Bouchet, T. Temim, G. S. Wright, J. A. D. L. Blommaert, N. Habel, A. S. Hirschauer, J. Hjorth, L. Lenkić, T. Tikkanen, R. Wesson, A. Coulais, O. D. Fox, R. Gastaud, A. Glasse, J. Jaspers, O. Krause, R. M. Lau, O. Nayak, A. Rest, L. Colina, E. F. van Dishoeck, M. Güdel, Th. Henning, P.-O. Lagage, G. Östlin

    The nearby Supernova 1987A was accompanied by a burst of neutrino emission, which indicates that a compact object (a neutron star or black hole) was formed in the explosion. There has been no direct observation of this compact object. In this work, we observe the supernova remnant with JWST spectroscopy, finding narrow infrared emission lines of argon and sulfur. The line emission is spatially unresolved

  •   Interplay of competition and facilitation in grazing succession by migrant Serengeti herbivores
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    T. Michael Anderson, Staci A. Hepler, Ricardo M. Holdo, Jason E. Donaldson, Robert J. Erhardt, J. Grant C. Hopcraft, Matthew C. Hutchinson, Sarah E. Huebner, Thomas A. Morrison, Jeffry Muday, Issack N. Munuo, Meredith S. Palmer, Johan Pansu, Robert M. Pringle, Robert Sketch, Craig Packer

    Competition, facilitation, and predation offer alternative explanations for successional patterns of migratory herbivores. However, these interactions are difficult to measure, leaving uncertainty about the mechanisms underlying body-size-dependent grazing—and even whether succession occurs at all. We used data from an 8-year camera-trap survey, GPS-collared herbivores, and fecal DNA metabarcoding

  •   Accelerated photochemical reactions at oil-water interface exploiting melting point depression
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Ya-Ming Tian, Wagner Silva, Ruth M. Gschwind, Burkhard König

    Water can accelerate a variety of organic reactions far beyond the rates observed in classical organic solvents. However, using pure water as a solvent introduces solubility constraints that have limited the applicability of efficient photochemistry in particular. We report here the formation of aggregates between pairs of arenes, heteroarenes, enamines, or esters with different electron affinities

  •   Electrically driven proton transfer promotes Brønsted acid catalysis by orders of magnitude
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Karl S. Westendorff, Max J. Hülsey, Thejas S. Wesley, Yuriy Román-Leshkov, Yogesh Surendranath

    Electric fields play a key role in enzymatic catalysis and can enhance reaction rates by 100,000-fold, but the same rate enhancements have yet to be achieved in thermochemical heterogeneous catalysis. In this work, we probe the influence of catalyst potential and interfacial electric fields on heterogeneous Brønsted acid catalysis. We observed that variations in applied potential of ~380 mV led to

  •   Science communication at scale
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    H. Holden Thorp

    On the television program MythBusters , which aired on the Discovery Channel from 2003 to 2016, the hosts Adam Savage and Jamie Hyneman tested popular myths and ideas arising everywhere from folklore to popular culture, designating them as either “busted” or “confirmed.” The show used engaging and entertaining variations on the scientific method to answer questions such as whether you get wetter when

  •   Eco-evolutionary emergence of macroecological scaling in plankton communities
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Jonas Wickman, Elena Litchman, Christopher A. Klausmeier

    Macroecological scaling patterns, such as between prey and predator biomass, are fundamental to our understanding of the rules of biological organization and ecosystem functioning. Although these scaling patterns are ubiquitous, how they arise is poorly understood. To explain these patterns, we used an eco-evolutionary predator–prey model parameterized using data for phytoplankton and zooplankton.

  •   The lipid globotriaosylceramide promotes germinal center B cell responses and antiviral immunity
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Pankaj Sharma, Xiaolong Zhang, Kevin Ly, Yuxiang Zhang, Yu Hu, Adam Yongxin Ye, Jianqiao Hu, Ji Hyung Kim, Mumeng Lou, Chong Wang, Quinton Celuzza, Yuji Kondo, Keiko Furukawa, David R. Bundle, Koichi Furukawa, Frederick W. Alt, Florian Winau

    Influenza viruses escape immunity owing to rapid antigenic evolution, which requires vaccination strategies that allow for broadly protective antibody responses. We found that the lipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) expressed on germinal center (GC) B cells is essential for the production of high-affinity antibodies. Mechanistically, Gb3 bound and disengaged CD19 from its chaperone CD81, permitting CD19

  •   Oxygen rise in the tropical upper ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Simone Moretti, Alexandra Auderset, Curtis Deutsch, Ronja Schmitz, Lukas Gerber, Ellen Thomas, Valeria Luciani, Maria Rose Petrizzo, Ralf Schiebel, Aradhna Tripati, Philip Sexton, Richard Norris, Roberta D’Onofrio, James Zachos, Daniel M. Sigman, Gerald H. Haug, Alfredo Martínez-García

    The global ocean’s oxygen inventory is declining in response to global warming, but the future of the low-oxygen tropics is uncertain. We report new evidence for tropical oxygenation during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a warming event that serves as a geologic analog to anthropogenic warming. Foraminifera-bound nitrogen isotopes indicate that the tropical North Pacific oxygen-deficient

  •   Roaming in highly excited states: The central atom elimination of triatomic molecule decomposition
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Zhenxing Li, Yan-lin Fu, Zijie Luo, Shuaikang Yang, Yucheng Wu, Hao Wu, Guorong Wu, Weiqing Zhang, Bina Fu, Kaijun Yuan, Donghui Zhang, Xueming Yang

    Chemical reactions are generally assumed to proceed from reactants to products along the minimum energy path (MEP). However, straying from the MEP—roaming—has been recognized as an unconventional reaction mechanism and found to occur in both the ground and first excited states. Its existence in highly excited states is however not yet established. We report a dissociation channel to produce electronically

  •   Design national framework climate laws to enable low-carbon resilient transformation
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Navroz K. Dubash

    Climate change, as noted by the recently released technical report of the “stocktake” under the United Nations negotiation process, is an “all of economy, all of society” problem. To induce change consistent with the scale and scope of this challenge, countries are increasingly creating “framework laws” on climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports that by 2020, 56

  •   Superionic lithium transport via multiple coordination environments defined by two-anion packing
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Guopeng Han, Andrij Vasylenko, Luke M. Daniels, Chris M. Collins, Lucia Corti, Ruiyong Chen, Hongjun Niu, Troy D. Manning, Dmytro Antypov, Matthew S. Dyer, Jungwoo Lim, Marco Zanella, Manel Sonni, Mounib Bahri, Hongil Jo, Yun Dang, Craig M. Robertson, Frédéric Blanc, Laurence J. Hardwick, Nigel D. Browning, John B. Claridge, Matthew J. Rosseinsky

    Fast cation transport in solids underpins energy storage. Materials design has focused on structures that can define transport pathways with minimal cation coordination change, restricting attention to a small part of chemical space. Motivated by the greater structural diversity of binary intermetallics than that of the metallic elements, we used two anions to build a pathway for three-dimensional

  •   ATR blocks telomerase from converting DNA breaks into telomeres
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Charles G. Kinzig, George Zakusilo, Kaori K. Takai, Logan R. Myler, Titia de Lange

    Telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres at natural chromosome ends, should be repressed at double-strand breaks (DSBs), where neotelomere formation can cause terminal truncations. We developed an assay to detect neotelomere formation at Cas9- or I-SceI–induced DSBs in human cells. Telomerase added telomeric repeats to DSBs, leading to interstitial telomeric repeat insertions or the formation

  •   An antibiotic preorganized for ribosomal binding overcomes antimicrobial resistance
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Kelvin J. Y. Wu, Ben I. C. Tresco, Antonio Ramkissoon, Elena V. Aleksandrova, Egor A. Syroegin, Dominic N. Y. See, Priscilla Liow, Georgia A. Dittemore, Meiyi Yu, Giambattista Testolin, Matthew J. Mitcheltree, Richard Y. Liu, Maxim S. Svetlov, Yury S. Polikanov, Andrew G. Myers

    We report the design conception, chemical synthesis, and microbiological evaluation of the bridged macrobicyclic antibiotic cresomycin (CRM), which overcomes evolutionarily diverse forms of antimicrobial resistance that render modern antibiotics ineffective. CRM exhibits in vitro and in vivo efficacy against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus

  •   Water-induced strong isotropic MXene-bridged graphene sheets for electrochemical energy storage
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Jiao Yang, Mingzhu Li, Shaoli Fang, Yanlei Wang, Hongyan He, Chenlu Wang, Zejun Zhang, Bicheng Yuan, Lei Jiang, Ray H. Baughman, Qunfeng Cheng

    Graphene and two-dimensional transition metal carbides and/or nitrides (MXenes) are important materials for making flexible energy storage devices because of their electrical and mechanical properties. It remains a challenge to assemble nanoplatelets of these materials at room temperature into in-plane isotropic, free-standing sheets. Using nanoconfined water-induced basal-plane alignment and covalent

  •   Attosecond-pump attosecond-probe x-ray spectroscopy of liquid water
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Shuai Li, Lixin Lu, Swarnendu Bhattacharyya, Carolyn Pearce, Kai Li, Emily T. Nienhuis, Gilles Doumy, R.D. Schaller, S. Moeller, M.-F. Lin, G. Dakovski, D.J. Hoffman, D. Garratt, Kirk A. Larsen, J.D. Koralek, C.Y. Hampton, D. Cesar, Joseph Duris, Z. Zhang, Nicholas Sudar, James P. Cryan, A. Marinelli, Xiaosong Li, Ludger Inhester, Robin Santra, Linda Young

    Attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe experiments have long been sought as the most straightforward method to observe electron dynamics in real time. Although numerous successes have been achieved with overlapped near infrared femtosecond and extreme ultraviolet attosecond pulses combined with theory, true attosecond-pump/attosecond-probe experiments have been limited. We used a synchronized attosecond

  •   Hepatic glycogenesis antagonizes lipogenesis by blocking S1P via UDPG
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Jie Chen, Yabo Zhou, Zhuohang Liu, Yan Lu, Yishen Jiang, Kexin Cao, Nannan Zhou, Dianheng Wang, Chaoqi Zhang, Ning Zhou, Keqing Shi, Lu Zhang, Li Zhou, Zhenfeng Wang, Huafeng Zhang, Ke Tang, Jingwei Ma, Jiadi Lv, Bo Huang

    The identification of mechanisms to store glucose carbon in the form of glycogen rather than fat in hepatocytes has important implications for the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and other chronic metabolic diseases. In this work, we show that glycogenesis uses its intermediate metabolite uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) to antagonize lipogenesis, thus steering both mouse and

  •   A plant mechanism of hijacking pathogen virulence factors to trigger innate immunity
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Yu Xiao, Guangzheng Sun, Qiangsheng Yu, Teng Gao, Qinsheng Zhu, Rui Wang, Shijia Huang, Zhifu Han, Felice Cervone, Heng Yin, Tiancong Qi, Yuanchao Wang, Jijie Chai

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) interact with pathogen-derived polygalacturonases to inhibit their virulence-associated plant cell wall–degrading activity but stimulate immunity-inducing oligogalacturonide production. Here we show that interaction between Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP2 (PvPGIP2) and Fusarium phyllophilum polygalacturonase (FpPG) enhances substrate binding, resulting in inhibition

  •   Paired plant immune CHS3-CSA1 receptor alleles form distinct hetero-oligomeric complexes
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-15
    Yu Yang, Oliver J. Furzer, Eleanor P. Fensterle, Shu Lin, Zhiyu Zheng, Nak Hyun Kim, Li Wan, Jeffery L. Dangl

    Plant intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) analyzed to date oligomerize and form resistosomes upon activation to initiate immune responses. Some NLRs are encoded in tightly linked co-regulated head-to-head genes whose products function together as pairs. We uncover the oligomerization requirements for different Arabidopsis paired CHS3-CSA1 alleles. These pairs form

  •   Molecular regulation of oil gland development and biosynthesis of essential oils in Citrus spp.
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Hongxing Wang, Jie Ren, Shiyun Zhou, Yaoyuan Duan, Chenqiao Zhu, Chuanwu Chen, Ziyan Liu, Qingyou Zheng, Shu Xiang, Zongzhou Xie, Xia Wang, Lijun Chai, Junli Ye, Qiang Xu, Wenwu Guo, Xiuxin Deng, Fei Zhang

    Secretory structures in terrestrial plants serve as reservoirs for a variety of secondary metabolites. Among these, the secretory cavity of the Rutaceae family is notable for containing essential oils with a wide range of applications. However, the molecular basis underlying secretory cavity development is unknown. Here, we reveal a molecular framework for Citrus oil gland formation. Using genetic

  •   Corpora cavernosa fibroblasts mediate penile erection
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Eduardo Linck Guimaraes, David Oliveira Dias, Wing Fung Hau, Anais Julien, Daniel Holl, Maria Garcia-Collado, Soniya Savant, Evelina Vågesjö, Mia Phillipson, Lars Jakobsson, Christian Göritz

    Penile erection is mediated by the corpora cavernosa, a trabecular-like vascular bed that enlarges upon vasodilation, but its regulation is not completely understood. Here, we show that perivascular fibroblasts in the corpora cavernosa support vasodilation by reducing norepinephrine availability. The effect on penile blood flow depends on the number of fibroblasts, which is regulated by erectile activity

  •   Oxygen isotope ensemble reveals Earth’s seawater, temperature, and carbon cycle history
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Terry Isson, Sofia Rauzi

    Earth’s persistent habitability since the Archean remains poorly understood. Using an oxygen isotope ensemble approach—comprising shale, iron oxide, carbonate, silica, and phosphate records—we reconcile a multibillion-year history of seawater δ 18 O, temperature, and marine and terrestrial clay abundance. Our results reveal a rise in seawater δ 18 O and a temperate Proterozoic climate distinct to interpretations

  •   Escarpment evolution drives the diversification of the Madagascar flora
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Yi Liu, Yanyan Wang, Sean D. Willett, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Loïc Pellissier

    Madagascar exhibits high endemic biodiversity that has evolved with sustained and stable rates of speciation over the past several tens of millions of years. The topography of Madagascar is dominated by a mountainous continental rift escarpment, with the highest plant diversity and rarity found along the steep, eastern side of this geographic feature. Using a process-explicit model, we show that precipitation-driven

  •   A paternal signal induces endosperm proliferation upon fertilization in Arabidopsis
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Sara Simonini, Stefano Bencivenga, Ueli Grossniklaus

    In multicellular organisms, sexual reproduction relies on the formation of highly differentiated cells, the gametes, which await fertilization in a quiescent state. Upon fertilization, the cell cycle resumes. Successful development requires that male and female gametes are in the same phase of the cell cycle. The molecular mechanisms that reinstate cell division in a fertilization-dependent manner

  •   Fracturing and tectonic stress drives ultrarapid magma flow into dikes
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Michelle Parks, Halldór Geirsson, Andrew Hooper, Vincent Drouin, Kristín S. Vogfjörd, Benedikt G. Ófeigsson, Sonja H. M. Greiner, Yilin Yang, Chiara Lanzi, Gregory P. De Pascale, Kristín Jónsdóttir, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir, Valentyn Tolpekin, Hildur María Friðriksdóttir, Páll Einarsson, Sara Barsotti

    Many examples of exposed giant dike swarms can be found where lateral magma flow exceeded hundreds of kilometers. We show that massive magma flow into dikes can be established with only modest overpressure in a magma body, if a large enough pathway opens at its boundary, and gradual build-up of high tensile stress has occurred along the dike pathway prior to onset of diking. This explains rapid initial

  •   Lineage-specific intolerance to oncogenic drivers restricts histological transformation
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Eric E. Gardner, Ethan M. Earlie, Kate Li, Jerin Thomas, Melissa J. Hubisz, Benjamin D. Stein, Chen Zhang, Lewis C. Cantley, Ashley M. Laughney, Harold Varmus

    Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are thought to originate from different epithelial cell types in the lung. Intriguingly, LUAD can histologically transform into SCLC after treatment with targeted therapies. In this study, we designed models to follow the conversion of LUAD to SCLC and found that the barrier to histological transformation converges on tolerance to Myc, which

  •   A deep reservoir for hydrogen drives intense degassing in the Bulqizë ophiolite
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Laurent Truche, Frédéric-Victor Donzé, Edmond Goskolli, Bardhyl Muceku, Corinne Loisy, Christophe Monnin, Hugo Dutoit, Adrian Cerepi

    Deep crustal production of hydrogen (H 2 ) is a potential source of primary energy if recoverable accumulations in geological formations are sufficiently large. We report direct measurements of an elevated outgassing rate of 84% (by volume) of H 2 from the deep underground Bulqizë chromite mine in Albania. A minimum of 200 tons of H 2 is vented annually from the mine’s galleries, making it one of the

  •   Plants distinguish different photoperiods to independently control seasonal flowering and growth
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Qingqing Wang, Wei Liu, Chun Chung Leung, Daniel A. Tarté, Joshua M. Gendron

    Plants measure daylength (photoperiod) to regulate seasonal growth and flowering. Photoperiodic flowering has been well studied, but less is known about photoperiodic growth. By using a mutant with defects in photoperiodic growth, we identified a seasonal growth regulation pathway that functions in long days in parallel to the canonical long-day photoperiod flowering mechanism. This is achieved by

  •   Differentiating enantiomers by directional rotation of ions in a mass spectrometer
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Xiaoyu Zhou, Zhuofan Wang, Shuai Li, Xianle Rong, Jiexun Bu, Qiang Liu, Zheng Ouyang

    Conventional mass spectrometry does not distinguish between enantiomers, or mirror-image isomers. Here we report a technique to break the chiral symmetry and to differentiate enantiomers by inducing directional rotation of chiral gas-phase ions. Dual alternating current excitations were applied to manipulate the motions of trapped ions, including the rotation around the center of mass and macro movement

  •   Interface-induced superconductivity in magnetic topological insulators
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Hemian Yi, Yi-Fan Zhao, Ying-Ting Chan, Jiaqi Cai, Ruobing Mei, Xianxin Wu, Zi-Jie Yan, Ling-Jie Zhou, Ruoxi Zhang, Zihao Wang, Stephen Paolini, Run Xiao, Ke Wang, Anthony R. Richardella, John Singleton, Laurel E. Winter, Thomas Prokscha, Zaher Salman, Andreas Suter, Purnima P. Balakrishnan, Alexander J. Grutter, Moses H. W. Chan, Nitin Samarth, Xiaodong Xu, Weida Wu, Chao-Xing Liu, Cui-Zu Chang

    The interface between two different materials can show unexpected quantum phenomena. In this study, we used molecular beam epitaxy to synthesize heterostructures formed by stacking together two magnetic materials, a ferromagnetic topological insulator (TI) and an antiferromagnetic iron chalcogenide (FeTe). We observed emergent interface-induced superconductivity in these heterostructures and demonstrated

  •   Sustainable chemistry and food systems lessons—the same procedure as every year?
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Vânia G. Zuin Zeidler

    “Dinner for One,” a short black-and-white video performed in English from the 1960s, has become a cherished tradition in several German-speaking and Scandinavian countries, broadcast on TV every New Year's Eve for decades and gaining newfound popularity on social media among members of Generation Z . The narrative follows a British butler, James, whose employer, Miss Sophie, celebrates her 90th birthday

  •   What drives poor quality of care for child diarrhea? Experimental evidence from India
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Zachary Wagner, Manoj Mohanan, Rushil Zutshi, Arnab Mukherji, Neeraj Sood

    Most health care providers in developing countries know that oral rehydration salts (ORS) are a lifesaving and inexpensive treatment for child diarrhea, yet few prescribe it. This know-do gap has puzzled experts for decades. Using randomized experiments in India, we estimated the extent to which ORS underprescription is driven by perceptions that patients do not want ORS, provider’s financial incentives

  •   Thermography of the superfluid transition in a strongly interacting Fermi gas
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Zhenjie Yan, Parth B. Patel, Biswaroop Mukherjee, Chris J. Vale, Richard J. Fletcher, Martin W. Zwierlein

    Heat transport can serve as a fingerprint identifying different states of matter. In a normal liquid, a hotspot diffuses, whereas in a superfluid, heat propagates as a wave called “second sound.” Direct imaging of heat transport is challenging, and one usually resorts to detecting secondary effects. In this study, we establish thermography of a strongly interacting atomic Fermi gas, whose radio-frequency

  •   Ultrauniform, strong, and ductile 3D-printed titanium alloy through bifunctional alloy design
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Jingqi Zhang, Michael J. Bermingham, Joseph Otte, Yingang Liu, Ziyong Hou, Nan Yang, Yu Yin, Mohamad Bayat, Weikang Lin, Xiaoxu Huang, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch

    Coarse columnar grains and heterogeneously distributed phases commonly form in metallic alloys produced by three-dimensional (3D) printing and are often considered undesirable because they can impart nonuniform and inferior mechanical properties. We demonstrate a design strategy to unlock consistent and enhanced properties directly from 3D printing. Using Ti−5Al−5Mo−5V−3Cr as a model alloy, we show

  •   Help wanted, scientists need apply
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    Keith R. Yamamoto

    The world is continuously being transformed by science and technology (S&T), but to deliver equitable benefits to the public, scientists must be embedded in influential sectors of society—policy, diplomacy, journalism, law, business, education, and more. This means injecting PhD-level experts at every stage of research and development, from ideation, investigation, and investment to manufacture, deployment

  •   Olfaction in the Anthropocene: NO 3 negatively affects floral scent and nocturnal pollination
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-08
    J. K. Chan, S. Parasurama, R. Atlas, R. Xu, U. A. Jongebloed, B. Alexander, J. M. Langenhan, J. A. Thornton, J. A. Riffell

    There is growing concern about sensory pollutants affecting ecological communities. Anthropogenically enhanced oxidants [ozone (O 3 ) and nitrate radicals (NO 3 )] rapidly degrade floral scents, potentially reducing pollinator attraction to flowers. However, the physiological and behavioral impacts on pollinators and plant fitness are unknown. Using a nocturnal flower-moth system, we found that atmospherically

  •   Structural basis for sugar perception by Drosophila gustatory receptors
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-02
    Demin Ma, Meiqin Hu, Xiaotong Yang, Qiang Liu, Fan Ye, Weijie Cai, Yong Wang, Ximing Xu, Shenghai Chang, Ruiying Wang, Wei Yang, Sheng Ye, Nannan Su, Minrui Fan, Haoxing Xu, Jiangtao Guo

    Insects rely on a family of seven-transmembrane proteins called gustatory receptors (GRs) to encode different taste modalities such as sweet and bitter. Here we report structures of Drosophila sweet taste receptors GR43a and GR64a in the apo and sugar-bound states. Both GRs form tetrameric sugar-gated cation channels, composed of one central pore domain (PD) and four peripheral ligand-binding domains

  •   Transition of human γ-tubulin ring complex into a closed conformation during microtubule nucleation
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-02
    Cláudia Brito, Marina Serna, Pablo Guerra, Oscar Llorca, Thomas Surrey

    Microtubules are essential for intracellular organization and chromosome segregation. They are nucleated by the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC). However, isolated vertebrate γTuRC adopts an open conformation that deviates from the microtubule structure, raising the question of the nucleation mechanism. Here we determine cryo-electron microscopy structures of human γTuRC bound to a nascent microtubule

  •   Kinase-impaired BTK mutations are susceptible to clinical-stage BTK and IKZF1/3 degrader NX-2127
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Skye Montoya, Jessie Bourcier, Mark Noviski, Hao Lu, Meghan C. Thompson, Alexandra Chirino, Jacob Jahn, Anya K. Sondhi, Stefan Gajewski, Ying Siow (May) Tan, Stephanie Yung, Aleksandra Urban, Eric Wang, Cuijuan Han, Xiaoli Mi, Won Jun Kim, Quinlan Sievers, Paul Auger, Hugo Bousquet, Nivetha Brathaban, Brandon Bravo, Melissa Gessner, Cristiana Guiducci, James N. Iuliano, Tim Kane, Ratul Mukerji, Panga

    Increasing use of covalent and noncovalent inhibitors of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) has elucidated a series of acquired drug-resistant BTK mutations in patients with B cell malignancies. Here we identify inhibitor resistance mutations in BTK with distinct enzymatic activities, including some that impair BTK enzymatic activity while imparting novel protein-protein interactions that sustain B cell

  •   Terminal C(sp 3 )–H borylation through intermolecular radical sampling
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Miao Wang, Yahao Huang, Peng Hu

    Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) processes can overcome the strong bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of inert C(sp 3 )–H bonds and thereby convert feedstock alkanes into value-added fine chemicals. Nevertheless, the high reactivity of HAT reagents, coupled with the small differences among various C(sp 3 )–H bond strengths, renders site-selective transformations of straight-chain alkanes a great challenge

  •   Blood pressure pulsations modulate central neuronal activity via mechanosensitive ion channels
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Luna Jammal Salameh, Sebastian H. Bitzenhofer, Ileana L. Hanganu-Opatz, Mathias Dutschmann, Veronica Egger

    The transmission of the heartbeat through the cerebral vascular system causes intracranial pressure pulsations. We discovered that arterial pressure pulsations can directly modulate central neuronal activity. In a semi-intact rat brain preparation, vascular pressure pulsations elicited correlated local field oscillations in the olfactory bulb mitral cell layer. These oscillations did not require synaptic

  •   Hydrolytic endonucleolytic ribozyme (HYER) is programmable for sequence-specific DNA cleavage
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Zi-Xian Liu, Shouyue Zhang, Han-Zhou Zhu, Zhi-Hang Chen, Yun Yang, Long-Qi Li, Yuan Lei, Yun Liu, Dan-Yuan Li, Ao Sun, Cheng-Ping Li, Shun-Qing Tan, Gao-Li Wang, Jie-Yi Shen, Shuai Jin, Caixia Gao, Jun-Jie Gogo Liu

    Ribozymes are catalytic RNAs with diverse functions including self-splicing and polymerization. This work aims to discover natural ribozymes that behave as hydrolytic and sequence-specific DNA endonucleases, which could be repurposed as DNA manipulation tools. Focused on bacterial group II-C introns, we found that many systems without intron-encoded protein propagate multiple copies in their resident

  •   Racing extinction: Can science act fast enough to save large, endangered mammals?
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Terrie M. Williams

    How far can a polar bear swim? The answer to that one question could have altered the course of the global warming movement and tempered current public distrust in science and scientists . As is the case for many large, fierce mammals, many aspects of the basic biology that dictate what polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ) need to survive in a changing world remain a mystery. We don’t know the limitations

  •   Earning respect and trust
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    H. Holden Thorp

    Respect for, and trust in, science may be at an all-time low. In the United States, a 2023 Pew Research poll showed that only 57% of the population believed science has had a positive impact on society, and a Gallup poll showed that confidence in higher education was down to 36%. If the Gallup poll were done now, support would likely be even lower, given recent events with university presidents, from

  •   Photosensitization enables Pauson-Khand–type reactions with nitrenes
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Fang Li, W. Felix Zhu, Claire Empel, Oleksandr Datsenko, Adarsh Kumar, Yameng Xu, Johanna H. M. Ehrler, Iuliana Atodiresei, Stefan Knapp, Pavel K. Mykhailiuk, Ewgenij Proschak, Rene M. Koenigs

    The Pauson-Khand reaction has in the past 50 years become one of the most common cycloaddition reactions in chemistry. Coupling two unsaturated bonds with carbon monoxide, the transformation remains limited to CO as a C 1 building block. Herein we report analogous cycloaddition reactions with nitrenes as an N 1 unit. The reaction of a nonconjugated diene with a nitrene precursor produces bicyclic bioisosteres

  •   Whole-brain spatial organization of hippocampal single-neuron projectomes
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Shou Qiu, Yachuang Hu, Yiming Huang, Taosha Gao, Xiaofei Wang, Danying Wang, Biyu Ren, Xiaoxue Shi, Yu Chen, Xinran Wang, Dan Wang, Luyao Han, Yikai Liang, Dechen Liu, Qingxu Liu, Li Deng, Zhaoqin Chen, Lijie Zhan, Tianzhi Chen, Yuzhe Huang, Qingge Wu, Taorong Xie, Liuqin Qian, Chenxi Jin, Jiawen Huang, Wei Deng, Tao Jiang, Xiangning Li, Xueyan Jia, Jing Yuan, Anan Li, Jun Yan, Ninglong Xu, Lin Xu

    Mapping single-neuron projections is essential for understanding brain-wide connectivity and diverse functions of the hippocampus (HIP). Here, we reconstructed 10,100 single-neuron projectomes of mouse HIP and classified 43 projectome subtypes with distinct projection patterns. The number of projection targets and axon-tip distribution depended on the soma location along HIP longitudinal and transverse

  •   Grounded language acquisition through the eyes and ears of a single child
    Science (IF 56.9) Pub Date : 2024-02-01
    Wai Keen Vong, Wentao Wang, A. Emin Orhan, Brenden M. Lake

    Starting around 6 to 9 months of age, children begin acquiring their first words, linking spoken words to their visual counterparts. How much of this knowledge is learnable from sensory input with relatively generic learning mechanisms, and how much requires stronger inductive biases? Using longitudinal head-mounted camera recordings from one child aged 6 to 25 months, we trained a relatively generic

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