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  • Astrochemistry During the Formation of Stars
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Jes K. Jørgensen; Arnaud Belloche; Robin T. Garrod

    Star-forming regions show a rich and varied chemistry, including the presence of complex organic molecules—in both the cold gas distributed on large scales and the hot regions close to young stars where protoplanetary disks arise. Recent advances in observational techniques have opened new possibilities for studying this chemistry. In particular, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array has

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Star-Forming Galaxies at Cosmic Noon
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Natascha M. Förster Schreiber; Stijn Wuyts

    Ever deeper and wider look-back surveys have led to a fairly robust outline of the cosmic star-formation history, which culminated around ; this period is often nicknamed “cosmic noon.” Our knowledge about star-forming galaxies at these epochs has dramatically advanced from increasingly complete population censuses and detailed views of individual galaxies. We highlight some of the key observational

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Observations of the Lyman-α Universe
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Masami Ouchi; Yoshiaki Ono; Takatoshi Shibuya

    Hydrogen Lyman-α (Lyα) emission has been one of the major observational probes for the high-redshift Universe since the first discoveries of high-z Lyα-emitting galaxies in the late 1990s. Due to the strong Lyα emission originated by resonant scattering and recombination of the most abundant element, Lyα observations witness not only Hii regions of star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) but

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Evidence for Initial Mass Function Variation in Massive Early-Type Galaxies
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Russell J. Smith

    The initial mass function (IMF), describing the distribution of birth masses of stars, plays a pivotal role in establishing the observable properties of galaxies. This article reviews the evidence for variation in the IMF of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs), especially from spectroscopic studies and from dynamical and gravitational lensing measurements over the past decade. The principal conclusions

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Dust Attenuation Law in Galaxies
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Samir Salim; Desika Narayanan

    Understanding the properties of dust attenuation curves in galaxies and the physical mechanisms that shape them are among the fundamental questions of extragalactic astrophysics, with great practical significance for deriving the physical properties of galaxies. Attenuation curves result from a combination of dust grain properties, dust content, and the spatial arrangement of dust and different populations

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Observations of Protoplanetary Disk Structures
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Sean M. Andrews

    The disks that orbit young stars are the essential conduits and reservoirs of material for star and planet formation. Their structures, meaning the spatial variations of the disk physical conditions, reflect the underlying mechanisms that drive those formation processes. Observations of the solids and gas in these disks, particularly at high resolution, provide fundamental insights on their mass distributions

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in the Solar Corona
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Valery M. Nakariakov; Dmitrii Y. Kolotkov

    The corona of the Sun is a unique environment in which magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves, one of the fundamental processes of plasma astrophysics, are open to a direct study. There is striking progress in both observational and theoretical research of MHD wave processes in the corona, with the main recent achievements summarized as follows: ▪  Both periods and wavelengths of the principal MHD modes of

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Magnetohydrodynamics Simulations of Active Galactic Nucleus Disks and Jets
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Shane W. Davis; Alexander Tchekhovskoy

    There is a broad consensus that accretion onto supermassive black holes and consequent jet formation power the observed emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, there has been less agreement about how jets form in accretion flows, their possible relationship to black hole spin, and how they interact with the surrounding medium. There have also been theoretical concerns about instabilities

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Cosmic Baryon and Metal Cycles
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Céline Péroux; J. Christopher Howk

    Characterizing the relationship between stars, gas, and metals in galaxies is a critical component of understanding the cosmic baryon cycle. We compile contemporary censuses of the baryons in collapsed structures and their chemical makeup and dust content. We show the following: ▪  The mass density of the Universe is well determined to redshifts and shows minor evolution with time. New observations

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Astronomers Engaging with the Education Ecosystem: A Best-Evidence Synthesis
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Stephen M. Pompea; Pedro Russo

    Astronomers have played many roles in their engagement with the larger astronomy education ecosystem. Their activities have served both the formal and informal education communities worldwide, with levels of involvement from the occasional participant to the full-time professional. We discuss these many diverse roles, giving background, context, and perspective on their value in encouraging and improving

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Intermediate-Mass Black Holes
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Jenny E. Greene; Jay Strader; Luis C. Ho

    We describe ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes with MBH ≈ 10–105 M⊙. We review a range of search mechanisms, both dynamical and those that rely on accretion signatures. We find the following conclusions: ▪  Dynamical and accretion signatures alike point to a high fraction of 109–1010 M⊙ galaxies hosting black holes with MBH∼ 105 M⊙. In contrast, there are no solid detections of black

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Streams, Substructures, and the Early History of the Milky Way
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Amina Helmi

    The advent of the second data release of the Gaia mission, in combination with data from large spectroscopic surveys, is revolutionizing our understanding of the Galaxy. Thanks to these transformational data sets and the knowledge accumulated thus far, a new, more mature picture of the evolution of the early Milky Way is currently emerging. ▪  Two of the traditional Galactic components, namely, the

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Evolution of the Star-Forming Interstellar Medium Across Cosmic Time
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Linda J. Tacconi; Reinhard Genzel; Amiel Sternberg

    Over the past decade, increasingly robust estimates of the dense molecular gas content in galaxy populations between redshift z = 0 and the peak of cosmic galaxy/star formation (z ∼ 1–3) have become available. This rapid progress has been possible due to the advent of powerful ground- and space-based telescopes for the combined study of several millimeter to far-IR, line or continuum tracers of the

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Spatially Resolved Spectroscopic Properties of Low-Redshift Star-Forming Galaxies
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Sebastián F. Sánchez

    I review the spatially resolved spectroscopic properties of low-redshift star-forming galaxies (and their retired counterparts) using results from the most recent optical integral field spectroscopy galaxy surveys. First, I briefly summarize the global spectroscopic properties of these galaxies, discussing the main ionization processes and the global relations described by the star-formation rates

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The Assembly of the First Massive Black Holes
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Kohei Inayoshi; Eli Visbal; Zoltán Haiman

    The existence of ∼109M⊙ supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within the first billion years of the Universe has stimulated numerous ideas for the prompt formation and rapid growth of black holes (BHs) in the early Universe. Here, we review ways in which the seeds of massive BHs may have first assembled, how they may have subsequently grown as massive as ∼109M⊙, and how multimessenger observations could

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Jack of All
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    James E. Gunn

    This article is basically a scientific autobiography from a long and very rewarding career, covering childhood, education, theoretical work, observations, instrumentation, and some social activities. It is not meant to be a review of anything except an incomplete picture of my life, and the relatively few references are to some of my work, work related to mine, and work that had a very large influence

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Key Insights, Challenges, and Prospects
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Nikku Madhusudhan

    Exoplanetary science is on the verge of an unprecedented revolution. The thousands of exoplanets discovered over the past decade have most recently been supplemented by discoveries of potentially habitable planets around nearby low-mass stars. Currently, the field is rapidly progressing toward detailed spectroscopic observations to characterize the atmospheres of these planets. Various surveys from

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Accuracy and Precision of Industrial Stellar Abundances
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Paula Jofré; Ulrike Heiter; Caroline Soubiran

    There has been an incredibly large investment in obtaining high-resolution stellar spectra for determining chemical abundances of stars. This information is crucial to answer fundamental questions in astronomy by constraining the formation and evolution scenarios of the Milky Way as well as the stars and planets residing in it.

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Understanding Galaxy Evolution Through Emission Lines
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Lisa J. Kewley; David C. Nicholls; Ralph S. Sutherland

    We review the use of emission lines for understanding galaxy evolution, focusing on excitation source, metallicity, ionization parameter, ISM pressure, and electron density. We discuss the physics, benefits, and caveats of emission line diagnostics, including the effects of theoretical model uncertainties, diffuse ionized gas, and sample selection bias. In anticipation of upcoming telescope facilities

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Relativistic Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Roger Blandford; David Meier; Anthony Readhead

    The nuclei of most normal galaxies contain supermassive black holes, which can accrete gas through a disk and become active. These active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can form jets that are observed on scales from astronomical units to megaparsecs and from meter wavelengths to TeV energies. High-resolution radio imaging and multiwavelength/messenger campaigns are elucidating the conditions under which this

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Fast Radio Bursts: An Extragalactic Enigma
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    James M. Cordes; Shami Chatterjee

    We summarize our understanding of millisecond radio bursts from an extragalactic population of sources. Fast radio bursts (FRBs) occur at an extraordinary rate, thousands per day over the entire sky with radiation energy densities at the source about ten billion times larger than those from Galactic pulsars. We survey FRB phenomenology, source models and host galaxies, coherent radiation models, and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Faintest Dwarf Galaxies
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Joshua D. Simon

    The lowest luminosity ( L) Milky Way satellite galaxies represent the extreme lower limit of the galaxy luminosity function. These ultra-faint dwarfs are the oldest, most dark matter–dominated, most metal-poor, and least chemically evolved stellar systems known. They therefore provide unique windows into the formation of the first galaxies and the behavior of dark matter on small scales. In this review

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cosmological Tests of Gravity
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Pedro G. Ferreira

    Cosmological observations are beginning to reach a level of precision that allows us to test some of the most fundamental assumptions in our working model of the Universe. One such assumption is that gravity is governed by the theory of general relativity. In this review, we discuss how one might go about extending general relativity and how such extensions can be described in a unified way on large

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Most Luminous Supernovae
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Avishay Gal-Yam

    Over a decade ago, a group of supernova explosions with peak luminosities far exceeding (often by >100 times) those of normal events has been identified. These superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) have been a focus of intensive study. I review the accumulated observations and discuss the implications for the physics of these extreme explosions. ▪ SLSNe can be classified into hydrogen-poor (SLSNe-I) and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Star Clusters Across Cosmic Time
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Mark R. Krumholz; Christopher F. McKee; Joss Bland-Hawthorn

    Star clusters stand at the intersection of much of modern astrophysics: the ISM, gravitational dynamics, stellar evolution, and cosmology. Here, we review observations and theoretical models for the formation, evolution, and eventual disruption of star clusters. Current literature suggests a picture of this life cycle including the following several phases: ▪ Clusters form in hierarchically structured

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • New View of the Solar Chromosphere
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Mats Carlsson; Bart De Pontieu; Viggo H. Hansteen

    The solar chromosphere forms a crucial, yet complex and until recently poorly understood, interface between the solar photosphere and the heliosphere. ▪ Advances in high-resolution instrumentation, adaptive optics, image reconstruction techniques, and space-based observatories allow unprecedented high-resolution views of the finely structured and highly dynamic chromosphere. ▪ Dramatic progress in

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Properties of the Solar Corona and Its Connection to the Solar Wind
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Steven R. Cranmer; Amy R. Winebarger

    The corona is a layer of hot plasma that surrounds the Sun, traces out its complex magnetic field, and ultimately expands into interplanetary space as the supersonic solar wind. Although much has been learned in recent decades from advances in observations, theory, and computer simulations, we still have not identified definitively the physical processes that heat the corona and accelerate the solar

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cometary Chemistry and the Origin of Icy Solar System Bodies: The View After Rosetta
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Kathrin Altwegg; Hans Balsiger; Stephen A. Fuselier

    In situ research of cometary chemistry began when measurements from the Giotto mission at Comet 1P/Halley revealed the presence of complex organics in the coma. New telescopes and space missions have provided detailed remote and in situ measurements of the composition of cometary volatiles. Recently, the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P) more than doubled the number of parent

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Millimeterwave and Submillimeterwave Laboratory Spectroscopy in Support of Observational Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Susanna L. Widicus Weaver

    The recent advancements in far-infrared (far-IR) astronomy brought about by the Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA observatories have led to technological advancements in millimeterwave and submillimeterwave laboratory spectroscopy that is used to support molecular observations. This review gives an overview of rotational spectroscopy and its relationship with observational astronomy, as well as an overview

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Angular Momentum Transport in Stellar Interiors
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Conny Aerts; Stéphane Mathis; Tamara M. Rogers

    Stars lose a significant amount of angular momentum between birth and death, implying that efficient processes transporting it from the core to the surface are active. Space asteroseismology delivered the interior rotation rates of more than a thousand low- and intermediate-mass stars, revealing the following: ▪ Single stars rotate nearly uniformly during the core-hydrogen and core-helium burning phases

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Nancy Grace Roman and the Dawn of Space Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Nancy Grace Roman

    Dear readers: We are sad to report that, soon after submitting her draft manuscript for this prefatory chapter, Nancy Grace Roman passed away on December 25, 2018. This final version of her memoir has been lightly edited but remains very true to the original. However, an Abstract was missing. Rather than trying to synthesize one in Nancy Grace's inimitable style, we take this opportunity to comment

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cosmology Paradigm Changes
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Jaan Einasto

    I describe here my background and main steps in my studies. Each following step was a basis for the next one without a certain plan. I started my path with the study of kinematical properties of galactic populations, which smoothly transformed into the calculation of population models of galaxies. I had difficulties in satisfactorily modeling galaxies using population data; this led me to the dark

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • High-Mass Star and Massive Cluster Formation in the Milky Way
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Frédérique Motte, Sylvain Bontemps, Fabien Louvet

    This review examines the state-of-the-art knowledge of high-mass star and massive cluster formation, gained from ambitious observational surveys, which acknowledges the multiscale characteristics of these processes. After a brief overview of theoretical models and main open issues, we present observational searches for the evolutionary phases of high-mass star formation, first among high-luminosity

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Nate Bastian, Carmela Lardo

    Globular clusters (GCs) exhibit star-to-star variations in specific elements (e.g., He, C, N, O, Na, Al) that bear the hallmark of high-temperature H-burning. These abundance variations can be observed spectroscopically and also photometrically, with the appropriate choice of filters, due to the changing of spectral features within the band pass. This phenomenon is observed in nearly all of the ancient

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Dynamical Evolution of the Early Solar System
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    David Nesvorný

    Several properties of the Solar System, including the wide radial spacing of the giant planets, can be explained if planets radially migrated by exchanging orbital energy and momentum with outer disk planetesimals. Neptune's planetesimal-driven migration, in particular, has a strong advocate in the dynamical structure of the Kuiper belt. A dynamical instability is thought to have occurred during the

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Origins of Hot Jupiters
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Rebekah I. Dawson, John Asher Johnson

    Hot Jupiters were the first exoplanets to be discovered around main sequence stars and astonished us with their close-in orbits. They are a prime example of how exoplanets have challenged our textbook, solar-system inspired story of how planetary systems form and evolve. More than twenty years after the discovery of the first hot Jupiter, there is no consensus on their predominant origin channel. Three

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Chemodynamical History of the Galactic Bulge
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Beatriz Barbuy, Cristina Chiappini, Ortwin Gerhard

    The Galactic Bulge can uniquely be studied from large samples of individual stars and is therefore of prime importance for understanding the stellar population structure of bulges in general. Here the observational evidence on the kinematics, chemical composition, and ages of Bulge stellar populations based on photometric and spectroscopic data is reviewed. The bulk of Bulge stars are old and span

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics for Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    François Rigaut, Benoit Neichel

    Since the year 2000, adaptive optics (AO) has seen the emergence of a variety of new concepts addressing particular science needs; multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) is one of them. By correcting the atmospheric turbulence in 3D using several wavefront sensors and a tomographic phase reconstruction approach, MCAO aims to provide uniform diffraction limited images in the near-infrared over fields

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Extreme Adaptive Optics
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Olivier Guyon

    Over the last two decades, several thousand exoplanets have been identified, and their study has become a high scientific priority. Direct imaging of nearby exoplanets and the circumstellar disks in which they form and evolve is challenging due to the high contrast ratio and small angular separation relative to the central star. Exoplanets are typically within 1 arcsec of, and between 4 and 10 orders

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • The Pluto System After New Horizons
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    S. Alan Stern, William M. Grundy, William B. McKinnon, Harold A. Weaver, Leslie A. Young

    The New Horizons (NH) flyby of the Pluto–Charon binary planet and its system of four small surrounding satellites in mid-2015 revolutionized our knowledge of this distant planet and its moons. Beyond providing rich geo-logical, compositional, and atmospheric data sets, NH demonstrated that Pluto has been surprisingly geologically and climatologically active throughout the past 4+ Gyr and that the planet

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Weak Lensing for Precision Cosmology
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Rachel Mandelbaum

    Weak gravitational lensing, the deflection of light by mass, is one of the best tools to constrain the growth of cosmic structure with time and reveal the nature of dark energy. I discuss the sources of systematic uncertainty in weak lensing measurements and their theoretical interpretation, including our current understanding and other options for future improvement. These include long-standing concerns

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • The Connection Between Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Risa H. Wechsler, Jeremy L. Tinker

    In our modern understanding of galaxy formation, every galaxy forms within a dark matter halo. The formation and growth of galaxies over time is connected to the growth of the halos in which they form. The advent of large galaxy surveys as well as high-resolution cosmological simulations has provided a new window into the statistical relationship between galaxies and halos and its evolution. Here,

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Atomic and Ionized Microstructures in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Snežana Stanimirović, Ellen G. Zweibel

    It has been known for half a century that the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy is structured on scales as small as a few hundred kilometers, more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than typical ISM structures and energy input scales. In this review we focus on neutral and ionized structures on spatial scales of a few to ∼104 AU, which appear to be highly overpressured, as these have the most

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Debris Disks: Structure, Composition, and Variability
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    A. Meredith Hughes, Gaspard Duchêne, Brenda C. Matthews

    Debris disks are tenuous, dust-dominated disks commonly observed around stars over a wide range of ages. Those around main sequence stars are analogous to the Solar System's Kuiper Belt and zodiacal light. The dust in debris disks is believed to be continuously regenerated, originating primarily with collisions of planetesimals. Observations of debris disks provide insight into the evolution of planetary

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Rubble Pile Asteroids
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Kevin J. Walsh

    The moniker rubble pile is typically applied to all Solar System bodies >200 m and <∼10 km in diameter; in this size range, there is an abundance of evidence that nearly every object is bound primarily by self-gravity, with significant void space or bulk porosity between irregularly shaped constituent particles. The understanding of this population is derived from wide-ranging population studies of

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Ryan C. Hickox, David M. Alexander

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are powered by the accretion of material onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and are among the most luminous objects in the Universe. However, the huge radiative power of most AGN cannot be seen directly, as the accretion is hidden behind gas and dust that absorb many of the characteristic observational signatures. This obscuration presents an important challenge for

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • The Interstellar Dust Properties of Nearby Galaxies
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Frédéric Galliano, Maud Galametz, Anthony P. Jones

    This article gives an overview of the constitution, physical conditions, and observables of dust in the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies. We first review the macroscopic, spatial distribution of dust in these objects and its consequences for our ability to study grain physics. We also discuss the possibility of using dust tracers as diagnostic tools. We then survey the current understanding of

    更新日期:2018-09-19
  • How to Characterize Habitable Worlds and Signs of Life
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Lisa Kaltenegger

    The detection of exoplanets orbiting other stars has revolutionized our view of the cosmos. First results suggest that it is teeming with a fascinating diversity of rocky planets, including those in the habitable zone. Even our closest star, Proxima Centauri, harbors a small planet in its habitable zone, Proxima b. With the next generation of telescopes, we will be able to peer into the atmospheres

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • The Circumgalactic Medium
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Jason Tumlinson, Molly S. Peeples, Jessica K. Werk

    The gas surrounding galaxies outside their disks or interstellar medium and inside their virial radii is known as the circumgalactic medium (CGM). In recent years this component of galaxies has assumed an important role in our understanding of galaxy evolution owing to rapid advances in observational access to this diffuse, nearly invisible material. Observations and simulations of this component of

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Small-Scale Challenges to the ΛCDM Paradigm
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    James S. Bullock, Michael Boylan-Kolchin

    The dark energy plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model has been a demonstrably successful framework for predicting and explaining the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution with time. Yet on length scales smaller than ∼1 Mpc and mass scales smaller than ∼1011M⊙, the theory faces a number of challenges. For example, the observed cores of many dark matter–dominated galaxies

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Philip Kaaret, Hua Feng, Timothy P. Roberts

    We review observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). X-ray spectroscopic and timing studies of ULXs suggest a new accretion state distinct from those seen in Galactic stellar-mass black hole binaries. The detection of coherent pulsations indicates the presence of neutron-star accretors in three ULXs and therefore apparently super-Eddington luminosities. Optical and X-ray line profiles of ULXs

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Magnetars
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Victoria M. Kaspi, Andrei M. Beloborodov

    Magnetars are young and highly magnetized neutron stars that display a wide array of X-ray activity including short bursts, large outbursts, giant flares, and quasi-periodic oscillations, often coupled with interesting timing behavior including enhanced spin-down, glitches, and antiglitches. The bulk of this activity is explained by the evolution and decay of an ultrastrong magnetic field, stressing

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods for Bayesian Data Analysis in Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Sanjib Sharma

    Markov chain Monte Carlo–based Bayesian data analysis has now become the method of choice for analyzing and interpreting data in almost all disciplines of science. In astronomy, over the past decade, we have also seen a steady increase in the number of papers that employ Monte Carlo–based Bayesian analysis. New, efficient Monte Carlo–based methods are continuously being developed and explored. In this

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Stellar Model Chromospheres and Spectroscopic Diagnostics
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Jeffrey L. Linsky

    The discovery of exoplanets and the desire to understand their atmospheric chemical composition and habitability provides a new rationale for understanding the radiation from X-rays to radio wavelengths emitted by their host stars. Semiempirical models of stellar atmospheres that include accurate treatment of radiative transfer of all important atoms, ions, and molecules provide the essential basis

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Observing Interstellar and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    J.L. Han

    Observational results of interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields are reviewed, including the fields in supernova remnants and loops, interstellar filaments and clouds, Hii regions and bubbles, the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the cosmic web. A variety of approaches are used to investigate these fields. The orientations of magnetic fields in interstellar filaments and molecular

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Theoretical Challenges in Galaxy Formation
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Thorsten Naab, Jeremiah P. Ostriker

    Numerical simulations have become a major tool for understanding galaxy formation and evolution. Over the decades the field has made significant progress. It is now possible to simulate the formation of individual galaxies and galaxy populations from well-defined initial conditions with realistic abundances and global properties. An essential component of the calculation is to correctly estimate the

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Stellar Dynamics and Stellar Phenomena Near a Massive Black Hole
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Tal Alexander

    Most galactic nuclei harbor a massive black hole (MBH), whose birth and evolution are closely linked to those of its host galaxy. The unique conditions near the MBH—high velocity and density in the steep potential of a massive singular relativistic object—lead to unusual modes of stellar birth, evolution, dynamics, and death. A complex network of dynamical mechanisms, operating on multiple timescales

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Galaxies, Globular Clusters, and Dark Matter
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Kenneth C. Freeman

    This is an autobiographical account of my scientific career. My main research interest is the structure and assembly of galaxies. The assembly narrative has evolved from the monolithic and baryonic collapse picture of the early 1960s to the current hierarchical scenario underpinned by dark matter, and is still evolving. Technology has changed: CCDs replaced photographic plates and image tubes, large

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Galaxies in the First Billion Years After the Big Bang
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Daniel P. Stark

    In the past five years, deep imaging campaigns conducted with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based observatories have delivered large samples of galaxies at 6.56 UV-selected galaxies are relatively compact with blue UV continuum slopes, low stellar masses, and large specific star formation rates. In the last year, ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array) and ground-based infrared spectrographs

    更新日期:2016-09-19
  • Gamma-Ray Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 32.963) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Grzegorz (Greg) Madejski, Marek Sikora

    This article reviews the recent observational results regarding γ-ray emission from active galaxies. The most numerous discrete extragalactic γ-ray sources are AGNs dominated by relativistic jets pointing in our direction (commonly known as blazars), and they are the main subject of the review. They are detected in all observable energy bands and are highly variable. The advent of the sensitive γ-ray

    更新日期:2016-09-19
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