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  • Chemical evolution of star-forming regions.
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2007-07-28
    E F van Dishoeck,G A Blake

    Recent advances in the understanding of the chemical processes that occur during all stages of the formation of stars, from the collapse of molecular clouds to the assemblage of icy planetesimals in protoplanetary accretion disks, are reviewed. Observational studies of the circumstellar material within 100-10,000 AU of the young star with (sub)millimeter single-dish telescopes, millimeter interferometers, and ground-based as well as space-borne infrared observatories have only become possible within the past few years. Results are compared with detailed chemical models that emphasize the coupling of gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry. Molecules that are particularly sensitive to different routes of formation and that may be useful in distinguishing between a variety of environments and histories are outlined. In the cold, low-density prestellar cores, radicals and long unsaturated carbon chains are enhanced. During the cold collapse phase, most species freeze out onto the grains in the high-density inner region. Once young stars ignite, their surroundings are heated through radiation and/or shocks, whereupon new chemical characteristics appear. Evaporation of ices drives a ''hot core'' chemistry rich in organic molecules, whereas shocks propagating through the dense envelope release both refractory and volatile grain material, resulting in prominent SiO, OH, and H2O emission. The role of future instrumentation in further developing these chemical and temporal diagnostics is discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Angular Momentum Transport in Stellar Interiors
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Conny Aerts, Stéphane Mathis, Tamara M. Rogers

    Stars lose a significant amount of angular momentum between birth and death, implying that efficient processes transporting it from the core to the surface are active. Space asteroseismology delivered the interior rotation rates of more than a thousand low- and intermediate-mass stars, revealing the following: ▪ Single stars rotate nearly uniformly during the core-hydrogen and core-helium burning phases. ▪ Stellar cores spin up to a factor of 10 faster than the envelope during the red giant phase. ▪ The angular momentum of the helium-burning core of stars is in agreement with the angular momentum of white dwarfs.Observations reveal a strong decrease of core angular momentum when stars have a convective core. Current theory of angular momentum transport fails to explain this. We propose improving the theory with a data-driven approach, whereby angular momentum prescriptions derived frommultidimensional (magneto)hydrodynamical simulations and theoretical considerations are continuously tested against modern observations. The TESS and PLATO space missions have the potential to derive the interior rotation of large samples of stars, including high-mass and metal-poor stars in binaries and clusters. This will provide the powerful observational constraints needed to improve theory and simulations.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Nancy Grace Roman and the Dawn of Space Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Nancy Grace Roman

    Dear readers: We are sad to report that, soon after submitting her draft manuscript for this prefatory chapter, Nancy Grace Roman passed away on December 25, 2018. This final version of her memoir has been lightly edited but remains very true to the original. However, an Abstract was missing. Rather than trying to synthesize one in Nancy Grace's inimitable style, we take this opportunity to comment briefly on her life and its significance.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Cometary Chemistry and the Origin of Icy Solar System Bodies: The View After Rosetta
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Kathrin Altwegg, Hans Balsiger, Stephen A. Fuselier

    In situ research of cometary chemistry began when measurements from the Giotto mission at Comet 1P/Halley revealed the presence of complex organics in the coma. New telescopes and space missions have provided detailed remote and in situ measurements of the composition of cometary volatiles. Recently, the Rosetta mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (67P) more than doubled the number of parent species and the number of isotopic ratios known for comets. Forty of the 71 parent species have also been detected in pre- and protostellar clouds. Most isotopic ratios are nonsolar. This diverse origin is in contrast to that of the Sun, which received its material from the bulk of the collapsing cloud. The xenon isotopic ratios measured in 67P can explain the long-standing question about the origin of terrestrial atmospheric xenon. These findings strengthen the notion that comets are indeed an important link between the ISM and today's solar system including life on Earth. ▪ Nonsolar isotopic ratios for species such as Xe, N, S, and Si point to a nonhomogenized protoplanetary disk from which comets received their material. ▪ The similarity of the organic inventories of comets and presolar and protostellar material makes it plausible that this material was accreted almost unaltered by comets from the presolar stage. ▪ Large variations in the deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio in water for comets indicate a large range in the protoplanetary disk from which comets formed. ▪ The amount of organics delivered by comets to Earth may be highly significant.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • New View of the Solar Chromosphere
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Mats Carlsson, Bart De Pontieu, Viggo H. Hansteen

    The solar chromosphere forms a crucial, yet complex and until recently poorly understood, interface between the solar photosphere and the heliosphere. ▪ Advances in high-resolution instrumentation, adaptive optics, image reconstruction techniques, and space-based observatories allow unprecedented high-resolution views of the finely structured and highly dynamic chromosphere. ▪ Dramatic progress in numerical computations allows 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic forward models to take the place of the previous generation of 1D semiempirical atmosphere models. These new models provide deep insight into complex nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium chromospheric diagnostics and enable physics-based interpretations of observations. ▪ This combination of modeling and observations has led to new insights into the role of shock waves, transverse magnetic waves, magnetic reconnection and flux emergence in the chromospheric energy balance, the formation of spicules, the impact of ion-neutral interactions, and the connectivity between chromosphere and transition region. ▪ During the next few years, the advent of new instrumentation (integral-field-unit spectropolarimetry) and observatories (ALMA, DKIST), coupled with novel inversion codes and expansion of existing numerical models to deal with ever more complex physical processes (including multifluid approaches), is expected to lead to major new insights into the dominant heating processes in the chromosphere and beyond.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Cosmological Tests of Gravity
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Pedro G. Ferreira

    Cosmological observations are beginning to reach a level of precision that allows us to test some of the most fundamental assumptions in our working model of the Universe. One such assumption is that gravity is governed by the theory of general relativity. In this review, we discuss how one might go about extending general relativity and how such extensions can be described in a unified way on large scales. This allows us to describe the phenomenology of modified gravity in the growth and morphology of the large-scale structure of the Universe. On smaller scales, we explore the physics of gravitational screening and how it might manifest itself in galaxies, clusters, and, more generally, in the cosmic web. We then analyze the current constraints from large-scale structure and conclude by discussing the future prospects of the field in light of the plethora of surveys currently being planned. Key results include the following: ▪ There are a plethora of alternative theories of gravity that are restricted by fundamental physics considerations. ▪ There is now a well-established formalism for describing cosmological perturbations in the linear regime for general theories of gravity. ▪ Gravitational screening can mask modifications to general relativity on small scales but may, itself, lead to distinctive signatures in the large-scale structure of the Universe. ▪ Current constraints on both linear and nonlinear scales may be affected by systematic uncertainties that limit our ability to rule out alternatives to general relativity. ▪ The next generation of cosmological surveys will dramatically improve constraints on general relativity, by up to two orders of magnitude.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • The Most Luminous Supernovae
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Avishay Gal-Yam

    Over a decade ago, a group of supernova explosions with peak luminosities far exceeding (often by >100 times) those of normal events has been identified. These superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) have been a focus of intensive study. I review the accumulated observations and discuss the implications for the physics of these extreme explosions. ▪ SLSNe can be classified into hydrogen-poor (SLSNe-I) and hydrogen-rich (SLSNe-II) events. ▪ Combining photometric and spectroscopic analysis of samples of nearby SLSNe-I and lower-luminosity events, a threshold of mag at peak appears to separate SLSNe-I from the normal population. ▪ SLSN-I light curves can be quite complex, presenting both early bumps and late postpeak undulations. ▪ SLSNe-I spectroscopically evolve from an early hot photospheric phase with a blue continuum and weak absorption lines, through a cool photospheric phase resembling spectra of SNe Ic, and into the late nebular phase. ▪ SLSNe-II are not nearly as well studied, lacking information based on large-sample studies. Proposed models for the SLSN power source are challenged to explain all the observations. SLSNe arise from massive progenitors, with some events associated with very massive stars ( M). Host galaxies of SLSNe in the nearby Universe tend to have low mass and subsolar metallicity. SLSNe are rare, with rates <100 times lower than ordinary supernovae. SLSN cosmology and their use as beacons to study the high-redshift Universe offer exciting prospects.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • The Properties of the Solar Corona and Its Connection to the Solar Wind
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Steven R. Cranmer, Amy R. Winebarger

    The corona is a layer of hot plasma that surrounds the Sun, traces out its complex magnetic field, and ultimately expands into interplanetary space as the supersonic solar wind. Although much has been learned in recent decades from advances in observations, theory, and computer simulations, we still have not identified definitively the physical processes that heat the corona and accelerate the solar wind. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and speculate about what else is required to finally understand the fundamental physics of this complex system. Specifically: ▪ We discuss recent subarcsecond observations of the corona, some of which appear to provide evidence for tangled and braided magnetic fields and some of which do not. ▪ We review results from three-dimensional numerical simulations that, despite limitations in dynamic range, reliably contain sufficient heating to produce and maintain the corona. ▪ We provide a new tabulation of scaling relations for a number of proposed coronal heating theories that involve waves, turbulence, braiding, nanoflares, and helicity conservation. An understanding of these processes is important not only for improving our ability to forecast hazardous space-weather events but also for establishing a baseline of knowledge about a well-resolved star that is relevant to other astrophysical systems.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Accuracy and Precision of Industrial Stellar Abundances
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Paula Jofré, Ulrike Heiter, Caroline Soubiran

    There has been an incredibly large investment in obtaining high-resolution stellar spectra for determining chemical abundances of stars. This information is crucial to answer fundamental questions in astronomy by constraining the formation and evolution scenarios of the Milky Way as well as the stars and planets residing in it.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Understanding Galaxy Evolution Through Emission Lines
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Lisa J. Kewley, David C. Nicholls, Ralph S. Sutherland

    We review the use of emission lines for understanding galaxy evolution, focusing on excitation source, metallicity, ionization parameter, ISM pressure, and electron density. We discuss the physics, benefits, and caveats of emission line diagnostics, including the effects of theoretical model uncertainties, diffuse ionized gas, and sample selection bias. In anticipation of upcoming telescope facilities, we provide new self-consistent emission line diagnostic calibrations for complete spectral coverage from the UV to the IR. These diagnostics can be used in concert to understand how fundamental galaxy properties have changed across cosmic time. We conclude the following: ▪ The UV, optical, and IR contain complementary diagnostics that can probe the conditions within different nebular ionization zones. ▪ Accounting for complex density gradients and temperature profiles is critical for reliably estimating the fundamental properties of Hii regions and galaxies. ▪ Diffuse ionized gas can raise metallicity estimates, flatten metallicity gradients, and introduce scatter in ionization parameter measurements. ▪ New 3D emission line diagnostics successfully separate the contributions from star formation, AGN, and shocks using integral field spectroscopy.We summarize with a discussion of the challenges and major opportunities for emission line diagnostics in the coming years.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Star Clusters Across Cosmic Time
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Mark R. Krumholz, Christopher F. McKee, Joss Bland-Hawthorn

    Star clusters stand at the intersection of much of modern astrophysics: the ISM, gravitational dynamics, stellar evolution, and cosmology. Here, we review observations and theoretical models for the formation, evolution, and eventual disruption of star clusters. Current literature suggests a picture of this life cycle including the following several phases: ▪ Clusters form in hierarchically structured, accreting molecular clouds that convert gas into stars at a low rate per dynamical time until feedback disperses the gas. ▪ The densest parts of the hierarchy resist gas removal long enough to reach high star-formation efficiency, becoming dynamically relaxed and well mixed. These remain bound after gas removal. ▪ In the first ∼100 Myr after gas removal, clusters disperse moderately fast, through a combination of mass loss and tidal shocks by dense molecular structures in the star-forming environment. ▪ After ∼100 Myr, clusters lose mass via two-body relaxation and shocks by giant molecular clouds, processes that preferentially affect low-mass clusters and cause a turnover in the cluster mass function to appear on ∼1–10-Gyr timescales. ▪ Even after dispersal, some clusters remain coherent and thus detectable in chemical or action space for multiple galactic orbits.In the next decade, a new generation of space– and adaptive optics–assisted ground-based telescopes will enable us to test and refine this picture.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • The Faintest Dwarf Galaxies
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Joshua D. Simon

    The lowest luminosity ( L) Milky Way satellite galaxies represent the extreme lower limit of the galaxy luminosity function. These ultra-faint dwarfs are the oldest, most dark matter–dominated, most metal-poor, and least chemically evolved stellar systems known. They therefore provide unique windows into the formation of the first galaxies and the behavior of dark matter on small scales. In this review, we summarize the discovery of ultra-faint dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in 2005 and the subsequent observational and theoretical progress in understanding their nature and origin. We describe their stellar kinematics, chemical abundance patterns, structural properties, stellar populations, orbits, and luminosity function, as well as what can be learned from each type of measurement. We conclude the following: ▪ In most cases, the stellar velocity dispersions of ultra-faint dwarfs are robust against systematic uncertainties such as binary stars and foreground contamination. ▪ The chemical abundance patterns of stars in ultra-faint dwarfs require two sources of r-process elements, one of which can likely be attributed to neutron star mergers. ▪ Even under conservative assumptions, only a small fraction of ultra-faint dwarfs may have suffered significant tidal stripping of their stellar components. ▪ Determining the properties of the faintest dwarfs out to the virial radius of the Milky Way will require very large investments of observing time with future telescopes.Finally, we offer a look forward at the observations that will be possible with future facilities as the push toward a complete census of the Local Group dwarf galaxy population continues.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Millimeterwave and Submillimeterwave Laboratory Spectroscopy in Support of Observational Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Susanna L. Widicus Weaver

    The recent advancements in far-infrared (far-IR) astronomy brought about by the Herschel, SOFIA, and ALMA observatories have led to technological advancements in millimeterwave and submillimeterwave laboratory spectroscopy that is used to support molecular observations. This review gives an overview of rotational spectroscopy and its relationship with observational astronomy, as well as an overview of laboratory spectroscopic techniques focusing on both historical approaches and new advancements. Additional topics discussed include production and detection techniques for unstable molecular species of astrochemical interest, data analysis approaches that address spectral complexity and line confusion, and the current state of and limitations to spectral line databases. Potential areas for new developments in this field are also reviewed. To advance the field, the following challenges must be addressed: ▪ Data acquisition speed, spectral sensitivity, and analysis approaches for complex mixtures and broadband spectra are the greatest limitations—and hold the greatest promise for advancement—in this field of research. ▪ Full science return from far-IR observatories cannot be realized until laboratory spectroscopy catches up with the data rate for observations. ▪ New techniques building on those used in the microwave and IR regimes are required to fill the terahertz gap.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Fast Radio Bursts: An Extragalactic Enigma
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    James M. Cordes, Shami Chatterjee

    We summarize our understanding of millisecond radio bursts from an extragalactic population of sources. Fast radio bursts (FRBs) occur at an extraordinary rate, thousands per day over the entire sky with radiation energy densities at the source about ten billion times larger than those from Galactic pulsars. We survey FRB phenomenology, source models and host galaxies, coherent radiation models, and the role of plasma propagation effects in burst detection. The FRB field is guaranteed to be exciting: New telescopes will expand the sample from the current ∼80 unique burst sources (and only a few secure localizations and redshifts) to thousands, with burst localizations that enable host-galaxy redshifts emerging directly from interferometric surveys. ▪ FRBs are now established as an extragalactic phenomenon. ▪ Only a few sources are known to repeat. Despite the failure to redetect other FRBs, they are not inconsistent with all being repeaters. ▪ FRB sources may be new, exotic kinds of objects or known types in extreme circumstances. Many inventive models exist, ranging from alien spacecraft to cosmic strings, but those concerning compact objects and supermassive black holes have gained the most attention. A rapidly rotating magnetar is a promising explanation for FRB 121102 along with the persistent source associated with it, but alternative source models are not ruled out for it or other FRBs. ▪ FRBs are powerful tracers of circumsource environments, “missing baryons” in the intergalactic medium (IGM), and dark matter. ▪ The relative contributions of host galaxies and the IGM to propagation effects have yet to be disentangled, so dispersion measure distances have large uncertainties.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Relativistic Jets from Active Galactic Nuclei
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Roger Blandford, David Meier, Anthony Readhead

    The nuclei of most normal galaxies contain supermassive black holes, which can accrete gas through a disk and become active. These active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can form jets that are observed on scales from astronomical units to megaparsecs and from meter wavelengths to TeV energies. High-resolution radio imaging and multiwavelength/messenger campaigns are elucidating the conditions under which this happens. Evidence is presented that: ▪ Relativistic AGN jets are formed when the black hole spins and the the accretion disk is strongly magnetized, perhaps on account of gas accreting at high latitude beyond the black hole sphere of influence. ▪ AGN jets are collimated close to the black hole by magnetic stress associated with a disk wind. ▪ Higher-power jets can emerge from their galactic nuclei in a relativistic, supersonic, and proton-dominated state, and they terminate in strong, hot spot shocks; lower-power jets are degraded to buoyant plumes and bubbles. ▪ Jets may accelerate protons to EeV energies, which contribute to the cosmic ray spectrum and may initiate pair cascades that can efficiently radiate synchrotron γ-rays. ▪ Jets were far more common when the Universe was a few billion years old and black holes and massive galaxies were growing rapidly. ▪ Jets can have a major influence on their environments, stimulating and limiting the growth of galaxies.The observational prospects for securing our understanding of AGN jets are bright.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Key Insights, Challenges, and Prospects
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Nikku Madhusudhan

    Exoplanetary science is on the verge of an unprecedented revolution. The thousands of exoplanets discovered over the past decade have most recently been supplemented by discoveries of potentially habitable planets around nearby low-mass stars. Currently, the field is rapidly progressing toward detailed spectroscopic observations to characterize the atmospheres of these planets. Various surveys from space and the ground are expected to detect numerous more exoplanets orbiting nearby stars that make the planets conducive for atmospheric characterization. The current state of this frontier of exoplanetary atmospheres may be summarized as follows. ▪ We have entered the era of comparative exoplanetology thanks to high-fidelity atmospheric observations now available for tens of exoplanets. ▪ Recent studies reveal a rich diversity of chemical compositions and atmospheric processes hitherto unseen in the Solar System. ▪ Elemental abundances of exoplanetary atmospheres place important constraints on exoplanetary formation and migration histories. ▪ Upcoming observational facilities promise to revolutionize exoplanetary spectroscopy down to rocky exoplanets. ▪ The detection of a biosignature in an exoplanetary atmosphere is conceivable over the next decade. In the present review, we discuss the modern and future landscape of this frontier area of exoplanetary atmospheres. We start with a brief review of the area, emphasising the key insights gained from different observationalmethods and theoretical studies. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of the state of the art, challenges, and future prospects in three forefront branches of the area.

    更新日期:2019-08-28
  • Cosmology Paradigm Changes
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Jaan Einasto

    I describe here my background and main steps in my studies. Each following step was a basis for the next one without a certain plan. I started my path with the study of kinematical properties of galactic populations, which smoothly transformed into the calculation of population models of galaxies. I had difficulties in satisfactorily modeling galaxies using population data; this led me to the dark matter problem. Discussing dark matter started a collaboration with Yakov Zel'dovich, which initiated the search for regularities in the distribution of galaxies. The detection of the supercluster-void network or the cosmic web followed.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • High-Mass Star and Massive Cluster Formation in the Milky Way
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Frédérique Motte, Sylvain Bontemps, Fabien Louvet

    This review examines the state-of-the-art knowledge of high-mass star and massive cluster formation, gained from ambitious observational surveys, which acknowledges the multiscale characteristics of these processes. After a brief overview of theoretical models and main open issues, we present observational searches for the evolutionary phases of high-mass star formation, first among high-luminosity sources and more recently among young massive protostars and the elusive high-mass prestellar cores. We then introduce the most likely evolutionary scenario for high-mass star formation, which emphasizes the link of high-mass star formation to massive cloud and cluster formation. Finally, we introduce the first attempts to search for variations of the star-formation activity and cluster formation in molecular cloud complexes in the most extreme star-forming sites and across the Milky Way. The combination of Galactic plane surveys and high–angular resolution images with submillimeter facilities such as Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) are prerequisites to make significant progress in the forthcoming decade.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Nate Bastian, Carmela Lardo

    Globular clusters (GCs) exhibit star-to-star variations in specific elements (e.g., He, C, N, O, Na, Al) that bear the hallmark of high-temperature H-burning. These abundance variations can be observed spectroscopically and also photometrically, with the appropriate choice of filters, due to the changing of spectral features within the band pass. This phenomenon is observed in nearly all of the ancient GCs, although, to date, it has not been found in any massive cluster younger than 2 Gyr. Many scenarios have been suggested to explain this phenomenon, with most invoking multiple epochs of star formation within the cluster; however, all have failed to reproduce various key observations, in particular when a global view of the GC population is taken. We review the state of current observations and outline the successes and failures of each of the main proposed models. The traditional idea of using the stellar ejecta from a first generation of stars to form a second generation of stars, while conceptually straightforward, has failed to reproduce an increasing number of observational constraints. We conclude that the puzzle of multiple populations remains unsolved, hence alternative theories are needed.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Dynamical Evolution of the Early Solar System
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    David Nesvorný

    Several properties of the Solar System, including the wide radial spacing of the giant planets, can be explained if planets radially migrated by exchanging orbital energy and momentum with outer disk planetesimals. Neptune's planetesimal-driven migration, in particular, has a strong advocate in the dynamical structure of the Kuiper belt. A dynamical instability is thought to have occurred during the early stages with Jupiter having close encounters with a Neptune-class planet. As a result of the encounters, Jupiter acquired its current orbital eccentricity and jumped inward by a fraction of an astronomical unit, as required for the survival of the terrestrial planets and from asteroid belt constraints. Planetary encounters also contributed to capture of Jupiter Trojans and irregular satellites of the giant planets. Here we discuss the dynamical evolution of the early Solar System with an eye to determining how models of planetary migration/instability can be constrained from its present architecture. Specifically, we review arguments suggesting that the Solar System may have originally contained a third ice giant on a resonant orbit between Saturn and Uranus. This hypothesized planet was presumably ejected into interstellar space during the instability. The Kuiper belt kernel and other dynamical structures in the trans-Neptunian region may provide evidence for the ejected planet. We favor the early version of the instability where Neptune migrated into the outer planetesimal disk within a few tens of millions of years after the dispersal of the protosolar nebula. If so, the planetary migration/instability was not the cause of the Late Heavy Bombardment. Mercury's orbit may have been excited during the instability.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Origins of Hot Jupiters
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Rebekah I. Dawson, John Asher Johnson

    Hot Jupiters were the first exoplanets to be discovered around main sequence stars and astonished us with their close-in orbits. They are a prime example of how exoplanets have challenged our textbook, solar-system inspired story of how planetary systems form and evolve. More than twenty years after the discovery of the first hot Jupiter, there is no consensus on their predominant origin channel. Three classes of hot Jupiter creation hypotheses have been proposed: in situ formation, disk migration, and high-eccentricity tidal migration. Although no origin channel alone satisfactorily explains all the evidence, two major origin channels together plausibly account for properties of hot Jupiters themselves and their connections to other exoplanet populations.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Chemodynamical History of the Galactic Bulge
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Beatriz Barbuy, Cristina Chiappini, Ortwin Gerhard

    The Galactic Bulge can uniquely be studied from large samples of individual stars and is therefore of prime importance for understanding the stellar population structure of bulges in general. Here the observational evidence on the kinematics, chemical composition, and ages of Bulge stellar populations based on photometric and spectroscopic data is reviewed. The bulk of Bulge stars are old and span a metallicity range of −1.5≲[Fe/H]≲+0.5. Stellar populations and chemical properties suggest a star-formation timescale below ∼2 Gyr. The overall Bulge is barred and follows cylindrical rotation, and the more metal-rich stars trace a box/peanut (B/P) structure. Dyna-mical models demonstrate the different spatial and orbital distributions of metal-rich and metal-poor stars. We discuss current Bulge-formation scenarios based on dynamical, chemical, chemodynamical, and cosmological models. Despite impressive progress, we do not yet have a successful fully self-consistent chemodynamical Bulge model in the cosmological framework, and we will also need a more extensive chrono-chemical-kinematic 3D map of stars to better constrain such models.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics for Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    François Rigaut, Benoit Neichel

    Since the year 2000, adaptive optics (AO) has seen the emergence of a variety of new concepts addressing particular science needs; multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) is one of them. By correcting the atmospheric turbulence in 3D using several wavefront sensors and a tomographic phase reconstruction approach, MCAO aims to provide uniform diffraction limited images in the near-infrared over fields of view larger than 1 arcmin2, i.e., 10 to 20 times larger in area than classical single conjugated AO. In this review, we give a brief reminder of the AO principles and limitations, and then focus on aspects particular to MCAO, such as tomography and specific MCAO error sources. We present examples and results from past or current systems: MAD (Multiconjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator) and GeMS (Gemini MCAO System) for nighttime astronomy and the AO system, at Big Bear for solar astronomy. We examine MCAO performance (Strehl ratio up to 40% in H band and full width at half maximum down to 52 mas in the case of MCAO), with a particular focus on photometric and astrometric accuracy, and conclude with considerations on the future of MCAO in the Extremely Large Telescope and post–HST era.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Extreme Adaptive Optics
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Olivier Guyon

    Over the last two decades, several thousand exoplanets have been identified, and their study has become a high scientific priority. Direct imaging of nearby exoplanets and the circumstellar disks in which they form and evolve is challenging due to the high contrast ratio and small angular separation relative to the central star. Exoplanets are typically within 1 arcsec of, and between 4 and 10 orders of magnitude fainter than, the stars they orbit. To meet these challenges, ground-based telescopes must be equipped with extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) systems optimized to acquire high-contrast images of the immediate surrounding of nearby bright stars. Current ExAO systems have the sensitivity to image thermal emission from young massive planets in near-IR, while future systems deployed on Giant Segmented Mirror Telescopes will image starlight reflected by lower-mass rocky planets. Thanks to rapid progress in optical coronagraphy, wavefront control, and data analysis techniques, direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of habitable exoplanets will be within reach of the next generation of large ground-based telescopes.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Pluto System After New Horizons
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    S. Alan Stern, William M. Grundy, William B. McKinnon, Harold A. Weaver, Leslie A. Young

    The New Horizons (NH) flyby of the Pluto–Charon binary planet and its system of four small surrounding satellites in mid-2015 revolutionized our knowledge of this distant planet and its moons. Beyond providing rich geo-logical, compositional, and atmospheric data sets, NH demonstrated that Pluto has been surprisingly geologically and climatologically active throughout the past 4+ Gyr and that the planet exhibits a remarkably complex range of atmospheric phenomenology and geological expressions that rival Mars in their richness. In contrast, Pluto's large, planet-sized satellite Charon, though also geologically complex, has no detected active surface volatiles, has no detectable atmosphere, has much more muted colors, has lower albedo, and exhibits only ancient terrains. Pluto's system of four small satellites orbiting outside of Charon is itself dynamically complex and geologically interesting. Here, we review both what was known about the Pluto system before NH and what it has taught us about the Pluto system specifically and, by inference, other small planets in the Kuiper Belt. We go on to examine the natural next steps in Kuiper Belt exploration.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Weak Lensing for Precision Cosmology
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Rachel Mandelbaum

    Weak gravitational lensing, the deflection of light by mass, is one of the best tools to constrain the growth of cosmic structure with time and reveal the nature of dark energy. I discuss the sources of systematic uncertainty in weak lensing measurements and their theoretical interpretation, including our current understanding and other options for future improvement. These include long-standing concerns such as the estimation of coherent shears from galaxy images or redshift distributions of galaxies selected on the basis of photometric redshifts, along with systematic uncertainties that have received less attention to date because they are subdominant contributors to the error budget in current surveys. I also discuss methods for automated systematics detection using survey data of the 2020s. The goal of this review is to describe the current state of the field and what must be done so that if weak lensing measurements lead toward surprising conclusions about key questions such as the nature of dark energy, those conclusions will be credible.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Connection Between Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Risa H. Wechsler, Jeremy L. Tinker

    In our modern understanding of galaxy formation, every galaxy forms within a dark matter halo. The formation and growth of galaxies over time is connected to the growth of the halos in which they form. The advent of large galaxy surveys as well as high-resolution cosmological simulations has provided a new window into the statistical relationship between galaxies and halos and its evolution. Here, we define this galaxy–halo connection as the multivariate distribution of galaxy and halo properties that can be derived from observations and simulations. This galaxy–halo connection provides a key test of physical galaxy-formation models; it also plays an essential role in constraints of cosmological models using galaxy surveys and in elucidating the properties of dark matter using galaxies. We review techniques for inferring the galaxy–halo connection and the insights that have arisen from these approaches. Some things we have learned are that galaxy-formation efficiency is a strong function of halo mass; at its peak in halos around a pivot halo mass of 1012M⊙, less than 20% of the available baryons have turned into stars by the present day; the intrinsic scatter in galaxy stellar mass is small, less than 0.2 dex at a given halo mass above this pivot mass; below this pivot mass galaxy stellar mass is a strong function of halo mass; the majority of stars over cosmic time were formed in a narrow region around this pivot mass. We also highlight key open questions about how galaxies and halos are connected, including understanding the correlations with secondary properties and the connection of these properties to galaxy clustering.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Atomic and Ionized Microstructures in the Diffuse Interstellar Medium
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Snežana Stanimirović, Ellen G. Zweibel

    It has been known for half a century that the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy is structured on scales as small as a few hundred kilometers, more than 10 orders of magnitude smaller than typical ISM structures and energy input scales. In this review we focus on neutral and ionized structures on spatial scales of a few to ∼104 AU, which appear to be highly overpressured, as these have the most important role in the dynamics and energy balance of interstellar gas: the tiny scale atomic structures (TSASs) and extreme scattering events (ESEs) as the most overpressured example of the tiny scale ionized structures (TSISs). We review observational results and highlight key physical processes at AU scales. We present evidence for and against microstructures as part of a universal turbulent cascade and as discrete structures, and we review their association with supernova remnants, the Local Bubble, and bright stars. We suggest a number of observational and theoretical programs that could clarify the nature of AU structures. TSAS and TSIS probe spatial scales in the range of what is expected for turbulent dissipation scales and are therefore of key importance for constraining exotic and not-well-understood physical processes that have implications for many areas of astrophysics. The emerging picture is one in which a magnetized, turbulent cascade, driven hard by a local energy source and acting jointly with phenomena such as thermal instability, is the source of these microstructures.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Debris Disks: Structure, Composition, and Variability
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    A. Meredith Hughes, Gaspard Duchêne, Brenda C. Matthews

    Debris disks are tenuous, dust-dominated disks commonly observed around stars over a wide range of ages. Those around main sequence stars are analogous to the Solar System's Kuiper Belt and zodiacal light. The dust in debris disks is believed to be continuously regenerated, originating primarily with collisions of planetesimals. Observations of debris disks provide insight into the evolution of planetary systems; and the composition of dust, comets, and planetesimals outside the Solar System; as well as placing constraints on the orbital architecture and potentially the masses of exoplanets that are not otherwise detectable. This review highlights recent advances in multiwavelength, high-resolution scattered light and thermal imaging that have revealed a complex and intricate diversity of structures in debris disks and discusses how modeling methods are evolving with the breadth and depth of the available observations. Two rapidly advancing subfields highlighted in this review include observations of atomic and molecular gas around main sequence stars and variations in emission from debris disks on very short (days to years) timescales, providing evidence of non-steady-state collisional evolution particularly in young debris disks.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Rubble Pile Asteroids
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Kevin J. Walsh

    The moniker rubble pile is typically applied to all Solar System bodies >200 m and <∼10 km in diameter; in this size range, there is an abundance of evidence that nearly every object is bound primarily by self-gravity, with significant void space or bulk porosity between irregularly shaped constituent particles. The understanding of this population is derived from wide-ranging population studies of derived shape and spin, decades of observational studies in numerous wavelengths, evidence left behind from impacts on planets and moons, and the in situ study of a few objects via spacecraft flyby or rendezvous. The internal structure, however, which is responsible for the name rubble pile, is never directly observed but belies a violent history. Many or most of the asteroids on near-Earth orbits and those most accessible for rendezvous and in situ study are likely by-products of the continued collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Ryan C. Hickox, David M. Alexander

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are powered by the accretion of material onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH) and are among the most luminous objects in the Universe. However, the huge radiative power of most AGN cannot be seen directly, as the accretion is hidden behind gas and dust that absorb many of the characteristic observational signatures. This obscuration presents an important challenge for uncovering the complete AGN population and understanding the cosmic evolution of SMBHs. In this review, we describe a broad range of multiwavelength techniques that are currently being employed to identify obscured AGN, and we assess the reliability and completeness of each technique. We follow with a discussion of the demographics of obscured AGN activity, explore the nature and physical scales of the obscuring material, and assess the implications of obscured AGN for observational cosmology. We conclude with an outline of the prospects for future progress from both observations and theoretical models, and we highlight some of the key outstanding questions.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • The Interstellar Dust Properties of Nearby Galaxies
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2018-09-19
    Frédéric Galliano, Maud Galametz, Anthony P. Jones

    This article gives an overview of the constitution, physical conditions, and observables of dust in the interstellar medium of nearby galaxies. We first review the macroscopic, spatial distribution of dust in these objects and its consequences for our ability to study grain physics. We also discuss the possibility of using dust tracers as diagnostic tools. We then survey the current understanding of the microscopic, intrinsic properties of dust in different environments, derived from different observables: emission, extinction, polarization, and depletions, over the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Finally, we summarize the clues about grain evolution, evidenced either on local scales or over cosmic time. We put in perspective the different evolution scenarios. We attempt a comprehensive presentation of the main observational constraints, analysis methods, and modeling frameworks of the distinct processes. We discuss neither the dust properties of the Milky Way and distant galaxies, nor circumstellar or active galactic nucleus torus dust.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Galaxies, Globular Clusters, and Dark Matter
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Kenneth C. Freeman

    This is an autobiographical account of my scientific career. My main research interest is the structure and assembly of galaxies. The assembly narrative has evolved from the monolithic and baryonic collapse picture of the early 1960s to the current hierarchical scenario underpinned by dark matter, and is still evolving. Technology has changed: CCDs replaced photographic plates and image tubes, large optical telescopes are much larger and instruments are much better, Galactic archaeology is supported by vast stellar surveys, and we have space astronomy and radio synthesis telescopes. The article describes the scientific areas in which I have worked and the colleagues who have influenced my progress. I have much to be grateful for: the people who have mentored and supported me over the years, the privilege of long-term collaborations, and the pleasure of advising many Ph.D. students and postdocs.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Stellar Dynamics and Stellar Phenomena Near a Massive Black Hole
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Tal Alexander

    Most galactic nuclei harbor a massive black hole (MBH), whose birth and evolution are closely linked to those of its host galaxy. The unique conditions near the MBH—high velocity and density in the steep potential of a massive singular relativistic object—lead to unusual modes of stellar birth, evolution, dynamics, and death. A complex network of dynamical mechanisms, operating on multiple timescales, deflects stars to orbits that intercept the MBH. Such close encounters lead to energetic interactions with observable signatures and consequences for the evolution of the MBH and its stellar environment. Galactic nuclei are astrophysical laboratories that test and challenge our understanding of MBH formation, strong gravity, stellar dynamics, and stellar physics. I review from a theoretical perspective the wide range of stellar phenomena that occur near MBHs, focusing on the role of stellar dynamics near an isolated MBH in a relaxed stellar cusp.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Theoretical Challenges in Galaxy Formation
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Thorsten Naab, Jeremiah P. Ostriker

    Numerical simulations have become a major tool for understanding galaxy formation and evolution. Over the decades the field has made significant progress. It is now possible to simulate the formation of individual galaxies and galaxy populations from well-defined initial conditions with realistic abundances and global properties. An essential component of the calculation is to correctly estimate the inflow to and outflow from forming galaxies because observations indicating low formation efficiency and strong circumgalactic presence of gas are persuasive. Energetic “feedback” from massive stars and accreting supermassive black holes—generally unresolved in cosmological simulations—plays a major role in driving galactic outflows, which have been shown to regulate many aspects of galaxy evolution. A surprisingly large variety of plausible subresolution models succeeds in this exercise. They capture the essential characteristics of the problem, i.e., outflows regulating galactic gas flows, but their predictive power is limited. In this review, we focus on one major challenge for galaxy formation theory: to understand the underlying physical processes that regulate the structure of the interstellar medium, star formation, and the driving of galactic outflows. This requires accurate physical models and numerical simulations, which can precisely describe the multiphase structure of the interstellar medium on the currently unresolved few hundred parsec scales of large-scale cosmological simulations. Such models ultimately require the full accounting for the dominant cooling and heating processes, the radiation and winds from massive stars and accreting black holes, and an accurate treatment of supernova explosions as well as the nonthermal components of the interstellar medium like magnetic fields and cosmic rays.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Observing Interstellar and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    J.L. Han

    Observational results of interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields are reviewed, including the fields in supernova remnants and loops, interstellar filaments and clouds, Hii regions and bubbles, the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the cosmic web. A variety of approaches are used to investigate these fields. The orientations of magnetic fields in interstellar filaments and molecular clouds are traced by polarized thermal dust emission and starlight polarization. The field strengths and directions along the line of sight in dense clouds and cores are measured by Zeeman splitting of emission or absorption lines. The large-scale magnetic fields in the Milky Way have been best probed by Faraday rotation measures of a large number of pulsars and extragalactic radio sources. The coherent Galactic magnetic fields are found to follow the spiral arms and have their direction reversals in arms and interarm regions in the disk. The azimuthal fields in the halo reverse their directions below and above the Galactic plane. The orientations of organized magnetic fields in nearby galaxies have been observed through polarized synchrotron emission. Magnetic fields in the intracluster medium have been indicated by diffuse radio halos, polarized radio relics, and Faraday rotations of embedded radio galaxies and background sources. Sparse evidence for very weak magnetic fields in the cosmic web is the detection of the faint radio bridge between the Coma cluster and A1367. Future observations should aim at the 3D tomography of the large-scale coherent magnetic fields in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies, a better description of intracluster field properties, and firm detections of intergalactic magnetic fields in the cosmic web.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Stellar Model Chromospheres and Spectroscopic Diagnostics
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Jeffrey L. Linsky

    The discovery of exoplanets and the desire to understand their atmospheric chemical composition and habitability provides a new rationale for understanding the radiation from X-rays to radio wavelengths emitted by their host stars. Semiempirical models of stellar atmospheres that include accurate treatment of radiative transfer of all important atoms, ions, and molecules provide the essential basis for understanding a star's emitted radiation that is our main data source for characterizing a star and the radiation environment of its exoplanets. In Solar-type and cooler stars, the ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet radiation formed in their chromospheres and transition regions drive the photochemistry in exoplanet atmospheres. In this review, I describe and critique the development of semiempirical static and time-dependent models of the chromospheres and transition regions of the Sun and cooler stars as well as the spectroscopic diagnostics upon which these models are based. The related topics of stellar coronae and winds and their theoretical bases are beyond the scope of this review.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods for Bayesian Data Analysis in Astronomy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Sanjib Sharma

    Markov chain Monte Carlo–based Bayesian data analysis has now become the method of choice for analyzing and interpreting data in almost all disciplines of science. In astronomy, over the past decade, we have also seen a steady increase in the number of papers that employ Monte Carlo–based Bayesian analysis. New, efficient Monte Carlo–based methods are continuously being developed and explored. In this review, we first explain the basics of Bayesian theory and discuss how to set up data analysis problems within this framework. Next, we provide an overview of various Monte Carlo–based methods for performing Bayesian data analysis. Finally, we discuss advanced ideas that enable us to tackle complex problems and thus hold great promise for the future. We also distribute downloadable computer software (https://github.com/sanjibs/bmcmc) Python that implements some of the algorithms and examples discussed here.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Magnetars
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Victoria M. Kaspi, Andrei M. Beloborodov

    Magnetars are young and highly magnetized neutron stars that display a wide array of X-ray activity including short bursts, large outbursts, giant flares, and quasi-periodic oscillations, often coupled with interesting timing behavior including enhanced spin-down, glitches, and antiglitches. The bulk of this activity is explained by the evolution and decay of an ultrastrong magnetic field, stressing and breaking the neutron-star crust, which in turn drives twists of the external magnetosphere and powerful magnetospheric currents. The population of detected magnetars has grown to about 30 objects and shows unambiguous phenomenological connection with highly magnetized radio pulsars. Recent progress in magnetar theory includes explanation of the hard X-ray component in the magnetar spectrum and development of surface heating models, explaining the sources’ remarkable radiative output.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Philip Kaaret, Hua Feng, Timothy P. Roberts

    We review observations of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). X-ray spectroscopic and timing studies of ULXs suggest a new accretion state distinct from those seen in Galactic stellar-mass black hole binaries. The detection of coherent pulsations indicates the presence of neutron-star accretors in three ULXs and therefore apparently super-Eddington luminosities. Optical and X-ray line profiles of ULXs and the properties of associated radio and optical nebulae suggest that ULXs produce powerful outflows, also indicative of super-Eddington accretion. We discuss models of super-Eddington accretion and their relationship to the observed behaviors of ULXs. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in ULXs. We consider the implications of ULXs for super-Eddington accretion in active galactic nuclei, heating of the early Universe, and the origin of the black hole binary recently detected via gravitational waves.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Small-Scale Challenges to the ΛCDM Paradigm
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    James S. Bullock, Michael Boylan-Kolchin

    The dark energy plus cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model has been a demonstrably successful framework for predicting and explaining the large-scale structure of the Universe and its evolution with time. Yet on length scales smaller than ∼1 Mpc and mass scales smaller than ∼1011M⊙, the theory faces a number of challenges. For example, the observed cores of many dark matter–dominated galaxies are both less dense and less cuspy than naïvely predicted in ΛCDM. The number of small galaxies and dwarf satellites in the Local Group is also far below the predicted count of low-mass dark matter halos and subhalos within similar volumes. These issues underlie the most well-documented problems with ΛCDM: cusp/core, missing satellites, and too-big-to-fail. The key question is whether a better understanding of baryon physics, dark matter physics, or both is required to meet these challenges. Other anomalies, including the observed planar and orbital configurations of Local Group satellites and the tight baryonic/dark matter scaling relations obeyed by the galaxy population, have been less thoroughly explored in the context of ΛCDM theory. Future surveys to discover faint, distant dwarf galaxies and to precisely measure their masses and density structure hold promising avenues for testing possible solutions to the small-scale challenges going forward. Observational programs to constrain or discover and characterize the number of truly dark low-mass halos are among the most important, and achievable, goals in this field over the next decade. These efforts will either further verify the ΛCDM paradigm or demand a substantial revision in our understanding of the nature of dark matter.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • The Circumgalactic Medium
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Jason Tumlinson, Molly S. Peeples, Jessica K. Werk

    The gas surrounding galaxies outside their disks or interstellar medium and inside their virial radii is known as the circumgalactic medium (CGM). In recent years this component of galaxies has assumed an important role in our understanding of galaxy evolution owing to rapid advances in observational access to this diffuse, nearly invisible material. Observations and simulations of this component of galaxies suggest that it is a multiphase medium characterized by rich dynamics and complex ionization states. The CGM is a source for a galaxy's star-forming fuel, the venue for galactic feedback and recycling, and perhaps the key regulator of the galactic gas supply. We review our evolving knowledge of the CGM with emphasis on its mass, dynamical state, and coevolution with galaxies. Observations from all redshifts and from across the electromagnetic spectrum indicate that CGM gas has a key role in galaxy evolution. We summarize the state of this field and pose unanswered questions for future research.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • How to Characterize Habitable Worlds and Signs of Life
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Lisa Kaltenegger

    The detection of exoplanets orbiting other stars has revolutionized our view of the cosmos. First results suggest that it is teeming with a fascinating diversity of rocky planets, including those in the habitable zone. Even our closest star, Proxima Centauri, harbors a small planet in its habitable zone, Proxima b. With the next generation of telescopes, we will be able to peer into the atmospheres of rocky planets and get a glimpse into other worlds. Using our own planet and its wide range of biota as a Rosetta stone, we explore how we could detect habitability and signs of life on exoplanets over interstellar distances. Current telescopes are not yet powerful enough to characterize habitable exoplanets, but the next generation of telescopes that is already being built will have the capabilities to characterize close-by habitable worlds. The discussion on what makes a planet a habitat and how to detect signs of life is lively. This review will show the latest results, the challenges of how to identify and characterize such habitable worlds, and how near-future telescopes will revolutionize the field. For the first time in human history, we have developed the technology to detect potential habitable worlds. Finding thousands of exoplanets has taken the field of comparative planetology beyond the Solar System.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Galaxies in the First Billion Years After the Big Bang
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Daniel P. Stark

    In the past five years, deep imaging campaigns conducted with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based observatories have delivered large samples of galaxies at 6.56 UV-selected galaxies are relatively compact with blue UV continuum slopes, low stellar masses, and large specific star formation rates. In the last year, ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array) and ground-based infrared spectrographs have begun to complement this picture, revealing minimal dust obscuration and hard radiation fields, and providing evidence for metal-poor ionized gas. Weak low-ionization absorption lines suggest a patchy distribution of neutral gas surrounds O and B stars, possibly aiding in the escape of ionizing radiation. Gamma ray burst afterglows and Lyman-α surveys have provided evidence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) evolves from mostly ionized at z≃6−6.5 () to considerably neutral at z≃7−8 (). The reionization history that emerges from considering the UV output of galaxies over 6

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Gamma-Ray Observations of Active Galactic Nuclei
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Grzegorz (Greg) Madejski, Marek Sikora

    This article reviews the recent observational results regarding γ-ray emission from active galaxies. The most numerous discrete extragalactic γ-ray sources are AGNs dominated by relativistic jets pointing in our direction (commonly known as blazars), and they are the main subject of the review. They are detected in all observable energy bands and are highly variable. The advent of the sensitive γ-ray observations, afforded by the launch and continuing operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the AGILE Gamma-ray Imaging Detector, as well as by the deployment of current-generation Air Cerenkov Telescope arrays such as VERITAS, MAGIC, and HESS-II, continually provides sensitive γ-ray data over the energy range of ∼100 MeV to multi-TeV. Importantly, it has motivated simultaneous, monitoring observations in other bands, resulting in unprecedented time-resolved broadband spectral coverage. After an introduction, in Sections 3, 4, and 5, we cover the current status and highlights of γ-ray observations with (mainly) Fermi but also AGILE and put those in the context of broadband spectra in Section 6. We discuss the radiation processes operating in blazars in Section 7, and we discuss the content of their jets and the constraints on the location of the energy dissipation regions in, respectively, Sections 8 and 9. Section 10 covers the current ideas for particle acceleration processes in jets, and Section 11 discusses the coupling of the jet to the accretion disk in the host galaxy. Finally, Sections 12, 13, and 14 cover, respectively, the contribution of blazars to the diffuse γ-ray background, the utility of blazars to study the extragalactic background light, and the insight they provide for study of populations of supermassive black holes early in the history of the Universe.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Frank H. Shu

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular momentum in the regions interior and exterior, respectively, to the corotation circle; the consequent transmission and overreflection of propagating spiral density waves incident on the corotation circle; and the role of feedback from the central regions.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Structure and Kinematics of Early-Type Galaxies from Integral Field Spectroscopy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Michele Cappellari

    Observations of galaxy isophotes, long-slit kinematics, and high-resolution photometry suggested a possible dichotomy between two distinct classes of elliptical galaxies. But these methods are expensive for large galaxy samples. Instead, integral field spectroscopy can efficiently recognize the shape, dynamics, and stellar population of complete samples of early-type galaxies (ETGs). These studies showed that the two main classes, the fast and slow rotators, can be separated using stellar kinematics. I show that there is a dichotomy in the dynamics of the two classes. The slow rotators are weakly triaxial and dominate above . Below Mcrit, the structure of fast rotators parallels that of spiral galaxies. There is a smooth sequence along which the age, the metal content, the enhancement in α-elements, and the weight of the stellar initial mass function all increase with the central mass density slope, or bulge mass fraction, while the molecular gas fraction correspondingly decreases. The properties of ETGs on galaxy scaling relations, in particular the diagram, and their dependence on environment, indicate two main independent channels for galaxy evolution. Fast-rotator ETGs start as star-forming disks and evolve through a channel dominated by gas accretion, bulge growth, and quenching, whereas slow rotators assemble near the centers of massive halos via intense star formation at high redshift and remain as such for the rest of their evolution via a channel dominated by gas poor mergers. This is consistent with independent studies of the galaxies redshift evolution.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • The Galaxy in Context: Structural, Kinematic, and Integrated Properties
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Ortwin Gerhard

    Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, is a benchmark for understanding disk galaxies. It is the only galaxy whose formation history can be studied using the full distribution of stars from faint dwarfs to supergiants. The oldest components provide us with unique insight into how galaxies form and evolve over billions of years. The Galaxy is a luminous (L⋆) barred spiral with a central box/peanut bulge, a dominant disk, and a diffuse stellar halo. Based on global properties, it falls in the sparsely populated “green valley” region of the galaxy color-magnitude diagram. Here we review the key integrated, structural and kinematic parameters of the Galaxy, and point to uncertainties as well as directions for future progress. Galactic studies will continue to play a fundamental role far into the future because there are measurements that can only be made in the near field and much of contemporary astrophysics depends on such observations.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Protostellar Outflows
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    John Bally

    Outflows from accreting, rotating, and magnetized systems are ubiquitous. Protostellar outflows can be observed from radio to X-ray wavelengths in the continuum and a multitude of spectral lines that probe a wide range of physical conditions, chemical phases, radial velocities, and proper motions. Wide-field visual and near-IR data, mid-IR observations from space, and aperture synthesis with centimeter- and millimeterwave interferometers are revolutionizing outflow studies. Many outflows originate in multiple systems and clusters. Although most flows are bipolar and some contain highly collimated jets, others are wide-angle winds, and a few are nearly isotropic and exhibit explosive behavior. Morphologies and velocity fields indicate variations in ejection velocity, mass-loss rate, and in some cases, flow orientation and degree of collimation. These trends indicate that stellar accretion is episodic and often occurs in a complex dynamical environment. Outflow power increases with source luminosity but decreases with evolutionary stage. The youngest outflows are small and best traced by molecules such as CO, SiO, H2O, and H2. Older outflows can grow to parsec scales and are best traced by shock-excited atoms and ions such as hydrogen-recombination lines, [Sii], and [Oii]. Outflows inject momentum and energy into their surroundings and provide an important mechanism in the self-regulation of star formation. However, momentum injection rates remain uncertain with estimates providing lower bounds.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • The Eccentric Kozai-Lidov Effect and Its Applications
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Smadar Naoz

    The hierarchical triple-body approximation has useful applications to a variety of systems from planetary and stellar scales to supermassive black holes. In this approximation, the energy of each orbit is separately conserved, and therefore the two semimajor axes are constants. On timescales much larger than the orbital periods, the orbits exchange angular momentum, which leads to eccentricity and orientation (i.e., inclination) oscillations. The orbits' eccentricity can reach extreme values, leading to a nearly radial motion, which can further evolve into short orbit periods and merging binaries. Furthermore, the orbits' mutual inclinations may change dramatically from pure prograde to pure retrograde, leading to misalignment and a wide range of inclinations. This dynamical behavior is coined the “eccentric Kozai-Lidov mechanism.” The behavior of such a system is exciting, rich, and chaotic in nature. Furthermore, these dynamics are accessible from a large part of the triple-body parameter space and can be applied to a diverse range of astrophysical settings and used to gain insights into many puzzles.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Masses, Radii, and the Equation of State of Neutron Stars
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Feryal Özel, Paulo Freire

    We summarize our current knowledge of neutron-star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the past few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron-star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with three known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9–2.0-M⊙ mass range. For radii, large, high-quality data sets from X-ray satellites as well as significant progress in theoretical modeling led to considerable progress in the measurements, placing them in the 10–11.5-km range and shrinking their uncertainties, owing to a better understanding of the sources of systematic errors. The combination of the massive-neutron-star discoveries, the tighter radius measurements, and improved laboratory constraints of the properties of dense matter has already made a substantial impact on our understanding of the composition and bulk properties of cold nuclear matter at densities higher than that of the atomic nucleus, a major unsolved problem in modern physics.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • The Magellanic Stream: Circumnavigating the Galaxy
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Elena D'Onghia, Andrew J. Fox

    The Magellanic Clouds are surrounded by an extended network of gaseous structures. Chief among these is the Magellanic Stream, an interwoven tail of filaments trailing the Clouds in their orbit around the Milky Way. When considered in tandem with its Leading Arm, the Stream stretches over 200° on the sky. The Stream is thought to represent the result of tidal interactions between the Clouds and ram-pressure forces exerted by the Galactic corona, and its kinematic properties reflect the dynamical history of the pair of dwarf galaxies closest to the Milky Way. The Stream is a benchmark for hydrodynamical simulations of accreting gas and cloud/corona interactions. If the Stream survives these interactions and arrives safely in the Galactic disk, its cargo of over a billion solar masses of gas has the potential to maintain or elevate the Galactic star-formation rate. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge of the Stream, including its chemical composition, physical conditions, origin, and fate. We also review the dynamics of the Magellanic System, including the proper motions and orbital history of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the first-passage and second-passage scenarios, and the evidence for a Magellanic Group of galaxies.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • The Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Matthew McQuinn

    The bulk of cosmic matter resides in a dilute reservoir that fills the space between galaxies, the intergalactic medium (IGM). The history of this reservoir is intimately tied to the cosmic histories of structure formation, star formation, and supermassive black hole accretion. Our models for the IGM at intermediate redshifts (2≲z≲5) are a tremendous success, quantitatively explaining the statistics of Lyα absorption of intergalactic hydrogen. However, at both lower and higher redshifts (and around galaxies) much is still unknown about the IGM. We review the theoretical models and measurements that form the basis for the modern understanding of the IGM, and we discuss unsolved puzzles (ranging from the largely unconstrained process of reionization at high z to the missing baryon problem at low z), highlighting the efforts that have the potential to solve them.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Kaitlin Kratter, Giuseppe Lodato

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular momentum transport rate in thick disks.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • The Quest for B Modes from Inflationary Gravitational Waves
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Marc Kamionkowski, Ely D. Kovetz

    The search for the curl component (B mode) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization induced by inflationary gravitational waves is described. The canonical single-field slow-roll model of inflation is presented, and we explain the quantum production of primordial density perturbations and gravitational waves. It is shown how these gravitational waves then give rise to polarization in the CMB. We then describe the geometric decomposition of the CMB polarization pattern into a curl-free component (E mode) and curl component (B mode) and show explicitly that gravitational waves induce B modes. We discuss the B modes induced by gravitational lensing and by Galactic foregrounds and show how both are distinguished from those induced by inflationary gravitational waves. Issues involved in the experimental pursuit of these B modes are described, and we summarize some of the strategies being pursued. We close with a brief discussion of some other avenues toward detecting/characterizing the inflationary gravitational-wave background.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Interstellar Hydrides
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Maryvonne Gerin, David A. Neufeld, Javier R. Goicoechea

    Interstellar hydrides—that is, molecules containing a single heavy element atom with one or more hydrogen atoms—were among the first molecules detected outside the solar system. They lie at the root of interstellar chemistry, being among the first species to form in initially atomic gas, along with molecular hydrogen and its associated ions. Because the chemical pathways leading to the formation of interstellar hydrides are relatively simple, the analysis of the observed abundances is relatively straightforward and provides key information about the environments where hydrides are found. Recent years have seen rapid progress in our understanding of interstellar hydrides, thanks largely to FIR and submillimeter observations performed with the Herschel Space Observatory. In this review, we discuss observations of interstellar hydrides, along with the advanced modeling approaches that have been used to interpret them and the unique information that has thereby been obtained.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Accretion onto Pre-Main-Sequence Stars
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Lee Hartmann, Gregory Herczeg, Nuria Calvet

    Accretion through circumstellar disks plays an important role in star formation and in establishing the properties of the regions in which planets form and migrate. The mechanisms by which protostellar and protoplanetary disks accrete onto low-mass stars are not clear; angular momentum transport by magnetic fields is thought to be involved, but the low-ionization conditions in major regions of protoplanetary disks lead to a variety of complex nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects whose implications are not fully understood. Accretion in pre-main-sequence stars of masses ≲1M⊙ (and in at least some 2–3-M⊙ systems) is generally funneled by the stellar magnetic field, which disrupts the disk at scales typically of order a few stellar radii. Matter moving at near free-fall velocities shocks at the stellar surface; the resulting accretion luminosities from the dissipation of kinetic energy indicate that mass addition during the T Tauri phase over the typical disk lifetime ∼3 Myr is modest in terms of stellar evolution, but is comparable to total disk reservoirs as estimated from millimeter-wave dust emission (∼10−2 M⊙). Pre-main-sequence accretion is not steady, encompassing timescales ranging from approximately hours to a century, with longer-timescale variations tending to be the largest. Accretion during the protostellar phase—while the protostellar envelope is still falling onto the disk—is much less well understood, mostly because the properties of the central obscured protostar are difficult to estimate. Kinematic measurements of protostellar masses with new interfometric facilities should improve estimates of accretion rates during the earliest phases of star formation.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Red Clump Stars
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Léo Girardi

    Low-mass stars in their core-helium-burning stage define the sharpest feature present in the color-magnitude diagrams of nearby galaxy systems: the red clump (RC). This feature has given rise to a series of methods aimed at measuring the distributions of stellar distances and extinctions, especially in the Magellanic Clouds and Milky Way Bulge. Because the RC is easily recognizable within the data of large spectroscopic and asteroseismic surveys, it is a useful probe of stellar densities, kinematics, and chemical abundances across the Milky Way disk; it can be applied up to larger distances than that allowed by dwarfs; and it has better accuracy than is possible with other kinds of giants. Here, we discuss the reasons for the RC narrowness in several sets of observational data, its fine structure, and the presence of systematic changes in the RC properties as regards age, metallicity, and the observed passband. These factors set the limits on the validity and accuracy of several RC methods defined in the literature.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • Astrophysics with Extraterrestrial Materials
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Larry R. Nittler, Fred Ciesla

    Extraterrestrial materials, including meteorites, interplanetary dust, and spacecraft-returned asteroidal and cometary samples, provide a record of the starting materials and early evolution of the Solar System. We review how laboratory analyses of these materials provide unique information, complementary to astronomical observations, about a wide variety of stellar, interstellar and protoplanetary processes. Presolar stardust grains retain the isotopic compositions of their stellar sources, mainly asymptotic giant branch stars and Type II supernovae. They serve as direct probes of nucleosynthetic and dust formation processes in stars, galactic chemical evolution, and interstellar dust processing. Extinct radioactivities suggest that the Sun's birth environment was decoupled from average galactic nucleosynthesis for some tens to hundreds of Myr but was enriched in short-lived isotopes from massive stellar winds or explosions shortly before or during formation of the Solar System. Radiometric dating of meteorite components tells us about the timing and duration over which solar nebula solids were assembled into the building blocks of the planets. Components of the most primitive meteoritical materials provide further detailed constraints on the formation, processing, and transport of material and associated timescales in the Sun's protoplanetary disk as well as in other forming planetary systems.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
  • The Remnant of Supernova 1987A
    Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. (IF 33.069) Pub Date : 2016-09-19
    Richard McCray, Claes Fransson

    Although it has faded by a factor of ∼107, SN 1987A is still bright enough to be observed in almost every band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Today, the bolometric luminosity of the debris is dominated by a far-infrared (∼200μm) continuum from ∼0.5 M⊙ of dust grains in the interior debris. The dust is heated by UV, optical, and near-infrared (NIR) emission resulting from radioactive energy deposition by 44Ti.

    更新日期:2017-08-18
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