• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
Keiichi Umetsu

Weak gravitational lensing of background galaxies provides a direct probe of the projected matter distribution in and around galaxy clusters. Here, we present a self-contained pedagogical review of cluster–galaxy weak lensing, covering a range of topics relevant to its cosmological and astrophysical applications. We begin by reviewing the theoretical foundations of gravitational lensing from first

更新日期：2020-11-16
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
María J. Rioja, Richard Dodson

We present a technique-led review of the progression of precise radio astrometry, from the first demonstrations, half a century ago, until to date and into the future. We cover the developments that have been fundamental to allow high accuracy and precision astrometry to be regularly achieved. We review the opportunities provided by the next generation of instruments coming online, which are primarily:

更新日期：2020-09-30
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
Santi Cassisi; Maurizio Salaris

The existence of star-to-star light-element abundance variations in massive Galactic and extragalactic star clusters has fairly recently superseded the traditional paradigm of individual clusters hosting stars with the same age, and uniform chemical composition. Several scenarios have been put forward to explain the origin of this multiple stellar population phenomenon, but so far all have failed to

更新日期：2020-07-07
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
Nadine Neumayer; Anil Seth; Torsten Böker

We review the current knowledge about nuclear star clusters (NSCs), the spectacularly dense and massive assemblies of stars found at the centers of most galaxies. Recent observational and theoretical works suggest that many NSC properties, including their masses, densities, and stellar populations, vary with the properties of their host galaxies. Understanding the formation, growth, and ultimate fate

更新日期：2020-07-06
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
Massimo Della Valle; Luca Izzo

The recent GAIA DR2 measurements of distances to galactic novae have allowed to re-analyse some properties of nova populations in the Milky Way and in external galaxies on new and more solid empirical bases. In some cases, we have been able to confirm results previously obtained, such as the concept of nova populations into two classes of objects, that is disk and bulge novae and their link with the

更新日期：2020-07-02
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
Sylvain Veilleux; Roberto Maiolino; Alberto D. Bolatto; Susanne Aalto

Neutral-atomic and molecular outflows are a common occurrence in galaxies, near and far. They operate over the full extent of their galaxy hosts, from the innermost regions of galactic nuclei to the outermost reaches of galaxy halos. They carry a substantial amount of material that would otherwise have been used to form new stars. These cool outflows may have a profound impact on the evolution of their

更新日期：2020-04-03
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
Chin-Fei Lee

Molecular jets are seen coming from the youngest protostars in the early phase of low-mass star formation. They are detected in CO, SiO, and SO at (sub)millimeter wavelengths down to the innermost regions, where their associated protostars and accretion disks are deeply embedded and where they are launched and collimated. They are not only the fossil records of accretion history of the protostars but

更新日期：2020-03-31
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
Raffaele Gratton; Angela Bragaglia; Eugenio Carretta; Valentina D’Orazi; Sara Lucatello; Antonio Sollima

Globular clusters are large and dense agglomerate of stars. At variance with smaller clusters of stars, they exhibit signs of some chemical evolution. At least for this reason, they are intermediate between open clusters and massive objects such as nuclear clusters or compact galaxies. While some facts are well established, the increasing amount of observational data are revealing a complexity that

更新日期：2019-11-04
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
Alejandro H. Córsico; Leandro G. Althaus; Marcelo M. Miller Bertolami; S. O. Kepler

Stars are extremely important astronomical objects that constitute the pillars on which the Universe is built, and as such, their study has gained increasing interest over the years. White dwarf stars are not the exception. Indeed, these stars constitute the final evolutionary stage for more than 95% of all stars. The Galactic population of white dwarfs conveys a wealth of information about several

更新日期：2019-09-03
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
D. Hestroffer; P. Sánchez; L. Staron; A. Campo Bagatin; S. Eggl; W. Losert; N. Murdoch; E. Opsomer; F. Radjai; D. C. Richardson; M. Salazar; D. J. Scheeres; S. Schwartz; N. Taberlet; H. Yano

Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are of high general and scientific interest in many aspects. The origin, formation, and evolution of our Solar System (and other planetary systems) can be better understood by analysing the constitution and physical properties of small bodies in the Solar System. Currently, two space missions (Hayabusa2, OSIRIS-REx) have recently arrived at their

更新日期：2019-06-25
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
Sarah Burke-Spolaor; Stephen R. Taylor; Maria Charisi; Timothy Dolch; Jeffrey S. Hazboun; A. Miguel Holgado; Luke Zoltan Kelley; T. Joseph W. Lazio; Dustin R. Madison; Natasha McMann; Chiara M. F. Mingarelli; Alexander Rasskazov; Xavier Siemens; Joseph J. Simon; Tristan L. Smith

Pulsar timing array (PTA) collaborations in North America, Australia, and Europe, have been exploiting the exquisite timing precision of millisecond pulsars over decades of observations to search for correlated timing deviations induced by gravitational waves (GWs). PTAs are sensitive to the frequency band ranging just below 1 nanohertz to a few tens of microhertz. The discovery space of this band

更新日期：2019-06-18
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-24
E. Petroff; J. W. T. Hessels; D. R. Lorimer

The discovery of radio pulsars over a half century ago was a seminal moment in astronomy. It demonstrated the existence of neutron stars, gave a powerful observational tool to study them, and has allowed us to probe strong gravity, dense matter, and the interstellar medium. More recently, pulsar surveys have led to the serendipitous discovery of fast radio bursts (FRBs). While FRBs appear similar to

更新日期：2019-05-24
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-02-04
R. Maiolino; F. Mannucci

The evolution of the content of heavy elements in galaxies, the relative chemical abundances, their spatial distribution, and how these scale with various galactic properties, provide unique information on the galactic evolutionary processes across the cosmic epochs. In recent years major progress has been made in constraining the chemical evolution of galaxies and inferring key information relevant

更新日期：2019-02-04
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2019-02-04
Paolo Salucci

The distribution of the non-luminous matter in galaxies of different luminosity and Hubble type is much more than a proof of the existence of dark particles governing the structures of the Universe. Here, we will review the complex but well-ordered scenario of the properties of the dark halos also in relation with those of the baryonic components they host. Moreover, we will present a number of tight

更新日期：2019-02-04
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-12-04
K. D. Kuntz

Solar wind charge-exchange (SWCX) emission is present in every X-ray observation of an astrophysical object. The emission is problematic when one cannot remove the foreground by the simultaneous measurement of a nearby field. SWCX emission is a serious impediment to the study of the diffuse hot ISM, including the galactic halo, as its contribution to diagnostic emission lines is temporally variable

更新日期：2018-12-04
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-10-27
Poul Erik Nissen; Bengt Gustafsson

Efficient spectrographs at large telescopes have made it possible to obtain high-resolution spectra of stars with high signal-to-noise ratio and advances in model atmosphere analyses have enabled estimates of high-precision differential abundances of the elements from these spectra, i.e. with errors in the range 0.01–0.03 dex for F, G, and K stars. Methods to determine such high-precision abundances

更新日期：2018-10-27
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-08-10
Françoise Combes

ALMA is now fully operational, and has been observing in early science mode since 2011. The millimetric (mm) and sub-mm domain is ideal to tackle galaxies at high redshift, since the emission peak of the dust at 100 $$\upmu$$m is shifted in the ALMA bands (0.3–1 mm) for $$z=$$ 2–9, and the CO lines, stronger at the high-J levels of the ladder, are found all over the 0.3–3 mm range. Pointed surveys

更新日期：2018-08-10
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
Raffaella Morganti; Tom Oosterloo

This review summarises what we have learnt in the last two decades based on H i 21 cm absorption observations about the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in the central regions of active galaxies and about the interplay between this gas and the active nucleus (AGN). H i absorption is a powerful tracer on all scales, from the parsec-scales close to the central black hole to structures of many tens of kpc

更新日期：2018-07-17
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-06-26
Guillem Anglada; Luis F. Rodríguez; Carlos Carrasco-González

Jets and outflows are ubiquitous in the process of formation of stars since outflow is intimately associated with accretion. Free–free (thermal) radio continuum emission in the centimeter domain is associated with these jets. The emission is relatively weak and compact, and sensitive radio interferometers of high angular resolution are required to detect and study it. One of the key problems in the

更新日期：2018-06-26
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
Helmut Lammer; Aubrey L. Zerkle; Stefanie Gebauer; Nicola Tosi; Lena Noack; Manuel Scherf; Elke Pilat-Lohinger; Manuel Güdel; John Lee Grenfell; Mareike Godolt; Athanasia Nikolaou

We review the origin and evolution of the atmospheres of Earth, Venus and Mars from the time when their accreting bodies were released from the protoplanetary disk a few million years after the origin of the Sun. If the accreting planetary cores reached masses $$\ge 0.5 M_\mathrm{Earth}$$ before the gas in the disk disappeared, primordial atmospheres consisting mainly of H$$_2$$ form around the young

更新日期：2018-05-10
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2018-01-09
Susanne Höfner; Hans Olofsson

As low- and intermediate-mass stars reach the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), they have developed into intriguing and complex objects that are major players in the cosmic gas/dust cycle. At this stage, their appearance and evolution are strongly affected by a range of dynamical processes. Large-scale convective flows bring newly-formed chemical elements to the stellar surface and, together with pulsations

更新日期：2018-01-09
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-11-14
Colin Snodgrass; Jessica Agarwal; Michael Combi; Alan Fitzsimmons; Aurelie Guilbert-Lepoutre; Henry H. Hsieh; Man-To Hui; Emmanuel Jehin; Michael S. P. Kelley; Matthew M. Knight; Cyrielle Opitom; Roberto Orosei; Miguel de Val-Borro; Bin Yang

We review the evidence for buried ice in the asteroid belt; specifically the questions around the so-called Main Belt Comets (MBCs). We summarise the evidence for water throughout the Solar System, and describe the various methods for detecting it, including remote sensing from ultraviolet to radio wavelengths. We review progress in the first decade of study of MBCs, including observations, modelling

更新日期：2017-11-14
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
B. Boccardi; T. P. Krichbaum; E. Ros; J. A. Zensus

Over the past few decades, our knowledge of jets produced by active galactic nuclei (AGN) has greatly progressed thanks to the development of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI). Nevertheless, the crucial mechanisms involved in the formation of the plasma flow, as well as those driving its exceptional radiative output up to TeV energies, remain to be clarified. Most likely, these physical processes

更新日期：2017-11-06
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
M. A. Barucci; M. Fulchignoni

Comets have been studied from a long time and are believed to preserve pristine materials, so they are fundamental to understand the origin of the solar system and life. Starting in the early 1990s, ESA decided to have a more risky and fantastic mission to a comet. As Planetary Cornerstone mission of the ESA Horizon 2000 program, the Rosetta mission was selected with the aim of realizing two asteroid

更新日期：2017-10-24
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-08-23
P. Padovani; D. M. Alexander; R. J. Assef; B. De Marco; P. Giommi; R. C. Hickox; G. T. Richards; V. Smolčić; E. Hatziminaoglou; V. Mainieri; M. Salvato

Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are energetic astrophysical sources powered by accretion onto supermassive black holes in galaxies, and present unique observational signatures that cover the full electromagnetic spectrum over more than twenty orders of magnitude in frequency. The rich phenomenology of AGN has resulted in a large number of different “flavours” in the literature that now comprise a complex

更新日期：2017-08-23
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2017-06-15
S. Hekker; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard

The internal properties of stars in the red-giant phase undergo significant changes on relatively short timescales. Long near-uninterrupted high-precision photometric timeseries observations from dedicated space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler have provided seismic inferences of the global and internal properties of a large number of evolved stars, including red giants. These inferences are confronted

更新日期：2017-06-15
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-11-16
N. Mangold; D. Baratoux; O. Witasse; T. Encrenaz; C. Sotin

Mars is characterized by geological landforms familiar to terrestrial geologists. It has a tenuous atmosphere that evolved differently from that of Earth and Venus and a differentiated inner structure. Our knowledge of the structure and evolution of Mars has strongly improved thanks to a huge amount of data of various types (visible and infrared imagery, altimetry, radar, chemistry, etc) acquired by

更新日期：2016-11-16
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-11-11
Roderik A. Overzier

The study of galaxy protoclusters is beginning to fill in unknown details of the important phase of the assembly of clusters and cluster galaxies. This review describes the current status of this field and highlights promising recent findings related to galaxy formation in the densest regions of the early universe. We discuss the main search techniques and the characteristic properties of protoclusters

更新日期：2016-11-11
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-09-29

Radio astronomy has changed. For years it studied relatively rare sources, which emit mostly non-thermal radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. radio quasars and radio galaxies. Now, it is reaching such faint flux densities that it detects mainly star-forming galaxies and the more common radio-quiet active galactic nuclei. These sources make up the bulk of the extragalactic sky

更新日期：2016-09-29
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-07-21
Tommaso Treu; Philip J. Marshall

Gravitational time delays, observed in strong lens systems where the variable background source is multiply imaged by a massive galaxy in the foreground, provide direct measurements of cosmological distance that are very complementary to other cosmographic probes. The success of the technique depends on the availability and size of a suitable sample of lensed quasars or supernovae, precise measurements

更新日期：2016-07-21
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-06-03

Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN ($$L_{1.4\,\mathrm{GHz}} > 10^{24}$$ W $$\hbox {Hz}^{-1}$$) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR

更新日期：2016-06-03
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-05-31
Paul S. Barklem

The measurement of stellar properties such as chemical compositions, masses and ages, through stellar spectra, is a fundamental problem in astrophysics. Progress in the understanding, calculation and measurement of atomic properties and processes relevant to the high-accuracy analysis of F-, G-, and K-type stellar spectra is reviewed, with particular emphasis on abundance analysis. This includes fundamental

更新日期：2016-05-31
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-02-29
Sun Kwok

Recent observational and experimental evidence for the presence of complex organics in space is reviewed. Remote astronomical observations have detected $$\sim$$200 gas-phased molecules through their rotational and vibrational transitions. Many classes of organic molecules are represented in this list, including some precursors to biological molecules. A number of unidentified spectral phenomena observed

更新日期：2016-02-29
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-01-11
M. T. Beltrán; W. J. de Wit

An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and, therefore, predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared

更新日期：2016-01-11
• Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (IF 16.0) Pub Date : 2016-01-11
Anne Dutrey; Emmanuel Di Folco; Tracy Beck; Stéphane Guilloteau

In binary stellar systems, exoplanet searches have revealed planetary mass companions orbiting both in circumstellar and in circumbinary orbits. Modelling studies suggest increased dynamical complexity around the young stars that form such systems. Circumstellar and circumbinary disks likely exhibit different physical conditions for planet formation, which also depends on the stellar separation. Although

更新日期：2016-01-11
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