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  • Kilonovae.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Brian D Metzger

    The coalescence of double neutron star (NS-NS) and black hole (BH)-NS binaries are prime sources of gravitational waves (GW) for Advanced LIGO/Virgo and future ground-based detectors. Neutron-rich matter released from such events undergoes rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis as it decompresses into space, enriching our universe with rare heavy elements like gold and platinum. Radioactive

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Terrestrial gravity fluctuations
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Jan Harms

    Terrestrial gravity fluctuations are a target of scientific studies in a variety of fields within geophysics and fundamental-physics experiments involving gravity such as the observation of gravitational waves. In geophysics, these fluctuations are typically considered as signal that carries information about processes such as fault ruptures and atmospheric density perturbations. In fundamental-physics

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • The causal set approach to quantum gravity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Sumati Surya

    The causal set theory (CST) approach to quantum gravity postulates that at the most fundamental level, spacetime is discrete, with the spacetime continuum replaced by locally finite posets or “causal sets”. The partial order on a causal set represents a proto-causality relation while local finiteness encodes an intrinsic discreteness. In the continuum approximation the former corresponds to the spacetime

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Testing the nature of dark compact objects: a status report
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Vitor Cardoso, Paolo Pani

    Very compact objects probe extreme gravitational fields and may be the key to understand outstanding puzzles in fundamental physics. These include the nature of dark matter, the fate of spacetime singularities, or the loss of unitarity in Hawking evaporation. The standard astrophysical description of collapsing objects tells us that massive, dark and compact objects are black holes. Any observation

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Lorentzian causality theory
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    E. Minguzzi

    I review Lorentzian causality theory paying particular attention to the optimality and generality of the presented results. I include complete proofs of some foundational results that are otherwise difficult to find in the literature (e.g. equivalence of some Lorentzian length definitions, upper semi-continuity of the length functional, corner regularization, etc.). The paper is almost self-contained

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Advanced quantum techniques for future gravitational-wave detectors
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Stefan L. Danilishin, Farid Ya. Khalili, Haixing Miao

    Quantum fluctuation of light limits the sensitivity of advanced laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. It is one of the principal obstacles on the way towards the next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. The envisioned significant improvement of the detector sensitivity requires using quantum non-demolition measurement and back-action evasion techniques, which allow us to circumvent

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Testing general relativity in cosmology
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-12-18
    Mustapha Ishak

    We review recent developments and results in testing general relativity (GR) at cosmological scales. The subject has witnessed rapid growth during the last two decades with the aim of addressing the question of cosmic acceleration and the dark energy associated with it. However, with the advent of precision cosmology, it has also become a well-motivated endeavor by itself to test gravitational physics

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and post-Newtonian dynamics of compact binaries
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Gerhard Schäfer, Piotr Jaranowski

    Hamiltonian formalisms provide powerful tools for the computation of approximate analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations. The post-Newtonian computations of the explicit analytic dynamics and motion of compact binaries are discussed within the most often applied Arnowitt–Deser–Misner formalism. The obtention of autonomous Hamiltonians is achieved by the transition to Routhians. Order reduction

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Computer algebra in gravity research
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Malcolm A. H. MacCallum

    The complicated nature of calculations in general relativity was one of the driving forces in the early development of computer algebra (CA). CA has become widely used in gravity research (GR) and its use can be expected to grow further. Here the general nature of computer algebra is discussed, along with some aspects of CA system design; features particular to GR’s requirements are considered; information

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Geometrical inequalities bounding angular momentum and charges in General Relativity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-07-05
    Sergio Dain, María Eugenia Gabach-Clement

    Geometrical inequalities show how certain parameters of a physical system set restrictions on other parameters. For instance, a black hole of given mass can not rotate too fast, or an ordinary object of given size can not have too much electric charge. In this article, we are interested in bounds on the angular momentum and electromagnetic charges, in terms of total mass and size. We are mainly concerned

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Relativistic dynamics and extreme mass ratio inspirals
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Pau Amaro-Seoane

    It is now well-established that a dark, compact object, very likely a massive black hole (MBH) of around four million solar masses is lurking at the centre of the Milky Way. While a consensus is emerging about the origin and growth of supermassive black holes (with masses larger than a billion solar masses), MBHs with smaller masses, such as the one in our galactic centre, remain understudied and enigmatic

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, M. R. Abernathy, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, T. Adams, P. Addesso, R. X. Adhikari, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, T. Akutsu, B. Allen, A. Allocca, P. A. Altin, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, M. Ando, S. Appert, K. Arai, A. Araya, M. C. Araya, J. S. Areeda, N. Arnaud,

    We present possible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Cosmology and fundamental physics with the Euclid satellite
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-04-12
    Luca Amendola, Stephen Appleby, Anastasios Avgoustidis, David Bacon, Tessa Baker, Marco Baldi, Nicola Bartolo, Alain Blanchard, Camille Bonvin, Stefano Borgani, Enzo Branchini, Clare Burrage, Stefano Camera, Carmelita Carbone, Luciano Casarini, Mark Cropper, Claudia de Rham, Jörg P. Dietrich, Cinzia Di Porto, Ruth Durrer, Anne Ealet, Pedro G. Ferreira, Fabio Finelli, Juan García-Bellido, Tommaso Giannantonio

    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2020 within the cosmic vision 2015–2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Tests of chameleon gravity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-03-16
    Clare Burrage, Jeremy Sakstein

    Theories of modified gravity, where light scalars with non-trivial self-interactions and non-minimal couplings to matter—chameleon and symmetron theories—dynamically suppress deviations from general relativity in the solar system. On other scales, the environmental nature of the screening means that such scalars may be relevant. The highly-nonlinear nature of screening mechanisms means that they evade

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Rotating stars in relativity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Vasileios Paschalidis, Nikolaos Stergioulas

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Valeri P. Frolov, Pavel Krtouš, David Kubizňák

    The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr–NUT–(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Dynamical boson stars
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Steven L. Liebling, Carlos Palenzuela

    The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Kilonovae
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-05-16
    Brian D. Metzger

    The mergers of double neutron star (NS–NS) and black hole (BH)–NS binaries are promising gravitational wave (GW) sources for Advanced LIGO and future GW detectors. The neutron-rich ejecta from such merger events undergoes rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis, enriching our Galaxy with rare heavy elements like gold and platinum. The radioactive decay of these unstable nuclei also powers

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Detection methods for stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds: a unified treatment
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-04-04
    Joseph D. Romano, Neil. J. Cornish

    We review detection methods that are currently in use or have been proposed to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We consider both Bayesian and frequentist searches using ground-based and space-based laser interferometers, spacecraft Doppler tracking, and pulsar timing arrays; and we allow for anisotropy, non-Gaussianity, and non-standard polarization states. Our focus is

    更新日期:2020-04-22
  • Erratum: Publisher Correction: Interferometer techniques for gravitational-wave detection.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-01-01
    Charlotte Bond,Daniel Brown,Andreas Freise,Kenneth A Strain

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s41114-016-0002-8.].

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Brane Effective Actions, Kappa-Symmetry and Applications.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2012-01-01
    Joan Simón

    This is a review on brane effective actions, their symmetries and some of their applications. Its first part covers the Green-Schwarz formulation of single M- and D-brane effective actions focusing on kinematical aspects: the identification of their degrees of freedom, the importance of world volume diffeomorphisms and kappa symmetry to achieve manifest spacetime covariance and supersymmetry, and the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Black Holes in Higher Dimensions.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Roberto Emparan,Harvey S Reall

    We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers-Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Duncan R Lorimer

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Numerical Hydrodynamics and Magnetohydrodynamics in General Relativity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    José A Font

    This article presents a comprehensive overview of numerical hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) in general relativity. Some significant additions have been incorporated with respect to the previous two versions of this review (2000, 2003), most notably the coverage of general-relativistic MHD, a field in which remarkable activity and progress has occurred in the last few years. Correspondingly

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physics of Neutron Star Crusts.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Nicolas Chamel,Pawel Haensel

    The physics of neutron star crusts is vast, involving many different research fields, from nuclear and condensed matter physics to general relativity. This review summarizes the progress, which has been achieved over the last few years, in modeling neutron star crusts, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. The confrontation of these theoretical models with observations is also briefly discussed

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Probes and Tests of Strong-Field Gravity with Observations in the Electromagnetic Spectrum.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Dimitrios Psaltis

    Neutron stars and black holes are the astrophysical systems with the strongest gravitational fields in the universe. In this article, I review the prospect of using observations of such compact objects to probe some of the most intriguing general relativistic predictions in the strong-field regime: the absence of stable circular orbits near a compact object and the presence of event horizons around

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Loop Quantum Cosmology.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Martin Bojowald

    Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • History of Astroparticle Physics and its Components.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Vanessa Cirkel-Bartelt

    This article gives an outline of the historical events that led to the formation of contemporary astroparticle physics. As a starting point for analyzing the history of astroparticle physics this article will review the various, yet scattered pieces of historical work that have been done so far. To make the picture more complete it will then give a brief survey of the most important fields that have

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Loop Quantum Gravity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Carlo Rovelli

    The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spacelike Singularities and Hidden Symmetries of Gravity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Marc Henneaux,Daniel Persson,Philippe Spindel

    We review the intimate connection between (super-)gravity close to a spacelike singularity (the "BKL-limit") and the theory of Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras. We show that in this limit the gravitational theory can be reformulated in terms of billiard motion in a region of hyperbolic space, revealing that the dynamics is completely determined by a (possibly infinite) sequence of reflections, which are

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Event and Apparent Horizon Finders for 3 + 1 Numerical Relativity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
    Jonathan Thornburg

    Event and apparent horizons are key diagnostics for the presence and properties of black holes. In this article I review numerical algorithms and codes for finding event and apparent horizons in numerically-computed spacetimes, focusing on calculations done using the 3 + 1 ADM formalism. The event horizon of an asymptotically-flat spacetime is the boundary between those events from which a future-pointing

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Post-Newtonian Approximation for Relativistic Compact Binaries.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
    Toshifumi Futamase,Yousuke Itoh

    We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Relativistic Fluid Dynamics: Physics for Many Different Scales.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
    Nils Andersson,Gregory L Comer

    The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Hubble Constant.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
    Neal Jackson

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s-1 Mpc-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s-1 Mpc-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
    Carsten Gundlach,José M Martín-García

    As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term "critical phenomena". They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
    Konstantin A Postnov,Lev R Yungelson

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs) within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
    Matthew J Benacquista

    The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 104-107 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Asymptotic Safety Scenario in Quantum Gravity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
    Max Niedermaier,Martin Reuter

    The asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity is reviewed, according to which a renormalizable quantum theory of the gravitational field is feasible which reconciles asymptotically safe couplings with unitarity. The evidence from symmetry truncations and from the truncated flow of the effective average action is presented in detail. A dimensional reduction phenomenon for the residual interactions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gravitational Radiation from Post-Newtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
    Luc Blanchet

    The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general post-Newtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic post-Minkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Confrontation between General Relativity and Experiment.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
    Clifford M Will

    The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analyzing them is reviewed. Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of special relativity, and the gravitational redshift experiment. Ongoing tests of EEP and of the inverse square law are searching for new interactions arising from unification

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
    J W Armstrong

    This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (∼millihertz) gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity 2Δv/c = Δν/ν0, where Δν is the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spinning Strings and Integrable Spin Chains in the AdS/CFT Correspondence.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Jan Plefka

    In this introductory review we discuss dynamical tests of the AdS5 × S5 string/[Formula: see text] Super Yang-Mills duality. After a brief introduction to AdS/CFT, we argue that semiclassical string energies yield information on the quantum spectrum of the string in the limit of large angular momenta on the S5. The energies of the folded and circular spinning string solutions rotating on a S3 within

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modern Tests of Lorentz Invariance.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    David Mattingly

    Motivated by ideas about quantum gravity, a tremendous amount of effort over the past decade has gone into testing Lorentz invariance in various regimes. This review summarizes both the theoretical frameworks for tests of Lorentz invariance and experimental advances that have made new high precision tests possible. The current constraints on Lorentz violating effects from both terrestrial experiments

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Time-Delay Interferometry.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Massimo Tinto,Sanjeev V Dhurandhar

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Håkan Andréasson

    The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on nonrelativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e. to model the dynamics of neutral

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analogue Gravity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Carlos Barceló,Stefano Liberati,Matt Visser

    Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Duncan R Lorimer

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Theorems on Existence and Global Dynamics for the Einstein Equations.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Alan D Rendall

    This article is a guide to theorems on existence and global dynamics of solutions of the Einstein equations. It draws attention to open questions in the field. The local-in-time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is surveyed. Global results for solutions with various types of symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity that offer useful

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Loop Quantum Cosmology.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Martin Bojowald

    Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gravitational-Wave Data Analysis. Formalism and Sample Applications: The Gaussian Case.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Piotr Jaranowski,Andrzej Królak

    The article reviews the statistical theory of signal detection in application to analysis of deterministic gravitational-wave signals in the noise of a detector. Statistical foundations for the theory of signal detection and parameter estimation are presented. Several tools needed for both theoretical evaluation of the optimal data analysis methods and for their practical implementation are introduced

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quantum Gravity in 2 + 1 Dimensions: The Case of a Closed Universe.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Steven Carlip

    In three spacetime dimensions, general relativity drastically simplifies, becoming a "topological" theory with no propagating local degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, many of the difficult conceptual problems of quantizing gravity are still present. In this review, I summarize the rather large body of work that has gone towards quantizing (2 + 1)-dimensional vacuum gravity in the setting of a spatially

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Characteristic Evolution and Matching.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
    Jeffrey Winicour

    I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial value problem. Progress is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black hole spacetime. A prime application

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stochastic Gravity: Theory and Applications.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Bei Lok Hu,Enric Verdaguer

    Whereas semiclassical gravity is based on the semiclassical Einstein equation with sources given by the expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of quantum fields, stochastic semiclassical gravity is based on the Einstein-Langevin equation, which has in addition sources due to the noise kernel. The noise kernel is the vacuum expectation value of the (operatorvalued) stress-energy bi-tensor which

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Isolated and Dynamical Horizons and Their Applications.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Abhay Ashtekar,Badri Krishnan

    Over the past three decades, black holes have played an important role in quantum gravity, mathematical physics, numerical relativity and gravitational wave phenomenology. However, conceptual settings and mathematical models used to discuss them have varied considerably from one area to another. Over the last five years a new, quasi-local framework was introduced to analyze diverse facets of black

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Ofer Lahav,Yasushi Suto

    Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Brane-World Gravity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Roy Maartens

    The observable universe could be a 1 + 3-surface (the "brane") embedded in a 1 + 3 + d-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk"), with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the d extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quasi-Local Energy-Momentum and Angular Momentum in GR: A Review Article.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    László B Szabados

    The present status of the quasi-local mass-energy-momentum and angular momentum constructions in general relativity is reviewed. First the general ideas, concepts, and strategies, as well as the necessary tools to construct and analyze the quasi-local quantities are recalled. Then the various specific constructions and their properties (both successes and defects) are discussed. Finally, some of the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conformal Infinity.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Jörg Frauendiener

    The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quantum Gravity in Everyday Life: General Relativity as an Effective Field Theory.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Cliff P Burgess

    This article is meant as a summary and introduction to the ideas of effective field theory as applied to gravitational systems, ideas which provide the theoretical foundations for the modern use of general relativity as a theory from which precise predictions are possible.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gravitational Lensing from a Spacetime Perspective.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Volker Perlick

    The theory of gravitational lensing is reviewed from a spacetime perspective, without quasi-Newtonian approximations. More precisely, the review covers all aspects of gravitational lensing where light propagation is described in terms of lightlike geodesics of a metric of Lorentzian signature. It includes the basic equations and the relevant techniques for calculating the position, the shape, and the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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