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  • Neutron star mergers and how to study them
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    Eric Burns

    Neutron star mergers are the canonical multimessenger events: they have been observed through photons for half a century, gravitational waves since 2017, and are likely to be sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. Studies of these events enable unique insights into astrophysics, particles in the ultrarelativistic regime, the heavy element enrichment history through cosmic time, cosmology, dense matter

    更新日期:2020-11-27
  • Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    B. P. Abbott, R. Abbott, T. D. Abbott, S. Abraham, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C. Adams, V. B. Adya, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, K. Agatsuma, N. Aggarwal, O. D. Aguiar, L. Aiello, A. Ain, P. Ajith, T. Akutsu, G. Allen, A. Allocca, M. A. Aloy, P. A. Altin, A. Amato, A. Ananyeva, S. B. Anderson, W. G. Anderson, M. Ando, S. V. Angelova, S. Antier, S. Appert, K. Arai, Koya Arai, Y. Arai, S. Araki, A. Araya, M

    We present our current best estimate of the plausible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next several years, with the intention of providing information to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals for the third (O3)

    更新日期:2020-09-28
  • AdS black holes, holography and localization
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Alberto Zaffaroni

    I review some recent progresses in counting the number of microstates of AdS supersymmetric black holes in dimension equal or greater than four using holography. The counting is obtained by applying localization and matrix model techniques to the dual field theory. I cover in details the case of dyonic AdS\(_4\) black holes, corresponding to a twisted compactification of the dual field theory, and

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Kilonovae.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Brian D Metzger

    The coalescence of double neutron star (NS–NS) and black hole (BH)–NS binaries are prime sources of gravitational waves (GW) for Advanced LIGO/Virgo and future ground-based detectors. Neutron-rich matter released from such events undergoes rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis as it decompresses into space, enriching our universe with rare heavy elements like gold and platinum. Radioactive

    更新日期:2019-12-16
  • Erratum: Publisher Correction: Interferometer techniques for gravitational-wave detection.
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-01-01
    Charlotte Bond,Daniel Brown,Andreas Freise,Kenneth A Strain

    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s41114-016-0002-8.].

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Terrestrial gravity fluctuations
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Jan Harms

    Terrestrial gravity fluctuations are a target of scientific studies in a variety of fields within geophysics and fundamental-physics experiments involving gravity such as the observation of gravitational waves. In geophysics, these fluctuations are typically considered as signal that carries information about processes such as fault ruptures and atmospheric density perturbations. In fundamental-physics

    更新日期:2019-10-14
  • The causal set approach to quantum gravity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-09-27
    Sumati Surya

    The causal set theory (CST) approach to quantum gravity postulates that at the most fundamental level, spacetime is discrete, with the spacetime continuum replaced by locally finite posets or “causal sets”. The partial order on a causal set represents a proto-causality relation while local finiteness encodes an intrinsic discreteness. In the continuum approximation the former corresponds to the spacetime

    更新日期:2019-09-27
  • Testing the nature of dark compact objects: a status report
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Vitor Cardoso; Paolo Pani

    Very compact objects probe extreme gravitational fields and may be the key to understand outstanding puzzles in fundamental physics. These include the nature of dark matter, the fate of spacetime singularities, or the loss of unitarity in Hawking evaporation. The standard astrophysical description of collapsing objects tells us that massive, dark and compact objects are black holes. Any observation

    更新日期:2019-07-08
  • Lorentzian causality theory
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    E. Minguzzi

    I review Lorentzian causality theory paying particular attention to the optimality and generality of the presented results. I include complete proofs of some foundational results that are otherwise difficult to find in the literature (e.g. equivalence of some Lorentzian length definitions, upper semi-continuity of the length functional, corner regularization, etc.). The paper is almost self-contained

    更新日期:2019-06-03
  • Advanced quantum techniques for future gravitational-wave detectors
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Stefan L. Danilishin; Farid Ya. Khalili; Haixing Miao

    Quantum fluctuation of light limits the sensitivity of advanced laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. It is one of the principal obstacles on the way towards the next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. The envisioned significant improvement of the detector sensitivity requires using quantum non-demolition measurement and back-action evasion techniques, which allow us to circumvent

    更新日期:2019-04-29
  • Testing general relativity in cosmology
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-12-18
    Mustapha Ishak

    We review recent developments and results in testing general relativity (GR) at cosmological scales. The subject has witnessed rapid growth during the last two decades with the aim of addressing the question of cosmic acceleration and the dark energy associated with it. However, with the advent of precision cosmology, it has also become a well-motivated endeavor by itself to test gravitational physics

    更新日期:2018-12-18
  • Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and post-Newtonian dynamics of compact binaries
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Gerhard Schäfer; Piotr Jaranowski

    Hamiltonian formalisms provide powerful tools for the computation of approximate analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations. The post-Newtonian computations of the explicit analytic dynamics and motion of compact binaries are discussed within the most often applied Arnowitt–Deser–Misner formalism. The obtention of autonomous Hamiltonians is achieved by the transition to Routhians. Order reduction

    更新日期:2018-08-31
  • Computer algebra in gravity research
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
    Malcolm A. H. MacCallum

    The complicated nature of calculations in general relativity was one of the driving forces in the early development of computer algebra (CA). CA has become widely used in gravity research (GR) and its use can be expected to grow further. Here the general nature of computer algebra is discussed, along with some aspects of CA system design; features particular to GR’s requirements are considered; information

    更新日期:2018-08-20
  • Geometrical inequalities bounding angular momentum and charges in General Relativity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-07-05
    Sergio Dain; María Eugenia Gabach-Clement

    Geometrical inequalities show how certain parameters of a physical system set restrictions on other parameters. For instance, a black hole of given mass can not rotate too fast, or an ordinary object of given size can not have too much electric charge. In this article, we are interested in bounds on the angular momentum and electromagnetic charges, in terms of total mass and size. We are mainly concerned

    更新日期:2018-07-05
  • Relativistic dynamics and extreme mass ratio inspirals
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Pau Amaro-Seoane

    It is now well-established that a dark, compact object, very likely a massive black hole (MBH) of around four million solar masses is lurking at the centre of the Milky Way. While a consensus is emerging about the origin and growth of supermassive black holes (with masses larger than a billion solar masses), MBHs with smaller masses, such as the one in our galactic centre, remain understudied and enigmatic

    更新日期:2018-05-15
  • Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-04-26
    B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; F. Acernese; K. Ackley; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. X. Adhikari; V. B. Adya; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; L. Aiello; A. Ain; P. Ajith; T. Akutsu; B. Allen; A. Allocca; P. A. Altin; A. Ananyeva; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; M. Ando; S. Appert; K. Arai; A. Araya; M. C. Araya; J. S. Areeda; N. Arnaud;

    We present possible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of

    更新日期:2018-04-26
  • Cosmology and fundamental physics with the Euclid satellite
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-04-12
    Luca Amendola; Stephen Appleby; Anastasios Avgoustidis; David Bacon; Tessa Baker; Marco Baldi; Nicola Bartolo; Alain Blanchard; Camille Bonvin; Stefano Borgani; Enzo Branchini; Clare Burrage; Stefano Camera; Carmelita Carbone; Luciano Casarini; Mark Cropper; Claudia de Rham; Jörg P. Dietrich; Cinzia Di Porto; Ruth Durrer; Anne Ealet; Pedro G. Ferreira; Fabio Finelli; Juan García-Bellido; Tommaso Giannantonio;

    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2020 within the cosmic vision 2015–2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters

    更新日期:2018-04-12
  • Tests of chameleon gravity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2018-03-16
    Clare Burrage; Jeremy Sakstein

    Theories of modified gravity, where light scalars with non-trivial self-interactions and non-minimal couplings to matter—chameleon and symmetron theories—dynamically suppress deviations from general relativity in the solar system. On other scales, the environmental nature of the screening means that such scalars may be relevant. The highly-nonlinear nature of screening mechanisms means that they evade

    更新日期:2018-03-16
  • Rotating stars in relativity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
    Vasileios Paschalidis; Nikolaos Stergioulas

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated

    更新日期:2017-11-29
  • Black holes, hidden symmetries, and complete integrability
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
    Valeri P. Frolov; Pavel Krtouš; David Kubizňák

    The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr–NUT–(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result

    更新日期:2017-11-22
  • Dynamical boson stars
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
    Steven L. Liebling; Carlos Palenzuela

    The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars

    更新日期:2017-11-13
  • Kilonovae
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-05-16
    Brian D. Metzger

    The mergers of double neutron star (NS–NS) and black hole (BH)–NS binaries are promising gravitational wave (GW) sources for Advanced LIGO and future GW detectors. The neutron-rich ejecta from such merger events undergoes rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis, enriching our Galaxy with rare heavy elements like gold and platinum. The radioactive decay of these unstable nuclei also powers

    更新日期:2017-05-16
  • Detection methods for stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds: a unified treatment
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-04-04
    Joseph D. Romano; Neil. J. Cornish

    We review detection methods that are currently in use or have been proposed to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We consider both Bayesian and frequentist searches using ground-based and space-based laser interferometers, spacecraft Doppler tracking, and pulsar timing arrays; and we allow for anisotropy, non-Gaussianity, and non-standard polarization states. Our focus is

    更新日期:2017-04-04
  • The Kerr/CFT correspondence and its extensions
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-02-27
    Geoffrey Compère

    We present a first-principles derivation of the main results of the Kerr/CFT correspondence and its extensions using only tools from gravity and quantum field theory. Firstly, we review properties of extremal black holes with in particular the construction of an asymptotic Virasoro symmetry in the near-horizon limit. The entropy of extremal spinning or charged black holes is shown to match with a chiral

    更新日期:2017-02-27
  • Interferometer techniques for gravitational-wave detection
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2017-02-17
    Charlotte Bond; Daniel Brown; Andreas Freise; Kenneth A. Strain

    Several km-scale gravitational-wave detectors have been constructed worldwide. These instruments combine a number of advanced technologies to push the limits of precision length measurement. The core devices are laser interferometers of a new kind; developed from the classical Michelson topology these interferometers integrate additional optical elements, which significantly change the properties of

    更新日期:2017-02-17
  • Extraction of gravitational waves in numerical relativity
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2016-10-04
    Nigel T. Bishop; Luciano Rezzolla

    A numerical-relativity calculation yields in general a solution of the Einstein equations including also a radiative part, which is in practice computed in a region of finite extent. Since gravitational radiation is properly defined only at null infinity and in an appropriate coordinate system, the accurate estimation of the emitted gravitational waves represents an old and non-trivial problem in numerical

    更新日期:2016-10-04
  • Prospects for Observing and Localizing Gravitational-Wave Transients with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo
    Living Rev. Relat. (IF 35.429) Pub Date : 2016-02-08
    B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. R. Abernathy; F. Acernese; K. Ackley; C. Adams; T. Adams; P. Addesso; R. X. Adhikari; V. B. Adya; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; N. Aggarwal; O. D. Aguiar; A. Ain; P. Ajith; B. Allen; A. Allocca; P. A. Altin; D. V. Amariutei; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. C. Araya; C. C. Arceneaux; J. S. Areeda; N. Arnaud; K. G. Arun; G. Ashton; M. Ast;

    We present a possible observing scenario for the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We determine the expected sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability

    更新日期:2016-02-08
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