• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
Brian D. Metzger

The coalescence of double neutron star (NS–NS) and black hole (BH)–NS binaries are prime sources of gravitational waves (GW) for Advanced LIGO/Virgo and future ground-based detectors. Neutron-rich matter released from such events undergoes rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis as it decompresses into space, enriching our universe with rare heavy elements like gold and platinum. Radioactive decay of these unstable nuclei powers a rapidly evolving, approximately isotropic thermal transient known as a “kilonova”, which probes the physical conditions during the merger and its aftermath. Here I review the history and physics of kilonovae, leading to the current paradigm of day-timescale emission at optical wavelengths from lanthanide-free components of the ejecta, followed by week-long emission with a spectral peak in the near-infrared (NIR). These theoretical predictions, as compiled in the original version of this review, were largely confirmed by the transient optical/NIR counterpart discovered to the first NS–NS merger, GW170817, discovered by LIGO/Virgo. Using a simple light curve model to illustrate the essential physical processes and their application to GW170817, I then introduce important variations about the standard picture which may be observable in future mergers. These include $$\sim$$hour-long UV precursor emission, powered by the decay of free neutrons in the outermost ejecta layers or shock-heating of the ejecta by a delayed ultra-relativistic outflow; and enhancement of the luminosity from a long-lived central engine, such as an accreting BH or millisecond magnetar. Joint GW and kilonova observations of GW170817 and future events provide a new avenue to constrain the astrophysical origin of the r-process elements and the equation of state of dense nuclear matter.

更新日期：2019-12-17
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
Vitor Cardoso, Paolo Pani

Very compact objects probe extreme gravitational fields and may be the key to understand outstanding puzzles in fundamental physics. These include the nature of dark matter, the fate of spacetime singularities, or the loss of unitarity in Hawking evaporation. The standard astrophysical description of collapsing objects tells us that massive, dark and compact objects are black holes. Any observation suggesting otherwise would be an indication of beyond-the-standard-model physics. Null results strengthen and quantify the Kerr black hole paradigm. The advent of gravitational-wave astronomy and precise measurements with very long baseline interferometry allow one to finally probe into such foundational issues. We overview the physics of exotic dark compact objects and their observational status, including the observational evidence for black holes with current and future experiments.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
Stefan L. Danilishin, Farid Ya. Khalili, Haixing Miao

Quantum fluctuation of light limits the sensitivity of advanced laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. It is one of the principal obstacles on the way towards the next-generation gravitational-wave observatories. The envisioned significant improvement of the detector sensitivity requires using quantum non-demolition measurement and back-action evasion techniques, which allow us to circumvent the sensitivity limit imposed by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In our previous review article (Danilishin and Khalili in Living Rev Relativ 15:5, 2012), we laid down the basic principles of quantum measurement theory and provided the framework for analysing the quantum noise of interferometers. The scope of this paper is to review novel techniques for quantum noise suppression proposed in the recent years and put them in the same framework. Our delineation of interferometry schemes and topologies is intended as an aid in the process of selecting the design for the next-generation gravitational-wave observatories.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-12-18
Mustapha Ishak

We review recent developments and results in testing general relativity (GR) at cosmological scales. The subject has witnessed rapid growth during the last two decades with the aim of addressing the question of cosmic acceleration and the dark energy associated with it. However, with the advent of precision cosmology, it has also become a well-motivated endeavor by itself to test gravitational physics at cosmic scales. We overview cosmological probes of gravity, formalisms and parameterizations for testing deviations from GR at cosmological scales, selected modified gravity (MG) theories, gravitational screening mechanisms, and computer codes developed for these tests. We then provide summaries of recent cosmological constraints on MG parameters and selected MG models. We supplement these cosmological constraints with a summary of implications from the recent binary neutron star merger event. Next, we summarize some results on MG parameter forecasts with and without astrophysical systematics that will dominate the uncertainties. The review aims at providing an overall picture of the subject and an entry point to students and researchers interested in joining the field. It can also serve as a quick reference to recent results and constraints on testing gravity at cosmological scales.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
Gerhard Schäfer, Piotr Jaranowski

Hamiltonian formalisms provide powerful tools for the computation of approximate analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations. The post-Newtonian computations of the explicit analytic dynamics and motion of compact binaries are discussed within the most often applied Arnowitt–Deser–Misner formalism. The obtention of autonomous Hamiltonians is achieved by the transition to Routhians. Order reduction of higher derivative Hamiltonians results in standard Hamiltonians. Tetrad representation of general relativity is introduced for the tackling of compact binaries with spinning components. Configurations are treated where the absolute values of the spin vectors can be considered constant. Compact objects are modeled by use of Dirac delta functions and their derivatives. Consistency is achieved through transition to d-dimensional space and application of dimensional regularization. At the fourth post-Newtonian level, tail contributions to the binding energy show up. The conservative spin-dependent dynamics finds explicit presentation in Hamiltonian form through next-to-next-to-leading-order spin–orbit and spin1–spin2 couplings and to leading-order in the cubic and quartic in spin interactions. The radiation reaction dynamics is presented explicitly through the third-and-half post-Newtonian order for spinless objects, and, for spinning bodies, to leading-order in the spin–orbit and spin1–spin2 couplings. The most important historical issues get pointed out.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-08-20
Malcolm A. H. MacCallum

The complicated nature of calculations in general relativity was one of the driving forces in the early development of computer algebra (CA). CA has become widely used in gravity research (GR) and its use can be expected to grow further. Here the general nature of computer algebra is discussed, along with some aspects of CA system design; features particular to GR’s requirements are considered; information on packages for CA in GR is provided, both for those packages currently available and for their predecessors; and applications of CA in GR are outlined.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-07-05
Sergio Dain, María Eugenia Gabach-Clement

Geometrical inequalities show how certain parameters of a physical system set restrictions on other parameters. For instance, a black hole of given mass can not rotate too fast, or an ordinary object of given size can not have too much electric charge. In this article, we are interested in bounds on the angular momentum and electromagnetic charges, in terms of total mass and size. We are mainly concerned with inequalities for black holes and ordinary objects. The former are the most studied systems in this context in General Relativity, and where most results have been found. Ordinary objects, on the other hand, present numerous challenges and many basic questions concerning geometrical estimates for them are still unanswered. We present the many results in these areas. We make emphasis in identifying the mathematical conditions that lead to such estimates, both for black holes and ordinary objects.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
Pau Amaro-Seoane

It is now well-established that a dark, compact object, very likely a massive black hole (MBH) of around four million solar masses is lurking at the centre of the Milky Way. While a consensus is emerging about the origin and growth of supermassive black holes (with masses larger than a billion solar masses), MBHs with smaller masses, such as the one in our galactic centre, remain understudied and enigmatic. The key to understanding these holes—how some of them grow by orders of magnitude in mass—lies in understanding the dynamics of the stars in the galactic neighbourhood. Stars interact with the central MBH primarily through their gradual inspiral due to the emission of gravitational radiation. Also stars produce gases which will subsequently be accreted by the MBH through collisions and disruptions brought about by the strong central tidal field. Such processes can contribute significantly to the mass of the MBH and progress in understanding them requires theoretical work in preparation for future gravitational radiation millihertz missions and X-ray observatories. In particular, a unique probe of these regions is the gravitational radiation that is emitted by some compact stars very close to the black holes and which could be surveyed by a millihertz gravitational-wave interferometer scrutinizing the range of masses fundamental to understanding the origin and growth of supermassive black holes. By extracting the information carried by the gravitational radiation, we can determine the mass and spin of the central MBH with unprecedented precision and we can determine how the holes “eat” stars that happen to be near them.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-04-26

We present possible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source. We report our findings for gravitational-wave transients, with particular focus on gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary neutron star systems, which are the most promising targets for multi-messenger astronomy. The ability to localize the sources of the detected signals depends on the geographical distribution of the detectors and their relative sensitivity, and $$90\%$$ credible regions can be as large as thousands of square degrees when only two sensitive detectors are operational. Determining the sky position of a significant fraction of detected signals to areas of 5–$$20~\mathrm {deg}^2$$ requires at least three detectors of sensitivity within a factor of $$\sim 2$$ of each other and with a broad frequency bandwidth. When all detectors, including KAGRA and the third LIGO detector in India, reach design sensitivity, a significant fraction of gravitational-wave signals will be localized to a few square degrees by gravitational-wave observations alone.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-04-12
Luca Amendola, Stephen Appleby, Anastasios Avgoustidis, David Bacon, Tessa Baker, Marco Baldi, Nicola Bartolo, Alain Blanchard, Camille Bonvin, Stefano Borgani, Enzo Branchini, Clare Burrage, Stefano Camera, Carmelita Carbone, Luciano Casarini, Mark Cropper, Claudia de Rham, Jörg P. Dietrich, Cinzia Di Porto, Ruth Durrer, Anne Ealet, Pedro G. Ferreira, Fabio Finelli, Juan García-Bellido, Tommaso Giannantonio, Luigi Guzzo, Alan Heavens, Lavinia Heisenberg, Catherine Heymans, Henk Hoekstra, Lukas Hollenstein, Rory Holmes, Zhiqi Hwang, Knud Jahnke, Thomas D. Kitching, Tomi Koivisto, Martin Kunz, Giuseppe La Vacca, Eric Linder, Marisa March, Valerio Marra, Carlos Martins, Elisabetta Majerotto, Dida Markovic, David Marsh, Federico Marulli, Richard Massey, Yannick Mellier, Francesco Montanari, David F. Mota, Nelson J. Nunes, Will Percival, Valeria Pettorino, Cristiano Porciani, Claudia Quercellini, Justin Read, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Domenico Sapone, Ignacy Sawicki, Roberto Scaramella, Constantinos Skordis, Fergus Simpson, Andy Taylor, Shaun Thomas, Roberto Trotta, Licia Verde, Filippo Vernizzi, Adrian Vollmer, Yun Wang, Jochen Weller, Tom Zlosnik, The Euclid Theory Working Group

Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2020 within the cosmic vision 2015–2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid’s Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2018-03-16
Clare Burrage, Jeremy Sakstein

Theories of modified gravity, where light scalars with non-trivial self-interactions and non-minimal couplings to matter—chameleon and symmetron theories—dynamically suppress deviations from general relativity in the solar system. On other scales, the environmental nature of the screening means that such scalars may be relevant. The highly-nonlinear nature of screening mechanisms means that they evade classical fifth-force searches, and there has been an intense effort towards designing new and novel tests to probe them, both in the laboratory and using astrophysical objects, and by reinterpreting existing datasets. The results of these searches are often presented using different parametrizations, which can make it difficult to compare constraints coming from different probes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present state-of-the-art searches for screened scalars coupled to matter, and to translate the current bounds into a single parametrization to survey the state of the models. Presently, commonly studied chameleon models are well-constrained but less commonly studied models have large regions of parameter space that are still viable. Symmetron models are constrained well by astrophysical and laboratory tests, but there is a desert separating the two scales where the model is unconstrained. The coupling of chameleons to photons is tightly constrained but the symmetron coupling has yet to be explored. We also summarize the current bounds on f(R) models that exhibit the chameleon mechanism (Hu and Sawicki models). The simplest of these are well constrained by astrophysical probes, but there are currently few reported bounds for theories with higher powers of R. The review ends by discussing the future prospects for constraining screened modified gravity models further using upcoming and planned experiments.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2017-11-29
Vasileios Paschalidis, Nikolaos Stergioulas

Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2017-11-22
Valeri P. Frolov, Pavel Krtouš, David Kubizňák

The study of higher-dimensional black holes is a subject which has recently attracted vast interest. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveries is a realization that the properties of higher-dimensional black holes with the spherical horizon topology and described by the Kerr–NUT–(A)dS metrics are very similar to the properties of the well known four-dimensional Kerr metric. This remarkable result stems from the existence of a single object called the principal tensor. In our review we discuss explicit and hidden symmetries of higher-dimensional Kerr–NUT–(A)dS black hole spacetimes. We start with discussion of the Killing and Killing–Yano objects representing explicit and hidden symmetries. We demonstrate that the principal tensor can be used as a “seed object” which generates all these symmetries. It determines the form of the geometry, as well as guarantees its remarkable properties, such as special algebraic type of the spacetime, complete integrability of geodesic motion, and separability of the Hamilton–Jacobi, Klein–Gordon, and Dirac equations. The review also contains a discussion of different applications of the developed formalism and its possible generalizations.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2017-11-13
Steven L. Liebling, Carlos Palenzuela

The idea of stable, localized bundles of energy has strong appeal as a model for particles. In the 1950s, John Wheeler envisioned such bundles as smooth configurations of electromagnetic energy that he called geons, but none were found. Instead, particle-like solutions were found in the late 1960s with the addition of a scalar field, and these were given the name boson stars. Since then, boson stars find use in a wide variety of models as sources of dark matter, as black hole mimickers, in simple models of binary systems, and as a tool in finding black holes in higher dimensions with only a single Killing vector. We discuss important varieties of boson stars, their dynamic properties, and some of their uses, concentrating on recent efforts.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2017-05-16
Brian D. Metzger

The mergers of double neutron star (NS–NS) and black hole (BH)–NS binaries are promising gravitational wave (GW) sources for Advanced LIGO and future GW detectors. The neutron-rich ejecta from such merger events undergoes rapid neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis, enriching our Galaxy with rare heavy elements like gold and platinum. The radioactive decay of these unstable nuclei also powers a rapidly evolving, supernova-like transient known as a “kilonova” (also known as “macronova”). Kilonovae are an approximately isotropic electromagnetic counterpart to the GW signal, which also provides a unique and direct probe of an important, if not dominant, r-process site. I review the history and physics of kilonovae, leading to the current paradigm of week-long emission with a spectral peak at near-infrared wavelengths. Using a simple light curve model to illustrate the basic physics, I introduce potentially important variations on this canonical picture, including: $$\sim$$day-long optical (“blue”) emission from lanthanide-free components of the ejecta; $$\sim$$hour-long precursor UV/blue emission, powered by the decay of free neutrons in the outermost ejecta layers; and enhanced emission due to energy input from a long-lived central engine, such as an accreting BH or millisecond magnetar. I assess the prospects of kilonova detection following future GW detections of NS–NS/BH–NS mergers in light of the recent follow-up campaign of the LIGO binary BH–BH mergers.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2017-04-04
Joseph D. Romano, Neil. J. Cornish

We review detection methods that are currently in use or have been proposed to search for a stochastic background of gravitational radiation. We consider both Bayesian and frequentist searches using ground-based and space-based laser interferometers, spacecraft Doppler tracking, and pulsar timing arrays; and we allow for anisotropy, non-Gaussianity, and non-standard polarization states. Our focus is on relevant data analysis issues, and not on the particular astrophysical or early Universe sources that might give rise to such backgrounds. We provide a unified treatment of these searches at the level of detector response functions, detection sensitivity curves, and, more generally, at the level of the likelihood function, since the choice of signal and noise models and prior probability distributions are actually what define the search. Pedagogical examples are given whenever possible to compare and contrast different approaches. We have tried to make the article as self-contained and comprehensive as possible, targeting graduate students and new researchers looking to enter this field.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2017-02-27
Geoffrey Compère

We present a first-principles derivation of the main results of the Kerr/CFT correspondence and its extensions using only tools from gravity and quantum field theory. Firstly, we review properties of extremal black holes with in particular the construction of an asymptotic Virasoro symmetry in the near-horizon limit. The entropy of extremal spinning or charged black holes is shown to match with a chiral half of Cardy’s formula. Secondly, we show how a thermal 2-dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) is relevant to reproduce the dynamics of near-superradiant probes around near-extremal black holes in the semi-classical limit. Thirdly, we review the hidden conformal symmetries of asymptotically-flat black holes away from extremality and present how the non-extremal entropy can be matched with Cardy’s formula. We follow an effective field theory approach and consider the Kerr–Newman black hole and its generalizations in various supergravity theories. The interpretation of these results by deformed dual conformal field theories is discussed and contrasted with properties of standard 2-dimensional CFTs. We conclude with a list of open problems.

更新日期：2019-11-18
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2017-01-01
Charlotte Bond,Daniel Brown,Andreas Freise,Kenneth A Strain

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s41114-016-0002-8.].

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 1999-01-01
Carsten Gundlach

As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term "critical phenomena". They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
Max Niedermaier,Martin Reuter

The asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity is reviewed, according to which a renormalizable quantum theory of the gravitational field is feasible which reconciles asymptotically safe couplings with unitarity. The evidence from symmetry truncations and from the truncated flow of the effective average action is presented in detail. A dimensional reduction phenomenon for the residual interactions in the extreme ultraviolet links both results. For practical reasons the background effective action is used as the central object in the quantum theory. In terms of it criteria for a continuum limit are formulated and the notion of a background geometry self-consistently determined by the quantum dynamics is presented. Self-contained appendices provide prerequisites on the background effective action, the effective average action, and their respective renormalization flows.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
Luc Blanchet

The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general post-Newtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic post-Minkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables in the far-zone of the source are described by a specific set of radiative multipole moments. By matching the exterior solution to the metric of the post-Newtonian source in the near-zone we obtain the explicit expressions of the source multipole moments. The relationships between the radiative and source moments involve many nonlinear multipole interactions, among them those associated with the tails (and tails-of-tails) of gravitational waves. Part B of the article is devoted to the application to compact binary systems. We present the equations of binary motion, and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) order beyond the Newtonian acceleration. The gravitational-wave energy flux, taking consistently into account the relativistic corrections in the binary moments as well as the various tail effects, is derived through 3.5PN order with respect to the quadrupole formalism. The binary's orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the signals from inspiralling compact binaries, is deduced from an energy balance argument.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
Clifford M Will

The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analyzing them is reviewed. Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of special relativity, and the gravitational redshift experiment. Ongoing tests of EEP and of the inverse square law are searching for new interactions arising from unification or quantum gravity. Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light deflection, the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, and the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion. Gravitational wave damping has been detected in an amount that agrees with general relativity to better than half a percent using the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, and other binary pulsar systems have yielded other tests, especially of strong-field effects. When direct observation of gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources begins, new tests of general relativity will be possible.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2006-01-01
J W Armstrong

This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (∼millihertz) gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity 2Δv/c = Δν/ν0, where Δν is the Doppler shift and ν0 is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude h incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order h in the time series of Δν/ν0. Unlike other detectors, the ∼ 1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series), some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
Carlos Barceló,Stefano Liberati,Matt Visser

Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
Duncan R Lorimer

We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2005-7.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
Alan D Rendall

This article is a guide to theorems on existence and global dynamics of solutions of the Einstein equations. It draws attention to open questions in the field. The local-in-time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is surveyed. Global results for solutions with various types of symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity that offer useful comparisons is presented. Treatments of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with prescribed singularity structure or late-time asymptotics are given. A conjectural picture of the asymptotic behaviour of general cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations is built up. Some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme are collected in a separate section.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2004-01-01

The present status of the quasi-local mass-energy-momentum and angular momentum constructions in general relativity is reviewed. First the general ideas, concepts, and strategies, as well as the necessary tools to construct and analyze the quasi-local quantities are recalled. Then the various specific constructions and their properties (both successes and defects) are discussed. Finally, some of the (actual and potential) applications of the quasi-local concepts and specific constructions are briefly mentioned. This review is based on the talks given at the Erwin Schrödinger Institute, Vienna, in July 1997, at the Universität Tübingen, in May 1998, and at the National Center for Theoretical Sciences in Hsinchu and at the National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan, in July 2000.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
Jörg Frauendiener

The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, "conformal infinity" is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2003-01-01
José Maria Martí,Ewald Müller

This review is concerned with a discussion of numerical methods for the solution of the equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD). Particular emphasis is put on a comprehensive review of the application of high-resolution shock-capturing methods in SRHD. Results of a set of demanding test bench simulations obtained with different numerical SRHD methods are compared. Three applications (astrophysical jets, gamma-ray bursts and heavy ion collisions) of relativistic flows are discussed. An evaluation of various SRHD methods is presented, and future developments in SRHD are analyzed involving extension to general relativistic hydrodynamics and relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics. The review further provides FORTRAN programs to compute the exact solution of a 1D relativistic Riemann problem with zero and nonzero tangential velocities, and to simulate 1D relativistic flows in Cartesian Eulerian coordinates using the exact SRHD Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2003-7 and is accessible for authorized users.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2002-01-01
Luc Blanchet

The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general post-Newtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic post-Minkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables in the far-zone of the source are described by a specific set of radiative multipole moments. By matching the exterior solution to the metric of the post-Newtonian source in the near-zone we obtain the explicit expressions of the source multipole moments. The relationships between the radiative and source moments involve many nonlinear multipole interactions, among them those associated with the tails (and tails-of-tails of gravitational waves. Part B of the article is devoted to the application to compact binary systems. We present the equations of binary motion, and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) order beyond the Newtonian acceleration. The gravitational-wave energy flux, taking consistently into account the relativistic corrections in the binary moments as well as the various tail effects, is derived through 3.5PN order with respect to the quadrupole formalism. The binary's orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the signals from inspiralling compact binaries, is deduced from an energy balance argument.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2002-01-01
Beverly K Berger

This Living Review updates a previous version [25] which is itself an update of a review article [31]. Numerical exploration of the properties of singularities could, in principle, yield detailed understanding of their nature in physically realistic cases. Examples of numerical investigations into the formation of naked singularities, critical behavior in collapse, passage through the Cauchy horizon, chaos of the Mixmaster singularity, and singularities in spatially inhomogeneous cosmologies are discussed.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2001-01-01
Duncan R Lorimer

We review the properties and applications of binary and millisecond pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1300. There are now 56 binary and millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk and a further 47 in globular clusters. This review is concerned primarily with the results and spin-offs from these surveys which are of particular interest to the relativity community.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2000-01-01
José A Font

The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A representative sample of available numerical schemes is discussed and particular emphasis is paid to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of relevant astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields, including gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes and evolution of neutron stars, is also presented. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2000-2.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2013-01-01
Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

I review the current status of phenomenological programs inspired by quantum-spacetime research. I stress in particular the significance of results establishing that certain data analyses provide sensitivity to effects introduced genuinely at the Planck scale. My main focus is on phenomenological programs that affect the directions taken by studies of quantum-spacetime theories.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2013-01-01
Alejandro Perez

This article reviews the present status of the spin-foam approach to the quantization of gravity. Special attention is payed to the pedagogical presentation of the recently-introduced new models for four-dimensional quantum gravity. The models are motivated by a suitable implementation of the path integral quantization of the Plebanski formulation of gravity on a simplicial regularization. The article also includes a self-contained treatment of 2+1 gravity. The simple nature of the latter provides the basis and a perspective for the analysis of both conceptual and technical issues that remain open in four dimensions.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2013-01-01
Sabine Hossenfelder

We review the question of whether the fundamental laws of nature limit our ability to probe arbitrarily short distances. First, we examine what insights can be gained from thought experiments for probes of shortest distances, and summarize what can be learned from different approaches to a theory of quantum gravity. Then we discuss some models that have been developed to implement a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. These models have entered the literature as the generalized uncertainty principle or the modified dispersion relation, and have allowed the study of the effects of a minimal length scale in quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics, thermodynamics, black-hole physics and cosmology. Finally, we touch upon the question of ways to circumvent the manifestation of a minimal length scale in short-distance physics.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2013-01-01
Marek A Abramowicz,P Chris Fragile

This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2012-01-01
Olivier Sarbach,Manuel Tiglio

Many evolution problems in physics are described by partial differential equations on an infinite domain; therefore, one is interested in the solutions to such problems for a given initial dataset. A prominent example is the binary black-hole problem within Einstein's theory of gravitation, in which one computes the gravitational radiation emitted from the inspiral of the two black holes, merger and ringdown. Powerful mathematical tools can be used to establish qualitative statements about the solutions, such as their existence, uniqueness, continuous dependence on the initial data, or their asymptotic behavior over large time scales. However, one is often interested in computing the solution itself, and unless the partial differential equation is very simple, or the initial data possesses a high degree of symmetry, this computation requires approximation by numerical discretization. When solving such discrete problems on a machine, one is faced with a finite limit to computational resources, which leads to the replacement of the infinite continuum domain with a finite computer grid. This, in turn, leads to a discrete initial-boundary value problem. The hope is to recover, with high accuracy, the exact solution in the limit where the grid spacing converges to zero with the boundary being pushed to infinity. The goal of this article is to review some of the theory necessary to understand the continuum and discrete initial boundary-value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations and to discuss its applications to numerical relativity; in particular, we present well-posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations of Einstein's equations, and we discuss multi-domain high-order finite difference and spectral methods to solve them.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2012-01-01
Piotr T Chruściel,João Lopes Costa,Markus Heusler

The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2012-01-01
Stefan L Danilishin,Farid Ya Khalili

The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2012-01-01
Piotr Jaranowski,Andrzej Królak

The article reviews the statistical theory of signal detection in application to analysis of deterministic gravitational-wave signals in the noise of a detector. Statistical foundations for the theory of signal detection and parameter estimation are presented. Several tools needed for both theoretical evaluation of the optimal data analysis methods and for their practical implementation are introduced. They include optimal signal-to-noise ratio, Fisher matrix, false alarm and detection probabilities, [Formula: see text]-statistic, template placement, and fitting factor. These tools apply to the case of signals buried in a stationary and Gaussian noise. Algorithms to efficiently implement the optimal data analysis techniques are discussed. Formulas are given for a general gravitational-wave signal that includes as special cases most of the deterministic signals of interest.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2011-01-01
Carlos Barceló,Stefano Liberati,Matt Visser

Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2009-01-01

The present status of the quasi-local mass, energy-momentum and angular-momentum constructions in general relativity is reviewed. First, the general ideas, concepts, and strategies, as well as the necessary tools to construct and analyze the quasi-local quantities, are recalled. Then, the various specific constructions and their properties (both successes and deficiencies are discussed. Finally, some of the (actual and potential) applications of the quasi-local concepts and specific constructions are briefly mentioned.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
Duncan R Lorimer

We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-8.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
José A Font

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2007-01-01
Toshifumi Futamase,Yousuke Itoh

We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity. After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we show a method to derive post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries based on a surface integral approach and the strong field point particle limit. As an application we derive third post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries which respect the Lorentz invariance in the post-Newtonian perturbative sense, admit a conserved energy, and are free from any ambiguity.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2007-01-01

The relativistic fluid is a highly successful model used to describe the dynamics of many-particle, relativistic systems. It takes as input basic physics from microscopic scales and yields as output predictions of bulk, macroscopic motion. By inverting the process, an understanding of bulk features can lead to insight into physics on the microscopic scale. Relativistic fluids have been used to model systems as "small" as heavy ions in collisions, and as large as the Universe itself, with "intermediate" sized objects like neutron stars being considered along the way. The purpose of this review is to discuss the mathematical and theoretical physics underpinnings of the relativistic (multiple) fluid model. We focus on the variational principle approach championed by Brandon Carter and his collaborators, in which a crucial element is to distinguish the momenta that are conjugate to the particle number density currents. This approach differs from the "standard" text-book derivation of the equations of motion from the divergence of the stress-energy tensor in that one explicitly obtains the relativistic Euler equation as an "integrability" condition on the relativistic vorticity. We discuss the conservation laws and the equations of motion in detail, and provide a number of (in our opinion) interesting and relevant applications of the general theory.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
Martin Bojowald

Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2005-11.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
Piotr Jaranowski,Andrzej Królak

The article reviews the statistical theory of signal detection in application to analysis of deterministic gravitational-wave signals in the noise of a detector. Statistical foundations for the theory of signal detection and parameter estimation are presented. Several tools needed for both theoretical evaluation of the optimal data analysis methods and for their practical implementation are introduced. They include optimal signal-to-noise ratio, Fisher matrix, false alarm and detection probabilities, [Formula: see text]-statistic, template placement, and fitting factor. These tools apply to the case of signals buried in a stationary and Gaussian noise. Algorithms to efficiently implement the optimal data analysis techniques are discussed. Formulas are given for a general gravitational-wave signal that includes as special cases most of the deterministic signals of interest.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2005-01-01
Steven Carlip

In three spacetime dimensions, general relativity drastically simplifies, becoming a "topological" theory with no propagating local degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, many of the difficult conceptual problems of quantizing gravity are still present. In this review, I summarize the rather large body of work that has gone towards quantizing (2 + 1)-dimensional vacuum gravity in the setting of a spatially closed universe.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
Cliff P Burgess

This article is meant as a summary and introduction to the ideas of effective field theory as applied to gravitational systems, ideas which provide the theoretical foundations for the modern use of general relativity as a theory from which precise predictions are possible.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2003-01-01
Ingrid H Stairs

Pulsars of very different types, including isolated objects and binaries (with short- and long-period orbits, and white-dwarf and neutron-star companions) provide the means to test both the predictions of general relativity and the viability of alternate theories of gravity. This article presents an overview of pulsars, then discusses the current status of and future prospects for tests of equivalence-principle violations and strong-field gravitational experiments.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2002-01-01
Alan D Rendall

This article is a guide to theorems on existence and global dynamics of solutions of the Einstein equations. It draws attention to open questions in the field. The local-in-time Cauchy problem, which is relatively well understood, is surveyed. Global results for solutions with various types of symmetry are discussed. A selection of results from Newtonian theory and special relativity that offer useful comparisons is presented. Treatments of global results in the case of small data and results on constructing spacetimes with prescribed singularity structure are given. A conjectural picture of the asymptotic behaviour of general cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations is built up. Some miscellaneous topics connected with the main theme are collected in a separate section.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2001-01-01
Clifford M Will

The status of experimental tests of general relativity and of theoretical frameworks for analysing them are reviewed. Einstein's equivalence principle (EEP) is well supported by experiments such as the Eötvös experiment, tests of special relativity, and the gravitational redshift experiment. Future tests of EEP and of the inverse square law will search for new interactions arising from unification or quantum gravity. Tests of general relativity at the post-Newtonian level have reached high precision, including the light defl ection the Shapiro time delay, the perihelion advance of Mercury, and the Nordtvedt effect in lunar motion. Gravitational wave damping has been detected in an amount that agrees with general relativity to half a percent using the Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar, and new binary pulsar systems may yield further improvements. When direct observation of gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources begins, new tests of general relativity will be possible.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2002-01-01
Timothy J Sumner

There is now an enormously rich variety of experimental techniques being brought to bear on experimental searches for dark matter, covering a wide range of suggested forms for it. The existence of "dark matter", in some form or other, is inferred from a number of relatively simple observations and the problem has been known for over half a century. To explain "dark matter" is one of the foremost challenges today - the answer will be of fundamental importance to cosmologists, astrophysicists, particle physicists, and general relativists. In this article, I will give a brief review of the observational evidence (concentrating on areas of current significant activity), followed by anequally brief summary of candidate solutions for the 'dark matter'. I will then discuss experimental searches, both direct and indirect. Finally, I will offer prospects for the future.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2012-01-01
Joshua A Faber,Frederic A Rasio

We review the current status of studies of the coalescence of binary neutron star systems. We begin with a discussion of the formation channels of merging binaries and we discuss the most recent theoretical predictions for merger rates. Next, we turn to the quasi-equilibrium formalisms that are used to study binaries prior to the merger phase and to generate initial data for fully dynamical simulations. The quasi-equilibrium approximation has played a key role in developing our understanding of the physics of binary coalescence and, in particular, of the orbital instability processes that can drive binaries to merger at the end of their lifetimes. We then turn to the numerical techniques used in dynamical simulations, including relativistic formalisms, (magneto-)hydrodynamics, gravitational-wave extraction techniques, and nuclear microphysics treatments. This is followed by a summary of the simulations performed across the field to date, including the most recent results from both fully relativistic and microphysically detailed simulations. Finally, we discuss the likely directions for the field as we transition from the first to the second generation of gravitational-wave interferometers and while supercomputers reach the petascale frontier.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2012-01-01
Jeffrey Winicour

I review the development of numerical evolution codes for general relativity based upon the characteristic initial-value problem. Progress in characteristic evolution is traced from the early stage of 1D feasibility studies to 2D-axisymmetric codes that accurately simulate the oscillations and gravitational collapse of relativistic stars and to current 3D codes that provide pieces of a binary black-hole spacetime. Cauchy codes have now been successful at simulating all aspects of the binary black-hole problem inside an artificially constructed outer boundary. A prime application of characteristic evolution is to extend such simulations to null infinity where the waveform from the binary inspiral and merger can be unambiguously computed. This has now been accomplished by Cauchy-characteristic extraction, where data for the characteristic evolution is supplied by Cauchy data on an extraction worldtube inside the artificial outer boundary. The ultimate application of characteristic evolution is to eliminate the role of this outer boundary by constructing a global solution via Cauchy-characteristic matching. Progress in this direction is discussed.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2011-01-01
Matthew Pitkin,Stuart Reid,Sheila Rowan,Jim Hough

Significant progress has been made in recent years on the development of gravitational-wave detectors. Sources such as coalescing compact binary systems, neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries, stellar collapses and pulsars are all possible candidates for detection. The most promising design of gravitational-wave detector uses test masses a long distance apart and freely suspended as pendulums on Earth or in drag-free spacecraft. The main theme of this review is a discussion of the mechanical and optical principles used in the various long baseline systems in operation around the world - LIGO (USA), Virgo (Italy/France), TAMA300 and LCGT (Japan), and GEO600 (Germany/U.K.) - and in LISA, a proposed space-borne interferometer. A review of recent science runs from the current generation of ground-based detectors will be discussed, in addition to highlighting the astrophysical results gained thus far. Looking to the future, the major upgrades to LIGO (Advanced LIGO), Virgo (Advanced Virgo), LCGT and GEO600 (GEO-HF) will be completed over the coming years, which will create a network of detectors with the significantly improved sensitivity required to detect gravitational waves. Beyond this, the concept and design of possible future "third generation" gravitational-wave detectors, such as the Einstein Telescope (ET), will be discussed.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2011-01-01
Chris L Fryer,Kimberly C B New

Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.

更新日期：2019-11-01
• Living Rev. Relat. (IF 27.778) Pub Date : 2010-01-01
J Fernando Barbero G,Eduardo J S Villaseñor

We give a comprehensive review of the quantization of midisuperspace models. Though the main focus of the paper is on quantum aspects, we also provide an introduction to several classical points related to the definition of these models. We cover some important issues, in particular, the use of the principle of symmetric criticality as a very useful tool to obtain the required Hamiltonian formulations. Two main types of reductions are discussed: those involving metrics with two Killing vector fields and spherically-symmetric models. We also review the more general models obtained by coupling matter fields to these systems. Throughout the paper we give separate discussions for standard quantizations using geometrodynamical variables and those relying on loop-quantum-gravity-inspired methods.

更新日期：2019-11-01
Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.

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