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  • The Parker problem: existence of smooth force-free fields and coronal heating
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    David I. Pontin; Gunnar Hornig

    Parker (Astrophys J 174:499, 1972) put forward a hypothesis regarding the fundamental nature of equilibrium magnetic fields in astrophysical plasmas. He proposed that if an equilibrium magnetic field is subjected to an arbitrary, small perturbation, then—under ideal plasma dynamics—the resulting magnetic field will in general not relax towards a smooth equilibrium, but rather, towards a state containing

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • Dynamo models of the solar cycle
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Paul Charbonneau

    This paper reviews recent advances and current debates in modeling the solar cycle as a hydromagnetic dynamo process. Emphasis is placed on (relatively) simple dynamo models that are nonetheless detailed enough to be comparable to solar cycle observations. After a brief overview of the dynamo problem and of key observational constraints, I begin by reviewing the various magnetic field regeneration

    更新日期:2020-06-17
  • Radiation hydrodynamics in simulations of the solar atmosphere
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Jorrit Leenaarts

    Nearly all energy generated by fusion in the solar core is ultimately radiated away into space in the solar atmosphere, while the remaining energy is carried away in the form of neutrinos. The exchange of energy between the solar gas and the radiation field is thus an essential ingredient of atmospheric modeling. The equations describing these interactions are known, but their solution is so computationally

    更新日期:2020-03-23
  • Solar cycle prediction
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Kristóf Petrovay

    A review of solar cycle prediction methods and their performance is given, including early forecasts for Cycle 25. The review focuses on those aspects of the solar cycle prediction problem that have a bearing on dynamo theory. The scope of the review is further restricted to the issue of predicting the amplitude (and optionally the epoch) of an upcoming solar maximum no later than right after the start

    更新日期:2020-03-23
  • Historical sunspot records
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Rainer Arlt; José M. Vaquero

    Sunspot observations are available in fairly good numbers since 1610, after the invention of the telescope. This review is concerned with those sunspot observations of which longer records and drawings in particular are available. Those records bear information beyond the classical sunspot numbers or group sunspot numbers. We begin with a brief summary on naked-eye sunspot observations, in particular

    更新日期:2020-02-26
  • The multi-scale nature of the solar wind.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Daniel Verscharen,Kristopher G Klein,Bennett A Maruca

    The solar wind is a magnetized plasma and as such exhibits collective plasma behavior associated with its characteristic spatial and temporal scales. The characteristic length scales include the size of the heliosphere, the collisional mean free paths of all species, their inertial lengths, their gyration radii, and their Debye lengths. The characteristic timescales include the expansion time, the

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Large-scale Globally Propagating Coronal Waves.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-01-01
    Alexander Warmuth

    Large-scale, globally propagating wave-like disturbances have been observed in the solar chromosphere and by inference in the corona since the 1960s. However, detailed analysis of these phenomena has only been conducted since the late 1990s. This was prompted by the availability of high-cadence coronal imaging data from numerous spaced-based instruments, which routinely show spectacular globally propagating

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Flare Observations.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Arnold O Benz

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Brian E Wood

    Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM). These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Asteroseismology of solar-type stars
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Rafael A. García; Jérôme Ballot

    Until the last few decades, investigations of stellar interiors had been restricted to theoretical studies only constrained by observations of their global properties and external characteristics. However, in the last 30 years the field has been revolutionized by the ability to perform seismic investigations of stellar interiors. This revolution begun with the Sun, where helioseismology has been yielding

    更新日期:2019-09-09
  • Flare-productive active regions.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-21
    Shin Toriumi,Haimin Wang

    Strong solar flares and coronal mass ejections, here defined not only as the bursts of electromagnetic radiation but as the entire process in which magnetic energy is released through magnetic reconnection and plasma instability, emanate from active regions (ARs) in which high magnetic non-potentiality resides in a wide variety of forms. This review focuses on the formation and evolution of flare-productive

    更新日期:2019-05-21
  • Coronal bright points
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2019-03-15
    Maria S. Madjarska

    Coronal bright points (CBPs) are a fundamental class of solar activity. They represent a set of low-corona small-scale loops with enhanced emission in the extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray spectrum that connect magnetic flux concentrations of opposite polarities. CBPs are one of the main building blocks of the solar atmosphere outside active regions uniformly populating the solar atmosphere including active

    更新日期:2019-03-15
  • Quiet Sun magnetic fields: an observational view
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2019-02-18
    Luis Bellot Rubio; David Orozco Suárez

    The quiet Sun is the region of the solar surface outside of sunspots, pores, and plages. In continuum intensity it appears dominated by granular convection. However, in polarized light the quiet Sun exhibits impressive magnetic activity on a broad range of scales, from the 30,000 km of supergranular cells down to the smallest magnetic features of about 100 km resolvable with current instruments. Quiet

    更新日期:2019-02-18
  • Solar prominences: theory and models
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2018-10-22
    Sarah E. Gibson

    Magnetic fields suspend the relatively cool material of solar prominences in an otherwise hot corona. A comprehensive understanding of solar prominences ultimately requires complex and dynamic models, constrained and validated by observations spanning the solar atmosphere. We obtain the core of this understanding from observations that give us information about the structure of the “magnetic skeleton”

    更新日期:2018-10-22
  • The Sun’s supergranulation
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    François Rincon; Michel Rieutord

    Supergranulation is a fluid-dynamical phenomenon taking place in the solar photosphere, primarily detected in the form of a vigorous cellular flow pattern with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30–35 Mm, a dynamical evolution time of 24–48 h, a strong 300–400 m/s (rms) horizontal flow component and a much weaker 20–30 m/s vertical component. Supergranulation was discovered more than 60 years

    更新日期:2018-09-10
  • Solar UV and X-ray spectral diagnostics
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Giulio Del Zanna; Helen E. Mason

    X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) observations of the outer solar atmosphere have been used for many decades to measure the fundamental parameters of the solar plasma. This review focuses on the optically thin emission from the solar atmosphere, mostly found at UV and X-ray (XUV) wavelengths, and discusses some of the diagnostic methods that have been used to measure electron densities, electron temperatures

    更新日期:2018-08-31
  • Extended MHD modeling of the steady solar corona and the solar wind
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2018-07-30
    Tamas I. Gombosi; Bart van der Holst; Ward B. Manchester; Igor V. Sokolov

    The history and present state of large-scale magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the solar corona and the solar wind with steady or quasi-steady coronal physics is reviewed. We put the evolution of ideas leading to the recognition of the existence of an expanding solar atmosphere into historical context. The development and main features of the first generation of global corona and solar wind models are

    更新日期:2018-07-30
  • Prominence oscillations
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2018-04-23
    Iñigo Arregui; Ramón Oliver; José Luis Ballester

    Prominences are intriguing, but poorly understood, magnetic structures of the solar corona. The dynamics of solar prominences has been the subject of a large number of studies, and of particular interest is the study of prominence oscillations. Ground- and space-based observations have confirmed the presence of oscillatory motions in prominences and they have been interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic

    更新日期:2018-04-23
  • Space–time structure and wavevector anisotropy in space plasma turbulence
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2018-02-21
    Yasuhito Narita

    Space and astrophysical plasmas often develop into a turbulent state and exhibit nearly random and stochastic motions. While earlier studies emphasize more on understanding the energy spectrum of turbulence in the one-dimensional context (either in the frequency or the wavenumber domain), recent achievements in plasma turbulence studies provide an increasing amount of evidence that plasma turbulence

    更新日期:2018-02-21
  • Solar wind stream interaction regions throughout the heliosphere
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2018-01-26
    Ian G. Richardson

    This paper focuses on the interactions between the fast solar wind from coronal holes and the intervening slower solar wind, leading to the creation of stream interaction regions that corotate with the Sun and may persist for many solar rotations. Stream interaction regions have been observed near 1 AU, in the inner heliosphere (at \(\sim 0.3\)–1 AU) by the Helios spacecraft, in the outer and distant

    更新日期:2018-01-26
  • Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2017-11-24
    Emilia Kilpua,Hannu E J Koskinen,Tuija I Pulkkinen

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics

    更新日期:2017-11-24
  • Magnetism, dynamo action and the solar-stellar connection.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2017-09-26
    Allan Sacha Brun,Matthew K Browning

    The Sun and other stars are magnetic: magnetism pervades their interiors and affects their evolution in a variety of ways. In the Sun, both the fields themselves and their influence on other phenomena can be uncovered in exquisite detail, but these observations sample only a moment in a single star’s life. By turning to observations of other stars, and to theory and simulation, we may infer other aspects

    更新日期:2017-09-26
  • A history of solar activity over millennia
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2017-03-04
    Ilya G. Usoskin

    Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative

    更新日期:2017-03-04
  • Flare Observations
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2016-12-09
    Arnold O. Benz

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before

    更新日期:2016-12-09
  • Inversion of the radiative transfer equation for polarized light
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2016-11-23
    Jose Carlos del Toro Iniesta; Basilio Ruiz Cobo

    Since the early 1970s, inversion techniques have become the most useful tool for inferring the magnetic, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties of the solar atmosphere. Inversions have been proposed in the literature with a sequential increase in model complexity: astrophysical inferences depend not only on measurements but also on the physics assumed to prevail both on the formation of the spectral

    更新日期:2016-11-23
  • Large gradual solar energetic particle events.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2016-09-07
    Mihir Desai,Joe Giacalone

    Solar energetic particles, or SEPs, from suprathermal (few keV) up to relativistic (\(\sim \)few GeV) energies are accelerated near the Sun in at least two ways: (1) by magnetic reconnection-driven processes during solar flares resulting in impulsive SEPs, and (2) at fast coronal-mass-ejection-driven shock waves that produce large gradual SEP events. Large gradual SEP events are of particular interest

    更新日期:2016-09-07
  • Global seismology of the Sun
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2016-08-08
    Sarbani Basu

    The seismic study of the Sun and other stars offers a unique window into the interior of these stars. Thanks to helioseismology, we know the structure of the Sun to admirable precision. In fact, our knowledge is good enough to use the Sun as a laboratory. We have also been able to study the dynamics of the Sun in great detail. Helioseismic data also allow us to probe the changes that take place in

    更新日期:2016-08-08
  • Solar and stellar photospheric abundances
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2016-07-05
    Carlos Allende Prieto

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular

    更新日期:2016-07-05
  • Interaction Between Convection and Pulsation
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-12-01
    Günter Houdek; Marc-Antoine Dupret

    This article reviews our current understanding of modelling convection dynamics in stars. Several semi-analytical time-dependent convection models have been proposed for pulsating one-dimensional stellar structures with different formulations for how the convective turbulent velocity field couples with the global stellar oscillations. In this review we put emphasis on two, widely used, time-dependent

    更新日期:2015-12-01
  • Solar Coronal Plumes
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-12-01
    Giannina Poletto

    Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL) images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV) and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the

    更新日期:2015-12-01
  • Oscillations and Waves in Sunspots
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-12-01
    Elena Khomenko; Manuel Collados

    A magnetic field modifies the properties of waves in a complex way. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of sunspot waves with the help of high-resolution observations, analytical theories, as well as numerical simulations. We review the current ideas in the field, providing the most coherent picture of sunspot oscillations as by present understanding.

    更新日期:2015-12-01
  • Solar Magnetism in the Polar Regions
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-11-05
    Gordon J. D. Petrie

    This review describes observations of the polar magnetic fields, models for the cyclical formation and decay of these fields, and evidence of their great influence in the solar atmosphere. The polar field distribution dominates the global structure of the corona over most of the solar cycle, supplies the bulk of the interplanetary magnetic field via the polar coronal holes, and is believed to provide

    更新日期:2015-11-05
  • The Solar Cycle
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-09-21
    David H. Hathaway

    The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes

    更新日期:2015-09-21
  • Large-scale Globally Propagating Coronal Waves
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-09-18
    Alexander Warmuth

    Large-scale, globally propagating wave-like disturbances have been observed in the solar chromosphere and by inference in the corona since the 1960s. However, detailed analysis of these phenomena has only been conducted since the late 1990s. This was prompted by the availability of high-cadence coronal imaging data from numerous spaced-based instruments, which routinely show spectacular globally propagating

    更新日期:2015-09-18
  • The FIP and Inverse FIP Effects in Solar and Stellar Coronae
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-09-09
    J. Martin Laming

    We review our state of knowledge of coronal element abundance anomalies in the Sun and stars. We concentrate on the first ionization potential (FIP) effect observed in the solar corona and slow-speed wind, and in the coronae of solar-like dwarf stars, and the “inverse FIP” effect seen in the corona of stars of later spectral type; specifically M dwarfs. These effects relate to the enhancement or depletion

    更新日期:2015-09-09
  • Evolution of Active Regions
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2015-09-09
    Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi; Lucie May Green

    The evolution of active regions (AR) from their emergence through their long decay process is of fundamental importance in solar physics. Since large-scale flux is generated by the deep-seated dynamo, the observed characteristics of flux emergence and that of the subsequent decay provide vital clues as well as boundary conditions for dynamo models. Throughout their evolution, ARs are centres of magnetic

    更新日期:2015-09-09
  • Coronal Loops: Observations and Modeling of Confined Plasma
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2014-07-29
    Fabio Reale

    Coronal loops are the building blocks of the X-ray bright solar corona. They owe their brightness to the dense confined plasma, and this review focuses on loops mostly as structures confining plasma. After a brief historical overview, the review is divided into two separate but not independent parts: the first illustrates the observational framework, the second reviews the theoretical knowledge. Quiescent

    更新日期:2014-07-29
  • Flux Emergence (Theory)
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2014-07-17
    Mark C. M. Cheung; Hiroaki Isobe

    Magnetic flux emergence from the solar convection zone into the overlying atmosphere is the driver of a diverse range of phenomena associated with solar activity. In this article, we introduce theoretical concepts central to the study of flux emergence and discuss how the inclusion of different physical effects (e.g., magnetic buoyancy, magnetoconvection, reconnection, magnetic twist, interaction with

    更新日期:2014-07-17
  • Infrared Solar Physics
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2014-03-21
    Matthew J. Penn

    The infrared solar spectrum contains a wealth of physical data about our Sun, and is explored using modern detectors and technology with new ground-based solar telescopes. The scientific motivation behind exploring these wavelengths is presented, along with a brief look at the rich history of observations here. Several avenues of solar physics research exploiting and benefiting from observations at

    更新日期:2014-03-21
  • Solar Prominences: Observations
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2014-03-12
    Susanna Parenti

    Solar prominences are one of the most common features of the solar atmosphere. They are found in the corona but they are one hundred times cooler and denser than the coronal material, indicating that they are thermally and pressure isolated from the surrounding environment. Because of these properties they appear at the limb as bright features when observed in the optical or the EUV cool lines. On

    更新日期:2014-03-12
  • The Heliospheric Magnetic Field
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2013-11-28
    Mathew J. Owens; Robert J. Forsyth

    The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) is the extension of the coronal magnetic field carried out into the solar system by the solar wind. It is the means by which the Sun interacts with planetary magnetospheres and channels charged particles propagating through the heliosphere. As the HMF remains rooted at the solar photosphere as the Sun rotates, the large-scale HMF traces out an Archimedean spiral

    更新日期:2013-11-28
  • Reconstruction and Prediction of Variations in the Open Solar Magnetic Flux and Interplanetary Conditions
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2013-09-09
    Mike Lockwood

    Historic geomagnetic activity observations have been used to reveal centennial variations in the open solar flux and the near-Earth heliospheric conditions (the interplanetary magnetic field and the solar wind speed). The various methods are in very good agreement for the past 135 years when there were sufficient reliable magnetic observatories in operation to eliminate problems due to site-specific

    更新日期:2013-09-09
  • Solar Modulation of Cosmic Rays
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2013-06-13
    Marius S. Potgieter

    This is an overview of the solar modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. It is a broad topic with numerous intriguing aspects so that a research framework has to be chosen to concentrate on. The review focuses on the basic paradigms and departure points without presenting advanced theoretical or observational details for which there exists a large number of comprehensive reviews. Instead, emphasis

    更新日期:2013-06-13
  • The Solar Wind as a Turbulence Laboratory
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2013-05-29
    Roberto Bruno; Vincenzo Carbone

    In this review we will focus on a topic of fundamental importance for both astrophysics and plasma physics, namely the occurrence of large-amplitude low-frequency fluctuations of the fields that describe the plasma state. This subject will be treated within the context of the expanding solar wind and the most meaningful advances in this research field will be reported emphasizing the results obtained

    更新日期:2013-05-29
  • A History of Solar Activity over Millennia
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2013-03-21
    Ilya G. Usoskin

    Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number.Over long timescales, quantitative

    更新日期:2013-03-21
  • The Sun’s Global Photospheric and Coronal Magnetic Fields: Observations and Models
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2012-11-26
    Duncan H. Mackay; Anthony R. Yeates

    In this review, our present day understanding of the Sun’s global photospheric and coronal magnetic fields is discussed from both observational and theoretical viewpoints. Firstly, the large-scale properties of photospheric magnetic fields are described, along with recent advances in photospheric magnetic flux transport models. Following this, the wide variety of theoretical models used to simulate

    更新日期:2012-11-26
  • Solar Force-free Magnetic Fields
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2012-09-20
    Thomas Wiegelmann; Takashi Sakurai

    The structure and dynamics of the solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field. In most areas in the corona magnetic forces are so dominant that all non-magnetic forces like plasma pressure gradient and gravity can be neglected in the lowest order. This model assumption is called the force-free field assumption, as the Lorentz force vanishes. This can be obtained by either vanishing electric currents

    更新日期:2012-09-20
  • Solar Surface Magneto-Convection
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2012-07-19
    Robert F. Stein

    We review the properties of solar magneto-convection in the top half of the convection zones scale heights (from 20 Mm below the visible surface to the surface, and then through the photosphere to the temperature minimum). Convection is a highly non-linear and nonlocal process, so it is best studied by numerical simulations. We focus on simulations that include sufficient detailed physics so that their

    更新日期:2012-07-19
  • Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2012-06-29
    David F. Webb; Timothy A. Howard

    Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic

    更新日期:2012-06-29
  • Prominence Oscillations
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2012-04-05
    Iñigo Arregui; Ramón Oliver; José Luis Ballester

    Prominences are intriguing, but poorly understood, magnetic structures of the solar corona. The dynamics of solar prominences has been the subject of a large number of studies, and of particular interest is the study of prominence oscillations. Ground- and space-based observations have confirmed the presence of oscillatory motions in prominences and they have been interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic

    更新日期:2012-04-05
  • Observations of Cool-Star Magnetic Fields
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2012-02-29
    Ansgar Reiners

    Cool stars like the Sun harbor convection zones capable of producing substantial surface magnetic fields leading to stellar magnetic activity. The influence of stellar parameters like rotation, radius, and age on cool-star magnetism, and the importance of the shear layer between a radiative core and the convective envelope for the generation of magnetic fields are keys for our understanding of low-mass

    更新日期:2012-02-29
  • Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2011-12-15
    Kazunari Shibata; Tetsuya Magara

    This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 1032 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration

    更新日期:2011-12-15
  • Sunspot Modeling: From Simplified Models to Radiative MHD Simulations
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2011-12-01
    Matthias Rempel; Rolf Schlichenmaier

    We review our current understanding of sunspots from the scales of their fine structure to their large scale (global) structure including the processes of their formation and decay. Recently, sunspot models have undergone a dramatic change. In the past, several aspects of sunspot structure have been addressed by static MHD models with parametrized energy transport. Models of sunspot fine structure

    更新日期:2011-12-01
  • Solar Stereoscopy and Tomography
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2011-10-10
    Markus J. Aschwanden

    We review stereoscopic and tomographic methods used in the solar corona, including ground-based and space-based measurements, using solar rotation or multiple spacecraft vantage points, in particular from the STEREO mission during 2007–2010. Stereoscopic and tomographic observations in the solar corona include large-scale structures, streamers, active regions, coronal loops, loop oscillations, acoustic

    更新日期:2011-10-10
  • Magnetic Structure of Sunspots.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2011-09-09
    Juan M Borrero,Kiyoshi Ichimoto

    In this review we give an overview about the current state-of-knowledge of the magnetic field in sunspots from an observational point of view. We start by offering a brief description of tools that are most commonly employed to infer the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere with emphasis in the photosphere of sunspots. We then address separately the global and local magnetic structure of sunspots

    更新日期:2011-09-09
  • Solar Adaptive Optics.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2011-06-10
    Thomas R Rimmele,Jose Marino

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture

    更新日期:2011-06-10
  • Coronal Mass Ejections: Models and Their Observational Basis
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2011-04-08
    P. F. Chen

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the largest-scale eruptive phenomenon in the solar system, expanding from active region-sized nonpotential magnetic structure to a much larger size. The bulk of plasma with a mass of ∼ 1011,1013 kg is hauled up all the way out to the interplanetary space with a typical velocity of several hundred or even more than 1000 km s−1, with a chance to impact our Earth, resulting

    更新日期:2011-04-08
  • The Sun’s Supergranulation
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2010-12-01
    Michel Rieutord; François Rincon

    The Sun’s supergranulation refers to a physical pattern covering the surface of the quiet Sun with a typical horizontal scale of approximately 30,000 km and a lifetime of around 1.8 d. Its most noticeable observable signature is as a fluctuating velocity field of 360 m st-1 rms whose components are mostly horizontal. Supergranulation was discovered more than fifty years ago, however explaining why

    更新日期:2010-12-01
  • The Solar Cycle
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2010-12-01
    David H. Hathaway

    The Solar Cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. We examine a number of other solar activity indicators including the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings

    更新日期:2010-12-01
  • Solar Cycle Prediction.
    Living Rev. Sol. Phys. (IF 20.0) Pub Date : 2010-12-01
    Kristóf Petrovay

    A review of solar cycle prediction methods and their performance is given, including forecasts for cycle 24. The review focuses on those aspects of the solar cycle prediction problem that have a bearing on dynamo theory. The scope of the review is further restricted to the issue of predicting the amplitude (and optionally the epoch) of an upcoming solar maximum no later than right after the start of

    更新日期:2010-12-01
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