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  •   Meiotic exit in Arabidopsis is driven by P-body–mediated inhibition of translation
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Albert Cairo, Anna Vargova, Neha Shukla, Claudio Capitao, Pavlina Mikulkova, Sona Valuchova, Jana Pecinkova, Petra Bulankova, Karel Riha

    Meiosis, at the transition between diploid and haploid life cycle phases, is accompanied by reprograming of cell division machinery and followed by a transition back to mitosis. We show that, in Arabidopsis , this transition is driven by inhibition of translation, achieved by a mechanism that involves processing bodies (P-bodies). During the second meiotic division, the meiosis-specific protein THREE-DIVISION

  •   Comment on “Pushing the frontiers of density functionals by solving the fractional electron problem”
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Igor S. Gerasimov, Timofey V. Losev, Evgeny Yu. Epifanov, Irina Rudenko, Ivan S. Bushmarinov, Alexander A. Ryabov, Petr A. Zhilyaev, Michael G. Medvedev

    Kirkpatrick et al . (Reports, 9 December 2021, p. 1385) trained a neural network–based DFT functional, DM21, on fractional-charge (FC) and fractional-spin (FS) systems, and they claim that it has outstanding accuracy for chemical systems exhibiting strong correlation. Here, we show that the ability of DM21 to generalize the behavior of such systems does not follow from the published results and requires

  •   Ancient grasslands guide ambitious goals in grassland restoration
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Elise Buisson, Sally Archibald, Alessandra Fidelis, Katharine N. Suding

    Grasslands, which constitute almost 40% of the terrestrial biosphere, provide habitat for a great diversity of animals and plants and contribute to the livelihoods of more than 1 billion people worldwide. Whereas the destruction and degradation of grasslands can occur rapidly, recent work indicates that complete recovery of biodiversity and essential functions occurs slowly or not at all. Grassland

  •   A conserved Bacteroidetes antigen induces anti-inflammatory intestinal T lymphocytes
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Djenet Bousbaine, Laura I. Fisch, Mariya London, Preksha Bhagchandani, Tiago B. Rezende de Castro, Mark Mimee, Scott Olesen, Bernardo S. Reis, David VanInsberghe, Juliana Bortolatto, Mathilde Poyet, Ross W. Cheloha, John Sidney, Jingjing Ling, Aaron Gupta, Timothy K. Lu, Alessandro Sette, Eric J. Alm, James J. Moon, Gabriel D. Victora, Daniel Mucida, Hidde L. Ploegh, Angelina M. Bilate

    The microbiome contributes to the development and maturation of the immune system. In response to commensal bacteria, intestinal CD4 + T lymphocytes differentiate into functional subtypes with regulatory or effector functions. The development of small intestine intraepithelial lymphocytes that coexpress CD4 and CD8αα homodimers (CD4IELs) depends on the microbiota. However, the identity of the microbial

  •   Grassland soil carbon sequestration: Current understanding, challenges, and solutions
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Yongfei Bai, M. Francesca Cotrufo

    Grasslands store approximately one third of the global terrestrial carbon stocks and can act as an important soil carbon sink. Recent studies show that plant diversity increases soil organic carbon (SOC) storage by elevating carbon inputs to belowground biomass and promoting microbial necromass contribution to SOC storage. Climate change affects grassland SOC storage by modifying the processes of plant

  •   Pathogenic variants damage cell composition and single cell transcription in cardiomyopathies
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Daniel Reichart, Eric L. Lindberg, Henrike Maatz, Antonio M. A. Miranda, Anissa Viveiros, Nikolay Shvetsov, Anna Gärtner, Emily R. Nadelmann, Michael Lee, Kazumasa Kanemaru, Jorge Ruiz-Orera, Viktoria Strohmenger, Daniel M. DeLaughter, Giannino Patone, Hao Zhang, Andrew Woehler, Christoph Lippert, Yuri Kim, Eleonora Adami, Joshua M. Gorham, Sam N. Barnett, Kemar Brown, Rachel J. Buchan, Rasheda A.

    Pathogenic variants in genes that cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) convey high risks for the development of heart failure through unknown mechanisms. Using single-nucleus RNA sequencing, we characterized the transcriptome of 880,000 nuclei from 18 control and 61 failing, nonischemic human hearts with pathogenic variants in DCM and ACM genes or idiopathic disease

  •   Synchronous assembly of chiral skeletal single-crystalline microvessels
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Osamu Oki, Hiroshi Yamagishi, Yasuhiro Morisaki, Ryo Inoue, Kana Ogawa, Nanami Miki, Yasuo Norikane, Hiroyasu Sato, Yohei Yamamoto

    Skeletal or concave polyhedral crystals appear in a variety of synthetic processes and natural environments. However, their morphology, size, and orientation are difficult to control because of their highly kinetic growth character. We report a methodology to achieve synchronous, uniaxial, and stepwise growth of micrometer-scale skeletal single crystals from planar-chiral double-decker molecules. Upon

  •   JMJD3 activated hyaluronan synthesis drives muscle regeneration in an inflammatory environment
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Kiran Nakka, Sarah Hachmer, Zeinab Mokhtari, Radmila Kovac, Hina Bandukwala, Clara Bernard, Yuefeng Li, Guojia Xie, Chengyu Liu, Magid Fallahi, Lynn A. Megeney, Julien Gondin, Bénédicte Chazaud, Marjorie Brand, Xiaohui Zha, Kai Ge, F. Jeffrey Dilworth

    Muscle stem cells (MuSCs) reside in a specialized niche that ensures their regenerative capacity. Although we know that innate immune cells infiltrate the niche in response to injury, it remains unclear how MuSCs adapt to this altered environment for initiating repair. Here, we demonstrate that inflammatory cytokine signaling from the regenerative niche impairs the ability of quiescent MuSCs to reenter

  •   Mitochondrial remodeling and ischemic protection by G protein–coupled receptor 35 agonists
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Gregory A. Wyant, Wenyu Yu, IIias P. Doulamis, Rio S. Nomoto, Mossab Y. Saeed, Thomas Duignan, James D McCully, William G. Kaelin

    Kynurenic acid (KynA) is tissue protective in cardiac, cerebral, renal, and retinal ischemia models, but the mechanism is unknown. KynA can bind to multiple receptors, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7nAChR), multiple ionotropic glutamate receptors, and the orphan G protein–coupled receptor GPR35. Here, we show that GPR35 activation was necessary and

  •   Carbene reactivity from alkyl and aryl aldehydes
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Lumin Zhang, Bethany M. DeMuynck, Alyson N. Paneque, Joy E. Rutherford, David A. Nagib

    Carbenes are highly enabling reactive intermediates that facilitate a diverse range of otherwise inaccessible chemistry, including small-ring formation and insertion into strong σ bonds. To access such valuable reactivity, reagents with high entropic or enthalpic driving forces are often used, including explosive (diazo) or unstable ( gem -dihalo) compounds. Here, we report that common aldehydes are

  •   The planetary role of seagrass conservation
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Richard K. F. Unsworth, Leanne C. Cullen-Unsworth, Benjamin L. H. Jones, Richard J. Lilley

    Seagrasses are remarkable plants that have adapted to live in a marine environment. They form extensive meadows found globally that bioengineer their local environments and preserve the coastal seascape. With the increasing realization of the planetary emergency that we face, there is growing interest in using seagrasses as a nature-based solution for greenhouse gas mitigation. However, seagrass sensitivity

  •   A key time for UK–Europe science
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Peter Mathieson

    The opening line of a recent Financial Times article put it best: “Relations between the UK and EU badly need a reset.” Although the article was mostly about geopolitics, the disconnect also applies to science and the current uncertainty about whether the UK will remain an associated partner in European Union (EU) research programs such as Horizon Europe. In the post-Brexit era, and with a new UK Prime

  •   Pituitary hormone α-MSH promotes tumor-induced myelopoiesis and immunosuppression
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Yueli Xu, Jiaxian Yan, Ye Tao, Xiaojun Qian, Chi Zhang, Libei Yin, Pengying Gu, Yehai Liu, Yueyin Pan, Renhong Tang, Wei Jiang, Rongbin Zhou

    The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit can produce various hormones to regulate immune responses and some of its downstream hormones or effectors are elevated in cancer patients. We show that HP unit can promote myelopoiesis and immunosuppression to accelerate tumor growth. Subcutaneous implantation of tumors induced hypothalamus activation and pituitary α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) production

  •   Changes in North Atlantic deep-water oxygenation across the Middle Pleistocene Transition
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Nicola C. Thomas, Harold J. Bradbury, David A. Hodell

    The oxygen concentrations of oceanic deep-water and atmospheric carbon dioxide ( p CO 2 ) are intrinsically linked through organic carbon remineralization and storage as dissolved inorganic carbon in the deep sea. We present a high-resolution reconstruction of relative changes in oxygen concentration in the deep North Atlantic for the past 1.5 million years using the carbon isotope gradient between

  •   The continuum of Drosophila embryonic development at single-cell resolution
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Diego Calderon, Ronnie Blecher-Gonen, Xingfan Huang, Stefano Secchia, James Kentro, Riza M. Daza, Beth Martin, Alessandro Dulja, Christoph Schaub, Cole Trapnell, Erica Larschan, Kate M. O’Connor-Giles, Eileen E. M. Furlong, Jay Shendure

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful, long-standing model for metazoan development and gene regulation. We profiled chromatin accessibility in almost 1 million and gene expression in half a million nuclei from overlapping windows spanning the entirety of embryogenesis. Leveraging developmental asynchronicity within embryo collections, we applied deep neural networks to infer the age of each nucleus

  •   Selection against admixture and gene regulatory divergence in a long-term primate field study
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Tauras P. Vilgalys, Arielle S. Fogel, Jordan A. Anderson, Raphael S. Mututua, J. Kinyua Warutere, I. Long’ida Siodi, Sang Yoon Kim, Tawni N. Voyles, Jacqueline A. Robinson, Jeffrey D. Wall, Elizabeth A. Archie, Susan C. Alberts, Jenny Tung

    Genetic admixture is central to primate evolution. We combined 50 years of field observations of immigration and group demography with genomic data from ~9 generations of hybrid baboons to investigate the consequences of admixture in the wild. Despite no obvious fitness costs to hybrids, we found signatures of selection against admixture similar to those described for archaic hominins. These patterns

  •   Molecular, cellular, and developmental foundations of grass diversity
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    Paula McSteen, Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    Humans have cultivated grasses for food, feed, beverages, and construction materials for millennia. Grasses also dominate the landscape in vast parts of the world, where they have adapted morphologically and physiologically, diversifying to form ~12,000 species. Sequences of hundreds of grass genomes show that they are essentially collinear; nonetheless, not all species have the same complement of

  •   Response to Comment on “Pushing the frontiers of density functionals by solving the fractional electron problem”
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-08-04
    James Kirkpatrick, Brendan McMorrow, David H. P. Turban, Alexander L. Gaunt, James S. Spencer, Alexander G. D. G. Matthews, Annette Obika, Louis Thiry, Meire Fortunato, David Pfau, Lara Román Castellanos, Stig Petersen, Alexander W. R. Nelson, Pushmeet Kohli, Paula Mori-Sánchez, Demis Hassabis, Aron J. Cohen

    Gerasimov et al . claim that the ability of DM21 to respect fractional charge (FC) and fractional spin (FS) conditions outside of the training set has not been demonstrated in our paper. This is based on (i) asserting that the training set has a ~50% overlap with our bond-breaking benchmark (BBB) and (ii) questioning the validity and accuracy of our other generalization examples. We disagree with their

  •   Structures of the nitrogenase complex prepared under catalytic turnover conditions
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Hannah L. Rutledge, Brian D. Cook, Hoang P. M. Nguyen, Mark A. Herzik, F. Akif Tezcan

    The enzyme nitrogenase couples adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to the multi-electron reduction of atmospheric dinitrogen into ammonia. Despite extensive research, the mechanistic details of ATP-dependent energy transduction and dinitrogen reduction by nitrogenase are not well understood, requiring new strategies to monitor its structural dynamics during catalytic action. Here we report cryogenic

  •   In situ architecture of the ciliary base reveals the stepwise assembly of intraflagellar transport trains
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Hugo van den Hoek, Nikolai Klena, Mareike A. Jordan, Gonzalo Alvarez Viar, Ricardo D. Righetto, Miroslava Schaffer, Philipp S. Erdmann, William Wan, Stefan Geimer, Jürgen M. Plitzko, Wolfgang Baumeister, Gaia Pigino, Virginie Hamel, Paul Guichard, Benjamin D. Engel

    The cilium is an antenna-like organelle that performs numerous cellular functions, including motility, sensing, and signaling. The base of the cilium contains a selective barrier that regulates the entry of large intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains, which carry cargo proteins required for ciliary assembly and maintenance. However, the native architecture of the ciliary base and the process of IFT

  •   Constraints on the adjustment of tidal marshes to accelerating sea level rise
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Neil Saintilan, Katya E. Kovalenko, Glenn Guntenspergen, Kerrylee Rogers, James C. Lynch, Donald R. Cahoon, Catherine E. Lovelock, Daniel A. Friess, Erica Ashe, Ken W. Krauss, Nicole Cormier, Tom Spencer, Janine Adams, Jacqueline Raw, Carles Ibanez, Francesco Scarton, Stijn Temmerman, Patrick Meire, Tom Maris, Karen Thorne, John Brazner, Gail L. Chmura, Tony Bowron, Vishmie P. Gamage, Kimberly Cressman

    Much uncertainty exists about the vulnerability of valuable tidal marsh ecosystems to relative sea level rise. Previous assessments of resilience to sea level rise, to which marshes can adjust by sediment accretion and elevation gain, revealed contrasting results, depending on contemporary or Holocene geological data. By analyzing globally distributed contemporary data, we found that marsh sediment

  •   Mechanism-based design of agents that selectively target drug-resistant glioma
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Kingson Lin, Susan E. Gueble, Ranjini K. Sundaram, Eric D. Huseman, Ranjit S. Bindra, Seth B. Herzon

    Approximately half of glioblastoma and more than two-thirds of grade II and III glioma tumors lack the DNA repair protein O 6 -methylguanine methyl transferase (MGMT). MGMT-deficient tumors respond initially to the DNA methylation agent temozolomide (TMZ) but frequently acquire resistance through loss of the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. We report the development of agents that overcome this resistance

  •   Bioadhesive ultrasound for long-term continuous imaging of diverse organs
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Chonghe Wang, Xiaoyu Chen, Liu Wang, Mitsutoshi Makihata, Hsiao-Chuan Liu, Tao Zhou, Xuanhe Zhao

    Continuous imaging of internal organs over days could provide crucial information about health and diseases and enable insights into developmental biology. We report a bioadhesive ultrasound (BAUS) device that consists of a thin and rigid ultrasound probe robustly adhered to the skin via a couplant made of a soft, tough, antidehydrating, and bioadhesive hydrogel-elastomer hybrid. The BAUS device provides

  •   Live-cell micromanipulation of a genomic locus reveals interphase chromatin mechanics
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Veer I. P. Keizer, Simon Grosse-Holz, Maxime Woringer, Laura Zambon, Koceila Aizel, Maud Bongaerts, Fanny Delille, Lorena Kolar-Znika, Vittore F. Scolari, Sebastian Hoffmann, Edward J. Banigan, Leonid A. Mirny, Maxime Dahan, Daniele Fachinetti, Antoine Coulon

    Our understanding of the physical principles organizing the genome in the nucleus is limited by the lack of tools to directly exert and measure forces on interphase chromosomes in vivo and probe their material nature. Here, we introduce an approach to actively manipulate a genomic locus using controlled magnetic forces inside the nucleus of a living human cell. We observed viscoelastic displacements

  •   Ion-modulated radical doping of spiro-OMeTAD for more efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Tiankai Zhang, Feng Wang, Hak-Beom Kim, In-Woo Choi, Chuanfei Wang, Eunkyung Cho, Rafal Konefal, Yuttapoom Puttisong, Kosuke Terado, Libor Kobera, Mengyun Chen, Mei Yang, Sai Bai, Bowen Yang, Jiajia Suo, Shih-Chi Yang, Xianjie Liu, Fan Fu, Hiroyuki Yoshida, Weimin M. Chen, Jiri Brus, Veaceslav Coropceanu, Anders Hagfeldt, Jean-Luc Brédas, Mats Fahlman, Dong Suk Kim, Zhangjun Hu, Feng Gao

    Record power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have been obtained with the organic hole transporter 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis( N , N -di- p -methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD). Conventional doping of spiro-OMeTAD with hygroscopic lithium salts and volatile 4- tert -butylpyridine is a time-consuming process and also leads to poor device stability. We developed

  •   How will EPA regulate the power sector?
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Richard L. Revesz

    As threats from climate change become more urgent, the US Supreme Court has responded by erecting a new roadblock to effective climate policy. Last month, it struck down the Clean Power Plan, the Obama administration’s never-implemented regulation of greenhouse gas emissions from existing power plants. The ruling [ West Virginia v. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)] is a blow to climate action

  •   Nanosecond protonic programmable resistors for analog deep learning
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Murat Onen, Nicolas Emond, Baoming Wang, Difei Zhang, Frances M. Ross, Ju Li, Bilge Yildiz, Jesús A. del Alamo

    Nanoscale ionic programmable resistors for analog deep learning are 1000 times smaller than biological cells, but it is not yet clear how much faster they can be relative to neurons and synapses. Scaling analyses of ionic transport and charge-transfer reaction rates point to operation in the nonlinear regime, where extreme electric fields are present within the solid electrolyte and its interfaces

  •   Pollinators of the sea: A discovery of animal-mediated fertilization in seaweed
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    E. Lavaut, M.-L. Guillemin, S. Colin, A. Faure, J. Coudret, C. Destombe, M. Valero

    The long-held belief that animal-mediated pollination is absent in the sea has recently been contradicted in seagrasses, motivating investigations of other marine phyla. This is particularly relevant in red algae, in which female gametes are not liberated and male gametes are not flagellated. Using experiments with the isopod Idotea balthica and the red alga Gracilaria gracilis , we demonstrate that

  •   The court is lost
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    H. Holden Thorp

    The United States has an insatiable desire for technological advancement but is governed by founding documents that are completely unsuited for science and technology. This incongruity has manifested in recent disastrous actions by the US Supreme Court on guns, abortion, and climate. The decisions suggest that the battle is being won by the portion of America who—while lionizing the past and clinging

  •   DNA-guided lattice remodeling of carbon nanotubes
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Zhiwei Lin, Leticia C. Beltrán, Zeus A. De los Santos, Yinong Li, Tehseen Adel, Jeffrey A Fagan, Angela R. Hight Walker, Edward H. Egelman, Ming Zheng

    Covalent modification of carbon nanotubes is a promising strategy for engineering their electronic structures. However, keeping modification sites in registration with a nanotube lattice is challenging. We report a solution using DNA-directed, guanine (G)-specific cross-linking chemistry. Through DNA screening we identify a sequence, C 3 GC 7 GC 3 , whose reaction with an (8,3) enantiomer yields minimum

  •   Inactive (PbI 2 ) 2 RbCl stabilizes perovskite films for efficient solar cells
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-28
    Yang Zhao, Fei Ma, Zihan Qu, Shiqi Yu, Tao Shen, Hui-Xiong Deng, Xinbo Chu, Xinxin Peng, Yongbo Yuan, Xingwang Zhang, Jingbi You

    In halide perovskite solar cells the formation of secondary-phase excess lead iodide (PbI 2 ) has some positive effects on power conversion efficiency (PCE) but can be detrimental to device stability and lead to large hysteresis effects in voltage sweeps. We converted PbI 2 into an inactive (PbI 2 ) 2 RbCl compound by RbCl doping, which effectively stabilizes the perovskite phase. We obtained a certified

  •   The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan was the early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-26
    Michael Worobey, Joshua I. Levy, Lorena Malpica Serrano, Alexander Crits-Christoph, Jonathan E. Pekar, Stephen A. Goldstein, Angela L. Rasmussen, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Chris Newman, Marion P. G. Koopmans, Marc A. Suchard, Joel O. Wertheim, Philippe Lemey, David L. Robertson, Robert F. Garry, Edward C. Holmes, Andrew Rambaut, Kristian G. Andersen

    Understanding how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in 2019 is critical to preventing zoonotic outbreaks before they become the next pandemic. The Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, China, was identified as a likely source of cases in early reports but later this conclusion became controversial. We show the earliest known COVID-19 cases from December 2019,

  •   The molecular epidemiology of multiple zoonotic origins of SARS-CoV-2
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-26
    Jonathan E. Pekar, Andrew Magee, Edyth Parker, Niema Moshiri, Katherine Izhikevich, Jennifer L. Havens, Karthik Gangavarapu, Lorena Mariana Malpica Serrano, Alexander Crits-Christoph, Nathaniel L. Matteson, Mark Zeller, Joshua I. Levy, Jade C. Wang, Scott Hughes, Jungmin Lee, Heedo Park, Man-Seong Park, Katherine Zi Yan Ching, Raymond Tzer Pin Lin, Mohd Noor Mat Isa, Yusuf Muhammad Noor, Tetyana I

    Understanding the circumstances that lead to pandemics is important for their prevention. Here, we analyze the genomic diversity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We show that SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity before February 2020 likely comprised only two distinct viral lineages, denoted A and B. Phylodynamic rooting

  •   Physical mixing of a catalyst and a hydrophobic polymer promotes CO hydrogenation through dehydration
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Wei Fang, Chengtao Wang, Zhiqiang Liu, Liang Wang, Lu Liu, Hangjie Li, Shaodan Xu, Anmin Zheng, Xuedi Qin, Lujie Liu, Feng-Shou Xiao

    In many reactions restricted by water, selective removal of water from the reaction system is critical and usually requires a membrane reactor. We found that a simple physical mixture of hydrophobic poly(divinylbenzene) with cobalt-manganese carbide could modulate a local environment of catalysts for rapidly shipping water product in syngas conversion. We were able to shift the water-sorption equilibrium

  •   Interspecific competition limits bird species’ ranges in tropical mountains
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Benjamin G. Freeman, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Eliot T. Miller

    Species’ geographic ranges are limited by climate and species interactions. Climate is the prevailing explanation for why species live only within narrow elevational ranges in megadiverse biodiverse tropical mountains, but competition can also restrict species’ elevational ranges. We test contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by conducting a global comparative test of birds’ elevational range

  •   Quantum effects in thermal reaction rates at metal surfaces
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Dmitriy Borodin, Nils Hertl, G. Barratt Park, Michael Schwarzer, Jan Fingerhut, Yingqi Wang, Junxiang Zuo, Florian Nitz, Georgios Skoulatakis, Alexander Kandratsenka, Daniel J. Auerbach, Dirk Schwarzer, Hua Guo, Theofanis N. Kitsopoulos, Alec M. Wodtke

    There is wide interest in developing accurate theories for predicting rates of chemical reactions that occur at metal surfaces, especially for applications in industrial catalysis. Conventional methods contain many approximations that lack experimental validation. In practice, there are few reactions where sufficiently accurate experimental data exist to even allow meaningful comparisons to theory

  •   High ambipolar mobility in cubic boron arsenide revealed by transient reflectivity microscopy
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Shuai Yue, Fei Tian, Xinyu Sui, Mohammadjavad Mohebinia, Xianxin Wu, Tian Tong, Zhiming Wang, Bo Wu, Qing Zhang, Zhifeng Ren, Jiming Bao, Xinfeng Liu

    Semiconducting cubic boron arsenide (c-BAs) has been predicted to have carrier mobility of 1400 square centimeters per volt-second for electrons and 2100 square centimeters per volt-second for holes at room temperature. Using pump-probe transient reflectivity microscopy, we monitored the diffusion of photoexcited carriers in single-crystal c-BAs to obtain their mobility. With near-bandgap 600-nanometer

  •   Massively parallel pooled screening reveals genomic determinants of nanoparticle delivery
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Natalie Boehnke, Joelle P. Straehla, Hannah C. Safford, Mustafa Kocak, Matthew G. Rees, Melissa Ronan, Danny Rosenberg, Charles H. Adelmann, Raghu R. Chivukula, Namita Nabar, Adam G. Berger, Nicholas G. Lamson, Jaime H. Cheah, Hojun Li, Jennifer A. Roth, Angela N. Koehler, Paula T. Hammond

    To accelerate the translation of cancer nanomedicine, we used an integrated genomic approach to improve our understanding of the cellular processes that govern nanoparticle trafficking. We developed a massively parallel screen that leverages barcoded, pooled cancer cell lines annotated with multiomic data to investigate cell association patterns across a nanoparticle library spanning a range of formulations

  •   A concise synthesis of tetrodotoxin
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    David B. Konrad, Klaus-Peter Rühmann, Hiroyasu Ando, Belinda E. Hetzler, Nina Strassner, Kendall N. Houk, Bryan S. Matsuura, Dirk Trauner

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxic natural product that is an indispensable probe in neuroscience, a biosynthetic and ecological enigma, and a celebrated target of synthetic chemistry. Here, we present a stereoselective synthesis of TTX that proceeds in 22 steps from a glucose derivative. The central cyclohexane ring of TTX and its α-tertiary amine moiety were established by the intramolecular 1,3-dipolar

  •   High ambipolar mobility in cubic boron arsenide
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Jungwoo Shin, Geethal Amila Gamage, Zhiwei Ding, Ke Chen, Fei Tian, Xin Qian, Jiawei Zhou, Hwijong Lee, Jianshi Zhou, Li Shi, Thanh Nguyen, Fei Han, Mingda Li, David Broido, Aaron Schmidt, Zhifeng Ren, Gang Chen

    Semiconductors with high thermal conductivity and electron-hole mobility are of great importance for electronic and photonic devices as well as for fundamental studies. Among the ultrahigh–thermal conductivity materials, cubic boron arsenide (c-BAs) is predicted to exhibit simultaneously high electron and hole mobilities of >1000 centimeters squared per volt per second. Using the optical transient

  •   A chromosomal inversion contributes to divergence in multiple traits between deer mouse ecotypes
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Emily R. Hager, Olivia S. Harringmeyer, T. Brock Wooldridge, Shunn Theingi, Jacob T. Gable, Sade McFadden, Beverly Neugeboren, Kyle M. Turner, Jeffrey D. Jensen, Hopi E. Hoekstra

    How locally adapted ecotypes are established and maintained within a species is a long-standing question in evolutionary biology. Using forest and prairie ecotypes of deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), we characterized the genetic basis of variation in two defining traits—tail length and coat color—and discovered a 41-megabase chromosomal inversion linked to both. The inversion frequency is 90%

  •   Scaffolding protein functional sites using deep learning
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Jue Wang, Sidney Lisanza, David Juergens, Doug Tischer, Joseph L. Watson, Karla M. Castro, Robert Ragotte, Amijai Saragovi, Lukas F. Milles, Minkyung Baek, Ivan Anishchenko, Wei Yang, Derrick R. Hicks, Marc Expòsit, Thomas Schlichthaerle, Jung-Ho Chun, Justas Dauparas, Nathaniel Bennett, Basile I. M. Wicky, Andrew Muenks, Frank DiMaio, Bruno Correia, Sergey Ovchinnikov, David Baker

    The binding and catalytic functions of proteins are generally mediated by a small number of functional residues held in place by the overall protein structure. Here, we describe deep learning approaches for scaffolding such functional sites without needing to prespecify the fold or secondary structure of the scaffold. The first approach, “constrained hallucination,” optimizes sequences such that their

  •   Proton-coupled energy transfer in molecular triads
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Belinda Pettersson Rimgard, Zhen Tao, Giovanny A. Parada, Laura F. Cotter, Sharon Hammes-Schiffer, James M. Mayer, Leif Hammarström

    A photochemical mechanism was experimentally discovered and denoted proton-coupled energy transfer (PCEnT). A series of anthracene-phenol-pyridine triads formed the local excited anthracene state after light excitation at ca. 400 nm, which led to fluorescence around 550 nm from the phenol-pyridine unit. Direct excitation of phenol-pyridine would have required light around 330 nm, but the coupled proton

  •   A transcriptional regulator that boosts grain yields and shortens the growth duration of rice
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-21
    Shaobo Wei, Xia Li, Zefu Lu, Hui Zhang, Xiangyuan Ye, Yujie Zhou, Jing Li, Yanyan Yan, Hongcui Pei, Fengying Duan, Danying Wang, Song Chen, Peng Wang, Chao Zhang, Lianguang Shang, Yue Zhou, Peng Yan, Ming Zhao, Jirong Huang, Ralph Bock, Qian Qian, Wenbin Zhou

    Complex biological processes such as plant growth and development are often under the control of transcription factors that regulate the expression of large sets of genes and activate subordinate transcription factors in a cascade-like fashion. Here, by screening candidate photosynthesis-related transcription factors in rice, we identified a DREB (Dehydration Responsive Element Binding) family member

  •   Confronting 21st-century monkeypox
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-19
    Michael T. Osterholm, Bruce Gellin

    The World Health Organization (WHO) hasn’t called the current monkeypox outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), but as a worldwide epidemic, it is clearly an emerging pandemic. More than 12,556 monkeypox cases and three deaths have been reported in 68 countries since early May, and these numbers will rise rapidly with improved surveillance, access to diagnostics, and continuing

  •   Omicron spike function and neutralizing activity elicited by a comprehensive panel of vaccines
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-19
    John E. Bowen, Amin Addetia, Ha V. Dang, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Kaitlin R. Sprouse, Alexandra C. Walls, Ignacio G. Mazzitelli, Jennifer K. Logue, Nicholas M. Franko, Nadine Czudnochowski, Abigail E. Powell, Exequiel Dellota, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq Ansari, Elisabetta Cameroni, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera, Christine M. Posavad, Jennifer M. Dan, Zeli Zhang, Daniela

    The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern comprises several sublineages with BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 having replaced the previously dominant BA.1, and BA.4 and BA.5 increasing in prevalence worldwide. We show that the large number of Omicron sublineage spike mutations lead to enhanced ACE2 binding, reduced fusogenicity, and severe dampening of plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven

  •   Hematopoietic loss of Y chromosome leads to cardiac fibrosis and heart failure mortality
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Soichi Sano, Keita Horitani, Hayato Ogawa, Jonatan Halvardson, Nicholas W. Chavkin, Ying Wang, Miho Sano, Jonas Mattisson, Atsushi Hata, Marcus Danielsson, Emiri Miura-Yura, Ammar Zaghlool, Megan A. Evans, Tove Fall, Henry N. De Hoyos, Johan Sundström, Yoshimitsu Yura, Anupreet Kour, Yohei Arai, Mark C. Thel, Yuka Arai, Josyf C. Mychaleckyj, Karen K. Hirschi, Lars A. Forsberg, Kenneth Walsh

    Hematopoietic mosaic loss of Y chromosome (mLOY) is associated with increased risk of mortality and age-related diseases in men, but the causal and mechanistic relationships have yet to be established. Here, we show that male mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells lacking the Y chromosome display increased mortality and age-related profibrotic pathologies including reduced cardiac function. Cardiac

  •   ZAKα-driven ribotoxic stress response activates the human NLRP1 inflammasome
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Kim S. Robinson, Gee Ann Toh, Pritisha Rozario, Rae Chua, Stefan Bauernfried, Zijin Sun, Muhammad Jasrie Firdaus, Shima Bayat, Rhea Nadkarni, Zhi Sheng Poh, Khek Chian Tham, Cassandra R. Harapas, Chrissie K. Lim, Werncui Chu, Celest W. S. Tay, Kiat Yi Tan, Tianyun Zhao, Carine Bonnard, Radoslaw Sobota, John E. Connolly, John Common, Seth L. Masters, Kaiwen W. Chen, Lena Ho, Bin Wu, Veit Hornung, Franklin

    Human NLRP1 (NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 1) is an innate immune sensor predominantly expressed in the skin and airway epithelium. Here, we report that human NLRP1 senses the ultraviolet B (UVB)- and toxin-induced ribotoxic stress response (RSR). Biochemically, RSR leads to the direct hyperphosphorylation of a human-specific disordered linker region of NLRP1 (NLRP1 DR ) by MAP3K20/ZAKα

  •   Neurogliaform cells dynamically decouple neuronal synchrony between brain areas
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Ece Sakalar, Thomas Klausberger, Bálint Lasztóczi

    Effective communication across brain areas requires distributed neuronal networks to dynamically synchronize or decouple their ongoing activity. GABA ergic interneurons lock ensembles to network oscillations, but there remain questions regarding how synchrony is actively disengaged to allow for new communication partners. We recorded the activity of identified interneurons in the CA1 hippocampus of

  •   Multimodal perception links cellular state to decision making in single cells
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Bernhard A. Kramer, Jacobo Sarabia del Castillo, Lucas Pelkmans

    Individual cells take decisions that are adapted to their internal state and surroundings, but how cells can reliably do this remains unclear. Using multiplexed quantification of signaling responses and markers of the cellular state, we find that signaling nodes in a network display adaptive information processing, which leads to heterogeneous growth factor responses and enables nodes to capture partially

  •   Nailing the nuance on COVID-19
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Robert M. Wachter

    In messaging the public about COVID-19, brevity and simplicity are crucial. But so too is scientifically accurate and nuanced communication that tells people what the latest numbers mean and how they should influence behavior. Nearly 3 years into the pandemic, public health communicators continue to struggle to get this balance right.

  •   Visualizing Eigen/Zundel cations and their interconversion in monolayer water on metal surfaces
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Ye Tian, Jiani Hong, Duanyun Cao, Sifan You, Yizhi Song, Bowei Cheng, Zhichang Wang, Dong Guan, Xinmeng Liu, Zhengpu Zhao, Xin-Zheng Li, Li-Mei Xu, Jing Guo, Ji Chen, En-Ge Wang, Ying Jiang

    The nature of hydrated proton on solid surfaces is of vital importance in electrochemistry, proton channels, and hydrogen fuel cells but remains unclear because of the lack of atomic-scale characterization. We directly visualized Eigen- and Zundel-type hydrated protons within the hydrogen bonding water network on Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces, using cryogenic qPlus-based atomic force microscopy under

  •   Thermalization dynamics of a gauge theory on a quantum simulator
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Zhao-Yu Zhou, Guo-Xian Su, Jad C. Halimeh, Robert Ott, Hui Sun, Philipp Hauke, Bing Yang, Zhen-Sheng Yuan, Jürgen Berges, Jian-Wei Pan

    Gauge theories form the foundation of modern physics, with applications ranging from elementary particle physics and early-universe cosmology to condensed matter systems. We perform quantum simulations of the unitary dynamics of a U(1) symmetric gauge field theory and demonstrate emergent irreversible behavior. The highly constrained gauge theory dynamics are encoded in a one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard

  •   Selectivity in single-molecule reactions by tip-induced redox chemistry
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Florian Albrecht, Shadi Fatayer, Iago Pozo, Ivano Tavernelli, Jascha Repp, Diego Peña, Leo Gross

    Controlling selectivity of reactions is an ongoing quest in chemistry. In this work, we demonstrate reversible and selective bond formation and dissociation promoted by tip-induced reduction-oxidation reactions on a surface. Molecular rearrangements leading to different constitutional isomers are selected by the polarity and magnitude of applied voltage pulses from the tip of a combined scanning tunneling

  •   TCR-Vγδ usage distinguishes protumor from antitumor intestinal γδ T cell subsets
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Bernardo S. Reis, Patrick W. Darcy, Iasha Z. Khan, Christine S. Moon, Adam E. Kornberg, Vanessa S. Schneider, Yelina Alvarez, Olawale Eleso, Caixia Zhu, Marina Schernthanner, Ainsley Lockhart, Aubrey Reed, Juliana Bortolatto, Tiago B. R. Castro, Angelina M. Bilate, Sergei Grivennikov, Arnold S. Han, Daniel Mucida

    γδ T cells represent a substantial fraction of intestinal lymphocytes at homeostasis, but they also constitute a major lymphocyte population infiltrating colorectal cancers (CRCs); however, their temporal contribution to CRC development or progression remains unclear. Using human CRC samples and murine CRC models, we found that most γδ T cells in premalignant or nontumor colons exhibit cytotoxic markers

  •   Discrimination of xylene isomers in a stacked coordination polymer
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-14
    Liangying Li, Lidong Guo, David H. Olson, Shikai Xian, Zhiguo Zhang, Qiwei Yang, Kaiyi Wu, Yiwen Yang, Zongbi Bao, Qilong Ren, Jing Li

    The separation and purification of xylene isomers is an industrially important but challenging process. Developing highly efficient adsorbents is crucial for the implementation of simulated moving bed technology for industrial separation of these isomers. Herein, we report a stacked one-dimensional coordination polymer {[Mn(dhbq)(H 2 O) 2 ], H 2 dhbq = 2,5-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone} that exhibits

  •   ACE2-binding exposes the SARS-CoV-2 fusion peptide to broadly neutralizing coronavirus antibodies
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-12
    Jun Siong Low, Josipa Jerak, M. Alejandra Tortorici, Matthew McCallum, Dora Pinto, Antonino Cassotta, Mathilde Foglierini, Federico Mele, Rana Abdelnabi, Birgit Weynand, Julia Noack, Martin Montiel-Ruiz, Siro Bianchi, Fabio Benigni, Nicole Sprugasci, Anshu Joshi, John E. Bowen, Cameron Stewart, Megi Rexhepaj, Alexandra C. Walls, David Jarrossay, Diego Morone, Philipp Paparoditis, Christian Garzoni

    The coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein attaches to host receptors and mediates viral fusion. Using a broad screening approach, we isolated from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immune donors seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to all human-infecting coronavirus S proteins. This class of mAbs recognize the fusion peptide and acquire affinity and breadth through somatic

  •   Broadly neutralizing antibodies target the coronavirus fusion peptide
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-12
    Cherrelle Dacon, Courtney Tucker, Linghang Peng, Chang-Chun D. Lee, Ting-Hui Lin, Meng Yuan, Yu Cong, Lingshu Wang, Lauren Purser, Jazmean K. Williams, Chul-Woo Pyo, Ivan Kosik, Zhe Hu, Ming Zhao, Divya Mohan, Andrew J. R. Cooper, Mary Peterson, Jeff Skinner, Saurabh Dixit, Erin Kollins, Louis Huzella, Donna Perry, Russell Byrum, Sanae Lembirik, David Drawbaugh, Brett Eaton, Yi Zhang, Eun Sung Yang

    The potential for future coronavirus outbreaks highlights the need to broadly target this group of pathogens. We use an epitope-agnostic approach to identify six monoclonal antibodies that bind to spike proteins from all seven human-infecting coronaviruses. All six antibodies target the conserved fusion peptide region adjacent to the S2' cleavage site. COV44-62 and COV44-79 broadly neutralize alpha

  •   Spacecraft sample collection and subsurface excavation of asteroid (101955) Bennu
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-07
    D. S. Lauretta, C. D. Adam, A. J. Allen, R.-L. Ballouz, O. S. Barnouin, K. J. Becker, T. Becker, C. A. Bennett, E. B. Bierhaus, B. J. Bos, R. D. Burns, H. Campins, Y. Cho, P. R. Christensen, E. C. A. Church, B. E. Clark, H. C. Connolly, M. G. Daly, D. N. DellaGiustina, C. Y. Drouet d’Aubigny, J. P. Emery, H. L. Enos, S. Freund Kasper, J. B. Garvin, K. Getzandanner, D. R. Golish, V. E. Hamilton, C.

    Carbonaceous asteroids, such as (101955) Bennu, preserve material from the early Solar System, including volatile compounds and organic molecules. We report spacecraft imaging and spectral data collected during and after retrieval of a sample from Bennu’s surface. The sampling event mobilized rocks and dust into a debris plume, excavating a 9-m-long elliptical crater. This exposed material that is

  •   Policing in patriarchy: An experimental evaluation of reforms to improve police responsiveness to women in India
    Science (IF 63.714) Pub Date : 2022-07-07
    Sandip Sukhtankar, Gabriele Kruks-Wisner, Akshay Mangla

    Gender-targeted police reforms are frequently proposed to tackle the global problem of rising yet under-reported gender-based violence (GBV)—but with mixed and often disappointing results. We explore this issue in India, a country with alarming rates of GBV and limited police capacity, by studying the impact of Women’s Help Desks (WHDs): dedicated spaces for women in local police stations, staffed

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