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  • Understanding oblique impacts from experiments, observations, and modeling.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2001-10-05
    E Pierazzo,H J Melosh

    Natural impacts in which the projectile strikes the target vertically are virtually nonexistent. Nevertheless, our inherent drive to simplify nature often causes us to suppose most impacts are nearly vertical. Recent theoretical, observational, and experimental work is improving this situation, but even with the current wealth of studies on impact cratering, the effect of impact angle on the final

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stromatolites in Precambrian carbonates: evolutionary mileposts or environmental dipsticks?
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2001-09-07
    J P Grotzinger,A H Knoll

    Stromatolites are attached, lithified sedimentary growth structures, accretionary away from a point or limited surface of initiation. Though the accretion process is commonly regarded to result from the sediment trapping or precipitation-inducing activities of microbial mats, little evidence of this process is preserved in most Precambrian stromatolites. The successful study and interpretation of stromatolites

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sediment bacteria: who's there, what are they doing, and what's new?
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 1997-01-01
    K H Nealson

    The prokaryotes (bacteria) comprise the bulk of the biomass and chemical activity in sediments. They are well suited to their role as sediment chemists, as they are the right size and have the required metabolic versatility to oxidize the organic carbon in a variety of different ways. The characteristic vertical nutrient (electron donor and electron acceptor) profiles seen in sediments are produced

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origin of life in the solar system: current issues.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 1995-01-01
    C F Chyba,G D McDonald

    The authors review current issues in the study of biogenesis and exobiology research. Topics include definitions of life; exobiological environments in the solar system, including the planets and their satellites, comets, and asteroids; energy sources for prebiotic chemistry, and the concept of the RNA world.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origin and early evolution of life on Earth.
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 1990-01-01
    J Oró,S L Miller,A Lazcano

    We do not have a detailed knowledge of the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth. In this review we bring together some of the most important results that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive Earth environments, particularly those environments in which life is thought to have originated. To do so, we first discuss the evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on our

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Big Time
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Paul F. Hoffman

    The Proterozoic Eon was once regarded as the neglected middle half of Earth history. The name refers to early animals, but they did not appear until the eon (2.5–0.54 Ga) was nearly over. Eukaryotic cells and sexual reproduction evolved much earlier in the eon, as did chloroplasts. Molecular dioxygen, the presence of which altered the geochemical behavior of nearly every element essential to life,

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Unanticipated Uses of the Global Positioning System
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Kristine M. Larson

    Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments are routinely used today to measure crustal deformation signals from tectonic plate motions, faulting, and glacial isostatic adjustment. In parallel with the expansion of GPS networks around the world, several new and unexpected applications of GPS have been developed. For example, GPS instruments are now being used routinely to measure ground motions during

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Dynamics in the Uppermost Lower Mantle: Insights into the Deep Mantle Water Cycle Based on the Numerical Modeling of Subducted Slabs and Global-Scale Mantle Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Takashi Nakagawa, Tomoeki Nakakuki

    In this review, we address the current status of numerical modeling of the mantle transition zone and uppermost lower mantle, focusing on the hydration mechanism in these areas. The main points are as follows: (a) Slab stagnation and penetration may play significant roles in transporting the water in the whole mantle, and (b) a huge amount of water could be absorbed into the deep mantle to preserve

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Atmospheric Escape and the Evolution of Close-In Exoplanets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    James E. Owen

    Exoplanets with substantial hydrogen/helium atmospheres have been discovered in abundance, many residing extremely close to their parent stars. The extreme irradiation levels that these atmospheres experience cause them to undergo hydrodynamic atmospheric escape. Ongoing atmospheric escape has been observed to be occurring in a few nearby exoplanet systems through transit spectroscopy both for hot

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • The Sedimentary Cycle on Early Mars
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Scott M. McLennan, John P. Grotzinger, Joel A. Hurowitz, Nicholas J. Tosca

    Two decades of intensive research have demonstrated that early Mars (2 Gyr) had an active sedimentary cycle, including well-preserved stratigraphic records, understandable within a source-to-sink framework with remarkable fidelity. This early cycle exhibits first-order similarities to (e.g., facies relationships, groundwater diagenesis, recycling) and first-order differences from (e.g., greater aeolian

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • New Horizons Observations of the Atmosphere of Pluto
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    G. Randall Gladstone, Leslie A. Young

    New Horizons data provide a snapshot of the current state of Pluto's atmosphere. Winds are slow and mostly controlled by sublimation of surface ices. Molecular nitrogen is the primary constituent below 1,800 km, while methane and carbon monoxide are important minor species. Photolysis of these gases leads to a thin haze that encompasses Pluto from the surface up to >500-km altitude and is important

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • The Compositional Diversity of Low-Mass Exoplanets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Daniel Jontof-Hutter

    Low-mass planets have an extraordinarily diverse range of bulk compositions, from primarily rocky worlds to those with deep gaseous atmospheres. As techniques for measuring the masses of exoplanets advance the field toward the regime of rocky planets, from ultrashort orbital periods to Venus-like distances, we identify the bounds on planet compositions, where sizes and incident fluxes inform bulk planet

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Destruction of the North China Craton in the Mesozoic
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Fu-Yuan Wu, Jin-Hui Yang, Yi-Gang Xu, Simon A. Wilde, Richard J. Walker

    The North China Craton (NCC) was originally formed by the amalgamation of the eastern and western blocks along an orogenic belt at ∼1.9 Ga. After cratonization, the NCC was essentially stable until the Mesozoic, when intense felsic magmatism and related mineralization, deformation, pull-apart basins, and exhumation of the deep crust widely occurred, indicative of destruction or decratonization. Accompanying

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Seawater Chemistry Through Phanerozoic Time
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Alexandra V. Turchyn, Donald J. DePaolo

    The major ion balance of the ocean, particularly the concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and sulfate (SO4), has evolved over the Phanerozoic (last 550 million years) in concert with changes in sea level and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). We review these changes, along with changes in Mg/Ca and strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca) of the ocean; how the changes were reconstructed; and

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Variability from Satellite Observations
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Xun Jiang, Yuk L. Yung

    Advanced satellite technology has been providing unique observations of global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. These observations have revealed important CO2 variability at different timescales and over regional and planetary scales. Satellite CO2 retrievals have revealed that stratospheric sudden warming and the Madden-Julian Oscillation can modulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the mid-troposphere

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Permeability of Clays and Shales
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    C.E. Neuzil

    The low permeability of clays, shales, and other argillaceous lithologies makes them key controls of transport and deformation processes in the crust but is known for being challenging to characterize. As muds are modified by compaction and diagenesis to low-porosity shales, permeability can decrease by six or more orders of magnitude, but at large scales it is often dramatically and unpredictably

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Flood Basalts and Mass Extinctions
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Matthew E. Clapham, Paul R. Renne

    Flood basalts were Earth's largest volcanic episodes that, along with related intrusions, were often emplaced rapidly and coincided with environmental disruption: oceanic anoxic events, hyperthermals, and mass extinction events. Volatile emissions, both from magmatic degassing and vaporized from surrounding rock, triggered short-term cooling and longer-term warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Repeating Earthquakes
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Naoki Uchida, Roland Bürgmann

    Repeating earthquakes, or repeaters, are identical in location and geometry but occur at different times. They appear to represent recurring seismic energy release from distinct structures such as slip on a fault patch. Repeaters are most commonly found on creeping plate boundary faults, where seismic patches are loaded by surrounding slow slip, and they can be used to track fault creep at depth. Their

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Soil Functions: Connecting Earth's Critical Zone
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Steven A. Banwart, Nikolaos P. Nikolaidis, Yong-Guan Zhu, Caroline L. Peacock, Donald L. Sparks

    Soil is the central interface of Earth's critical zone—the planetary surface layer extending from unaltered bedrock to the vegetation canopy—and is under intense pressure from human demand for biomass, water, and food resources. Soil functions are flows and transformations of mass, energy, and genetic information that connect soil to the wider critical zone, transmitting the impacts of human activity

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Earthquake Early Warning: Advances, Scientific Challenges, and Societal Needs
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Richard M. Allen, Diego Melgar

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) is the delivery of ground shaking alerts or warnings. It is distinguished from earthquake prediction in that the earthquake has nucleated to provide detectable ground motion when an EEW is issued. Here we review progress in the field in the last 10 years. We begin with EEW users, synthesizing what we now know about who uses EEW and what information they need and can digest

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Noble Gases: A Record of Earth's Evolution and Mantle Dynamics
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Sujoy Mukhopadhyay, Rita Parai

    Noble gases have played a key role in our understanding of the origin of Earth's volatiles, mantle structure, and long-term degassing of the mantle. Here we synthesize new insights into these topics gained from high-precision noble gas data. Our analysis reveals new constraints on the origin of the terrestrial atmosphere, the presence of nebular neon but chondritic krypton and xenon in the mantle,

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Supraglacial Streams and Rivers
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Lincoln H Pitcher, Laurence C. Smith

    Supraglacial meltwater channels that flow on the surfaces of glaciers, ice sheets, and ice shelves connect ice surface climatology with subglacial processes, ice dynamics, and eustatic sea level changes. Their important role in transferring water and heat across and into ice is currently absent from models of surface mass balance and runoff contributions to global sea level rise. Furthermore, relatively

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Regional- to Global-Scale Patterns and Applications
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Gabriel J. Bowen, Zhongyin Cai, Richard P. Fiorella, Annie L. Putman

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen have been applied to water cycle research for over 60 years. Over the past two decades, however, new data, data compilations, and quantitative methods have supported the application of isotopic data to address large-scale water cycle problems. Recent results have demonstrated the impact of climate variation on atmospheric water cycling, provided constraints

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Marsh Processes and Their Response to Climate Change and Sea-Level Rise
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Duncan M. FitzGerald, Zoe Hughes

    In addition to their being vital components of mid- to high-latitude coastal ecosystems, salt marshes contain 0.1% of global sequestered terrestrial carbon. Their sustainability is now threatened by accelerating sea-level rise (SLR) that has reached a rate that is many times greater than the rate at which they formed and evolved. Modeling studies have been instrumental in predicting how marsh systems

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • The Mesozoic Biogeographic History of Gondwanan Terrestrial Vertebrates: Insights from Madagascar's Fossil Record
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    David W. Krause, Joseph J.W. Sertich, Patrick M. O'Connor, Kristina Curry Rogers, Raymond R. Rogers

    The Mesozoic plate tectonic and paleogeographic history of Gondwana had a profound effect on the distribution of terrestrial vertebrates. As the supercontinent fragmented into a series of large landmasses (South America, Africa-Arabia, Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, the Indian subcontinent, and Madagascar), particularly during the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, its terrestrial vertebrates became

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Droughts, Wildfires, and Forest Carbon Cycling: A Pantropical Synthesis
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Paulo M. Brando, Lucas Paolucci, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Elsa M. Ordway, Henrik Hartmann, Megan E. Cattau, Ludmila Rattis, Vincent Medjibe, Michael T. Coe, Jennifer Balch

    Tropical woody plants store ∼230 petagrams of carbon (PgC) in their aboveground living biomass. This review suggests that these stocks are currently growing in primary forests at rates that have decreased in recent decades. Droughts are an important mechanism in reducing forest C uptake and stocks by decreasing photosynthesis, elevating tree mortality, increasing autotrophic respiration, and promoting

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • Exoplanet Clouds
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Christiane Helling

    Clouds, which are common features in Earth's atmosphere, form in atmospheres of planets that orbit other stars than our Sun, in so-called extrasolar planets or exoplanets. Exoplanet atmospheres can be chemically extremely rich. Exoplanet clouds are therefore composed of a mix of materials that changes throughout the atmosphere. They affect atmospheres through element depletion and through absorption

    更新日期:2019-05-30
  • A Geologist Reflects on a Long Career
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Dan McKenzie

    Fifty years ago Jason Morgan and I proposed what is now known as the theory of plate tectonics, which brought together the ideas of continental drift and sea floor spreading into what is probably their final form. I was twenty-five and had just finished my PhD. The success of the theory marked the beginning of a change of emphasis in the Earth sciences, which I have spent the rest of my career exploring

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Low-Temperature Alteration of the Seafloor: Impacts on Ocean Chemistry
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Laurence A. Coogan, Kathryn M. Gillis

    Over 50% of Earth is covered by oceanic crust, the uppermost portion of which is a high-permeability layer of basaltic lavas through which seawater continuously circulates. Fluid flow is driven by heat lost from the oceanic lithosphere; the global fluid flux is dependent on plate creation rates and the thickness and distribution of overlying sediment, which acts as a low-permeability layer impeding

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The Thermal Conductivity of Earth's Core: A Key Geophysical Parameter's Constraints and Uncertainties
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Q. Williams

    The thermal conductivity of iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is a critical parameter in governing (a) the present-day heat flow out of Earth's core, (b) the inferred age of Earth's inner core, and (c) the thermal evolution of Earth's core and lowermost mantle. It is, however, one of the least well-constrained important geophysical parameters, with current estimates for end-member iron

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Fluids of the Lower Crust: Deep Is Different
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Craig E. Manning

    Deep fluids are important for the evolution and properties of the lower continental and arc crust in tectonically active settings. They comprise four components: H2O, nonpolar gases, salts, and rock-derived solutes. Contrasting behavior of H2O-gas and H2O-salt mixtures yields immiscibility and potential separation of phases with different chemical properties. Equilibrium thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Commercial Satellite Imagery Analysis for Countering Nuclear Proliferation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    David Albright, Sarah Burkhard, Allison Lach

    High-resolution commercial satellite imagery from a growing number of private satellite companies allows nongovernmental analysts to better understand secret or opaque nuclear programs of countries in unstable or tense regions, called proliferant states. They include North Korea, Iran, India, Pakistan, and Israel. By using imagery to make these countries’ aims and capabilities more transparent, nongovernmental

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Controls on O2 Production in Cyanobacterial Mats and Implications for Earth's Oxygenation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Gregory J. Dick, Sharon L. Grim, Judith M. Klatt

    Cyanobacterial mats are widely assumed to have been globally significant hot spots of biogeochemistry and evolution during the Archean and Proterozoic, but little is known about their quantitative contributions to global primary productivity or Earth's oxygenation. Modern systems show that mat biogeochemistry is the outcome of concerted activities and intimate interactions between various microbial

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Induced Seismicity
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Katie M. Keranen, Matthew Weingarten

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Superrotation on Venus, on Titan, and Elsewhere
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Peter L. Read, Sebastien Lebonnois

    The superrotation of the atmospheres of Venus and Titan has puzzled dynamicists for many years and seems to put these planets in a very different dynamical regime from most other planets. In this review, we consider how to define superrotation objectively and explore the constraints that determine its occurrence. Atmospheric superrotation also occurs elsewhere in the Solar System and beyond, and we

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The Origin and Evolutionary Biology of Pinnipeds: Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Annalisa Berta, Morgan Churchill, Robert W. Boessenecker

    The oldest definitive pinniped fossils date from approximately 30.6–23 million years ago (Ma) in the North Pacific. Pinniped monophyly is consistently supported; the group shares a common ancestry with arctoid carnivorans, either ursids or musteloids. Crown pinnipeds comprise the Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions), Odobenidae (walruses), and Phocidae (seals), with paraphyletic “enaliarctines” falling

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Paleobiology of Pleistocene Proboscideans
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Daniel C. Fisher

    The paleobiology of Pleistocene proboscideans plays a pivotal role in understanding their history and in answering fundamental questions involving their interactions with other taxa, including humans. Much of our view of proboscidean paleobiology is influenced by analogies with extant elephants. However, a wealth of information is available for reconstructing the paleobiology of ancient proboscideans

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Subduction Orogeny and the Late Cenozoic Evolution of the Mediterranean Arcs
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Leigh Royden, Claudio Faccenna

    The Late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Mediterranean region, which is sandwiched between the converging African and European continents, is dominated by the process of subduction orogeny. Subduction orogeny occurs where localized subduction, driven by negative slab buoyancy, is more rapid than the convergence rate of the bounding plates; it is commonly developed in zones of early or incomplete

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The Tasmanides: Phanerozoic Tectonic Evolution of Eastern Australia
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Gideon Rosenbaum

    The Tasmanides occupy the eastern third of Australia and provide an extensive record of the evolution of the eastern Gondwanan convergent plate boundary from the Cambrian to the Triassic. This article presents a summary of the primary building blocks (igneous provinces and sedimentary basins) within the Tasmanides, followed by a discussion of the timing and extent of deformation events. Relatively

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Atlantic-Pacific Asymmetry in Deep Water Formation
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    David Ferreira, Paola Cessi, Helen K. Coxall, Agatha de Boer, Henk A. Dijkstra, Sybren S. Drijfhout, Tor Eldevik, Nili Harnik, Jerry F. McManus, David P. Marshall, Johan Nilsson, Fabien Roquet, Tapio Schneider, Robert C. Wills

    While the Atlantic Ocean is ventilated by high-latitude deep water formation and exhibits a pole-to-pole overturning circulation, the Pacific Ocean does not. This asymmetric global overturning pattern has persisted for the past 2–3 million years, with evidence for different ventilation modes in the deeper past. In the current climate, the Atlantic-Pacific asymmetry occurs because the Atlantic is more

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Physics of Earthquake Disaster: From Crustal Rupture to Building Collapse
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Koji Uenishi

    Earthquakes of relatively greater magnitude may cause serious, sometimes unexpected failures of natural and human-made structures, either on the surface, underground, or even at sea. In this review, by treating several examples of extraordinary earthquake-related failures that range from the collapse of every second building in a commune to the initiation of spontaneous crustal rupture at depth, we

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Time Not Our Time: Physical Controls on the Preservation and Measurement of Geologic Time
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Chris Paola, Vamsi Ganti, David Mohrig, Anthony C. Runkel, Kyle M. Straub

    Sadler's (1981) analysis of how measured sedimentation rate decreases with timescale of measurement quantified the vanishingly small fractional time preservation—completeness—of the stratigraphic record. Generalized numerical models have shown that the Sadler effect can be recovered, through the action of erosional clipping and time removal (the “stratigraphic filter”), from even fairly simple topographic

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • The Evolution and Fossil History of Sensory Perception in Amniote Vertebrates
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Johannes Müller, Constanze Bickelmann, Gabriela Sobral

    Sensory perception is of crucial importance for animals to interact with their biotic and abiotic environment. In amniotes, the clade including modern mammals (Synapsida), modern reptiles (Reptilia), and their fossil relatives, the evolution of sensory perception took place in a stepwise manner after amniotes appeared in the Carboniferous. Fossil evidence suggests that Paleozoic taxa had only a limited

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Role of Soil Erosion in Biogeochemical Cycling of Essential Elements: Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Rebecca T. Barnes, Johan Six, Erika Marín-Spiotta

    Most of Earth's terrestrial surface is made up of sloping landscapes. The lateral distribution of topsoil by erosion controls the availability, stock, and persistence of essential elements in the terrestrial ecosystem. Over the last two decades, the role of soil erosion in biogeochemical cycling of essential elements has gained considerable interest from the climate, global change, and biogeochemistry

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Responses of the Tropical Atmospheric Circulation to Climate Change and Connection to the Hydrological Cycle
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2018-05-30
    Jian Ma, Robin Chadwick, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Changming Dong, Gang Huang, Gregory R. Foltz, Jonathan H. Jiang

    This review describes the climate change–induced responses of the tropical atmospheric circulation and their impacts on the hydrological cycle. We depict the theoretically predicted changes and diagnose physical mechanisms for observational and model-projected trends in large-scale and regional climate. The tropical circulation slows down with moisture and stratification changes, connecting to a poleward

    更新日期:2018-05-30
  • Autogenic Sedimentation in Clastic Stratigraphy
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Elizabeth A. Hajek, Kyle M. Straub

    Internally generated, or autogenic, terrestrial and marine sediment-transport dynamics can produce depositional patterns similar to those associated with climatic, tectonic, or sea level changes. A central challenge in accurately interpreting the sedimentary archive is determining what scales and types of deposits reflect autogenic controls on sedimentation in different environments. Autogenic sediment-transport

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Reconstructing Climate from Glaciers
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Andrew N. Mackintosh, Brian M. Anderson, Raymond T. Pierrehumbert

    Glaciers offer the potential to reconstruct past climate over timescales from decades to millennia. They are found on nearly every continent, and at the Last Glacial Maximum, glaciers were larger in all regions on Earth. The physics of glacier-climate interaction are relatively well understood, and glacier models can be used to reconstruct past climate from geological evidence of past glacier extent

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • The Late Heavy Bombardment
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    William F. Bottke, Marc D. Norman

    Heavily cratered surfaces on the Moon, Mars, and Mercury show that the terrestrial planets were battered by an intense bombardment during their first billion years or more, but the timing, sources, and dynamical implications of these impacts are controversial. The Late Heavy Bombardment refers to impact events that occurred after stabilization of the planetary lithospheres such that they could be preserved

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • The Rise of Animals in a Changing Environment: Global Ecological Innovation in the Late Ediacaran
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Mary L. Droser, Lidya G. Tarhan, James G. Gehling

    The evolutionary trajectory of early complex life on Earth is interpreted largely from the fossils of the Precambrian soft-bodied Ediacara Biota, which appeared and evolved during a time of dynamic biogeochemical and environmental fluctuation in the global ocean. The Ediacara Biota is historically divided into three successive Assemblages—the Avalon, the White Sea, and the Nama—which are marked by

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Climate and the Pace of Erosional Landscape Evolution
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    J. Taylor Perron

    Earth's climate affects nearly all aspects of landscape evolution, from the breakdown of rock to the delivery of sediment to the oceans. Yet quantifying climate's influence on landscapes is a major challenge, not only because it is difficult to know how landscapes responded to past changes in climate, but also because landscapes are shaped by various processes that respond to climate in different ways

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Tectonic Evolution of the Central Andean Plateau and Implications for the Growth of Plateaus
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Carmala N. Garzione, Nadine McQuarrie, Nicholas D. Perez, Todd A. Ehlers, Susan L. Beck, Nandini Kar, Nathan Eichelberger, Alan D. Chapman, Kevin M. Ward, Mihai N. Ducea, Richard O. Lease, Christopher J. Poulsen, Lara S. Wagner, Joel E. Saylor, George Zandt, Brian K. Horton

    Current end-member models for the geodynamic evolution of orogenic plateaus predict (a) slow and steady rise during crustal shortening and ablative subduction (i.e., continuous removal) of the lower lithosphere or (b) rapid surface uplift following shortening, which is associated with punctuated removal of dense lower lithosphere and/or lower crustal flow. This review integrates results from recent

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Statistics of Earthquake Activity: Models and Methods for Earthquake Predictability Studies
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Yosihiko Ogata

    Statistical methods and various models in time-space-magnitude parameter space of earthquakes are being developed to analyze seismic activity based on earthquake hypocenter catalogs that are routinely accumulated. Considering complex geophysical environments and uncertainties, we seek proper stochastic modeling that depends on the history of earthquake occurrences and relevant geophysical information

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Origin and Evolution of Regional Biotas: A Deep-Time Perspective
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Mark E. Patzkowsky

    Historical processes tens to hundreds of millions of years in the past have shaped not only the trajectory of life through time but also the distribution and composition of life today. Studies aimed at the origin and evolution of regional biotas promise to forge a stronger link among paleobiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Improvements in high-resolution stratigraphic interpretation, numerical

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Effects of Partial Melting on Seismic Velocity and Attenuation: A New Insight from Experiments
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Yasuko Takei

    The effects of partial melting on seismic velocity and attenuation have long been studied by focusing on the direct effects of melt, such as the poroelastic effect. The direct effects are generally very small for a very small melt fraction. Because geochemical studies have shown that the melt fraction during partial melting is very small (∼0.1%), it is difficult to explain upper-mantle low-velocity

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Shape, Internal Structure, Zonal Winds, and Gravitational Field of Rapidly Rotating Jupiter-Like Planets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Keke Zhang, Dali Kong, Gerald Schubert

    High-precision gravitational measurements by orbiting spacecraft provide a means of probing the structures, fluid motions, and convective dynamos in the interiors of the rapidly rotating outer planets. Here, the classical theory of rotating homogeneous planets is briefly reviewed. Emphasis is placed on recent developments in theories and methods that relate internal structure and processes to their

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Tungsten Isotopes in Planets
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Thorsten Kleine, Richard J. Walker

    The short-lived Hf-W isotope system has a wide range of important applications in cosmochemistry and geochemistry. The siderophile behavior of W, combined with the lithophile nature of Hf, makes the system uniquely useful as a chronometer of planetary accretion and differentiation. Tungsten isotopic data for meteorites show that the parent bodies of some differentiated meteorites accreted within 1

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Forming Planets via Pebble Accretion
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Anders Johansen, Michiel Lambrechts

    The detection and characterization of large populations of pebbles in protoplanetary disks have motivated the study of pebble accretion as a driver of planetary growth. This review covers all aspects of planet formation by pebble accretion, from dust growth over planetesimal formation to the accretion of protoplanets and fully grown planets with gaseous envelopes. Pebbles are accreted at a very high

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Southeast Asia: New Views of the Geology of the Malay Archipelago
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Robert Hall

    Southeast (SE) Asia is surrounded by subduction zones causing intense seismicity and volcanic activity. Subduction has been the principal tectonic driver of collisions that caused the growth of continental SE Asia, and most recently the collision of Australia with SE Asia. The western part of SE Asia, Sundaland, is a heterogeneous and weak region, reflecting processes that can be observed today in

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Photochemistry of Sulfur Dioxide and the Origin of Mass-Independent Isotope Fractionation in Earth's Atmosphere
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Shuhei Ono

    Archean sulfide and sulfate minerals commonly exhibit anomalous ratios among four stable sulfur isotopes, 32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S. These anomalous relationships, referred to as sulfur mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF), provide strong evidence for an early anoxic atmosphere. Correlated variations among three isotope ratios (δ33S, δ34S, and δ36S) can be observed in rocks throughout the Archean and

    更新日期:2017-09-07
  • Back-Projection Imaging of Earthquakes
    Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. (IF 9.235) Pub Date : 2017-09-07
    Eric Kiser, Miaki Ishii

    Back-projection analysis of earthquakes is a type of array processing that images the source of seismic waves coherently recorded at stations throughout the seismic network. The method was developed following the magnitude 9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in 2004. Although properties of earthquakes have been investigated using array data prior to the introduction of the back-projection method, this technique

    更新日期:2017-09-07
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