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  • Real-space observation of vibrational strong coupling between propagating phonon polaritons and organic molecules
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Andrei Bylinkin; Martin Schnell; Marta Autore; Francesco Calavalle; Peining Li; Javier Taboada-Gutièrrez; Song Liu; James H. Edgar; Fèlix Casanova; Luis E. Hueso; Pablo Alonso-Gonzalez; Alexey Y. Nikitin; Rainer Hillenbrand

    Phonon polaritons in van der Waals materials can strongly enhance light–matter interactions at mid-infrared frequencies, owing to their extreme field confinement and long lifetimes1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Phonon polaritons thus bear potential for vibrational strong coupling with molecules. Although the onset of vibrational strong coupling was observed spectroscopically with phonon-polariton nanoresonators8,

  • Guiding light to non-classicality
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Pablo Solano

    The manipulation of the quantum properties of light involves its technically challenging strong interaction with matter. Now, an experiment shows that when light propagates through a waveguide it only takes a weakly coupled line of atoms to single out its photons, or bunch them together, unveiling and controlling its quantum nature.

  • Lightwave control of topological properties in 2D materials for sub-cycle and non-resonant valley manipulation
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Á. Jiménez-Galán; R. E. F. Silva; O. Smirnova; M. Ivanov

    Modern light generation technology offers extraordinary capabilities for sculpting light pulses, with full control over individual electric field oscillations within each laser cycle1,2,3. These capabilities are at the core of lightwave electronics—the dream of ultrafast lightwave control over electron dynamics in solids on a sub-cycle timescale, aiming at information processing at petahertz rates4

  • Quantitative sampling of atomic-scale electromagnetic waveforms
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    D. Peller; C. Roelcke; L. Z. Kastner; T. Buchner; A. Neef; J. Hayes; F. Bonafé; D. Sidler; M. Ruggenthaler; A. Rubio; R. Huber; J. Repp

    Tailored nanostructures can confine electromagnetic waveforms in extremely sub-wavelength volumes, opening new avenues in lightwave sensing and control down to sub-molecular resolution. Atomic light–matter interaction depends critically on the absolute strength and the precise time evolution of the near field, which may be strongly influenced by quantum-mechanical effects. However, measuring atom-scale

  • Compact design delivers hard X-rays
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Makina Yabashi

    Beneath a forest in Villigen, Switzerland, a new compact free-electron laser facility is generating brilliant X-ray flashes.

  • NIR II-responsive photon upconversion through energy migration in an ytterbium sublattice
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Bo Zhou; Long Yan; Jinshu Huang; Xuelong Liu; Lili Tao; Qinyuan Zhang

    Smart control of photon upconversion is a key strategy for lanthanide-based materials used in biological and photonic applications. However, this has remained a challenge for the upconversion luminescence of lanthanides under excitation in the second near-infrared (NIR II) biowindow instead of at the conventional 980 and 808 nm wavelengths. Here, we report a conceptual design for an energy-migratory

  • Silicon photonics interfaced with integrated electronics for 9 GHz measurement of squeezed light
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Joel F. Tasker; Jonathan Frazer; Giacomo Ferranti; Euan J. Allen; Léandre F. Brunel; Sébastien Tanzilli; Virginia D’Auria; Jonathan C. F. Matthews

    Photonic quantum technology can be enhanced by monolithic fabrication of both the underpinning quantum hardware and the corresponding electronics for classical readout and control. Here, by interfacing complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible silicon and germanium-on-silicon nanophotonics with silicon-germanium integrated amplification electronics, we curtail total capacitance in a

  • A compact and cost-effective hard X-ray free-electron laser driven by a high-brightness and low-energy electron beam
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Eduard Prat; Rafael Abela; Masamitsu Aiba; Arturo Alarcon; Jürgen Alex; Yunieski Arbelo; Christopher Arrell; Vladimir Arsov; Camila Bacellar; Carl Beard; Paul Beaud; Simona Bettoni; Roger Biffiger; Markus Bopp; Hans-Heinrich Braun; Marco Calvi; Ariana Cassar; Tine Celcer; Majed Chergui; Pavel Chevtsov; Claudio Cirelli; Alessandro Citterio; Paolo Craievich; Marta Csatari Divall; Andreas Dax; Micha Dehler;

    We present the first lasing results of SwissFEL, a hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) that recently came into operation at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland. SwissFEL is a very stable, compact and cost-effective X-ray FEL facility driven by a low-energy and ultra-low-emittance electron beam travelling through short-period undulators. It delivers stable hard X-ray FEL radiation at 1-Å wavelength

  • Exotic waves in multimode hollow-core fibres
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Logan G. Wright; Frank W. Wise

    Unexpected multimode solitary waves can be formed spontaneously in hollow-core fibres, hinting at a vast world of exciting nonlinear optics, with applications for generating few-cycle, ultra-intense pulses.

  • High-power portable terahertz laser systems
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Ali Khalatpour; Andrew K. Paulsen; Chris Deimert; Zbig R. Wasilewski; Qing Hu

    Terahertz (THz) frequencies remain among the least utilized in the electromagnetic spectrum, largely due to the lack of powerful and compact sources. The invention of THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) was a major breakthrough to bridge the so-called ‘THz gap’ between semiconductor electronic and photonic sources. However, their demanding cooling requirement has confined the technology to a laboratory

  • Efficient photoinduced second-harmonic generation in silicon nitride photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Xiyuan Lu; Gregory Moille; Ashutosh Rao; Daron A. Westly; Kartik Srinivasan

    Silicon photonics lacks a second-order nonlinear optical (χ(2)) response in general, because the typical constituent materials are centrosymmetric and lack inversion symmetry, which prohibits χ(2) nonlinear processes such as second-harmonic generation (SHG). Here, we realize high SHG efficiency in silicon photonics by combining a photoinduced effective χ(2) nonlinearity with resonant enhancement and

  • Photoelectronic mapping of the spin–orbit interaction of intense light fields
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Yiqi Fang; Meng Han; Peipei Ge; Zhenning Guo; Xiaoyang Yu; Yongkai Deng; Chengyin Wu; Qihuang Gong; Yunquan Liu

    The interaction between a quantum particle’s spin angular momentum1 and its orbital angular momentum2 is ubiquitous in nature. In optics, the spin–orbit optical phenomenon is closely related with the light–matter interaction3 and has been of great interest4,5. With the development of laser technology6, the high-power and ultrafast light sources now serve as a crucial tool in revealing the behaviour

  • Electrically driven acousto-optics and broadband non-reciprocity in silicon photonics
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Eric A. Kittlaus; William M. Jones; Peter T. Rakich; Nils T. Otterstrom; Richard E. Muller; Mina Rais-Zadeh

    Emerging technologies based on tailorable photon–phonon interactions promise new capabilities ranging from high-fidelity information processing to non-reciprocal optics and quantum state control. However, many existing realizations of such light–sound couplings involve unconventional materials and fabrication schemes challenging to co-implement with scalable integrated photonic circuitry. Here, we

  • High-energy multidimensional solitary states in hollow-core fibres
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-26
    Reza Safaei; Guangyu Fan; Ojoon Kwon; Katherine Légaré; Philippe Lassonde; Bruno E. Schmidt; Heide Ibrahim; François Légaré

    Multidimensional solitary states (MDSS)—self-sustained wavepackets—have attracted renewed interest in many different fields of physics. They are of particular importance in nonlinear optics, especially for the nonlinear propagation of ultrashort pulses in multimode fibres, which contain rich spatiotemporal intermodal interactions and dynamics, albeit often in an unstable manner. Here, we report the

  • A free-electron laboratory coherent X-ray source
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Ingo Uschmann

    Facilities generating coherent X-rays tend to be large scale and costly. Now researchers have demonstrated a parametric and coherent laboratory-scale X-ray source by passing moderately energetic electrons through van der Waals heterostructures.

  • Sub-molecular photoluminescence
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Takashi Kumagai

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy using atomic-scale light reveals an optical transition of a single molecule at sub-nanometre resolution.

  • Directly modulated membrane lasers with 108 GHz bandwidth on a high-thermal-conductivity silicon carbide substrate
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Suguru Yamaoka; Nikolaos-Panteleimon Diamantopoulos; Hidetaka Nishi; Ryo Nakao; Takuro Fujii; Koji Takeda; Tatsurou Hiraki; Takuma Tsurugaya; Shigeru Kanazawa; Hiromasa Tanobe; Takaaki Kakitsuka; Tai Tsuchizawa; Fumio Koyama; Shinji Matsuo

    Increasing the modulation speed of semiconductor lasers has attracted much attention from the viewpoint of both physics and the applications of lasers. Here we propose a membrane distributed reflector laser on a low-refractive-index and high-thermal-conductivity silicon carbide substrate that overcomes the modulation bandwidth limit. The laser features a high modulation efficiency because of its large

  • Pockels soliton microcomb
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Alexander W. Bruch; Xianwen Liu; Zheng Gong; Joshua B. Surya; Ming Li; Chang-Ling Zou; Hong X. Tang

    Kerr soliton microcombs have recently emerged as a prominent topic in integrated photonics and have enabled new horizons for optical frequency metrology. Kerr soliton microcombs, as the name suggests, are based on high-order cubic optical nonlinearity. It is desirable to exploit quadratic photonic materials, namely Pockels materials, for soliton generation and on-chip implementation of 1f–2f comb self-referencing

  • Transient optical symmetry breaking for ultrafast broadband dichroism in plasmonic metasurfaces
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Andrea Schirato; Margherita Maiuri; Andrea Toma; Silvio Fugattini; Remo Proietti Zaccaria; Paolo Laporta; Peter Nordlander; Giulio Cerullo; Alessandro Alabastri; Giuseppe Della Valle

    Ultrafast nanophotonics is an emerging research field aimed at the development of nanodevices capable of light modulation with unprecedented speed1,2,3,4. A promising approach exploits the optical nonlinearity of nanostructured materials (either metallic or dielectric) to modulate their effective permittivity via interaction with intense ultrashort laser pulses. Although the ultrafast temporal dynamics

  • Publisher Correction: Vectorized optoelectronic control and metrology in a semiconductor
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Shawn Sederberg; Fanqi Kong; Felix Hufnagel; Chunmei Zhang; Ebrahim Karimi; Paul B. Corkum

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Broadband Mie driven random quasi-phase-matching
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Romolo Savo; Andrea Morandi; Jolanda S. Müller; Fabian Kaufmann; Flavia Timpu; Marc Reig Escalé; Michele Zanini; Lucio Isa; Rachel Grange

    High-quality crystals without inversion symmetry are the conventional platform to achieve optical frequency conversion via three-wave mixing. In bulk crystals, efficient wave mixing relies on phase-matching configurations, while at the micro- and nanoscale it requires resonant mechanisms that enhance the nonlinear light–matter interaction. These strategies commonly result in wavelength-specific performances

  • Deep learning for the design of photonic structures
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Wei Ma; Zhaocheng Liu; Zhaxylyk A. Kudyshev; Alexandra Boltasseva; Wenshan Cai; Yongmin Liu

    Innovative approaches and tools play an important role in shaping design, characterization and optimization for the field of photonics. As a subset of machine learning that learns multilevel abstraction of data using hierarchically structured layers, deep learning offers an efficient means to design photonic structures, spawning data-driven approaches complementary to conventional physics- and rule-based

  • Sculpting electric currents with structured light
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Andrew Forbes

    The limited control of electrons by light has resulted in photonic-driven circuits lagging far behind their electronic counterparts. Now, a technique exploiting coherent control with structured light has been used to sculpt the spatial distribution of electric currents, ushering in vectorized optoelectronic control in semiconductors.

  • Molecular designs offer fast exciton conversion
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Eli Zysman-Colman

    Two independent studies report new organic compounds that offer record rates of reverse intersystem crossing between triplet and singlet excited states. The result is sky-blue organic light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency, stability and reduced efficiency roll-off.

  • Correlating photons using the collective nonlinear response of atoms weakly coupled to an optical mode
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Adarsh S. Prasad; Jakob Hinney; Sahand Mahmoodian; Klemens Hammerer; Samuel Rind; Philipp Schneeweiss; Anders S. Sørensen; Jürgen Volz; Arno Rauschenbeutel

    Photons in a nonlinear medium can repel or attract each other, resulting in strongly correlated quantum many-body states1,2. Typically, such correlated states of light arise from the extreme nonlinearity granted by quantum emitters that are strongly coupled to a photonic mode2,3. However, unavoidable dissipation (such as photon loss) blurs nonlinear quantum effects when such approaches are used. Here

  • Diamond photonics is scaling up
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Mehran Kianinia; Igor Aharonovich

    The integration of diamond waveguide arrays into an aluminium nitride photonic platform offers hope for the realization of scalable chips for quantum information processing.

  • Extreme ionization of gold atoms
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Lap Van Dao; Peter Hannaford

    Gold atoms are stripped of 72 of their electrons to form nitrogen-like Au72+ ions inside extremely hot plasmas by irradiating gold foils and nanowires with highly relativistic femtosecond laser pulses.

  • Harmonic spin–orbit angular momentum cascade in nonlinear optical crystals
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Yutao Tang; Kingfai Li; Xuecai Zhang; Junhong Deng; Guixin Li; Etienne Brasselet

    Optical angular momentum-based photonic technologies demonstrate the key role of the optical spin–orbit interaction that usually refers to linear optical processes in spatially engineered optical materials1. Re-examining the basics of nonlinear optics of homogeneous crystals under circularly polarized light2,3, we report experiments on the enrichment of the spin–orbit angular momentum spectrum of paraxial

  • Vectorized optoelectronic control and metrology in a semiconductor
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Shawn Sederberg; Fanqi Kong; Felix Hufnagel; Chunmei Zhang; Ebrahim Karimi; Paul B. Corkum

    The increasingly prominent role of light in information processing makes optoelectronic devices a technology of fundamental importance. Coherent control of currents in semiconductors using synthesized optical waveforms provides a sensitive and robust means to transfer information from light to an electronic circuit. Currents driven by Gaussian laser beams are spatially uniform in direction, offering

  • Tunable pseudo-magnetic fields for polaritons in strained metasurfaces
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Charlie-Ray Mann; Simon A. R. Horsley; Eros Mariani

    Pseudo-magnetic fields generated in artificially strained lattices have enabled the emulation of exotic phenomena once thought to be exclusive to charged particles. However, they have so far failed to emulate the tunability of real magnetic fields because they are determined solely by the engineered strain configuration, rendering them fixed by design. Here, we unveil a universal mechanism to tune

  • Tunable free-electron X-ray radiation from van der Waals materials
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Michael Shentcis; Adam K. Budniak; Xihang Shi; Raphael Dahan; Yaniv Kurman; Michael Kalina; Hanan Herzig Sheinfux; Mark Blei; Mark Kamper Svendsen; Yaron Amouyal; Sefaattin Tongay; Kristian Sommer Thygesen; Frank H. L. Koppens; Efrat Lifshitz; F. Javier García de Abajo; Liang Jie Wong; Ido Kaminer

    Tunable sources of X-ray radiation are widely used for imaging and spectroscopy in fundamental science, medicine and industry. The growing demand for highly tunable, high-brightness laboratory-scale X-ray sources motivates research into new fundamental mechanisms of X-ray generation. Here, we demonstrate the ability of van der Waals materials to serve as a platform for tunable X-ray generation when

  • Publisher Correction: Experimental demonstration of a three-dimensional lithium niobate nonlinear photonic crystal
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Dunzhao Wei; Chaowei Wang; Huijun Wang; Xiaopeng Hu; Dan Wei; Xinyuan Fang; Yong Zhang; Dong Wu; Yanlei Hu; Jiawen Li; Shining Zhu; Min Xiao

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • Topology in momentum space becomes real
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Masaya Notomi

    Using topological singular points, the topological charge of photonic crystals in momentum space is successfully transferred to optical vortex beams in real space.

  • Generalized Kramers–Kronig receiver for coherent terahertz communications
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    T. Harter; C. Füllner; J. N. Kemal; S. Ummethala; J. L. Steinmann; M. Brosi; J. L. Hesler; E. Bründermann; A.-S. Müller; W. Freude; S. Randel; C. Koos

    Modern communication systems rely on efficient quadrature amplitude modulation formats that encode information on both the amplitude and phase of an electromagnetic carrier. Coherent detection of such signals typically requires complex receivers that contain a continuous-wave local oscillator as a phase reference and a mixer circuit for spectral down-conversion. In optical communications, the so-called

  • Untapping solar energy resources
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Bo Albinsson; Axel Olesund

    The photovoltaics market has long been dominated by silicon, but further improvements of these solar cells require novel approaches. Now, triplet–triplet annihilation photon upconversion has been used to harvest photons from below the bandgap of silicon, extending the spectral response and potentially improving the efficiency of these cells.

  • Nasca patterning in the microworld
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Olga Smirnova

    Launching electrons to the centre of an optical field with a vortex phase profile via extreme-ultraviolet photoionization makes coherent imprinting of the spatial distribution of the vortex beam onto the electron wave packet possible.

  • High-speed 3D mapping of nonlinear structures
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Paul J. Campagnola

    Directly relating the complex second-harmonic-generation field to the second-order susceptibility tensor allows tomographic imaging of nonlinear optical contrast at high frame rates.

  • Variable optical elements for fast focus control
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    SeungYeon Kang; Martí Duocastella; Craig B. Arnold

    In this Review, we survey recent developments in the emerging field of high-speed variable-z-focus optical elements, which are driving important innovations in advanced imaging and materials processing applications. Three-dimensional biomedical imaging, high-throughput industrial inspection, advanced spectroscopies, and other optical characterization and materials modification methods have made great

  • Optical soliton formation controlled by angle twisting in photonic moiré lattices
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Qidong Fu; Peng Wang; Changming Huang; Yaroslav V. Kartashov; Lluis Torner; Vladimir V. Konotop; Fangwei Ye

    Exploration of the impact of synthetic material landscapes featuring tunable geometrical properties on physical processes is a research direction that is currently of great interest because of the outstanding phenomena that are continually being uncovered. Twistronics and the properties of wave excitations in moiré lattices are salient examples. Moiré patterns bridge the gap between aperiodic structures

  • Perovskite-filled membranes for flexible and large-area direct-conversion X-ray detector arrays
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Jingjing Zhao; Liang Zhao; Yehao Deng; Xun Xiao; Zhenyi Ni; Shuang Xu; Jinsong Huang

    The soft nature of metal halide perovskites makes them potentially applicable as flexible X-ray detectors. Here we report a structure of perovskite-filled membranes (PFMs) for highly sensitive, flexible and large-area X-ray detectors. PFMs with areas up to 400 cm2 are formed by infiltrating saturated perovskite solution through porous polymer membranes followed by hot lamination. The good connectivity

  • Jonathan Patrick Dowling in memoriam
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    James Franson; Mark M. Wilde

    Jonathan P. Dowling, who died in June, was a pioneer in quantum optics and one of the founders of the US government’s research programme in quantum information.

  • Acceleration of relativistic beams using laser-generated terahertz pulses
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Morgan T. Hibberd; Alisa L. Healy; Daniel S. Lake; Vasileios Georgiadis; Elliott J. H. Smith; Oliver J. Finlay; Thomas H. Pacey; James K. Jones; Yuri Saveliev; David A. Walsh; Edward W. Snedden; Robert B. Appleby; Graeme Burt; Darren M. Graham; Steven P. Jamison

    Particle accelerators driven by laser-generated terahertz (THz) pulses promise unprecedented control over the energy–time phase space of particle bunches compared with conventional radiofrequency technology. Here we demonstrate acceleration of a relativistic electron beam in a THz-driven linear accelerator. Narrowband THz pulses were tuned to the phase-velocity-matched operating frequency of a rectangular

  • Sub-nanometre resolution in single-molecule photoluminescence imaging
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Ben Yang; Gong Chen; Atif Ghafoor; Yufan Zhang; Yao Zhang; Yang Zhang; Yi Luo; Jinlong Yang; Vahid Sandoghdar; Javier Aizpurua; Zhenchao Dong; J. G. Hou

    Ambitions to reach atomic resolution with light have been a major force in shaping nano-optics, whereby a central challenge is achieving highly localized optical fields. A promising approach employs plasmonic nanoantennas, but fluorescence quenching in the vicinity of metallic structures often imposes a strict limit on the attainable spatial resolution, and previous studies have reached only 8 nm resolution

  • Non-adiabatic stripping of a cavity field from electrons in the deep-strong coupling regime
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    M. Halbhuber; J. Mornhinweg; V. Zeller; C. Ciuti; D. Bougeard; R. Huber; C. Lange

    Atomically strong light pulses can drive sub-optical-cycle dynamics. When the Rabi frequency—the rate of energy exchange between light and matter—exceeds the optical carrier frequency, fascinating non-perturbative strong-field phenomena emerge, such as high-harmonic generation and lightwave transport. Here, we explore a related novel subcycle regime of ultimately strong light–matter interaction without

  • Photoelectric effect with a twist
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Giovanni De Ninno; Jonas Wätzel; Primož Rebernik Ribič; Enrico Allaria; Marcello Coreno; Miltcho B. Danailov; Christian David; Alexander Demidovich; Michele Di Fraia; Luca Giannessi; Klavs Hansen; Špela Krušič; Michele Manfredda; Michael Meyer; Andrej Mihelič; Najmeh Mirian; Oksana Plekan; Barbara Ressel; Benedikt Rösner; Alberto Simoncig; Simone Spampinati; Matija Stupar; Matjaž Žitnik; Marco Zangrando;

    Photons have fixed spin and unbounded orbital angular momentum (OAM). While the former is manifested in the polarization of light, the latter corresponds to the spatial phase distribution of its wavefront1. The distinctive way in which the photon spin dictates the electron motion upon light–matter interaction is the basis for numerous well-established spectroscopies. By contrast, imprinting OAM on

  • Intense Brillouin amplification in gas using hollow-core waveguides
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Fan Yang; Flavien Gyger; Luc Thévenaz

    Among all the nonlinear effects stimulated Brillouin scattering offers the highest gain in solid materials and has demonstrated advanced photonics functionalities in waveguides. The large compressibility of gases suggests that stimulated Brillouin scattering may gain in efficiency with respect to condensed materials. Here, by using a gas-filled hollow-core fibre at high pressure, we achieve a strong

  • Fast spin-flip enables efficient and stable organic electroluminescence from charge-transfer states
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Lin-Song Cui; Alexander J. Gillett; Shou-Feng Zhang; Hao Ye; Yuan Liu; Xian-Kai Chen; Ze-Sen Lin; Emrys W. Evans; William K. Myers; Tanya K. Ronson; Hajime Nakanotani; Sebastian Reineke; Jean-Luc Bredas; Chihaya Adachi; Richard H. Friend

    A spin-flip from a triplet to a singlet excited state, that is, reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), is an attractive route for improving light emission in organic light-emitting diodes, as shown by devices using thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). However, device stability and efficiency roll-off remain challenging issues that originate from a slow RISC rate (kRISC). Here, we report a

  • Organic light emitters exhibiting very fast reverse intersystem crossing
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Yoshimasa Wada; Hiromichi Nakagawa; Soma Matsumoto; Yasuaki Wakisaka; Hironori Kaji

    Reverse intersystem crossing (RISC), originally considered forbidden in purely organic materials, has recently become possible by minimizing the energy gap between the lowest excited singlet state (S1) and lowest triplet state (T1) in thermally activated delayed fluorescence systems. However, direct spin-inversion from T1 to S1 is still inefficient when both states are of the same charge transfer (CT)

  • Author Correction: A MHz-repetition-rate hard X-ray free-electron laser driven by a superconducting linear accelerator
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    W. Decking; S. Abeghyan; P. Abramian; A. Abramsky; A. Aguirre; C. Albrecht; P. Alou; M. Altarelli; P. Altmann; K. Amyan; V. Anashin; E. Apostolov; K. Appel; D. Auguste; V. Ayvazyan; S. Baark; F. Babies; N. Baboi; P. Bak; V. Balandin; R. Baldinger; B. Baranasic; S. Barbanotti; O. Belikov; V. Belokurov; L. Belova; V. Belyakov; S. Berry; M. Bertucci; B. Beutner; A. Block; M. Blöcher; T. Böckmann; C. Bohm;

    An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

  • A truly one-way lane for surface plasmon polaritons
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Francesco Monticone

    Unidirectional and topological surface plasmon polaritons are currently attracting substantial interest and intense debate. Realistic material models and energy conservation considerations are essential to correctly understand extreme wave effects in non-reciprocal plasmonics, and to assess their potential for novel devices.

  • Exploiting sound and noise
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Allard P. Mosk

    A correlation method that combines ultrasound and fluorescence enables imaging in strongly scattering environments.

  • Disordering a superfluid of light
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Matthieu Bellec; Claire Michel

    A phase transition between disordered and quasi-ordered states, known as the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition, has now been revealed in a two-dimensional photonic ‘fluid’. The interplay between phase singularities and coherence may lead to new vortex-based optical applications.

  • Faster laser pulses boost plasma accelerators
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Rob J. Shalloo; Stuart P. D. Mangles

    New methods to control how laser pulses propagate inside a plasma could signify the start of a global race to demonstrate truly high-energy compact particle accelerators.

  • Hollow-core design provides polarization purity
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Alexey V. Gladyshev; Igor A. Bufetov

    The finding that hollow-core optical fibres can preserve the state of linearly polarized light over hundreds of metres with exceptional purity could benefit applications in sensing, gyroscopes and quantum optics.

  • Extreme ionization of heavy atoms in solid-density plasmas by relativistic second-harmonic laser pulses
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    R. Hollinger; S. Wang; Y. Wang; A. Moreau; M. G. Capeluto; H. Song; A. Rockwood; E. Bayarsaikhan; V. Kaymak; A. Pukhov; V. N. Shlyaptsev; J. J. Rocca

    Stripping heavy atoms in solid matter of most of their electrons requires the extreme conditions that exist in astrophysical plasmas, but are difficult to create in the laboratory1,2,3. Here we demonstrate solid-density gold plasmas with atoms stripped of up to 72 electrons (N-like Au72+) over large target depths. This record ionization is achieved by irradiating solid foils and near-solid-density

  • Broadband coherent diffractive imaging
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Julius Huijts; Sara Fernandez; David Gauthier; Maria Kholodtsova; Ahmed Maghraoui; Kadda Medjoubi; Andrea Somogyi; Willem Boutu; Hamed Merdji

    Recent technological advances in attosecond science hold the promise of tracking electronic processes at the shortest space and time scales. However, the necessary imaging methods combining attosecond temporal resolution with nanometre spatial resolution are currently lacking. Regular coherent diffractive imaging, based on the diffraction of quasi-monochromatic illumination by a sample, is inherently

  • Photochemical upconversion of near-infrared light from below the silicon bandgap
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Elham M. Gholizadeh; Shyamal K. K. Prasad; Zhi Li Teh; Thilini Ishwara; Sarah Norman; Anthony J. Petty; Jared H. Cole; Soshan Cheong; Richard D. Tilley; John E. Anthony; Shujuan Huang; Timothy W. Schmidt

    Photochemical upconversion is a strategy for converting infrared light into more energetic, visible light, with potential applications ranging from biological imaging and drug delivery to photovoltaics and photocatalysis. Although systems have been developed for upconverting light from photon energies in the near-infrared, upconversion from below the silicon bandgap has been out of reach. Here, we

  • Dynamics of the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition in a photon fluid
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Guohai Situ; Jason W. Fleischer

    In addition to enhancing confinement, restricting optical systems to two dimensions gives rise to new photonic states, modified transport and distinct nonlinear effects. Here we explore these properties in combination and experimentally demonstrate a Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless phase transition in a nonlinear photonic lattice. In this topological transition, vortices are created in pairs and then

  • Sub-cycle millijoule-level parametric waveform synthesizer for attosecond science
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Giulio Maria Rossi; Roland E. Mainz; Yudong Yang; Fabian Scheiba; Miguel A. Silva-Toledo; Shih-Hsuan Chia; Phillip D. Keathley; Shaobo Fang; Oliver D. Mücke; Cristian Manzoni; Giulio Cerullo; Giovanni Cirmi; Franz X. Kärtner

    The availability of high-energy pulses with durations shorter than the period of their carrier frequency (sub-cycle) will reveal new regimes of strong-field light–matter interactions. Parametric waveform synthesis (that is, the coherent combination of carrier-envelope-phase-stable pulses that emerge from different optical parametric amplifiers) is a promising technology for the realization of tailored

  • Phase-locked laser-wakefield electron acceleration
    Nat. Photon. (IF 31.241) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    C. Caizergues; S. Smartsev; V. Malka; C. Thaury

    Subluminal and superluminal light pulses have attracted considerable attention in recent decades1,2,3,4, opening perspectives in telecommunications, optical storage and fundamental physics5. Usually achieved in matter, superluminal propagation has also been demonstrated in vacuum with quasi-Bessel beams6,7 or spatio-temporal couplings8,9. Although, in the first case, the propagation was diffraction

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